National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for zone igz level

  1. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  2. Zone Level Occupant-Responsive Building Energy Systems at the GSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair

    2014-03-01

    The General Services Administration (GSA) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement building energy system retrofits, aiming to reduce energy consumption of at least two building systems by a total of 30 percent or more, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) Program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) provided technical expertise in support of this DOE program, working with the GSA and a team of consultants. This case study reports expected energy savings from appropriate energy efficient design and operations modifications to lighting and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems at the selected study sites. These retrofits comprised installation of new lighting systems with dimming capability and occupancy-sensor control at the individual light fixture level, and utilized lighting system occupancy sensor signals to continually readjust zone-level ventilation airflow according to the number of people present, down to minimum rates when vacant.

  3. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized

  4. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  5. Climate Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various...

  6. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  8. Zoning and Permitting Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zoning and permitting is commonly controlled by local governments and may be applicable to both residential and commercial properties.

  9. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  10. ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone Number 3 Zone 3A Zone 3B Zone...

  11. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, “renewable energy facility” means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, bio-solids,...

  12. Deep Vadose Zone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOE’s most...

  13. Deep Vadose Zone - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan, (Rev. 0) - (PDF) Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC) - (PDF) Ecology's groundwater...

  14. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  15. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deep Vadose Zone – Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue.

  16. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  17. Enterprise Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEnterpriseZone&oldid542697"...

  18. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  19. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  20. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  1. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  2. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  4. City of Austin- Zoning Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Zoning Code also allows for preservation plans in historic districts to incorporate sustainability measures such as solar technologies and other energy generation and efficiency measures.

  5. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  6. Sandia defines solar variability zones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines solar variability zones - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  7. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  8. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described.

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Kids Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZONE NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Cartoon drawing of science girl Kids Zone Welcome K-12 students and teachers The NNSANFO Kids Zone contains ...

  10. Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1B climate zones:...

  11. Turkey Near-Zero Zone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Turkey Near-Zero Zone is an industrial energy efficiency project designed to reduce Turkey’s dependence on energy imports, bolster energy security, cut carbon emissions, and create business opportunities.

  12. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  13. Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Planned Capacity 1 Geothermal Areas within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Energy Generation Facilities within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Power...

  14. GridZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GridZone Sector: Efficiency, Services, Transmission Technology: Smart Grid, Energy Storage, Energy Security ParentHolding Organization: GridZone Limited Company...

  15. Wetlands and Riparian Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wetlands and Riparian Zones Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWetlandsandRiparianZones&oldid612217...

  16. Adams County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  17. Variable power distribution for zoned regeneration of an electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN; Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-04-03

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with multiple zones, an electric heater and a control module. The electrical heater includes heater segments, which each correspond with a respective one of the zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and is proximate with the PM filter. The control module selectively applies a first energy level to a first one of the zones via a first one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the first zone. The control module also selectively applies a second energy level that is less than the first energy level to a second one of the zones via a second one of the heater segments to initiate regeneration in the second zone.

  18. Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "BuildingsModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...

  19. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  1. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  2. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  3. Pellet Zone Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet Zone Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pellet Zone Ltd Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: NR19 1AE Sector: Biomass Product: UK based biomass pellet trading firm....

  4. Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8B climate zones:...

  5. Climate Zone 8A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone Number 8A is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8A climate zones:...

  6. Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone 1A is defined as Very Hot - Humid with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1A climate zones:...

  7. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400...

  8. Farmland Security Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Farmland Security ZoneLegal Abstract California Department of...

  9. Zero Zone Comment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Zone Comment Zero Zone Comment These comments are submitted by Zero Zone Inc., a manufacturer of CRE equipment, in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome. Zero Zone comments (101.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI Executive Order 13563 certification, compliance and

  10. Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  11. Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  12. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  13. Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  14. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Central Nevada Seismic Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

  15. Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  16. Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  17. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for the first underground repository for permanent disposal of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors as well as for other types high-level nuclear waste. Emplacement of high-level radioactive waste, especially commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. The heating rate will decrease with time, creating a thermal pulse. Over a period of several thousand years, the rock temperature will rise initially, then drop when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. Besides raising the rock temperature, much of this heat will vaporize water, which will then condense in cooler regions. The condensate is likely to form a gravity-driven heat pipe above the repository, creating the possibility that water may drain back onto the waste packages (WPs) or that it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. The long-term importance of these effects has been investigated through the development, testing, and application of thermohydrologic (TH) models. Other effects, such coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may also influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. A recent report on thermally driven coupled processes (Hardin and Chesnut, 1997) provides a qualitative assessment of the probable significance of these processes for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) and is the phenomenological framework for the present report. This report describes the conceptual and numerical models that have been developed to predict the thermal, mechanical, hydrologic, and chemical responses to the cumulative heat production of the potential host rock at Yucca Mountain. As proposed, the repository horizon will be situated within the Topopah Spring tuff, in the adjacent middle nonlithophysal and lower

  18. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

  19. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

  20. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adams County,...

  1. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adams County,...

  2. Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied

  3. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations (NOAA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  4. Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory HandbookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Author Washington...

  5. Vadose Zone Microbiology: Science and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, Fred J.; Bradley, Stephen D.; Kieft, Thomas L.

    2002-03-12

    Brockman FJ, SN Bradley and TL Kieft. 2002. Vadose zone microbiology. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, volume 6, pp. 3236-3246. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  6. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  7. Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are categorized as class 2B climate zones: Bandera County, Texas Dimmit County, Texas Edwards County, Texas Frio County, Texas Imperial County, California Kinney County, Texas La...

  8. Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System. The 34 coastal programs aim to balance competing land and water issues in the coastal zone, while estuarine reserves serve...

  9. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  10. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nation’s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  11. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Service Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Levels Service Levels NERSC Supported Services Model NERSC supports various services at various levels of support. This document outlines the different levels of support that can be expected for a given service. Production Services All production services at NERSC have the following characteristics: Monitored by NERSC Operations with automated tools (Nagios). Outages are announced on the MOTD and must follow the rules defined in System Outages document. User facing documentation

  13. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  14. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  15. Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Category Edit History Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The...

  16. China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Low Carbon Development Zones (Redirected from E3G-China-Low Carbon Development Zones) Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones AgencyCompany...

  17. San Diego County- Solar Zoning Regulations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The County of San Diego has established zoning guidelines for solar electric systems of varying sizes in the unincorporated areas of San Diego County. Photovoltaic (PV) systems which have their...

  18. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial renewable energy property in these zones are eligible for a 3 to 5 year local property tax exemption. Eligible property includes either wind, geothermal, solar, biomass, or other uncon...

  19. Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. Climate Zone 5C is defined as Marine with IP Units 5400 < HDD65F 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18C 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5C...

  20. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  1. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  2. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  3. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  4. Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  5. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid ...

  6. Future Energy Zone Private Ltd FEZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Private Ltd FEZ Jump to: navigation, search Name: Future Energy Zone Private Ltd (FEZ) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Focused on building...

  7. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,...

  8. Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  9. Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  10. Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  11. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  12. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  13. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  14. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  15. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  16. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  17. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  18. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  19. Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada Archive ...

  20. Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co., Ltd. Place: Baoshan...

  1. Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone...

  2. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Details Areas (3) Power...

  3. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  4. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  5. LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE Jump to: navigation, search Name: LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise (LILE) Place: Lagos, Nigeria Product:...

  6. Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SW Rift Zone Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration Project Location Information...

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control Title: Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control A system includes a particulate ...

  8. Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  9. Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  10. Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  11. Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  12. Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  13. Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alameda County, California ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  14. Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  15. Workers Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant Workers Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis The ...

  16. Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  17. Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  18. TWRS vadose zone contamination issue expert panel report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.S.

    1997-05-01

    When members were first canvassed for participation in the Vadose Zone Expert Panel the stated purpose for convening the Panel was to review a controversial draft report, the SX Tank Farm Report. This report was produced by a DOE Grand Junction Project Office (GJPO) contractor, RUST Geotech, now MACTEC-ERS, for the DOE Richland Office (DOERL). Three meetings were planned for June, July and August, 1995 to review the draft report and to complete a Panel report by mid-September. The Expert Panel has found its efforts confounded by various non-technical issues. The Expert Panel has chosen to address some of the non-technical issues in this Preface rather than to dilute the technical discussion that follows in the body of this independent expert panel status report (Panel Report). Rather than performing a straightforward manuscript review, the Panel was asked to resolve conflicting interpretations of gamma-ray logging measurements performed in vadose zone boreholes (drywells) surrounding the high-level radioactive wastes of the SX tank farm. There are numerous and complex technical issues that must be evaluated before the vertical and radial extent of contaminant migration at the SX tank farm can be accurately assessed. When the Panel first met in early June, 1996, it quickly became apparent that the scientific and technical issues were obscured by policy and institutional affairs which have polarized discussion among various segments of the Hanford organization. This situation reflects the kinds of institutional problems described separately in reports by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS/NRC), The Hanford Tanks Environmental Impacts and Policy Choices and BmTiers to Science: Technical Management of the Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Program. The Vadose Zone Characterization Program, appears to be caught between conflicting pressures and organizational mandates, some imposed from outside DOE-RL and some self

  19. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  20. levelized costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    levelized costs - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  1. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  2. Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planning and Zoning Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning This document summarizes several successful initiatives to implement solar-friendly planes and zoning codes. webinar_072413_planning_zoning.pdf (2.99 MB) More Documents & Publications webinar_innovation_planning_zoning.doc SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) The SunShot Vision Study

  3. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, V L. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Adams, Nicolaus G. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Bill, Brian D. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Stehr, Carla M. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Wekell, John C. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Moeller, Peter (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Busman, Mark (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Woodruff, Dana L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesis available for reference.Current versionsare also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  7. Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C...

  8. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  9. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  10. Webinar: EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory has organized a webinar demonstration of the Eastern Interconnection States’ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free online mapping tool for identifying areas in all 39 EISPC states that may be suitable for new clean power generation. The tool is maintained by Argonne National Laboratory with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 7 Duluth, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 7 Duluth, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanfords vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNLs Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration

  15. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  16. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  17. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  18. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  19. Baroclinic instability in stellar radiation zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2014-03-20

    Surfaces of constant pressure and constant density do not coincide in differentially rotating stars. Stellar radiation zones with baroclinic stratification can be unstable. Instabilities in radiation zones are of crucial importance for angular momentum transport, mixing of chemical species, and, possibly, for magnetic field generation. This paper performs linear analysis of baroclinic instability in differentially rotating stars. Linear stability equations are formulated for differential rotation of arbitrary shape and then solved numerically for rotation nonuniform in radius. As the differential rotation increases, r- and g-modes of initially stable global oscillations transform smoothly into growing modes of baroclinic instability. The instability can therefore be interpreted as stability loss to r- and g-modes excitation. Regions of stellar parameters where r- or g-modes are preferentially excited are defined. Baroclinic instability onsets at a very small differential rotation of below 1%. The characteristic time of instability growth is about 1000 rotation periods. Growing disturbances possess kinetic helicity. Magnetic field generation by the turbulence resulting from baroclinic instability in differentially rotating radiation zones is therefore possible.

  20. Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects (0) Techniques (0) Map: Name The Gulf of California rift zone is a complex transition zone between the dextral (right-lateral) motion of the San Andreas transform...

  1. Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Name: Evaluation of a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, CO Location: ... Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold, very cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure ...

  2. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    When the effective diffusion coefficient in the first zone is several orders of magnitude lower than that in the host rock, then the two-zone geometry can be approximately by a ...

  3. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  4. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2010 | Department of Energy New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utilities Workshop, held in Memphis, TN, in July 2010 for the electric utilities in the seismic zone was a chance to bring together a diverse set of industry partners to discuss the potential effects of an earthquake in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley

  5. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  6. Zoning for Distributed Wind Power - Breaking Down Barriers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Sagrillo, M.

    2005-08-01

    Zoning regulations for the use of small wind turbines vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. This paper examines the zoning experiences of small wind turbine owners, options for local actions, and examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies.

  7. On the low carrier lifetime edge zone in multicrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Tingting; Yu, Xuegong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Xin; Yang, Deren

    2014-01-07

    We have demonstrated the cause of low minority carrier lifetime corresponding to the edge zone of casting multicrystalline silicon ingots and its influence on the performance of solar cells. It is found that the concentration of substitutional carbon, interstitial oxygen, and dislocation density have no direct correlation with the low minority carrier lifetime in the edge zone. However, the distribution of interstitial iron exactly coincides with the minority carrier lifetime, indicating that iron contamination is mainly responsible for the lifetime degradation. After phosphorus diffusion gettering process, the low carrier lifetime region became narrower, and the concentration of interstitial iron is reduced by almost one order of magnitude. However, the carrier lifetime in the edge zone cannot be raised to average level. After celling process, the internal quantum efficiency map of the edge zone has a lower response to the long wavelength light, in accordance with the minority carrier lifetime distribution in this region. Therefore, the solar cells based on edge zones exhibit slightly lower efficiency than those conventional ones.

  8. Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  9. Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  10. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio μ in the range 10{sup –9} to 10{sup –1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ≥ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for μ ≲ 10{sup –5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on μ. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –1/3}, prevails at small μ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} ∼ μ{sup –3/2}, prevails at larger μ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ≈ 0.024 μ{sup –3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Δa {sub cl,} {sub int} ≅ 1.2 μ{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Δa {sub cl,} {sub ext} ≅ 1.7 μ{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  11. Tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer demonstration sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FIELD, J.G.

    1999-02-02

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) is the primary document describing field and laboratory activities and requirements for the tank 241-AX-104 upper vadose zone cone penetrometer (CP) demonstration. It is written in accordance with Hanford Tank Initiative Tank 241-AX-104 Upper Vadose Zone Demonstration Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999). This technology demonstration, to be conducted at tank 241-AX-104, is being performed by the Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) Project as a part of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Retrieval Program (EM-30) and the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) Tanks Focus Area. Sample results obtained as part of this demonstration will provide additional information for subsequent revisions to the Retrieval Performance Evaluation (RPE) report (Jacobs 1998). The RPE Report is the result of an evaluation of a single tank farm (AX Tank Farm) used as the basis for demonstrating a methodology for developing the data and analyses necessary to support making tank waste retrieval decisions within the context of tank farm closure requirements. The RPE includes a study of vadose zone contaminant transport mechanisms, including analysis of projected tank leak characteristics, hydrogeologic characteristics of tank farm soils, and the observed distribution of contaminants in the vadose zone in the tank farms. With limited characterization information available, large uncertainties exist as to the nature and extent of contaminants that may exist in the upper vadose zone in the AX Tank Farm. Traditionally, data has been collected from soils in the vadose zone through the installation of boreholes and wells. Soil samples are collected as the bore hole is advanced and samples are screened on site and/or sent to a laboratory for analysis. Some in-situ geophysical methods of contaminant analysis can be used to evaluate radionuclide levels in the soils adjacent to an existing borehole. However, geophysical methods require compensation for well

  12. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  13. Double patterning HSQ processes of zone plates for 10 nm diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Using the new process, we successfully realized zone plates of 10 nm and 12 nm outermost zones. Fig. 3 shows the SEM micrographs of the zone plates outer regions. The zone plates ...

  14. Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone Number...

  15. Chromium Speciation and Mobility in a High Level Nuclear Waste Vadose Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plume 4 John M. Zachara1 Calvin C. Ainsworth,1 Gordon E. Brown, Jr.,2 and Jeffrey G. Catalano2 1Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA Chromate (hexavalent chromium as CrO42-) is a significant groundwater contaminant at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern WA (Poston et al., 2001) where Pu was produced during WWII and the cold war, and where DOE's largest inventory of legacy wastes remain. Chromate in ground water is

  16. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  17. Central Plateau Groundwater and Deep Vadose Zone Strategy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Executive Council Hanford Advisory Board River and Plateau Committee Briant L. Charboneau DOE-RL, Soil and Groundwater Federal Project Director October 9, 2012 1 Discussion Topics * Purpose of the Executive Council - Why was this established? * Who participates? * What are the integration topics of interest to the Council? * Examples of groundwater and vadose zone integration - Deep Vadose Zone treatability testing leading to evaluation of measures to protect groundwater - B complex

  18. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  19. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  20. Tectonic analysis of the Rio Grande Rift Zone, central Colorado...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rift Zone, central ColoradoThesisDissertation Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author D.H. Knepper Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1974...

  1. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  2. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  3. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  4. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  5. East Tennessee Technology Park Zones 1 and 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document explains the cleanup activities and any use limitations for the land surrounding the East Tennessee Technology Park’s Zones 1 and 2.

  6. Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County...

  7. Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search...

  8. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  9. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Wilson Hot Spring Geothermal Area Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area Energy Generation Facilities within the Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region...

  10. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other ...

  11. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter ... An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system ...

  12. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Data Acquisition-Manipulation Activity...

  13. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  14. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  15. Refraction Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date...

  16. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  17. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  18. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  19. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry...

  20. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  1. Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage Abstract Provides overview of Washington's coastal...

  2. Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  3. Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  4. EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Section 6217 Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 Webpage...

  5. Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  6. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration January 22, 2013 - ...

  7. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005...

  8. Baoding High Tech Industry Development Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development Zone Place: China Product: Government & NGO ( State-owned commercial entity ) References: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development...

  9. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  10. Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    found in drillhole samples within the geothermal system at Coso Hot Springs. Low-permeability zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  12. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  13. Community Wind Handbook/Understand Permitting & Zoning | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting & Zoning < Community Wind Handbook Jump to: navigation, search WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHCommunity Wind Handbook WindTurbine-icon.png...

  14. NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy Zone.' | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy Zone' (5.54 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final ...

  15. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  16. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) - Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    The Deep Vadoze Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources and to address the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. This factsheet provides an overview of the initiative and the approach to integrate basic science and needs-driven applied research activities with cleanup operations.

  17. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  18. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  19. Category:County Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zone information in the United States of America. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pages in category "County Climate Zones" The following...

  20. Multi-zone methods to predict gas well performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, L.A.; Newhouse, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The contributing elements of a formula developed for accurately predicting the performance of gas wells which include a high permeability zone interbedded with one or more low permeability zones are discussed. The theory assumes the existence of 3 conditions: (1) the well depletes without water encroachment; (2) each zone remains discreet from every other - that is, without cross flow among zones when the well is producing; and (3) each zone has either a hydraulic fracture or some skin effect. As a practical matter in using the model, only one of these reservoir conditions need to be met - freedom from water encroachment. The model developed does not adapt to reservoirs that have limited cross flow between zones. It also adapts to those with a hydraulic fracture in only some of the zones and includes equations which help to calculate matrix permeability whenever a known hydraulic fracture does exist. The functions of the model are illustrated by assuming the existence of a shaley-sand, 6-zone reservoir and by ascribing to it certain characteristics. The use of the model is examined and its results are discussed.

  1. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  2. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  3. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  4. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  5. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, Heather; Brantley, S. L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina; Blum, Alex; Schulz, M; Jimenez, M; White, Art; Rother, Gernot; Cole, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world s oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g., soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared to the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream.

  6. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  7. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  8. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system

  9. A comprehensive analysis of contaminant transport in the vadose zone beneath tank SX-109

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, A.L.; Gee, G.W.; White, M.D.

    1997-02-01

    The Vadose Zone Characterization Project is currently investigating the subsurface distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in S and SX Waste Management Area (WMA-S-SX) located in the 200 West Area of the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Spectral-gamma logging of boreholes has detected elevated {sup 137}Cs concentrations as deep as 38 m, a depth considered excessive based on the assumed geochemistry of {sup 137}Cs in Hanford sediments. Routine groundwater sampling under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have also detected elevated levels of site-specific contaminants downgradient of WMA-S-SX. The objective of this report is to explore the processes controlling the migration of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 99}Tc, and NO{sub 3} through the vadose zone of WMA-S-SX, particularly beneath tank SX-109.

  10. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z.

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  11. Zoning for earth sheltered buildings. A guide for Minnesota communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Background information on earth sheltered buildings and the zoning issues related to this construction techniques is provided. Ways to develop goals and policies on earth sheltering and integrate them into existing planning documents are outlined. Ways to eliminate prohibitions and barriers to earth-sheltered buildings from zoning language are explained. Subdivision and planned unit development (PUD) regulations designed to facilitate and encourage new developments of earth sheltered homes are considered. Model language on planning, zoning, and subdivisions and planned unit developments and a summary of the various recommendations made throughout the guidebook are included. (MHR)

  12. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  13. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  14. ARM - What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What About Melting Polar Ice Caps and Sea Levels? As the northern polar zone warms up, sea ice could melt (very probable) and the sea/ice interface could retreat to the north. This is likely to

  15. Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  16. Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  17. Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  18. Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  19. Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  20. Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  1. Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  2. Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  3. Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  4. Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

  5. Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  6. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  7. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Management Program for Federally Licensed or Permitted ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  8. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coastal Zone Management Program for Federally Funded ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  9. Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Guide to the Streamside Management...

  10. Fluid Stratigraphy and Permeable Zones of the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zones can be targeted in the future Authors Dilley, L. M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCulloch and J. Published Geothermal Resource Council Transactions 2006, 112006 DOI...

  11. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of...

  12. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  13. WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24, 2015 WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway After months of catch-up rock bolting and contamination mitigation, zone recovery activities along the pathway to Panel 7 have been completed. Panel 7, which consists of seven disposal rooms (see map below), will be the active disposal area when waste emplacement activities resume. Initial closure of Panel 7 Room 7 was completed in May 2015. Although the pathway has been established, a significant number of activities,

  14. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  15. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  16. Level: National Data;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Energy Sources and Shipments, ... (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Energy Sources and Shipments, ...

  17. Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  18. InSAR At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique InSAR Activity Date Usefulness useful...

  19. An Analysis of Dual Zone Loading for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, William Christopher; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    The bumps current fuel assembly designs can achieve exceeds the fuel assembly burnups the current fleet of shipping casks can ship. One method of handling this situation which has been proposed is regionalized loading. This concept involves administratively separating the fuel basket of a shipping cask into two or more regions and loading fuel with different burnup, cooling times and enrichments into these regions. To evaluate how regionalized loading patterns might affect shipping spent nuclear fuel in comparison to uniform loading, a test case study was performed using fuel assemblies discharged from an actual nuclear plant and a shipping cask licensed by the NRC. Using the same fuel assemblies and shipping cask, results were obtained assuming a uniform loading pattern and compared to the results obtained assuming a dual zone loading pattern. Source terms for the analysis were generated using SAS2 and the dose levels were calculated using MCNPS. The analysis showed that the dual zone loading reduced the amount of time required to ship the given quantity of fuel by roughly thirty percent compared to the uniform loading. The average dose rate to the transportation workers and the public due to the implementation of dual zone loading increased. Implications of these increases are discussed. (authors)

  20. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  1. Hydrologic characterization of faults and other potentially conductive geologic features in the unsaturated zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javandel, I.; Shan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The capability of characterizing near-vertical faults and other potentially highly conductive geologic features in the vicinity of a high-level-waste repository is of great importance in site characterization of underground waste-isolation projects. The possibility of using transient air pressure data at depth for characterizing these features in the unsaturated zone are investigated. Analytical solutions for calculating the pressure response of such systems are presented. Solutions are given for two types of barometric pressure fluctuations, step function and sinusoidal. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  3. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  4. Landslides in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jibson, R.W.; Keefer, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    During the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12, bluffs bordering the Mississippi alluvial plain in the epicentral region underwent large-scale landsliding. Between Cairo, Illinois and Memphis, Tennessee, the authors mapped 221 large landslides of three types: (1) old, eroded, coherent block slides and slumps; (2) old earth flows; and (3) young, fresh slumps that occur only along near-river bluffs and are the only landslides present along such bluffs. Historical accounts and field evidence indicate that most or all old coherent slides and earth flows date to the 1811-12 earthquakes and that the only currently active, large-scale landsliding in the area occurs along bluffs bordering the river. Analysis of old coherent slides and earth flows indicates that landslide distribution is most strongly affected by slope height, but that proximity to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 earthquakes also has a significant effect. Slope-stability analyses of an old coherent slide and an earth flow selected as representative of the principal kinds of landslides present indicate that both were stable in aseismic conditions even when water tables were at highest possible levels. However, a dynamic Newmark displacement analysis shows that ground shaking such as that in 1811-12 would cause large displacements leading to catastrophic failure in both slides. These results indicate that in large earthquakes landsliding in much of the study are is likely. Moderate earthquakes may also trigger landslides at some locations.

  5. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  6. Tables of Energy Levels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Levels The Image Map below will direct you to the table of energy levels PDF format only for that particular nuclide from the most recent publication found within...

  7. Company Level Imports Archives

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Company Level Imports Company Level Imports Archives 2015 Imports by Month January XLS February XLS March XLS April XLS May XLS June XLS July XLS August XLS September XLS October...

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energys Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  9. Coastal-zone biogeochemical dynamics under global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M.; Lerman, A.

    2000-03-01

    The coastal zone, consisting of the continental shelves to a depth of 200 meters, including bays, lagoons, estuaries, and near-shore banks, is an environment that is strongly affected by its biogeochemical and physical interactions with reservoirs in the adjacent domains of land, atmosphere, open ocean, and marine sediments. Because the coastal zone is smaller in volume and area coverage relative to the open ocean, it traditionally has been studied as an integral part of the global oceans. In this paper, the authors show by numerical modeling that it is important to consider the coastal zone as an entity separate from the open ocean in any assessment of future Earth-system response under human perturbation. Model analyses for the early part of the 21st century suggest that the coastal zone plays a significant modifying role in the biogeochemical dynamics of the carbon cycle and the nutrient cycles coupled to it. This role is manifested in changes in primary production, storage, and/or export of organic matter, its remineralization, and calcium carbonate precipitation--all of which determine the state of the coastal zone with respect to exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Under a scenario of future reduced or complete cessation of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the global oceans, coastal waters become an important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as opposed to the conditions in the past and present, when coastal waters are believed to be a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Profound changes in coastal-zone primary productivity underscore the important role of phosphorus as a limiting nutrient. In addition, calculations indicate that the saturation state of coastal waters with respect to carbonate minerals will decline by {approximately}15% by the year 2030. Any future slowdown in the THC of the oceans will increase slightly the rate of decline in saturation state.

  10. FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams

  11. Interactive display system having a scaled virtual target zone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2006-06-13

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.

  12. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  13. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  14. Sea level changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1987-08-21

    The paper develops an approach to the issues relating to sea level change that will assist the non-scientist and the applied scientist in making the most effective use of our existing and developing knowledge. The human perception of ''sea level'' and how that changes as societies change and develop are discussed. After some practical perspectives on the relationships between societies and sea levels are developed, an approach to developing the best available local prediction of sea level changes is outlined, and finally present knowledge and uncertainties about the future course of events that will influence ''sea level'' as defined in the practical sense is discussed.

  15. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  16. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  17. Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

  18. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  19. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  20. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  10. FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN A DEAD ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Alexander, Richard D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-10

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 AU from the center of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely, and hence planet formation may be more difficult there.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 5A Chicago, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 5A Chicago, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-02-17

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel.

  16. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  18. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  19. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  20. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price ... Substitute, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Levels of Price ...

  9. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  10. " Level: National Data;" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: ... barrels." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable" " "," ",,,..." " ...

  11. CANDIDATE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF KEPLER STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaidos, Eric

    2013-06-20

    A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in ''habitable zones'' where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p{sub HZ} that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p{sub HZ}. Sixty-two planets have p{sub HZ} > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone ({eta}{sub Circled-Plus }) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars.

  12. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  13. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  14. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  15. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  16. RADIATION ECOLOGY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE RODENTS AND SHREWS IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes major studies performed by the Chernobyl Center's International Radioecology Laboratory (Slavutich, Ukraine) on radioecology of murine rodents and shrews inhabiting the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. The article addresses the long-term (1986-2005) and seasonal dynamics of radioactive contamination of animals, and reviews interspecies differences in radionuclide accumulations and factors affecting the radionuclide accumulations. It is shown that bioavailability of radionuclides in the 'soil-to-plant' chain and a trophic specialization of animals play key roles in determining their actual contamination levels. The total absorbed dose rates in small mammals significantly reduced during the years following the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In 1986, the absorbed dose rate reached 1.3-6.0 Gy hr{sup -1} in the central areas of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (the 'Red Forest'). In 1988 and 1990, the total absorbed dose rates were 1.3 and 0.42 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. In 1995, 2000, and 2005, according to the present study, the total absorbed dose rates rarely exceeded 0.00023, 0.00018, and 0.00015 Gy hr{sup -1}, respectively. Contributions of individual radiation sources into the total absorbed dose are described.

  17. Liquid level controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  18. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-15

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  19. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  20. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-08

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  1. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  2. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2012-06-26

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust; and a grid that includes electrically resistive material that is segmented by non-conductive material into a plurality of zones and wherein the grid is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF.

  3. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  4. 1999 vadose zone monitoring plan and guidance for subsequent years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, D.G.; Reidel, S.P.; Last, G.V.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive waste in the US. The majority of the liquid waste was disposed to the soil column where much of it remains today. This document provides the rationale and general framework for vadose zone monitoring at cribs, ditches, trenches and other disposal facilities to detect new sources of contamination and track the movement of existing contamination in the vadose zone for the protection of groundwater. The document provides guidance for subsequent site-specific vadose zone monitoring plans and includes a brief description of past vadose monitoring activities (Chapter 3); the results of the Data Quality Objective process used for this plan (Chapter 4); a prioritization of liquid waste disposal sites for vadose monitoring (Chapter 5 and Appendix B); a general Monitoring and Analysis Plan (Chapter 6); a general Quality Assurance Project Plan (Appendix A), and a description of vadose monitoring activities planned for FY 1999 (Appendix C).

  5. Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says Vast Energy Resource in Residual Oil Zones, FE Study Says July 20, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Billions of ...

  6. Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anson County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  7. Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ashe County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  8. HSQ double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    algorithm, we have successfully fabricated in-house gold zone plates of 12 nm outer zones. ... Publication Date: 2009-06-16 OSTI Identifier: 963539 Report Number(s): LBNL-2100E TRN: ...

  9. Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Aiken County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  10. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 ...

  11. Spin transition zone in Earth;s lower mantle (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spin transition zone in Earth;s lower mantle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin transition zone in Earth;s lower mantle Authors: Lin, J.-F. ; Vanko, G. ; Jacobsen, ...

  12. Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, North Dakota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  13. A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rift zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A geochemical model of the Kilauea east rift zone Abstract NA Author Donald Thomas...

  14. H.R.S. 205-5 - Zoning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    05-5 - Zoning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 205-5 - ZoningLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  15. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the BX Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, A.W.

    2000-07-01

    This addendum to the BX Tank Farm Report (GJO-98-40-TARA, GJO-HAN-19) published in August 1998 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the BX Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the BX Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

  16. Microstructure characterization of laser welded Ti-6Al-4V fusion zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Pei-quan; Li, Leijun, E-mail: leijun.li@ualberta.ca; Zhang, Chunbo

    2014-01-15

    The as-welded microstructure of laser-welded Ti-6Al-4V is characterized as a function of CO2 key-hole mode laser welding speed. Martensitic ?? is the predominant phase, with some ? and retained ?. Phase transformation is affected by the cooling rate through laser welding speed. A higher welding speed of 1.6 to 2.0 m/min produced more martensite ?? and less retained ? in the welds. 1.4 m/min welding speed produced small amounts of ?, besides the martensite ??. A trace of ? titanium hydride phase seems to have formed in the weld fusion zone. Moir fringes are a common feature in the TEM microstructure, due to abundance of multi-phase interfaces. Tensile twins and clusters of dislocations indicate that plastic deformation has happened in the as-welded microstructure, indicating the local stress levels to be approaching the yield stress on-cooling during laser welding.

  17. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone Addendum to the TY Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spatz, Robert

    2000-08-01

    This addendum to the TY Tank Farm Report (GJO-97-30-TAR, GJO-HAN-16) published in January 1998 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the TY Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the TY Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

  18. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spatz, R.

    2000-08-01

    This addendum to the TX Tank Farm Report (GJO-97-13-TAR, GJO-HAN-11) published in September 1997 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the TX Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the TX Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

  19. Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone Addendum to the S Tank Farm Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, A.

    2000-08-01

    This addendum to the S Tank Farm Report (GJO-97-31-TAR, GJO-HAN-17) published in February 1998 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the S Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the S Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

  20. Liquid-level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  1. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  2. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-03-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport andmore » transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User''s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in ''Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code'', and in ''A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model''.« less

  3. Installation of a Hydrologic Characterization Network for Vadose Zone Monitoring of a Single-Shell Tank Farm at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Ritter, Jason C. ); Sisson, James B.; Hubbell, Joel M.; Sydnor, Harold A.

    2001-10-30

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and Duratek Federal Services, deployed a suite of vadose-zone instruments at the B Tank Farm in the 200 E Area of the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington, during the last quarter of FY 2001. The purpose of the deployment was to obtain in situ hydrologic characterization data within the vadose zone of a high-level-waste tank farm. Eight sensor nests, ranging in depth from 67 m (220 ft) below ground surface (bgs) to 0.9 m (3 ft) bgs were placed in contact with vadose-zone sediments inside a recently drilled, uncased, borehole (C3360) located adjacent to Tank B-110. The sensor sets are part of the Vadose Zone Monitoring System and include advanced tensiometers, heat dissipation units, frequency domain reflectometers, thermal probes, and vadose zone solution samplers. Within the top meter of the surface, a water flux meter was deployed to estimate net infiltration from meteoric water (rain and snowmelt) sources. In addition, a rain gage was located within the tank farm to document on-site precipitation events. All sensor units, with the exception of the solution samplers, were connected to a solar-powered data logger located within the tank farm. Data collected from these sensors are currently being accessed by modem and cell phone and will be analyzed as part of the DOE RL31SS31 project during the coming year (FY 2001).

  4. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  5. Current level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  6. Propagation direction reversal of ionization zones in the transition between high and low current magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Lab for Materials Processing and Die & Mold Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Yang, Yuchen; Liu, Jason; Liu, Lin; Anders, Andr

    2014-12-11

    Past research has revealed the propagation of dense, asymmetric ionization zones in both high and low current magnetron discharges. Here we report about the direction reversal of ionization zone propagation as observed with fast cameras. At high currents, zones move in the E B direction with velocities of 103 to 104 m/s. However at lower currents, ionization zones are observed to move in the opposite, the -E B direction, with velocities ~;; 103 m/s. It is proposed that the direction reversal is associated with the local balance of ionization and supply of neutrals in the ionization zone.

  7. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2006-04-28

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  8. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  9. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, Mark C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

  10. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, M.C.

    1995-02-14

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

  11. Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harner, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

  12. Wireless zoned particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Kirby, Kevin W [Calabasas Hills, CA; Phelps, Amanda [Malibu, CA

    2011-10-04

    An assembly includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. An absorbing layer absorbs microwave energy in one of N frequency ranges and is arranged with the upstream end. N is an integer. A frequency selective filter has M frequency selective segments and receives microwave energy in the N frequency ranges. M is an integer. One of the M frequency selective segments permits passage of the microwave energy in one of the N frequency ranges and does not permit passage of microwave energy in the other of the N frequency ranges.

  13. Company Level Imports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Company Level Imports With Data for June 2016 | Release Date: August 31, 2016 | Next Release Date: September 30, 2016 | XLS Previous Issues Month: June 2016 May 2016 April 2016 March 2016 February 2016 January 2016 December 2015 November 2015 October 2015 September 2015 August 2015 July 2015 June 2015 prior issues Go June 2016 Import Highlights Monthly data on the origins of crude oil imports in June 2016 show that two countries, Canada and Saudi Arabia, exported more than one million barrels

  14. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  15. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vertical zone melt growth of GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, R.L.; Nordquist, P.E.R.; Gorman, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A Vertical Zone Melt (VZM) technique has been applied to the single crystal growth of GaAs. A pyrolytic boron nitride crucible and a (100) oriented seed were used along with liquid encapsulation by boric oxide. In the case of GaAs, the ampoule was pressurized with either argon or argensic vapor from elemental arsenic at pressures ranging from 1 to 2 atmospheres. A molten zone length of 22 mm gave a growth interface which is nearly flat and resulted in routine single crystal growth. Temperature gradients of 4{degrees}C/cm. and 9{degrees}C/cm. have produced dislocation densities of <1000/cm{sup 2} and 2000-5000/cm{sup 2} respectively for 34 mm diameter crystals of GaAs. Post growth cooling rates for GaAs have been 35, 160 and 500{degrees}C/hr. The cooling rate has been found to affect the number and size of arsenic precipitates and the EL2 concentration in the GaAs crystal. The effects of these and other growth parameters on the crystalline perfection and electrical properties of the crystals will be discussed.

  17. Development of Characterization Technology for Fault Zone Hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Gasperikova, Erika; Goto, Junichi; Tsuchi, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Tadashi; Ueta, Keiichi; Kiho, Kenzo; MIyakawa, Kimio

    2010-08-06

    Several deep trenches were cut, and a number of geophysical surveys were conducted across the Wildcat Fault in the hills east of Berkeley, California. The Wildcat Fault is believed to be a strike-slip fault and a member of the Hayward Fault System, with over 10 km of displacement. So far, three boreholes of ~;; 150m deep have been core-drilled and borehole geophysical logs were conducted. The rocks are extensively sheared and fractured; gouges were observed at several depths and a thick cataclasitic zone was also observed. While confirming some earlier, published conclusions from shallow observations about Wildcat, some unexpected findings were encountered. Preliminary analysis indicates that Wildcat near the field site consists of multiple faults. The hydraulic test data suggest the dual properties of the hydrologic structure of the fault zone. A fourth borehole is planned to penetrate the main fault believed to lie in-between the holes. The main philosophy behind our approach for the hydrologic characterization of such a complex fractured system is to let the system take its own average and monitor a long term behavior instead of collecting a multitude of data at small length and time scales, or at a discrete fracture scale and to ?up-scale,? which is extremely tenuous.

  18. Vadose Zone Characterization Techniques Developed by EMSP Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillen, Donna P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses research contributions made by Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research in the area of geophysical characterization of the subsurface. The goal of these EMSP research projects is to develop combined high-resolution measurement and interpretation packages that provide accurate, timely information needed to characterize the vadose zone. Various types of geophysical imaging techniques can be used to characterize the shallow subsurface. Since individual geophysical characterization tools all have specific limitations, many different techniques are being explored to provide more widespread applicability over a range of hydrogeologic settings. A combination of laboratory, field, theoretical, and computational studies are necessary to develop our understanding of how contaminants move through the vadose zone. This entails field tests with field-hardened systems, packaging and calibration of instrumentation, data processing and analysis algorithms, forward and inverse modeling, and so forth. DOE sites are seeking to team with EMSP researchers to leverage the basic science research investment and apply these advances to address subsurface contamination issues that plague many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

  19. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  20. EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-03-15

    The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatability testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at Hanford. However, because of

  1. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  2. Switch wear leveling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  3. Summary of Uranium Solubility Studies in Concrete Waste Forms and Vadose Zone Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bovaird, Chase C.

    2011-09-30

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and act as an intrusion barrier. The current plan for waste isolation consists of stacking low-level waste packages on a trench floor, surrounding the stacks with reinforced steel, and encasing these packages in concrete. These concrete-encased waste stacks are expected to vary in size with maximum dimensions of 6.4 m long, 2.7 m wide, and 4 m high. The waste stacks are expected to have a surrounding minimum thickness of 15 cm of concrete encasement. These concrete-encased waste packages are expected to withstand environmental exposure (solar radiation, temperature variations, and precipitation) until an interim soil cover or permanent closure cover is installed and to remain largely intact thereafter. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. This report presents the results of investigations elucidating the uranium mineral phases controlling the long-term fate of uranium within concrete waste forms and the solubility of these phases in concrete pore waters and alkaline, circum-neutral vadose zone environments.

  4. Exposure assessment: Serum levels of TCDD in Seveso, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Needham, L.L.; Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Smith, S.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Gerthoux, P.M.; Brambilla, P.; Mocarelli, P.

    1999-02-01

    Accurate exposure assessment is an important step in both risk assessment and epidemiologic studies involving potential human exposure to environmental toxicants. Various methods have been used to assess human exposure. These methods include models based on one`s temporal and spatial nearness to the source, environmental levels of toxicant, and biological measures. The authors believe that the latter measure is the ``gold standard.`` In this article they present the serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in residents of the contaminated zones in Seveso, Italy, in 1976, and delineate these data by age and gender. Some of these serum levels are among the highest ever reported and thus this population serves as a benchmark for comparison of human exposure and potential adverse health effects. One such potential population is that population consuming potentially contaminated fish.

  5. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inger, J.R. ); Brown-Strattan, M.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance program was to ensure the quality and technical adequacy of Phase 2 of the Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant project. Quality assurance was accomplished by managing and controlling the processes in the development of the product. The quality assurance task team conducted audits, reviews, and surveillances of project and related activities. This process contributed to identifying areas where the quality assurance plan was not fully implemented, areas needing improvement, and/or corrective actions resulting in a improved product. During the reviews and audits, several key areas were identified where quality assurance plan implementation needed to be improved. These areas included maintaining adequate documentation, reviewing technical results, making inputs traceable to technical results, and understanding that all personnel are responsible for quality.

  6. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  7. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark D.; Dresel, P. E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2012-03-21

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment; rather, movement of contamination from the deep vadose zone to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reduce contaminant flux to groundwater. This paper reviews the processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation.

  8. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  9. High-Level Waste Inventory

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory ... of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1- Summary Report April ...

  10. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration | Department of Energy AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration January 22, 2013 - 3:41pm Addthis SEATTLE -- AltaRock Energy today announced that it has created multiple stimulated zones from a single wellbore at the

  11. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western States | Department of Energy .3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States May 28, 2008 - 12:32pm Addthis The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Kevin Kolevar

  12. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  13. The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Viability of Sustainable, Self-Propping Shear Zones in Ehanced Geothermal Systems: Measurement of Reaction Rates at Elevated Temperatures presentation at the April 2013 peer ...

  14. A Catalog of Vadose Zone Hydraulic Properties for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Eugene J.; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Heller, Paula R.

    2001-09-24

    The purpose of this catalog is to integrate all available soil physics data and information from vadose zone characterization and performance assessments into one useable, scientifically defensible document.

  15. Adams County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Adams County, Iowa ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate...

  16. A Low-Velocity Zone in the Basement Beneath the Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in the Basement Beneath the Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract We present quantitative results of forward modeling applied to a suite of travel time delays observed...

  17. Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1982-09-29

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  18. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western States, May 28, 2008 | Department of Energy to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States, May 28, 2008 DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States, May 28, 2008 DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones In Western States. The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy. DOE to Invest up

  19. A Time-Domain Electromagnetic Survey of the East Rift Zone Kilauea...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the East Rift Zone Kilauea Volcano, HawaiiThesisDissertation Author Catherine King Skokan Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1974 DOI...

  20. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites contain mixtures of heavy metals, radionuclides and assorted organic materials. Over time, ...

  1. A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    activity including a decrease in the level of the lake water, mud eruptions, and red hot glows on the crater wall. Temporal variations in the geomagnetic field observed...

  2. Effects of ion-neutral collisions on Alfven waves: The presence of forbidden zone and heavy damping zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, C. J.; Lee, L. C.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, C. B.

    2013-03-15

    Alfven waves are low-frequency transverse waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. We define the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0} as {omega}{sub 0}=kV{sub A}cos{theta}, where k is the wave number, V{sub A} is the Alfven speed, and {theta} is the angle between the wave vector and the ambient magnetic field. There are partially ionized plasmas in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma systems, such as in the solar chromosphere, interstellar clouds, and the earth ionosphere. The presence of neutral particles may modify the wave frequency and cause damping of Alfven waves. The effects on Alfven waves depend on two parameters: (1) {alpha}=n{sub n}/n{sub i}, the ratio of neutral density (n{sub n}), and ion density (n{sub i}); (2) {beta}={nu}{sub ni}/{omega}{sub 0}, the ratio of neutral collisional frequency by ions {nu}{sub ni} to the Alfven frequency {omega}{sub 0}. Most of the previous studies examined only the limiting case with a relatively large neutral collisional frequency or {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1. In the present paper, the dispersion relation for Alfven waves is solved for all values of {alpha} and {beta}. Approximate solutions in the limit {beta} Much-Greater-Than 1 as well as {beta} Much-Less-Than 1 are obtained. It is found for the first time that there is a 'forbidden zone (FZ)' in the {alpha}-{beta} parameter space, where the real frequency of Alfven waves becomes zero. We also solve the wavenumber k from the dispersion equation for a fixed frequency and find the existence of a 'heavy damping zone (HDZ).' We then examine the presence of FZ and HDZ for Alfven waves in the ionosphere and in the solar chromosphere.

  3. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  4. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by

  5. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  6. Zone Freezing Study for Pyrochemical Process Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammon Williams

    2012-05-01

    Pyroprocessing technology is a non-aqueous separation process for treatment of used nuclear fuel. At the heart of pyroprocessing lies the electrorefiner, which electrochemically dissolves uranium from the used fuel at the anode and deposits it onto a cathode. During this operation, sodium, transuranics, and fission product chlorides accumulate in the electrolyte salt (LiCl-KCl). These contaminates change the characteristics of the salt overtime and as a result, large volumes of contaminated salt are being removed, reprocessed and stored as radioactive waste. To reduce the storage volumes and improve recycling process for cost minimization, a salt purification method called zone freezing has been proposed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Zone freezing is melt crystallization process similar to the vertical Bridgeman method. In this process, the eutectic salt is slowly cooled axially from top to bottom. As solidification occurs, the fission products are rejected from the solid interface and forced into the liquid phase. The resulting product is a grown crystal with the bulk of the fission products near the bottom of the salt ingot, where they can be easily be sectioned and removed. Despite successful feasibility report from KAERI on this process, there were many unexplored parameters to help understanding and improving its operational routines. Thus, this becomes the main motivation of this proposed study. The majority of this work has been focused on the CsCl-LiCl-KCl ternary salt. CeCl3-LiCl-KCl was also investigated to check whether or not this process is feasible for the trivalent species—surrogate for rare-earths and transuranics. For the main part of the work, several parameters were varied, they are: (1) the retort advancement rate—1.8, 3.2, and 5.0 mm/hr, (2) the crucible lid configurations—lid versus no-lid, (3) the amount or size of mixture—50 and 400 g, (4) the composition of CsCl in the salt—1, 3, and 5 wt%, and (5) the

  7. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  8. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.

  9. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1996-02-20

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  10. Means and method for capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edwards; Kuhr, Werner G.

    1991-04-09

    A means and method for capillary zone electrphoresis with laser-induced indirect fluorescence detection. A detector is positioned on the capillary tube of a capillary zone electrophoresis system. The detector includes a laser which generates a laser beam which is imposed upon a small portion of the capillary tube. Fluorescence of the elutant electromigrating through the capillary tube is indirectly detected and recorded.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  12. Potential effects of low-volume effluent discharges on past-practice vadose zone contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D.B., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    Collard, L. B., J. D. Davis, D. B. Barnett, 1996, Potential Effects of Low-Volume Effluent Discharges on Past Practice Vadose Zone Contamination: WHC-SD-LEF-ER-001, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland Washington. This document estimates the behavior of extremely low-discharges of water in the unsaturated zone in the vicinity of past-practice facilities.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  14. Ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level meter for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which utilizes the known ash level temperature profile to monitor the ash bed level. A bed stirrer which travels up and down through the extent of the bed ash level is modified by installing thermocouples to measure the bed temperature as the stirrer travels through the stirring cycle. The temperature measurement signals are transmitted to an electronic signal process system by an FM/FM telemetry system. The processing system uses the temperature signals together with an analog stirrer position signal, taken from a position transducer disposed to measure the stirrer position to compute the vertical location of the ash zone upper boundary. The circuit determines the fraction of each total stirrer cycle time the stirrer-derived bed temperature is below a selected set point, multiplies this fraction by the average stirrer signal level, multiplies this result by an appropriate constant and adds another constant such that a 1 to 5 volt signal from the processor corresponds to a 0 to 30 inch span of the ash upper boundary level. Three individual counters in the processor store clock counts that are representative of: (1) the time the stirrer temperature is below the set point (500.degree. F.), (2) the time duration of the corresponding stirrer travel cycle, and (3) the corresponding average stirrer vertical position. The inputs to all three counters are disconnected during any period that the stirrer is stopped, eliminating corruption of the measurement by stirrer stoppage.

  15. Vadose Zone Hydrogeology Data Package for Hanford Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Fayer, Michael J.; Gee, Glendon W.; Nichols, William E.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.

    2006-06-01

    This data package documents the technical basis for selecting physical and geochemical parameters and input values that will be used in vadose zone modeling for Hanford assessments. This work was originally conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington, and revised as part of the Characterization of Systems Project managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). This data package describes the geologic framework, the physical, hydrologic, and contaminant transport properties of the geologic materials, and deep drainage (i.e., recharge) estimates, and builds on the general framework developed for the initial assessment conducted using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) (Bryce et al. 2002). The general approach for this work was to update and provide incremental improvements over the previous SAC data package completed in 2001. As with the previous SAC data package, much of the data and interpreted information were extracted from existing documents and databases. Every attempt was made to provide traceability to the original source(s) of the data or interpretations.

  16. Trace-element zoning in garnets from sheared mantle xenoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, W.L.; Cousens, D.R.; Ryan, C.G.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. ); Smith, D. ); Boyd, F.R. )

    1989-02-01

    Proton-microprobe analyses of garnets from sheared high-temperature ultramafic xenoliths reveal marked zonation of trace elements, paralleling trends in major and minor elements. Garnet rims (600-1,000 {mu}m wide) are enriched in Fe, Ti, Zr, Y and Ga, and either enriched or depleted in Cr, relative to cores. Zoning profiles for Ti and Zr are S-shaped and extend further into the grains than the Cr and Ga gradients. The profiles are consistent with the formation of Ti, Zr, Y-enriched garnet overgrowths, followed by diffusive equilibration between rim and core over years to hundreds of years. This enrichment in Fe, Ca, Al and incompatible elements is ascribed to melt infiltration and consequent melt-crystal exchange and garnet growth, shortly before eruption. Zr/Y is 1 to 2 in garnet cores but 4 to 5 in rims, and so the infiltrating melt may have been relatively alkalic. Major and trace element concentrations in such high-temperature sheared xenoliths are not likely to resemble those of primitive mantle or of residual mantle depleted by melt extraction.

  17. THE HABITABLE ZONES OF PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-12-20

    We calculate the pre-main-sequence habitable zone (HZ) for stars of spectral classes F-M. The spatial distribution of liquid water and its change during the pre-main-sequence phase of protoplanetary systems is important for understanding how planets become habitable. Such worlds are interesting targets for future missions because the coolest stars could provide habitable conditions for up to 2.5 billion years post-accretion. Moreover, for a given star type, planetary systems are more easily resolved because of higher pre-main-sequence stellar luminosities, resulting in larger planet-star separation for cool stars than is the case for the traditional main-sequence (MS) HZ. We use one-dimensional radiative-convective climate and stellar evolutionary models to calculate pre-main-sequence HZ distances for F1-M8 stellar types. We also show that accreting planets that are later located in the traditional MS HZ orbiting stars cooler than a K5 (including the full range of M stars) receive stellar fluxes that exceed the runaway greenhouse threshold, and thus may lose substantial amounts of water initially delivered to them. We predict that M-star planets need to initially accrete more water than Earth did, or, alternatively, have additional water delivered later during the long pre-MS phase to remain habitable. Our findings are also consistent with recent claims that Venus lost its water during accretion.

  18. Mobility of Source Zone Heavy Metals and Radionuclides: The Mixed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Various U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) low and medium-level radioactive waste sites ... and other contaminants can be mobilized by infiltration of water into waste storage sites. ...

  19. Ash bed level control system for a fixed-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.; Rotunda, John R.

    1984-01-01

    An ash level control system is provided which incorporates an ash level meter to automatically control the ash bed level of a coal gasifier at a selected level. The ash level signal from the ash level meter is updated during each cycle that a bed stirrer travels up and down through the extent of the ash bed level. The ash level signal is derived from temperature measurements made by thermocouples carried by the stirrer as it passes through the ash bed and into the fire zone immediately above the ash bed. The level signal is compared with selected threshold level signal to determine if the ash level is above or below the selected level once each stirrer cycle. A first counter is either incremented or decremented accordingly. The registered count of the first counter is preset in a down counter once each cycle and the preset count is counted down at a selected clock rate. A grate drive is activated to rotate a grate assembly supporting the ash bed for a period equal to the count down period to maintain the selected ash bed level. In order to avoid grate binding, the controller provides a short base operating duration time each stirrer cycle. If the ash bed level drops below a selected low level or exceeds a selected high level, means are provided to notify the operator.

  20. Parametric analyses of single-zone thorium-fueled molten salt reactor fuel cycle options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J.J.; Worrall, A.; Gehin, J.C.; Harrison, T.J.; Sunny, E.E.

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of fuel cycle options based on thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) have been performed in support of fuel cycle screening and evaluation activities for the United States Department of Energy. The MSR options considered are based on thermal spectrum MSRs with 3 different separations levels: full recycling, limited recycling, and 'once-through' operation without active separations. A single-fluid, single-zone 2250 MWth (1000 MWe) MSR concept consisting of a fuel-bearing molten salt with graphite moderator and reflectors was used as the basis for this study. Radiation transport and isotopic depletion calculations were performed using SCALE 6.1 with ENDF/B-VII nuclear data. New methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) enables MSR analysis using SCALE, modeling material feed and removal by taking user-specified parameters and performing multiple SCALE/TRITON simulations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. Parametric analyses examined the sensitivity of the performance of a thorium MSR to variations in the separations efficiency for protactinium and fission products. Results indicate that self-sustained operation is possible with full or limited recycling but once-through operation would require an external neutron source. (authors)

  1. UNSATURATED ZONE CALCITE 813C EVIDENCE OF SOUTHERN NEVADA CLIMATES DURING THE PAST 9 MILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOSEPH F. WHELAN AND RICHARD J. MOSCATI

    1998-01-26

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is presently the object of intense study as a potential permanent repository for the Nation's high-level radioactive wastes. The mountain consists of a thick sequence of volcanic tuffs in which the depth to the water table ranges from 500 to 700 meters below the land surface. This thick unsaturated zone (UZ), which would host the projected repository, coupled with the present-day arid to semi-arid environment, is considered a positive argument for the site. Evaluation of the site includes defining the relationship between climate variability, as the input function or driver of site- and regional-scale ground-water flow, and the possible transport and release of radionuclides. Secondary calcite and opal have been deposited in the UZ by meteoric waters that infiltrated through overlying soils and percolated through the tuffs. The oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O values) of these minerals reflect contemporaneous meteoric waters and the {delta}{sup 13}C values reflect soil organic matter, and hence the resident plant community, at the time of infiltration (Whelan et al., 1994). Recent U/Pb age determinations of opal in these occurrences allows the {delta}{sup 13}C values of associated calcite to be used to reconstruct general climate variations during the past 9 M.y.

  2. Evidence for an unsaturated-zone origin of secondary minerals in Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Joseph F.; Roedder, Edwin; Paces, James B.

    2001-04-29

    The unsaturated zone (UZ) in Miocene-age welded tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Secondary calcite and silica minerals deposited on fractures and in cavities in the UZ tuffs are texturally, isotopically, and geochemically consistent with UZ deposition from meteoric water infiltrating at the surface and percolating through the UZ along fractures. Nonetheless, two-phase fluid inclusions with small and consistent vapor to liquid (V:L) ratios that yield consistent temperatures within samples and which range from about 35 to about 80 C between samples have led some to attribute these deposits to formation from upwelling hydrothermal waters. Geochronologic studies have shown that calcite and silica minerals began forming at least 10 Ma and continued to form into the Holocene. If their deposition were really from upwelling water flooding the UZ, it would draw into question the suitability of the site as a waste repository.

  3. Distribution of fast hydrologic paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Wolfsberg, A.V.; Levy, S.S.; Roach, J.L.; Winters, S.T.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Elmore, D.; Sharma, P.

    1998-12-31

    Development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for hydrologic systems are strengthened when natural environmental tracers are incorporated into the process. One such tracer is chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl, half-life, 301,000 years), a radioactive isotope produced in the atmosphere and carried underground with percolating groundwater. High concentrations of this isotope were also added to meteoric water during a period of global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices, primarily in the 1950s. This bomb-pulse signal has been used to test for the presence of fast transport paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to provide the basis for a conceptual model for their distribution. Yucca Mountain is under investigation by the US Department of Energy as a potential site at which to host an underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Under wetter climatic conditions, fast-flow pathways will respond quickly to increases in infiltration and have the potential to become seeps in the tunnel drifts. The {sup 36}Cl data are also being used in numerical flow and transport models to establish lower bounds on infiltration rates, estimate ground water ages, and establish bounding values for hydrologic flow parameters governing fracture transport.

  4. AUTOMATED WATER LEVEL MEASUREMENTS IN SMALL-DIAMETER AQUIFER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSEN SW; EDRINGTON RS; MAHOOD RO; VANMIDDLESWORTH PE

    2011-01-14

    Groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium, strontium-90, and uranium discharges into the Columbia River along approximately 16 km (10 mi) of the shoreline. Various treatment systems have and will continue to be implemented to eliminate the impact of Hanford Site contamination to the river. To optimize the various remediation strategies, it is important to understand interactions between groundwater and the surface water of the Columbia River. An automated system to record water levels in aquifer sampling tubes installed in the hyporheic zone was designed and tested to (1) gain a more complete understanding of groundwater/river water interactions based on gaining and losing conditions ofthe Columbia River, (2) record and interpret data for consistent and defensible groundwater/surface water conceptual models that may be used to better predict subsurface contaminant fate and transport, and (3) evaluate the hydrodynamic influence of extraction wells in an expanded pump-and-treat system to optimize the treatment system. A system to measure water levels in small-diameter aquifer tubes was designed and tested in the laboratory and field. The system was configured to allow manual measurements to periodically calibrate the instrument and to permit aquifer tube sampling without removing the transducer tube. Manual measurements were collected with an e-tape designed and fabricated especially for this test. Results indicate that the transducer system accurately records groundwater levels in aquifer tubes. These data are being used to refine the conceptual and numeric models to better understand interactions in the hyporheic zone of the Columbia River and the adjacent river water and groundwater, and changes in hydrochemistry relative to groundwater flux as river water recharges the aquifer and then drains back out in response to changes in the river level.

  5. DEAD, UNDEAD, AND ZOMBIE ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AS A FUNCTION OF STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Ercolano, Barbara; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: ercolano@usm.lmu.de

    2013-02-10

    We investigate the viability of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in X-ray ionized viscous accretion disks around both solar-type stars and very low mass stars. In particular, we determine the disk regions where the MRI can be shut off either by Ohmic resistivity (the so-called dead and undead zones) or by ambipolar diffusion (a region we term the zombie zone). We consider two stellar masses: M {sub *} = 0.7 M {sub Sun} and 0.1 M {sub Sun }. In each case, we assume that: the disk surface density profile is that of a scaled Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, with M {sub disk}/M {sub *} = 0.01 as suggested by current data; disk ionization is driven primarily by stellar X-rays, complemented by cosmic rays and radionuclides; and the stellar X-ray luminosity scales with bolometric luminosity as L{sub X} /L {sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3.5}, as observed. Ionization rates are calculated with the MOCCASIN Monte Carlo X-ray transport code, and ionization balance determined using a simplified chemical network, including well-mixed 0.1 {mu}m grains at various levels of depletion. We find that (1) ambipolar diffusion is the primary factor controlling MRI activity in disks around both solar-type and very low mass classical T Tauri stars. Assuming that the MRI yields the maximum possible field strength at each radius, we further find that: (2) the MRI-active layer constitutes only {approx}5%-10% of the total disk mass; (3) the accretion rate ( M-dot ) varies radially in both magnitude and sign (inward or outward), implying time-variable accretion as well as the creation of disk gaps and overdensities, with consequences for planet formation and migration; (4) achieving the empirical accretion rates in solar-type and very low mass stars requires a depletion of well-mixed small grains (via grain growth and/or settling) by a factor of 10-1000 relative to the standard dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10{sup -2}; and (5) the current non-detection of polarized emission from field

  6. Building Conceptual Models of Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.

    2008-12-04

    Subsurface simulation is being used to build, test, and couple conceptual process models to better understand controls on a 0.4 km by 1.0 km uranium plume that has persisted above the drinking water standard in the groundwater of the Hanford 300 Area over the last 15 years. At this site, uranium-contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer are subject to significant variations in water levels and velocities driven by the diurnal, weekly, seasonal, and episodic Columbia River stage dynamics. Groundwater flow reversals typically occur twice a day with significant exchange of river water and groundwater in the near-river aquifer. Mixing of the dilute solution chemistry of the river with the groundwater complicates the uranium sorption behavior as the mobility of U(VI) has been shown experimentally to be a function of pH, carbonate, calcium, and uranium. Furthermore, uranium mass transfer between solid and aqueous phases has been observed to be rate-limited in the context of the high groundwater velocities resulting from the river stage fluctuations and the highly transmissive sediments (hydraulic conductivities ~1500 m/d). One- and two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional simulations of variably-saturated flow and reactive transport, based on laboratory-derived models of distributed rate mass transfer and equilibrium multicomponent surface complexation, are used to assess uranium transport at the dynamic vadose zone aquifer interface as well as changes to uranium mobility due to incursions of river water into the aquifer.

  7. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  8. Preliminary 3-D site-scale studies of radioactive colloid transortin the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Hu, Q.; Wu, Y.-S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S: Department of Energy is actively investigating the technical feasibility of permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a repository to be situated in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this study we investigate, by means of numerical simulation, the transport of radioactive colloids under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table. The site hydrology and the effects of the spatial distribution of hydraulic and transport properties in the Yucca Mountain subsurface are considered. The study of migration and retardation of colloids accounts for the complex processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, and includes advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, kinetic colloid filtration, colloid straining, and radioactive decay. The results of the study indicate that the most important factors affecting colloid transport are the subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The transport of colloids is strongly influenced by their size (as it affects diffusion into the matrix, straining at hydrogeologic unit interfaces, and transport velocity) and by the parameters of the kinetic-filtration model used for the simulations. Arrival times at the water table decrease with an increasing colloid size because of smaller diffusion, increased straining, and higher transport velocities. The importance of diffusion as a retardation mechanism increases with a decreasing colloid size, but appears to be minimal in large colloids.

  9. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

  10. Microbial mineral colonization across a subsurface redox transition zone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Brandon J.; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; Roden, Eric E.

    2015-08-28

    Here our study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would preferentially colonize the Fe(II)-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ) at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II) in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013). Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ formore » 5 months within a multilevel sampling (MLS) apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite vs. sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonadaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ) as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II), and HS- oxidizing) taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the RTZ.« less

  11. Hydrogeologic characterization of an arid zone Radioactive Waste Management Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginanni, J.M.; O`Neill, L.J. [USDOE Nevada Operations Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Dozier, B.L.; Sully, M.J.; Johnejack, K.R.; Emer, D.F. [Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Co., Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tyler, S.W. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    1994-06-01

    An in-depth subsurface site characterization and monitoring program for the soil water migration pathway has been planned, implemented, and completed to satisfy data requirements for a waiver from groundwater monitoring, for an exemption from liner leachate collections systems, and for different regulatory driven performance assessments. A traditional scientific approach has been taken to focus characterization and monitoring efforts. This involved developing a conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system and defining and testing hypotheses about this model. Specific hypotheses tested included: that the system was hydrologically heterogenous and anisotropic, and that recharge was very low or negligible. Mineralogical, physical, and hydrologic data collected to test hypotheses has shown the hydrologic system to be remarkably homogenous and isotropic rather than heterogenous and anisotropic. Both hydrodynamic and environmental tracer approaches for estimating recharge have led to the conclusion that recharge from the Area 5 RWMS is not occurring in the upper region of the vadose zone, and that recharge at depth is extremely small or negligible. This demonstration of ``no migration of hazardous constituents to the water table satisfies a key requirement for both the groundwater monitoring waiver and the exemption from liner leachate collection systems. Data obtained from testing hypotheses concerning the soil water migration pathway have been used to refine the conceptual model of the hydrogeologic system of the site. These data suggest that the soil gas and atmospheric air pathways may be more important for transporting contaminants to the accessible environment than the soil water pathway. New hypotheses have been developed about these pathways, and characterization and monitoring activities designed to collect data to test these hypotheses.

  12. Technical and Policy Challenges in Deep Vadose Zone Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides - 12025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Truex, Michael J.; Freshley, Mark; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Dresel, P. Evan

    2012-07-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination is a significant issue facing the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). Contamination in the deep vadose zone is isolated from exposure such that direct contact is not a factor in risk to human health and the environment. Transport of deep vadose zone contamination and discharge to the groundwater creates the potential for exposure and risk to receptors, so limiting flux to groundwater is key for protection of groundwater resources. Remediation approaches for the deep vadose zone need to be considered within the regulatory context, targeted at mitigating the source of contamination and reducing contaminant flux to groundwater. Processes for deep vadose zone metal and radionuclide remediation are discussed, as well as challenges and opportunities for implementation. It may be useful to consider the risk and challenges with leaving contaminants in place as part of a flux-control remedy in comparison with risks associated with contaminant removal and final disposition elsewhere. Understanding and quantifying the ramifications of contaminant removal and disposition options are therefore warranted. While this review suggests that some additional development work is needed for deep vadose zone remediation techniques, the benefits of applying vadose zone remediation for groundwater protection are compelling and worthy of continued development. (authors)

  13. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  14. Zoned near-zero refractive index fishnet lens antenna: Steering millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Orazbayev, B. Beaskoetxea, U. Beruete, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.

    2014-03-28

    A zoned fishnet metamaterial lens is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths to work as a negative near-zero refractive index lens suitable for compact lens antenna configurations. At the design frequency f = 56.7 GHz (λ{sub 0} = 5.29 mm), the zoned fishnet metamaterial lens, designed to have a focal length FL = 9λ{sub 0}, exhibits a refractive index n = −0.25. The focusing performance of the diffractive optical element is briefly compared with that of a non-zoned fishnet metamaterial lens and an isotropic homogeneous zoned lens made of a material with the same refractive index. Experimental and numerically-computed radiation diagrams of the fabricated zoned lens are presented and compared in detail with that of a simulated non-zoned lens. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, demonstrating an enhancement generated by the zoned lens of 10.7 dB, corresponding to a gain of 12.26 dB. Moreover, beam steering capability of the structure by shifting the feeder on the xz-plane is demonstrated.

  15. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. ); Baby, P. ); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. ); Guillier, B. )

    1993-02-01

    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - Central_Plateau_Inner_Zone.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inner Zone The inner zone of the Central Plateau represents 10 square miles at the center The inner zone of the Central Plateau represents 10 square miles at the center of Hanford. Recovery Act funding will be used to accelerate construction of pump-and-treat systems to improve groundwater cleanup in the 200 West area. In addition funding will be used to prepare the Plutonium Finishing Plant for In addition funding will be used to prepare the Plutonium Finishing Plant for demolition and to tear

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - Central_Plateau_Outer_Zone.ppt [Compatibility Mode]

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outer Zone Th t f th C t l Pl t i b t 65 il The outer zone of the Central Plateau is about 65 square miles. Recovery Act funding will be used in this area to support shrinking the active footprint of cleanup to as little as 10 square miles in the center of the site. Work will consist mainly of demolishing facilities and remediating waste sites. Central Plateau, Outer Zone (~65 sq. mi.) * 200 North Area * Demolish spent fuel C o C o * Demolish spent fuel transfer storage facilities (212 N/P/R) *

  18. DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Western States | Department of Energy to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States DOE to Invest up to $2.3 Million to Identify Renewable Energy Zones in Western States May 28, 2008 - 1:58pm Addthis The Renewable Energy Zones Initiative will promote regional transmission planning and encourage the development of renewable sources of energy WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

  19. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Levels in Real Time? There's an App for That! Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are expanding their global network of radiation monitoring stations to include up-to-date readings from the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) based out of southern Nevada. The CEMP was established in 1981 to monitor manmade and natural radiation levels surrounding

  20. Technical issues in licensing low-level radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junkert, R.

    1993-03-01

    The California Department of Health Service spent two years in the review of an application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California. During this review period a variety of technical issues had to be evaluated and resolved. One of the first issues was the applicability and use of NRC guidance documents for the development of LLW disposal facilities. Other technical issues that required intensive evaluations included surface water hydrology, seismic investigation, field and numerical analysis of the unsaturated zone, including a water infiltration test. Source term verification became an issue because of one specific isotope that comprised more than 90% of the curies projected for disposal during the operational period. The use of trench liners and the proposed monitoring of the unsaturated zone were reviewed by a highly select panel of experts to provide guidance on the need for liners and to ensure that the monitoring system was capable of monitoring sufficient representative areas for radionuclides in the soil, soil gas, and soil moisture. Finally, concerns about the quality of the preoperational environmental monitoring program, including data, sample collection procedures, laboratory analysis, data review and interpretation and duration of monitoring caused a significant delay in completing the licensing review.

  1. December 12, 2013 Webinar- The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    P&RA CoP Webinar - Dec. 12, 2013 - Alaa Aly (INTERA) & Dib Goswami (Washington State Ecology), “The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling”

  2. H.R.S. 183C - Conservation District Zoning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    183C - Conservation District Zoning Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: H.R.S. 183C - Conservation District...

  3. Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Control of Well KS-8 in the Kilauea...

  4. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

  5. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  6. Parametric Analyses of Single-zone Thorium-fueled Molten Salt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Parametric Analyses of Single-zone Thorium-fueled Molten Salt Reactor Fuel Cycle Options Authors: Powers, Jeffrey J 1 ; Worrall, Andrew 1 ; Gehin, Jess C 1 ; Harrison, ...

  7. Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2013-05-01

    Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

  8. Western Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report Western Renewable Energy Zones-Phase 1 Report In June 2006, the Western Governors'Association published "Clean Energy, a Strong Economy and a Healthy Environment,"a report from the Clean and Diversified Energy Advisory Committee.3 This report explained that while vast renewable resources exist throughout the West,many reside in remote areas without ready or cost effective access to transmission. Lack of cost effective transmission access was, and

  9. New Approach to Assess Volatile Contamination in Vadose Zone Provides Path Forward for Site Closure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. and LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Through the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI), scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, federal agencies, and the scientific community are collaborating to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination.

  10. Development of the IPRO-zone for fire PSA and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, D. I.; Han, S. H.

    2012-07-01

    A PSA analyst has been manually determining fire-induced component failure modes and modeling them into the PSA logics. These can be difficult and time-consuming tasks as they need much information and many events are to be modeled. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to facilitate fire PSA works for identifying and modeling fire-induced component failure modes, and to construct a one top fire event PSA model. With the output of the IPRO-ZONE, the AIMS-PSA, and internal event one top PSA model, one top fire events PSA model is automatically constructed. The outputs of the IPRO-ZONE include information on fire zones/fire scenarios, fire propagation areas, equipment failure modes affected by a fire, internal PSA basic events corresponding to fire-induced equipment failure modes, and fire events to be modeled. This paper introduces the IPRO-ZONE, and its application results to fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3 and SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). (authors)

  11. Solar envelope zoning: application to the city planning process. Los Angeles case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Solar envelope zoning represents a promising approach to solar access protection. A solar envelope defines the volume within which a building will not shade adjacent lots or buildings. Other solar access protection techniques, such as privately negotiated easements, continue to be tested and implemented but none offer the degree of comprehensiveness evident in this approach. Here, the City of Los Angeles, through the Mayor's Energy Office, the City Planning Department, and the City Attorney's Office, examine the feasibility of translating the concept of solar envelopes into zoning techniques. They concluded that envelope zoning is a fair and consistent method of guaranteeing solar access, but problems of complexity and uncertainty may limit its usefulness. Envelope zoning may be inappropriate for the development of high density centers and for more restrictive community plans. Aids or tools to administer envelope zoning need to be developed. Finally, some combination of approaches, including publicly recorded easements, subdivision approval and envelope zoning, need to be adopted to encourage solar use in cities. (MHR)

  12. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  13. Evaluation of Soil Flushing for Application to the Deep Vadose Zone in the Hanford Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Z. F.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Schramke, Janet A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Gordon, Kathryn A.; Last, George V.

    2010-11-01

    Soil flushing was included in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau as a technology with the potential to remove contaminants from the vadose zone. Soil flushing operates through the addition of water, and if necessary an appropriate mobilizing agent, to mobilize contaminants and flush them from the vadose zone and into the groundwater where they are subsequently captured by a pump-and-treat system. There are uncertainties associated with applying soil flushing technology to contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Central Plateau. The modeling and laboratory efforts reported herein are intended to provide a quantitative assessment of factors that impact water infiltration and contaminant flushing through the vadose zone and into the underlying groundwater. Once in the groundwater, capture of the contaminants would be necessary, but this aspect of implementing soil flushing was not evaluated in this effort. Soil flushing was evaluated primarily with respect to applications for technetium and uranium contaminants in the deep vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau.

  14. Fiscal Year 2008 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-33 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-09-11

    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2161&D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2224&D3) (Zone 2 RDR/RAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone 1 exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the Zone 2 RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together and allowing identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program and remedial actions (RAs) were completed for EU Z2-33. Remedial action was also performed at two additional areas in adjacent EU Z2-42 because of their close proximity and similar nature to a small surface soil RA in EU Z2-33. Remedial actions for building slabs performed in EU Z2-33 during fiscal year (FY) 2007 were reported in the Fiscal Year 2007 Phased Construction Completion Report for the Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures at East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/OR/01-2723&D1). Recommended RAs for EU Z2-42 were described in the Fiscal Year 2006 Phased Construction

  15. Aerosol analysis with the Coastal Zone Collor Scanner (CZCS). The Australasian region. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giondomenica, G.M.

    1995-09-10

    The Channel 4 data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), a space-borne radiometer, was analyzed to infer aerosol distributions in the Australasian region for 1979. Monthly, seasonal, and annual composites of the Channel 4 data were created. An accompanying data density image was created for each composite to indicate the degree of data coverage. Australian climatological data and 1000mb and 850mb monthly mean wind fields were used to interpret the dominant features in the composites. Because the primary source of the measured radiances in the Channel 4 data was thought to be suspended dust, it was theorized that the dominant aerosol features would be located downwind of regions with high dust storm activity. Elevated 670nm radiances were observed throughout 1979 within the portion of study region located between 1505 and the equator. However, the wind field data and rainfall climatology did not support dust transport to this region. Although biomass burning and biogenic hydrocarbon production were likely aerosol sources, the Channel 4 data suggested that they were not likely to be the primary source for the elevated radiances in the region. The low level wind fields and climatological data supported the feasibility of dust transport off the northwest coast of Australia over the Indian Ocean. The 1979 CZCS data indicated elevated 670nm radiances did occur in this region. However, the pattern of the signal suggested these radiances may not have been due to dust transport. The daily 670nm images indicated sun glint and faulty cloud-masking were probable sources for the observed radiances.

  16. Effects of Fusion Zone Size on Failure Modes and Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds (2006-01-0531)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using the limit load based analytical model and the micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that the conventional weld size of 4 t1/2 can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials. The results also suggest that performance based spot weld acceptance criteria should be developed for different AHSS spot welds.

  17. High-Level Waste Inventory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1 - Summary Report U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management April 2016 U.S. DOE-EM Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1- Summary Report April 2016 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK U.S. DOE-EM Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1-

  18. Energy-dependent dynamics of keV to MeV electrons in the inner zone, outer zone, and slot regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Friedel, Reiner H. W.; Larsen, Brian A.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.; Claudepierre, Seth G.; Fennell, Joseph F.; Turner, Drew L.; Denton, Mick H.; Spence, Harlan E.; et al

    2016-01-28

    Here, we present observations of the radiation belts from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron and Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer particle detectors on the Van Allen Probes satellites that illustrate the energy dependence and L shell dependence of radiation belt enhancements and decays. We survey events in 2013 and analyze an event on 1 March in more detail. The observations show the following: (a) at all L shells, lower energy electrons are enhanced more often than higher energies; (b) events that fill the slot region are more common at lower energies; (c) enhancements of electrons in the inner zone are moremore » common at lower energies; and (d) even when events do not fully fill the slot region, enhancements at lower energies tend to extend to lower L shells than higher energies. During enhancement events the outer zone extends to lower L shells at lower energies while being confined to higher L shells at higher energies. The inner zone shows the opposite with an outer boundary at higher L shells for lower energies. Both boundaries are nearly straight in log(energy) versus L shell space. At energies below a few 100 keV, radiation belt electron penetration through the slot region into the inner zone is commonplace, but the number and frequency of “slot filling” events decreases with increasing energy. The inner zone is enhanced only at energies that penetrate through the slot. Energy- and L shell-dependent losses (that are consistent with whistler hiss interactions) return the belts to more quiescent conditions.« less

  19. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments from C Waste Management Area: Investigation of the C-152 Transfer Line Leak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Lanigan, David C.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-02-05

    A geologic/geochemical investigation in the vicinity of UPR-200-E-82 was performed using pairs of cone-penetrometer probe holes. A total of 41 direct-push cone-penetrometer borings (19 pairs to investigate different high moisture zones in the same sampling location and 3 individual) were advanced to characterize vadose zone moisture and the distribution of contaminants. A total of twenty sample sets, containing up to two split-spoon liners and one grab sample, were delivered to the laboratory for characterization and analysis. The samples were collected around the documented location of the C-152 pipeline leak, and created an approximately 120-ft diameter circle around the waste site. UPR-200-E-82 was a loss of approximately 2,600 gallons of Cs-137 Recovery Process feed solution containing an estimated 11,300 Ci of cesium-137 and 5 Ci of technetium-99. Several key parameters that are used to identify subsurface contamination were measured, including: water extract pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, technetium-99, sodium, and uranium concentrations and technetium-99 and uranium concentrations in acid extracts. All of the parameters, with the exception of electrical conductivity, were elevated in at least some of the samples analyzed as part of this study. Specifically, soil pH was elevated (from 8.69 to 9.99) in five samples collected northeast and southwest of the C-152 pipeline leak. Similarly, samples collected from these same cone-pentrometer holes contained significantly more water-extractable sodium (more than 50 ?g/g of dry sediment), uranium (as much as 7.66E-01 ?g/g of dry sediment), nitrate (up to 30 ?g/g of dry sediment), and technetium-99 (up to 3.34 pCi/g of dry sediment). Most of the samples containing elevated concentrations of water-extractable sodium also had decreased levels of water extractable calcium and or magnesium, indicating that tank-related fluids that were high in sodium did seep into the vadose zone near these probe holes. Several of

  20. Radiation Levels in Real Time?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma radiation levels in the southern Nevada area will soon be accessible around the world at the touch of a finger. Makers of the cell phone application EcoData: Radiation are ...

  1. Low-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as low-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV.

  2. High-Level Waste Requirements

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-07-09

    The guide provides the criteria for determining which DOE radioactive wastes are to be managed as high-level waste in accordance with DOE M 435.1-1.

  3. ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT OF MULTIPLE CONTAMINANTS IN THE VADOSE ZONE USING A MULTI-LAYERED SOIL COLUMN AND THREE-PHASE EQUILIBRIUM PARTITIONING MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, G

    2007-05-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and contaminate drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminates. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: contaminant decay, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use.

  4. Estimating fate and transport of multiple contaminants in the vadose zone using a multi-layered soil column and three-phase equilibrium partitioning model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, Gregory G.

    2007-07-01

    Soils at waste sites must be evaluated for the potential of residual soil contamination to leach and migrate to the groundwater beneath the disposal area. If migration to the aquifer occurs, contaminants can travel vast distances and pollute drinking water wells, thus exposing human receptors to harmful levels of toxins and carcinogens. To prevent groundwater contamination, a contaminant fate and transport analysis is necessary to assess the migration potential of residual soil contaminants. This type of migration analysis is usually performed using a vadose zone model to account for complex geotechnical and chemical variables including: decay processes, infiltration rate, soil properties, vadose zone thickness, and chemical behavior. The distinct advantage of using a complex model is that less restrictive, but still protective, soil threshold levels may be determined avoiding the unnecessary and costly remediation of marginally contaminated soils. However, the disadvantage of such modeling is the additional cost for data collection and labor required to apply these models. In order to allay these higher costs and to achieve a less restrictive but still protective clean-up level, a multiple contaminant and multi layered soil column equilibrium partitioning model was developed which is faster, simpler and less expensive to use. (authors)

  5. Technical Basis for Evaluating Surface Barriers to Protect Groundwater from Deep Vadose Zone Contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2010-02-03

    This document presents a strategy for evaluating the effectiveness of surface barriers for site-specific deep vadose zone remediation. The strategy provides a technically defensible approach to determine the depth to which a surface barrier can effectively isolate contaminants in the vadose at a specific site as a function of subsurface properties, contaminant distribution, barrier design, and infiltration control performance. The strategy also provides an assessment of additional data and information needs with respect to surface barrier performance for deep vadose zone applications. The strategy addresses the linkage between surface barriers and deep vadose zone in situ remediation activities, monitoring issues, and emerging science, technology, and regulatory objectives. In short, the report documents the existing knowledge base, identifies knowledge needs (based on data gaps), and suggests tasks whose outcomes will address those knowledge needs. More important, the report serves as a starting point to engage the regulator and stakeholder community on the viability of deploying surface barriers for deep vadose zone contamination. As that engagement unfolds, a systematic methodology can be formalized and instituted. The strategy is focused on deep vadose zone contamination and the methods needed to determine the impact to groundwater from those deep vadose zone contaminants. Processes that affect surface barrier performance, recharge in the areas surrounding the surface barrier, and the near-surface vadose zone beneath the barrier are acknowledged but are not addressed by this strategy. In addition, the collection of site-specific data on contaminant distribution and geologic structure and properties are programmatic responsibilities and are not provided by this strategy.

  6. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  7. Dry Gas Zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study: Geologic text and tables: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-29

    The Dry Gas Zone was defined by US Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 Engineering Committee (1957) as ''/hor ellipsis/all sands bearing dry gas above the top of the Lower Scalez marker bed. The term is used to include the stratigraphic interval between the Scalez Sand Zone and the Tulare Formation - the Mya Sand Zone. The reservoirs in this upper zone are thin, lenticular, loosely cemented sandstones with relatively high permeabilities.'' Other than the limited Tulare production in the western part of the field, the Dry Gas Zone is the shallowest productive zone in the Elk Hills Reserve and is not included in the Shallow Oil Zone. It is Pliocene in age and makes up approximately eighty percent of the San Joaquin Formation as is summarized in Exhibit TL-1. The lithologic character of the zone is one of interbedded shales and siltstones with intermittent beds of various thickness sands. The stratigraphic thickness of the Dry Gas Zone ranges from 950 to 1150 feet with a general thickening along the flanks and thinning over the crests of the anticlines. The productive part of the Dry Gas Zone covers portions of 30 sections in an area roughly 10 miles long by 4 miles wide. 4 refs.

  8. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lippold, John C., E-mail: lippold.1@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. The average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium ? precipitates from the base metal ?? precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: SZ grain size (? 1 ?m) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. Metastable ?? in the base metal transforms to equilibrium ? in the stir zone. Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.

  9. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  10. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  11. Energy Level Diagrams A=12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Available in the following years: (1990), (1985), (1980), (1975), (1968), (1959) A=12 Energy Level Diagrams from (1990AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 12Be (48 KB) 12B (93 KB) 12C (129 KB) 12N (63 KB) Isobar diagram (91 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 12Be (30 KB) 12B (52 KB) 12C (72 KB) 12N (40 KB) Isobar diagram (57 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 12Be (1.39 MB) 12B (1.80 MB) 12C (1.89 MB) 12N (1.66 MB) Isobar diagram (1.75 MB) A=12 Energy Level Diagrams from (1985AJ01) GIF

  12. Energy Level Diagrams A=13

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Available in the following years: (1991), (1986), (1981), (1976), (1970), (1959) A=13 Energy Level Diagrams from (1991AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 13B (53 KB) 13C (115 KB) 13N (107 KB) Isobar diagram (94 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 13B (35 KB) 13C (63 KB) 13N (56 KB) Isobar diagram (56 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 13B (1.5 MB) 13C (1.7 MB) 13N (1.4 MB) Isobar diagram (1.5 MB) A=13 Energy Level Diagrams from (1986AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 13B (72 KB) 13C

  13. Energy Level Diagrams A=14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Available in the following years: (1991), (1986), (1981), (1976), (1970), (1959) A=14 Energy Level Diagrams from (1991AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 14B (48 KB) 14C (92 KB) 14N (132 KB) 14O (60 KB) Isobar diagram (93 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 14B (33 KB) 14C (50 KB) 14N (69 KB) 14O (40 KB) Isobar diagram (51 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 14B (1.57 MB) 14C (1.72 MB) 14N (1.76 MB) 14O (1.75 MB) Isobar diagram (1.83 MB) A=14 Energy Level Diagrams from (1986AJ01) GIF

  14. Energy Level Diagrams A=15

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Available in the following years: (1991), (1986), (1981), (1976), (1970), (1959) A=15 Energy Level Diagrams from (1991AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 15C (67 KB) 15N (114 KB) 15O (106 KB) Isobar diagram (100 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 15C (43 KB) 15N (69 KB) 15O (59 KB) Isobar diagram (58 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 15C (1.82 MB) 15N (1.98 MB) 15O (1.67 MB) Isobar diagram (1.83 MB) A=15 Energy Level Diagrams from (1986AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 15C (52 KB)

  15. Energy Level Diagrams A=16

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Available in the following years: (1993), (1986), (1982), (1977), (1971), (1959) A=16 Energy Level Diagrams from (1993TI07) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 16C (223 KB) 16N (274 KB) 16O (176 KB) 16F (106 KB) Isobar diagram (190 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 16C (154 KB) 16N (71 KB) 16O (178 KB) 16F (108 KB) Isobar diagram (266 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 16C (542 KB) 16N (430 KB) 16O (178 KB) 16F (357 KB) Isobar diagram (190 KB) A=16 Energy Level Diagrams from (1986AJ04) GIF

  16. Energy Level Diagrams A=17

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Available in the following years: (1993), (1986), (1982), (1977), (1971), (1959) A=17 Energy Level Diagrams from (1993TI07) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 17N (104 KB) 17O (148 KB) 17F (155 KB) Isobar diagram (82 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 17N (107 KB) 17O (141 KB) 17F (147 KB) Isobar diagram (90 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 17N (107 KB) 17O (141 KB) 17F (147 KB) Isobar diagram (90 KB) A=17 Energy Level Diagrams from (1986AJ04) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 17N (76 KB)

  17. Energy Level Diagrams A=18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Available in the following years: (1995), (1987), (1983), (1978), (1972), (1959) A=18 Energy Level Diagrams from (1995TI07) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 18N (34 KB) 18O (97 KB) 18F (89 KB) 18Ne (56 KB) Isobar diagram (87 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 18N (13 KB) 18O (56 KB) 18F (54 KB) 18Ne (36 KB) Isobar diagram (50 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 18N (13 KB) 18O (1.98 MB) 18F (1.40 MB) 18Ne (1.64 MB) Isobar diagram (1.79 MB) A=18 Energy Level Diagrams from (1987AJ02) GIF

  18. Energy Level Diagrams A=19

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Available in the following years: (1995), (1987), (1983), (1978), (1972), (1959) A=19 Energy Level Diagrams from (1995TI07) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 19O (50 KB) 19F (99 KB) 19Ne (53 KB) Isobar diagram (65 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 19O (34 KB) 19F (63 KB) 19Ne (35 KB) Isobar diagram (43 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 19O (1.60 MB) 19F (1.82 MB) 19Ne (1.26 MB) Isobar diagram (1.55 MB) A=19 Energy Level Diagrams from (1987AJ02) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 19O (204 KB)

  19. Energy Level Diagrams A=20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 Available in the following years: (1998), (1987), (1983), (1978), (1972), (1959) A=20 Energy Level Diagrams from (1998TI06) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 20O (47 KB) 20F (61 KB) 20Ne (75 KB) 20Na (61 KB) Isobar diagram (73 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 20O (31 KB) 20F (40 KB) 20Ne (51 KB) 20Na (41 KB) Isobar diagram (47 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 20O (1.44 MB) 20F (1.45 MB) 20Ne (1.38 MB) 20Na (1.75 MB) Isobar diagram (1.73 MB) A=20 Energy Level Diagrams from (1987AJ02) GIF

  20. Energy Level Diagrams A=5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Available in the following years: (2002), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=5 Energy Level Diagrams from (2002TI10) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 5He (28 KB) 5Li (28 KB) Isobar diagram (20 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 5He (40 KB) 5Li (40 KB) Isobar diagram (36 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 5He (1.7 MB) 5Li (1.7 MB) Isobar diagram (1.6 MB) A=5 Energy Level Diagrams from (1988AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 5He (67 KB) 5Li (70 KB) Isobar diagram (55 KB) PDF

  1. Energy Level Diagrams A=6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Available in the following years: (2002), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=6 Energy Level Diagrams from (2002TI10) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 6He (98 KB) 6Li (98 KB) 6Be (98 KB) Isobar Diagram (130 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 6He (65 KB) 6Li (65 KB) 6Be (33 KB) Isobar Diagram (65 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 6He (1.5 MB) 6Li (1.5 MB) 6Be (1.3 MB) Isobar Diagram (1.7 MB) A=6 Energy Level Diagrams from (1988AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 6He (50 KB)

  2. Energy Level Diagrams A=7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Available in the following years: (2002), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=7 Energy Level Diagrams from (2002TI10) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 7He (65 KB) 7Li (130 KB) 7Be (65 KB) Isobar Diagram (65 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 7He (35 KB) 7Li (65 KB) 7Be (65 KB) Isobar Diagram (65 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 7He (1.7 MB) 7Li (1.8 MB) 7Be (1.6 MB) Isobar Diagram (1.6 MB) A=7 Energy Level Diagrams from (1988AJ01) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 7Li (80 KB)

  3. Energy Level Diagrams A=8

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Available in the following years: (2004), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=8 Energy Level Diagrams from (2004TI06) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 8He (20 KB) 8Li (194 KB) 8Be (44 KB) 8B (24 KB) Isobar diagram (36 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 8He (28 KB) 8Li (703 KB) 8Be (60 KB) 8B (32 KB) Isobar diagram (48 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 8He (1.7 MB) 8Li (1.1 MB) 8Be (1.5 MB) 8B (1.4 MB) Isobar diagram (1.5 MB) A=8 Energy Level Diagrams from (1988AJ01) GIF

  4. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    . Uranium production was terminated in 1987. ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, so remediation activities are conducted under CERCLA. The primary contaminants of concern at ETTP follow: (1) In groundwater - volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at multiple locations (trichloroethene is generally the most prevalent compound); (2) In sediment - inorganic elements, radionuclides, and polychlorinated biphenyls; (3) In soil - inorganic elements, radionuclides, semivolatile organic compounds (particularly the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and VOCs; and (4) In facilities - radionuclides and polychlorinated biphenyls (abandoned facilities also pose a safety and health hazard to workers.) The purposes of the remedial actions selected in the Zone 1 Interim ROD are to allow unrestricted industrial use down to 10 feet and to remediate potential sources of groundwater contamination. Following is a summary of the major components of the Zone 1 Interim ROD remedy: (1) Excavation of the Blair Quarry burial area and associated contaminated soil; (2) Excavation of miscellaneous contaminated soil in the K-895 Cylinder Destruct Facility area and in the Powerhouse Area; (3) Removal of sludge and demolition of the K-710 sludge beds and Imhoff tanks; (4) Implementation of land use controls (LUCs); and (5) Characterization of soil and remediation of areas that exceed remediation levels.

  5. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  6. Estimate of the Potential Amount of Low-Level Waste from the Fukushima Prefecture - 12370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Carolyn; Olson, Eric A.J.; Elmer, John

    2012-07-01

    The amount of waste generated by the cleanup of the Fukushima Prefecture (Fukushima-ken) following the releases from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) is dependent on many factors, including: - Contamination amounts; - Cleanup levels determined for the radioisotopes contaminating the area; - Future land use expectations and human exposure scenarios; - Groundwater contamination considerations; - Costs and availability of storage areas, and eventually disposal areas for the waste; and - Decontamination and volume reduction techniques and technologies used. For the purposes of estimating these waste volumes, Fukushima-ken is segregated into zones of similar contamination level and expected future use. Techniques for selecting the appropriate cleanup methods for each area are shown in a decision tree format. This approach is broadly applied to the 20 km evacuation zone and the total amounts and types of waste are estimated; waste resulting from cleanup efforts outside of the evacuation zone is not considered. Some of the limits of future use and potential zones where residents must be excluded within the prefecture are also described. The size and design of the proposed intermediate storage facility is also discussed and the current situation, cleanup, waste handling, and waste storage issues in Japan are described. The method for estimating waste amounts outlined above illustrates the large amount of waste that could potentially be generated by remediation of the 20 km evacuation zone (619 km{sup 2} total) if the currently proposed cleanup goals are uniformly applied. The Japanese environment ministry estimated in early October that the 1 mSv/year exposure goal would make the government responsible for decontaminating about 8,000 km{sup 2} within Fukushima-ken and roughly 4,900 km{sup 2} in areas outside the prefecture. The described waste volume estimation method also does not give any consideration to areas with localized hot spots

  7. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  8. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  9. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to themore » strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.« less

  10. Systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2007-10-16

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  11. Methods and systems for low frequency seismic and infrasound detection of geo-pressure transition zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shook, G. Michael; LeRoy, Samuel D.; Benzing, William M.

    2006-07-18

    Methods for determining the existence and characteristics of a gradational pressurized zone within a subterranean formation are disclosed. One embodiment involves employing an attenuation relationship between a seismic response signal and increasing wavelet wavelength, which relationship may be used to detect a gradational pressurized zone and/or determine characteristics thereof. In another embodiment, a method for analyzing data contained within a response signal for signal characteristics that may change in relation to the distance between an input signal source and the gradational pressurized zone is disclosed. In a further embodiment, the relationship between response signal wavelet frequency and comparative amplitude may be used to estimate an optimal wavelet wavelength or range of wavelengths used for data processing or input signal selection. Systems for seismic exploration and data analysis for practicing the above-mentioned method embodiments are also disclosed.

  12. Grain boundary plane orientation fundamental zones and structure-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homer, Eric R.; Patala, Srikanth; Priedeman, Jonathan L.

    2015-10-26

    Grain boundary plane orientation is a profoundly important determinant of character in polycrystalline materials that is not well understood. This work demonstrates how boundary plane orientation fundamental zones, which capture the natural crystallographic symmetries of a grain boundary, can be used to establish structure-property relationships. Using the fundamental zone representation, trends in computed energy, excess volume at the grain boundary, and temperature-dependent mobility naturally emerge and show a strong dependence on the boundary plane orientation. Analysis of common misorientation axes even suggests broader trends of grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation angle and plane orientation. Due to the strong structure-property relationships that naturally emerge from this work, boundary plane fundamental zones are expected to simplify analysis of both computational and experimental data. This standardized representation has the potential to significantly accelerate research in the topologically complex and vast five-dimensional phase space of grain boundaries.

  13. Gas-Phase Treatment of Technetium in the Vadose Zone at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-09-01

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) is present in the vadose zone of the Hanford Central Plateau and is a concern with respect to the protection of groundwater. The persistence, limited natural attenuation mechanisms, and geochemical behavior of Tc-99 in oxic vadose zone environments must be considered in developing effective alternatives for remediation. This report describes a new in situ geochemical manipulation technique for decreasing Tc-99 mobility using a combination of geochemical Tc-99 reduction with hydrogen sulfide gas and induced sediment mineral dissolution with ammonia vapor, which create conditions for deposition of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of Tc-99. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine changes in Tc-99 mobility in vadose zone sediment samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment under a variety of operational and sediment conditions.

  14. Stable isotope evidence for limited fluid infiltration of deep crustal rocks from the Ivrea Zone, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, A.J.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic and petrologic studies of the Ivrea Zone, a segment of deep-crustal high-grade rocks, suggest that metamorphism did not involve the transfer of large quantities of CO/sub 2/ from mantle to crust. High-grade Ivrea Zone calcites may retain high ..delta../sup 18/O (up to 24 per thousand SMOW), indicating little interaction with externally derived fluid. Graphite isotopic compositions (..delta../sup 13/C = -10 per thousand to -25 per thousand PDB) that do not vary with grade are attributed to mixing between carbonate carbon and biogenic noncarbonate carbon. Calcites from high-grade, carbonate-poor amphibolites have ..delta../sup 13/C of about 1 per thousand PDB and sedimentary, not infiltrative, origins. The general lack of carbon and oxygen isotopic homogenization suggests that fluid interactions may be explained in terms of fluid generated internally to the Ivrea Zone metasedimentary rocks.

  15. Seismological investigation of earthquakes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Final report, September 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, R.B.; Nguyen, B.

    1993-08-01

    Earthquake activity in the New Madrid Seismic Zone had been monitored by regional seismic networks since 1975. During this time period, over 3,700 earthquakes have been located within the region bounded by latitudes 35{degrees}--39{degrees}N and longitudes 87{degrees}--92{degrees}W. Most of these earthquakes occur within a 1.5{degrees} x 2{degrees} zone centered on the Missouri Bootheel. Source parameters of larger earthquakes in the zone and in eastern North America are determined using surface-wave spectral amplitudes and broadband waveforms for the purpose of determining the focal mechanism, source depth and seismic moment. Waveform modeling of broadband data is shown to be a powerful tool in defining these source parameters when used complementary with regional seismic network data, and in addition, in verifying the correctness of previously published focal mechanism solutions.

  16. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR EVALUATING SURFACE BARRIERS TO PROTECT GROUNDWATER FROM DEEP VADOSE ZONE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FAYER JM; FREEDMAN VL; WARD AL; CHRONISTER GB

    2010-02-24

    The U.S. DOE and its predecessors released nearly 2 trillion liters (450 billion gallons) of contaminated liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Some of the contaminants currently reside in the deeper parts of the vadose zone where they are much less accessible to characterization, monitoring, and typical remediation activities. The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) prepared a treatability test plan in 2008 to examine remediation options for addressing contaminants in the deep vadose zone; one of the technologies identified was surface barriers (also known as engineered barriers, covers, and caps). In the typical configuration, the contaminants are located relatively close to the surface, generally within 15 m, and thus they are close to the base of the surface barrier. The proximity of the surface barrier under these conditions yielded few concerns about the effectiveness of the barrier at depth, particularly for cases in which the contaminants were in a lined facility. At Hanford, however, some unlined sites have contaminants located well below depths of 15 m. The issue raised about these sites is the degree of effectiveness of a surface barrier in isolating contaminants in the deep vadose zone. Previous studies by Hanford Site and PNNL researchers suggest that surface barriers have the potential to provide a significant degree of isolation of deep vadose zone contaminants. The studies show that the actual degree of isolation is site-specific and depends on many factors, including recharge rates, barrier size, depth of contaminants, geohydrologic properties ofthe sediments, and the geochemical interactions between the contaminants and the sediments. After the DOE-RL treatability test plan was published, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted to review the information available to support surface barrier evaluation for the deep vadose zone, identify gaps in the information and outcomes necessary to fill the data gaps, and outline

  18. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Smoot, Katherine V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Benecke, Mark W.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2012-11-19

    Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have the potential to remove water and associated contaminants from unsaturated sediments in the field. Column and flow cell experiment were conducted to test the ability of four types of SAPs to remove water from unsaturated porous media. Column experiments, with emplacement of a layer of polymer on top of unsaturated porous media, showed the ability of the SAPs to extract up to 80% of the initially emplaced water against gravity into the sorbent over periods up to four weeks. In column experiments where the sorbent was emplaced between layers of unsaturated porous media, gel formation was observed at both the sorbent-porous medium interfaces. The extraction percentages over four weeks of contact time were similar for both column configurations and no obvious differences were observed for the four tested SAPs. Two different flow cells were used to test the wicking behavior of SAPs in two dimensions using three configurations. The largest removal percentages occurred for the horizontal sorbent layer configuration which has the largest sorbent-porous medium interfacial area. In a larger flow cell, a woven nylon sock was packed with sorbent and subsequently placed between perforated metal plates, mimicking a well configuration. After one week of contact time the sock was removed and replaced by a fresh sock. The results of this experiment showed that the sorbent was able to continuously extract water from the porous media, although the rate decreased over time. The declining yield during both periods is associated with the sharp reduction in water saturation and relative permeability near the sorbent. It was also observed that the capillary pressure continued to increase over the total contact time of 14 days, indicating that the sorbent remained active over that period. This work has demonstrated the potential of soil moisture wicking using SAPs at the proof-of-principle level.

  19. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kholikov, S.; Serebryanskiy, A.; Jackiewicz, J.

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  20. Options To Cleanup Site-wide Vadose Zone Contamination At The Hanford Site, WA, State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goswami, D. [Ph.D, and John Price, Nuclear Waste Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State lies along the Columbia River and is one of DOE's largest legacy waste management sites. Enormous radionuclide and chemical inventories exist below-ground. These include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage facilities where hazardous and radioactive contaminants were discharged and leaked to the soil surface and to the deep vadose zone and groundwater. The vadose zone is also contaminated from facilities regulated by the RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Act. Hanford now contains as much as 28,300 cubic meters of soil contaminated with radionuclides from liquid wastes released near processing facilities. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) has set the completion of the cleanup of these sites by 2024. There are numerous technical and regulatory challenges to cleanup of the vadose zone at the Hanford site. This paper attempts to identify the categories of deep vadose zone problem and identifies a few possible regulatory options to clean up the site under the mix of state and federal regulatory authorities. There are four major categories of vadose contamination areas at the Hanford Site. The first is laterally extensive with intermediate depth (ground surface to about 45 meters depth) mostly related to high volume effluent discharge into cribs, ponds and ditches of designated CERCLA facilities. The second is dominated by laterally less extensive mostly related to leaks from RCRA tank farms. The later contamination is often commingled at depth with wastes from adjacent CERCLA facilities. The third category is from the high volume CERCLA facilities extending from the surface to more than 60 meters below ground. Contamination from the later category crosses the entire thickness of the vadose zone and reached groundwater. The fourth category is the lower volume waste sites

  1. Drifting potential humps in ionization zones: The propeller blades of high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andr; Ni, Pavel; Panjan, Matja; Joef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana ; Franz, Robert; Montanuniversitt Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben ; Andersson, Joakim; Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore

    2013-09-30

    Ion energy distribution functions measured for high power impulse magnetron sputtering show features, such as a broad peak at several 10 eV with an extended tail, as well as asymmetry with respect to EB, where E and B are the local electric and magnetic field vectors, respectively. Here it is proposed that those features are due to the formation of a potential hump of several 10 V in each of the traveling ionization zones. Potential hump formation is associated with a negative-positive-negative space charge that naturally forms in ionization zones driven by energetic drifting electrons.

  2. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their

  3. Program Secretarial Office Name Certification Level

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... M Level I 6132011 NE ARENAZ,MARK R Level IV 9282010 NE BASS,WILLIAM G ... HERRERA,JOHN M Level I 10312011 NNSA HOLTZAPPLE,CLAIRE S Level II 5222008 NNSA ...

  4. Program Secretarial Office Name Certification Level Certified...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... S Level I 7312014 EM MASON,SUSAN A Level I 332011 EM ... I 11182010 EM METZLER,DONALD R Level IV 12162005 EM MILLER,CHESTER E Level I 4172009 EM MILLER,JEFF S ...

  5. Program Secretarial Office Name Certification Level Certified...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... T Level IV 8252004 SC CHAPMAN,RICHARD WARREN Level I 11302011 SC CRESCENZO,FRANK J ... SC STROUP,JAY W Level I 6132011 SC WARREN,RUSSELL N Level II 8182006 Page 8 ...

  6. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  7. Energy Level Diagrams A=9

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Available in the following years: (2004), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=9 Energy Level Diagrams from (2004TI06) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 9Li (24 KB) 9Be (44 KB) 9B (36 KB) 9C (20 KB) Isobar diagram (36 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 9Li (36 KB) 9Be (60 KB) 9B (48 KB) 9C (28 KB) Isobar diagram (56 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 9Li (1.7 MB) 9Be (1.7 MB) 9B (1.6 MB) 9C (1.7 MB) Isobar diagram (1.8 MB) A=9 Energy Level Diagrams from (1988AJ01) GIF (Graphic

  8. Energy Level Diagrams A=4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Available in the following year: (1992) A=4 Energy Level Diagrams from (1992TI02) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 4H (38 KB) 4He (90 KB) 4Li (36 KB) Isobar diagram (60 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 4H (26 KB) 4He (47 KB) 4Li (24 KB) Isobar diagram (36 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 4H (1.32 MB) 4He (1.79 MB) 4Li (1.13 MB) Isobar diagram (1.54 MB

  9. Mid-Level Ethanol Blends

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mid-Level Ethanol Blends Test Program DOE, NREL, and ORNL Team Presented by Keith Knoll Work supported by DOE/EERE Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation meeting May 19, 2009 Kevin Stork Vehicle Technologies Program Shab Fardanesh and Joan Glickman Office of the Biomass Program This presentation does not contain any proprietary or classified information Project ID: ft_05_knoll Collaborators Kevin Stork DOE OVT Shab Fardanesh DOE OBP Joan Glickman DOE OBP Wendy Clark

  10. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Smith, M.L.

    1993-10-25

    This Charter provides the basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to conduct Phase III of the ``Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant`` Project. The purpose of this Charter is to define the Project and establish an Oversight Committee management structure together with responsibilities and commitments. This Charter establishes a commitment on the part of the signing agencies to participate in a Phase III EPZ analysis to refine existing EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant. These agencies agree to commit resources to this Project to fulfill their identified roles. The specific types and levels of resources committed by each agency will be determined as part of the Project planning process. This Charter does not commit any agency to any specific level of effort or resources. It does, however, commit these agencies to support the Phase III analysis to completion.

  11. Fiscal Year 2010 Phased Construction Completion Report for EU Z2-32 in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-02-01

    The Record of Decision for Soil, Buried Waste, and Subsurface Structure Actions in Zone 2, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORJO 1-2161 &D2) (Zone 2 ROD) acknowledged that most of the 800 acres in Zone 2 were contaminated, but that sufficient data to confirm the levels of contamination were lacking. The Zone 2 ROD further specified that a sampling strategy for filling the data gaps would be developed. The Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan for Zone 2 Soils, Slabs, and Subsurface Structures, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOEIORIO 1 -2224&D3) (RDRJRAWP) defined the sampling strategy as the Dynamic Verification Strategy (DVS), generally following the approach used for characterization of the Zone I exposure units (EUs). The Zone 2 ROD divided the Zone 2 area into seven geographic areas and 44 EUs. To facilitate the data quality objectives (DQOs) of the DVS process, the RDR/RAWP regrouped the 44 EUs into 12 DQO scoping EU groups. These groups facilitated the DQO process by placing similar facilities and their support facilities together, which allowed identification of data gaps. The EU groups were no longer pertinent after DQO planning was completed and characterization was conducted as areas became accessible. As the opportunity to complete characterization became available, the planned DVS program was completed for the EU addressed in this document (EU Z2-32). The purpose of this Phased Construction Completion Report (PCCR) is to address the following: (1) Document DVS characterization results for EU Z2-32. (2) Describe and document the risk evaluation and determine if the EU meets the Zone 2 ROD requirements for unrestricted industrial use to 10 ft bgs. (3) Identify additional areas not defined in the Zone 2 ROD that require remediation based on the DVS evaluation results. (4) Describe the remedial action performed in the K-1066-G Yard in EU Z2-32. Approximately 18.4 acres are included in the EU

  12. Vadose Zone Contaminant Migration Multi-Layer Model Software (Version 4.0)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-12

    The Version 4.0 model is designed to improve functionality and addresses a greater range of unsaturated zone scenarios than previous versions. The additional flexibility is accomplished in the model by including user-defined hydraulic layer functions and hydraulic parameters.

  13. Old F-Area Seepage Basin Transport Analyses in Support of a SCDHEC Mixing Zone Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleman, S.E.

    1998-12-04

    This report documents the groundwater flow and transport results presented in the groundwater mixing zone application (GWMZ) for the Old F-Area Seepage Basin (OFASB) submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in March, 1997 (WSRC, 1997).

  14. Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G.

    2012-07-01

    We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

  15. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.

  16. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones.more » In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.« less

  17. Alleghanian development of the Goat Rock fault zone, southernmost Appalachians: Temporal compatibility with the master decollement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steltenpohl, M.G. (Auburn Univ., AL (United States)); Goldberg, S.A. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Hanley, T.B. (Columbus College, GA (United States)); Kunk, M.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Goat Rock and associated Bartletts Ferry fault zones, which mark the eastern margin of the Pine Mountain Grenville basement massif, are controversial due to the suggestion that they are rare exposed segments of the late Paleozoic southern Appalachian master decollement. The controversy in part stems from reported middle Paleozoic (Acadian) radiometric dates postulated as the time of movement along these fault zones. Ultramylonite samples from the type area at Goat Rock Dam yield a 287 [plus minus] 15 Ma Rb-Sr isochron interpreted as the time of Sr isotopic rehomgenization during mylonitization. This date is corroborated by Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages on hornblende (297-288 Ma) and muscovite (285-278 Ma) from neomineralized and dynamically recrystallized rocks within and straddling the fault zone. These Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian dates indicate the time of right-slip movement (Alleghenian) along the Goat Rock fault zone, which is compatible with the timing suggested by COCORP for thrusting along the southern Appalachian master decollement.

  18. P-waves imaging of the FRI and BK zones at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. ); Blueming, P.; Sattel, G. )

    1990-08-01

    This report is one of a series documenting the results of the Nagra-DOE Cooperative (NDC-I) research program in which the cooperating scientists explore the geological, geophysical, hydrological, geochemical, and structural effects anticipated from the use of a rock mass as a geological repository for nuclear waste. Tomographic imaging studies using a high frequency (10 Khz.) piezoelectric source and a three component receiver were carried out in two different regions of the underground Nagra Grimsel test facility in Switzerland. Both sites were in fractured granite, one being in a strongly foliated granite (FRI site), and the other being in a relatively homogeneous granite (BK zone). The object of the work was to determine if the seismic techniques could be useful in imaging the fracture zones and provide information on the hydrologic conditions. Both amplitude and velocity tomograms were obtained from the Data. The results indicate that the fracture zones strongly influenced the seismic wave propagation, thus imaging the fracture zones that were hydrologically important. 11 refs., 24 figs.

  19. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  20. Direct Measurement and Chemical Speciation of Top Ring Zone Liquid During Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Burrows, Barry Clay; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript consists of proof of concept experiments involving direct measurements and detailed chemical speciation from the top ring zone of a running engine. The work uses a naturally aspirated single cylinder utility engine that has been modified to allow direct liquid sample acquisition from behind the top ring. Samples were analyzed and spectated using gas chromatographic techniques. Results show that the liquid mixture in the top ring zone is neither neat lubricant nor fuel but a combination of the two with unique chemical properties. At the tested steady state no-load operating condition, the chemical species of the top ring zone liquid were found to be highly dependent on boiling point, where both low reactivity higher boiling point fuel species and lubricant are observed to be the dominant constituents. The results show that at least for the tested condition, approximately 25% of the top ring zone is comprised of gasoline fuel like molecules, which are dominated by high octane number aromatic species, while the remainder of the liquid is comprised of lubricant like species.

  1. Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfletschinger, Heike; Prommel, K.; Schuth, C.; Herbst, M.; Engelhardt, I.

    2014-01-13

    Vadose zone water fluxes in arid settings are investigated regarding their sensitivity to hydraulic soil parameters and meteorological data. The study is based on the inverse modeling of highly defined soil column experiments and subsequent scenario modeling comparing different climate projections for a defined arid region. In arid regions, groundwater resources are prone to depletion due to excessive water use and little recharge potential. Especially in sand dune areas, groundwater recharge is highly dependent on vadose zone properties and corresponding water fluxes. Nevertheless, vadose zone water fluxes under arid conditions are hard to determine owing to, among other reasons, deep vadose zones with generally low fluxes and only sporadic high infiltration events. In this study, we present an inverse model of infiltration experiments accounting for variable saturated nonisothermal water fluxes to estimate effective hydraulic and thermal parameters of dune sands. A subsequent scenario modeling links the results of the inverse model with projections of a global climate model until 2100. The scenario modeling clearly showed the high dependency of groundwater recharge on precipitation amounts and intensities, whereas temperature increases are only of minor importance for deep infiltration. However, simulated precipitation rates are still affected by high uncertainties in the response to the hydrological input data of the climate model. Thus, higher certainty in the prediction of precipitation pattern is a major future goal for climate modeling to constrain future groundwater management strategies in arid regions.

  2. Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Staltsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ? = (23) 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ? < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 1517 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.

  3. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford to

  4. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  5. System-level flight test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.; Happer, W.; LeLevier, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Press, W.; Ruderman, M.; Sullivan, J.; York, H.

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  6. Energy Level Diagrams A=10

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Available in the following years: (2004), (1988), (1984), (1979), (1974), (1966), (1959) A=10 Energy Level Diagrams from (2004TI06) GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): 10He (16 KB) 10Li (20 KB) 10Be (36 KB) 10B (44 KB) γ transitions for 10B (32 KB) 10C (20 KB) Isobar diagram (40 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 10He (16 KB) 10Li (24 KB) 10Be (48 KB) 10B (56 KB) γ transitions for 10B (44 KB) 10C (28 KB) Isobar diagram (56 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 10He (1.6 MB) 10Li (1.6 MB) 10Be

  7. Energy Level Diagrams A=11

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Available in the following years: (2012), (1990), (1985), (1980), (1975), (1968), (1959) A=11 Energy Level Diagrams from (2012KE01) PNG (Graphic Interchange Format): 11Li (26 KB) 11Be (66 KB) 11Li decay scheme (95 KB) 11B (147 KB) 11C (109 KB) 11N (25 KB) Isobar diagram (74 KB) PDF (Portable Document Format): 11Li (28 KB) 11Be (126 KB) 11Li decay scheme (185 KB) 11B (287 KB) 11C (185 KB) 11N (28 KB) Isobar diagram (245 KB) EPS (Encapsulated Postscript): 11Li (1807 KB) 11Be (2213 KB) 11Li decay

  8. Biotic and Abiotic Transformation of a Volatile Organics Plume in a Semi-Arid Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Studer, J.E.; Singletary, M.A.; Miller, D.R.

    1999-04-08

    An evaluation of biotic and abiotic attenuation processes potentially important to chlorinated and non-chlorinated volatile organic compound (VOC) fate and transport in the 148 meter thick vadose zone beneath the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) was conducted. A unique feature of this evaluation is the comparison of two estimates of VOC mass present in the soil gas, pore-water, and solid phases (but not including mass as non-aqueous phase liquid [NAPL]) of the vadose zone in 1993. One estimate, 1,800 kg, was obtained from vadose zone transport modeling that incorporated molecular diffusion and volatilization to the atmosphere, but not biotic or chemical processes. The other estimate, 2,120 kg, was obtained from the sum of VOC mass physically removed during soil vapor extraction and an estimate of VOC mass remaining in the vadose zone in 1998, both adjusted to exclude NAPL mass. This comparison indicates that biogeochemical processes were at best slightly important to historical VOC plume development. Some evidence of aerobic degradation of non-chlorinated VOCs and abiotic transformation of 1,1,1-Trichloroethane was identified. Despite potentially amenable site conditions, no evidence was found of cometabolic and anaerobic transformation pathways. Relying principally on soil-gas analytical results, an upper-bound estimate of 21% mass reduction due to natural biogeochemical processes was developed. Although available information for the CWL indicates that natural attenuation processes other than volatilization to the atmosphere did not effective y enhance groundwater protection, these processes could be important in significantly reducing groundwater contamination and exposure risks at other sites. More laboratory and field research is required to improve our collective ability to characterize and exploit natural VOC attenuation processes, especially with respect to the combination of relatively thick and dry vadose zones and chlorinated VOCs.

  9. Characterization and application of microearthquake clusters to problems of scaling, fault zone dynamics, and seismic monitoring at Parkfield, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadeau, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    This document contains information about the characterization and application of microearthquake clusters and fault zone dynamics. Topics discussed include: Seismological studies; fault-zone dynamics; periodic recurrence; scaling of microearthquakes to large earthquakes; implications of fault mechanics and seismic hazards; and wave propagation and temporal changes.

  10. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  11. PLANET HUNTERS. V. A CONFIRMED JUPITER-SIZE PLANET IN THE HABITABLE ZONE AND 42 PLANET CANDIDATES FROM THE KEPLER ARCHIVE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ji; Fischer, Debra A.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schmitt, Joseph R.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Brewer, John M.; Barclay, Thomas; Schwamb, Megan E.; Lintott, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Jek, Kian J.; Hoekstra, Abe J.; Jacobs, Thomas Lee; LaCourse, Daryll; Schwengeler, Hans Martin; Smith, Arfon M.; Parrish, Michael; Lynn, Stuart; Schawinski, Kevin; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the latest Planet Hunter results, including PH2 b, a Jupiter-size (R{sub PL} = 10.12 ± 0.56 R{sub ⊕}) planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. PH2 b was elevated from candidate status when a series of false-positive tests yielded a 99.9% confidence level that transit events detected around the star KIC 12735740 had a planetary origin. Planet Hunter volunteers have also discovered 42 new planet candidates in the Kepler public archive data, of which 33 have at least 3 transits recorded. Most of these transit candidates have orbital periods longer than 100 days and 20 are potentially located in the habitable zones of their host stars. Nine candidates were detected with only two transit events and the prospective periods are longer than 400 days. The photometric models suggest that these objects have radii that range between those of Neptune and Jupiter. These detections nearly double the number of gas-giant planet candidates orbiting at habitable-zone distances. We conducted spectroscopic observations for nine of the brighter targets to improve the stellar parameters and we obtained adaptive optics imaging for four of the stars to search for blended background or foreground stars that could confuse our photometric modeling. We present an iterative analysis method to derive the stellar and planet properties and uncertainties by combining the available spectroscopic parameters, stellar evolution models, and transiting light curve parameters, weighted by the measurement errors. Planet Hunters is a citizen science project that crowd sources the assessment of NASA Kepler light curves. The discovery of these 43 planet candidates demonstrates the success of citizen scientists at identifying planet candidates, even in longer period orbits with only two or three transit events.

  12. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formorehigh resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.less

  13. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  14. Liquid-level sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldfuss, G.T.

    1975-09-16

    This invention relates to a device for sensing the level of a liquid while preventing the deposition and accumulation of materials on the exterior surfaces thereof. Two dissimilar metal wires are enclosed within an electrical insulating material, the wires being joined together at one end to form a thermocouple junction outside the insulating material. Heating means is disposed within the electrical insulating material and maintains the device at a temperature substantially greater than that of the environment surrounding the device, the heating means being electrically insulated from the two dissimilar thermocouple wires. In addition, a metal sheath surrounds and contacts both the electrical insulating material and the thermocouple junction. Electrical connections are provided for connecting the heating means with a power source and for connecting the thermocouple wires with a device for sensing the electrical potential across the thermocouple junction. (auth)

  15. SOLAR MIXTURE OPACITY CALCULATIONS USING DETAILED CONFIGURATION AND LEVEL ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blancard, Christophe; Cosse, Philippe; Faussurier, Gerald

    2012-01-20

    An opacity model (OPAS) combining detailed configuration and level accounting treatments has been developed to calculate radiative opacity of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The model is presented and used to compute spectral opacities of a solar mixture. Various density-temperature couples have been considered from the solar center up to the vicinity of the radiative/convective zone interface. For a given solar thermodynamic path, OPAS calculations are compared to Opacity Project (OP) and OPAL data. Rosseland mean opacity values are in very good agreement over all the considered solar thermodynamic path, while OPAS and OP spectral opacities of each element may vary considerably. Main sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  16. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  17. Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2011 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Smith, Ronald M.; Truex, Michael J.; Matthews, Hope E.

    2011-10-01

    This annual report describes the background of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative, and some of the programmatic approaches and transformational technologies in groundwater and deep vadose zone remediation developed during fiscal year 2011. The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Innovation and Development's (OTID) mission is to transform science into viable solutions for environmental cleanup. In 2010, OTID developed the Impact Plan, Science and Technology to Reduce the Life Cycle Cost of Closure to outline the benefits of research and development of the lifecycle cost of cleanup across the DOE complex. This plan outlines OTID's ability to reduce by $50 billion, the $200 billion life-cycle cost in waste processing, groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning. The projected life-cycle costs and return on investment are based on actual savings realized from technology innovation, development, and insertion into remedial strategies and schedules at the Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula sites. To achieve our goals, OTID developed Applied Field Research Initiatives to facilitate and accelerate collaborative development and implementation of new tools and approaches that reduce risk, cost and time for site closure. The primary mission of the Deep Vadose Zone-Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) is to protect our nation's water resources, keeping them clean and safe for future generations. The DVZ-AFRI was established for the DOE to develop effective, science-based solutions for remediating, characterizing, monitoring, and predicting the behavior and fate of deep vadose zone contamination. Subsurface contaminants include radionuclides, metals, organics, and liquid waste that originated from various sources, including legacy waste from the nation's nuclear weapons complexes. The DVZ-AFRI project team is translating strategy into action by working to solve these complex challenges in a collaborative

  18. Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

    1983-05-01

    An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.

  19. High level white noise generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  20. ASTROPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND HABITABLE ZONE OF THE EXOPLANET HOSTING STAR GJ 581

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von Braun, Kaspar; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; McAlister, Harold A.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Subasavage, John P.; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Mazingue, Jude; Turner, Nils H.; Farrington, Chris; Goldfinger, P. J.; Ridgway, Stephen

    2011-03-10

    GJ 581 is an M dwarf host of a multiplanet system. We use long-baseline interferometric measurements from the CHARA Array, coupled with trigonometric parallax information, to directly determine its physical radius to be 0.299 {+-} 0.010 R{sub sun}. Literature photometry data are used to perform spectral energy distribution fitting in order to determine GJ 581's effective surface temperature T{sub EFF} = 3498 {+-} 56 K and its luminosity L = 0.01205 {+-} 0.00024 L{sub sun}. From these measurements, we recompute the location and extent of the system's habitable zone and conclude that two of the planets orbiting GJ 581, planets d and g, spend all or part of their orbit within or just on the edge of the habitable zone.