Saul Perlmutter  has been awarded the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for his breakthrough research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. He cofounded the Supernova Cosmology Project  (SCP) in 1988, with the breakthrough coming ten years later. The SCP pioneered the methods used to discover the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae. For many years Perlmutter has been a leader in studies to determine the nature of dark energy . To explore the universe using Science Accelerator , also check out the search results for big bang  and supernovae .