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Title: Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [9] ;  [13] ;  [11] ;  [14] ;  [15] ;  [16] ;  [3] more »;  [8] ;  [4] ;  [17] ;  [18] ;  [11] ;  [19] ;  [20] ;  [8] ;  [21] ;  [21] ;  [18] ;  [22] ;  [23] ;  [24] « less
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Division.
  2. Lancaster Univ., Lancaster (United Kingdom)
  3. Institut IBG-2, Julich (Germany)
  4. Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)
  5. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Research Centre for the Soil-Plant System, Rome (Italy)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
  8. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); ESRL-NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Chemical Science Division.
  9. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Division.
  10. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
  11. Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)
  12. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)
  13. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  14. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States). Atmospheric Chemistry Division; Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)
  15. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  16. Institut IEK-8, Julich (Germany)
  17. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  18. Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz (Germany)
  19. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali (India)
  20. Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)
  21. Univ. Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany)
  22. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)
  23. Univ. of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelable, Algiers (Algeria)
  24. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1211536
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES atmospheric chemistry; climate-change ecology; plant stress responses