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Title: Gradient descent algorithm applied to wavefront retrieval from through-focus images by an extreme ultraviolet microscope with partially coherent source

The wavefront retrieval by gradient descent algorithm that is typically applied to coherent or incoherent imaging is extended to retrieve a wavefront from a series of through-focus images by partially coherent illumination. For accurate retrieval, we modeled partial coherence as well as object transmittance into the gradient descent algorithm. However, this modeling increases the computation time due to the complexity of partially coherent imaging simulation that is repeatedly used in the optimization loop. To accelerate the computation, we incorporate not only the Fourier transform but also an eigenfunction decomposition of the image. As a demonstration, the extended algorithm is applied to retrieve a field-dependent wavefront of a microscope operated at extreme ultraviolet wavelength (13.4 nm). The retrieved wavefront qualitatively matches the expected characteristics of the lens design.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Canon USA Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1170607
Report Number(s):
LBNL--6932E
Journal ID: ISSN 1084-7529; JOAOD6
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 31; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 1084-7529
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING