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Title: An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy

X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is a new form of x-ray imaging that is being practiced at several third-generation synchrotron-radiation x-ray facilities. Nine years have elapsed since the technique was first introduced and it has made rapid progress in demonstrating high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and promises few-nm resolution with much larger samples than can be imaged in the transmission electron microscope. Both life- and materials-science applications of XDM are intended, and it is expected that the principal limitation to resolution will be radiation damage for life science and the coherent power of available x-ray sources for material science. In this paper we address the question of the role of radiation damage. We use a statistical analysis based on the so-called "dose fractionation theorem" of Hegerl and Hoppe to calculate the dose needed to make an image of a single life-science sample by XDM with a given resolution. We find that for simply-shaped objects the needed dose scales with the inverse fourth power of the resolution and present experimental evidence to support this finding. To determine the maximum tolerable dose we have assembled a number of data taken from the literature plus some measurements of our own which cover ranges of resolution thatmore » are not well covered otherwise. The conclusion of this study is that, based on the natural contrast between protein and water and "Rose-criterion" image quality, one should be able to image a frozen-hydrated biological sample using XDM at a resolution of about 10 nm.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States) Dept. of Physics
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States) Dept. of Physics
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  7. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
1165056
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-04ER46128
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 170; Journal Issue: 1-3; Journal ID: ISSN 0368-2048
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
DOE-RFSUNY-46128
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY