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Title: Evidence for an unorthodox firing sequence employed by the Berlin Painter. Deciphering ancient ceramic firing conditions through high-resolution material characterization and replication

XANES spectroscopy was used to complement the results previously obtained with Raman spectroscopy by the same group to determine the firing conditions used in the production of a single vessel painted by the Berlin Painter in the 5th century B.C. The vessel, part of the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, presents a complicated layered architecture of black and red gloss, with different stratigraphies present on the interior and exterior surfaces. The study of two samples, one each from the interior and exterior surface of the vessel, was performed with the complementary analytical techniques of X-ray nano- and micro-spectroscopy (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and full-field transmission X-ray micro-spectroscopy (FF-XANES) across the Fe K edge), and supported by a replication study. The replicates, made in a laboratory furnace providing complete control over the firing temperature and oxygen partial pressure, provided a paradigm for the comparison of the mineralogical phases observed in the ancient samples, which led to a deeper understanding of the firing conditions necessary for the production of the Berlin Painter's vessel. Our results confirm the necessity of multiple firings and painting applications to obtain the Berlin Painter's architecture and provide a further example of the multiplicity of techniquesmore » and practices employed by the potters of the Kerameikos in ancient Athens.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [9] ;  [9]
  1. Getty Conservation Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  3. Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)
  4. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  5. Universite de Toulouse (France)
  6. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)
  7. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France); Laboratorie d'archeologie moleculaire et structruale (LAMS), Paris (France)
  8. Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands)
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States). SSRL
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1214934
Grant/Contract Number:
AC03-76SF00515
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0267-9477
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY