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Title: Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.
Authors:
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  1. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica
  3. Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  4. Univ. Autonoma de Chiapas (Mexico). Centro de Estudios en Fisica y Matematicas Basicas y Aplicadas (CEFyMAP)
  5. Univ. Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico)
  6. Univ. Autonoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez (Mexico).
  7. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics
  8. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  9. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  10. Univ. Politecnica de Pachuca (Mexico)
  11. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  12. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica
  13. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  14. Inst. Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico)
  15. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Geofisica
  16. Inst. Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Zacatenco (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV). Physics Dept.
  17. Benemerita Univ. Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico Matematicas
  18. New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
  19. Univ. de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico). IAM-Dept. de Fisica, Dept. de Electronica (CUCEI), IT.Phd (CUCEA), Phys_Mat. Phd (CUVALLES)
  20. Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)
  21. Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matematicas
  22. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  23. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division
  24. George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences; Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  25. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Astronomia
  26. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Physics Dept.
  27. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  28. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  29. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  30. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics
  31. Inst. Politecnico Nacional (IPN), Mexico City (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Computacion
  32. Univ. of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics
  33. Benemerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matematicas
  34. Univ. Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca (Mexico)
  35. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics
  36. Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept of Physics
  37. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares
  38. Univ. de Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico). IAM-Dept. de Fisica, Dept. de Electronica (CUCEI), IT.Phd (CUCEA), Phys_Mat. Phd (CUVALLES); Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares
  39. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares
  40. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Space Science Center
  41. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Santa Cruz Inst. for Particle Physics; Univ. of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Physics
  42. Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  43. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1193383
Report Number(s):
LA-UR--15-20829
Journal ID: ISSN 0927-6505; PII: S0927650514001625; TRN: US1500530
Grant/Contract Number:
55155; 103520; 105033; 105666; 122331; 132197; IG100414-3; IN108713; IN121309; IN115409; 161-EXC-2011; AC52-06NA25396
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astroparticle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-6505
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Primordial Black Holes