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Ivar Giaever worked in the fields of thin films, tunneling, and superconductivity, which eventually yielded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973. He collaborated to develop Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing, a technology which studies in real time the activities of cells grown in tissue culture and has many applications today in the biophysical technology market. Find resources with additional information at the OSTI DOE R&D Accomplishments website. DOE R&D Accomplishments is a central forum for information about significant outcomes of past DOE R&D widely recognized as remarkable advancements in science.