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While conducting research in the early 1970s at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Samuel C.C. Ting concluded he had evidence of a new elementary particle three times heavier than a proton and much longer-lived than anything physics currently knew of (where "long life" is often measured in minute fractions of a second). Ting announced his discovery of the "J particle" at about the same time Burton Richter at Stanford University demonstrated the existence of the "psi particle." Richter went on to serve as Director of the DOE Stanford Linear Accelerator Center from 1984-1999. Their dual discoveries provided the first experimental evidence for a fourth quark, "charm," and earned them the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physics. Find resources with additional information at the OSTI DOE R&D Accomplishments website. DOE R&D Accomplishments is a central forum for information about significant outcomes of past DOE R&D widely recognized as remarkable advancements in science.