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Title: Determining whether metals nucleate homogeneously on graphite: A case study with copper

In this study, we observe that Cu clusters grow on surface terraces of graphite as a result of physical vapor deposition in ultrahigh vacuum. We show that the observation is incompatible with a variety of models incorporating homogeneous nucleation and calculations of atomic-scale energetics. An alternative explanation, ion-mediated heterogeneous nucleation, is proposed and validated, both with theory and experiment. This serves as a case study in identifying when and whether the simple, common observation of metal clusters on carbon-rich surfaces can be interpreted in terms of homogeneous nucleation. We describe a general approach for making system-specific and laboratory-specific predictions.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
  2. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Institute of Solid State Physics, CAS (China)
  3. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
  4. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1225534
Report Number(s):
IS-J--8547
Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121; PRBMDO
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11358
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY