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Title: A Measurement of Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Galaxy Clusters Using Data from the South Pole Telescope

Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We also develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. Furthermore, we apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: M200,lens = 0.83+0.38-0.37 M200,SZ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [6] ;  [3] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [8] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [4] ;  [13] ;  [9] more »;  [9] ;  [14] ;  [15] ;  [16] ;  [6] ;  [17] ;  [4] ;  [18] ;  [19] ;  [20] ;  [9] ;  [21] ;  [22] ;  [20] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [6] ;  [23] ;  [24] ;  [4] ;  [9] ;  [25] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [26] ;  [7] ;  [27] ;  [4] ;  [23] ;  [4] ;  [6] ;  [13] ;  [28] ;  [29] ;  [30] ;  [31] ;  [31] ;  [32] ;  [31] ;  [33] ;  [4] ;  [34] ;  [35] ;  [6] ;  [36] ;  [31] ;  [6] ;  [4] ;  [22] ;  [37] ;  [16] ;  [6] ;  [13] ;  [24] ;  [38] « less
  1. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  5. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  6. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  9. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany)
  10. Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City, MO (United States)
  11. NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO (United States)
  12. Pontifica Universidad Catolica (Chile)
  13. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  14. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  15. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada); CIFAR Program in Cosmology and Gravity, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  16. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  17. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Max-Plank-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
  18. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
  19. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  20. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  21. Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)
  22. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  23. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  24. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  25. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  26. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  27. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  28. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
  29. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)
  30. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  31. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  32. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat, Munchen (Germany)
  33. Univ. of Chicago and School of the Art Inst. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  34. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Korea Astronomy and Space Science Inst., Daejeon (Korea)
  35. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  36. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  37. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  38. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1226315
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB--14-538-A
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; arXiv eprint number arXiv:1412.7521
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 806; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS cosmic background radiation; gravitational lensing: weak; galaxies: clusters: general