National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for zone flow qualifiers

  1. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control Title: Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control A system includes a particulate ...

  2. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-12-17

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  3. Electrically heated particulate filter with zoned exhaust flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2012-06-26

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes X zones. An electrical heater includes Y heater segments that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. The electrical heater is arranged upstream from and proximate with the PM filter. A valve assembly includes Z sections that are associated with respective ones of the X zones. A control module adjusts flow through each of the Z sections during regeneration of the PM filter via control of the valve assembly. X, Y and Z are integers.

  4. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, KC; Brunini, VE; Dong, YJ; Chiang, YM; Carter, WC

    2014-11-20

    Flowable suspensions that conduct both electrons and ions can enable the use of energy-dense electroactive species in flow batteries [M. Duduta et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 1, 511 (2011); Z. Li et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 15,833 (2013); F. Fan et al., Nano Lett., 14, 2210 (2014)]. In comparison with conventional flow batteries where electrochemical reactions are confined to a fixed current-collector region, electronically conductive flow electrodes permit electrochemical reactions to extend outside of the physical confines of the stack. We have measured and modeled how mixed-conduction enables an electroactive zone (EAZ, in which electrochemical reactions occur) that is of greater spatial extent than current collectors, the extension being termed side zone, SZ. Electrochemical reactions in SZs can reduce coulombic and energetic efficiency. Here we show that for realistic suspension properties and operating conditions, the added inefficiency is small in practice, and can be further mitigated by using appropriate operating conditions and/or materials choices. For the specific example of a non-aqueous Li4Ti5O12 suspension, we show that EAZ extension contributes less than 1% additional efficiency loss at C/10 rates for current collectors greater than 20 mm long. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Who qualifies for SAGE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Who qualifies Who qualifies for SAGE A National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program Contacts Institute Director Harald Dogliani-Los Alamos SAGE...

  6. Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal’, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Stal’tsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ? = (2–3) × 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ? < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 15–17 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.

  7. Meridional flow in the solar convection zone. I. Measurements from gong data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kholikov, S.; Serebryanskiy, A.; Jackiewicz, J.

    2014-04-01

    Large-scale plasma flows in the Sun's convection zone likely play a major role in solar dynamics on decadal timescales. In particular, quantifying meridional motions is a critical ingredient for understanding the solar cycle and the transport of magnetic flux. Because the signal of such features can be quite small in deep solar layers and be buried in systematics or noise, the true meridional velocity profile has remained elusive. We perform time-distance helioseismology measurements on several years worth of Global Oscillation Network Group Doppler data. A spherical harmonic decomposition technique is applied to a subset of acoustic modes to measure travel-time differences to try to obtain signatures of meridional flows throughout the solar convection zone. Center-to-limb systematics are taken into account in an intuitive yet ad hoc manner. Travel-time differences near the surface that are consistent with a poleward flow in each hemisphere and are similar to previous work are measured. Additionally, measurements in deep layers near the base of the convection zone suggest a possible equatorward flow, as well as partial evidence of a sign change in the travel-time differences at mid-convection zone depths. This analysis on an independent data set using different measurement techniques strengthens recent conclusions that the convection zone may have multiple 'cells' of meridional flow. The results may challenge the common understanding of one large conveyor belt operating in the solar convection zone. Further work with helioseismic inversions and a careful study of systematic effects are needed before firm conclusions of these large-scale flow structures can be made.

  8. Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research 30, 2014, Research Highlights Electroactive-Zone Extension in Flow-Battery Stacks Predicted contours of energy efficiency accounting for EAZ-extension losses. At C/10 rate only short current collectors are affected substantially by EAZ extension. Longer collectors (> 20 mm) can achieve very high efficiency (> 99%), showing that EAZ extension has a negligible effect for scaled flow-cell stacks. Scientific Achievement Flowable suspensions that conduct both

  9. A saturated zone site-scale flow model for Yucca mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddebbarh, Al Aziz

    2008-01-01

    A saturated zone site-scale flow model (YMSZFM) was developed for licensing requirements for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository to incorporate recent data and analyses including recent stratigraphic and water-level data from Nye County wells, single-and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and recent hydrochemistry data. Analyses include use of data from the 2004 transient Death Valley Regional (ground-water) Flow System (DVRFS) model, the 2003 unsaturated zone flow model, and the latest hydrogeologic framework model (HFM). This model includes: (1) the latest understanding of SZ flow, (2) enhanced model validation and uncertainty analyses, (3) improved locations and definitions of fault zones, (4) refined grid resolution (500-to 250-m grid spacing), and (5) use of new data. The flow model was completed using the three-dimensional, Finite-Element Heat and Mass Transfer computer code (FEHM). The SZ site-scale flow model was calibrated with the commercial parameter estimation code, PEST to achieve a minimum difference between observed water levels and predicted water levels, and also between volumetric/mass flow rates along specific boundary segments as supplied by the DVRFS. A total of 161 water level and head measurements with varied weights were used for calibration. A comparison between measured water-level data and the potentiometric surface yielded an RMSE of 20.7 m (weighted RMSE of 8.8 m). The calibrated model was used to generate flow paths and specific discharge predictions. Model confidence was built by comparing: (l) calculated to observed hydraulic heads, and (2) calibrated to measured permeabilities (and therefore specific discharge). In addition, flowpaths emanating from below the repository footprint are consistent with those inferred both from gradients of measured head and from independent water-chemistry data. Uncertainties in the SZ site-scale flow model were quantified because all uncertainty contributes to inaccuracy in system

  10. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  11. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  12. Estimating flow parameters using ground-penetrating radar and hydrological data during transient flow in the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalsky, Michael; Finsterle, Stefan; Rubin, Yoram

    2003-05-12

    Methods for determining the parameters necessary for modeling fluid flow and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface are in great demand. Soil properties such as permeability, porosity, and water retention are typically estimated through the inversion of hydrological data (e.g., measurements of capillary pressure and water saturation). However, ill-posedness and non-uniqueness commonly arise in such inverse problems making their solutions elusive. Incorporating additional types of data, such as from geophysical methods, may greatly improve the success of inverse modeling. In particular, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has proven sensitive to subsurface fluid flow processes. In the present work, an inverse technique is presented in which permeability distributions are generated conditional to time-lapsed GPR measurements and hydrological data collected during a transient flow experiment. Specifically, a modified pilot point framework has been implemented in iTOUGH2 allowing for the generation of permeability distributions that preserve point measurements and spatial correlation patterns while reproducing geophysical and hydrological measurements. Through a numerical example, we examine the performance of this method and the benefit of including synthetic GPR data while inverting for fluid flow parameters in the vadose zone. Our hypothesis is that within the inversion framework that we describe, our ability to predict flow across control planes greatly improves with the use of both transient hydrological measurements and geophysical measurements (GPR-derived estimates of water saturation, in particular).

  13. Summary of Vadose -- Zone Conceptual Models for Flow and Contaminant Transport and 1999 - 2003 Progress on Resolving Deficiencies in Understanding the Vadose Zone at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Starr; Dana L. Dettmers; Brennon R. Orr; Thomas R. Wood

    2003-12-01

    The thick vadose zone that underlies the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has been recognized both as an avenue through which contaminants disposed at or near the ground surface can migrate to groundwater in the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, and as a barrier to the movement of contaminants into the aquifer. Flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at the INEEL is complicated by the highly heterogeneous nature of the geologic framework and by the variations in the behavior of different contaminants in the subsurface. The state of knowledge concerning flow and contaminant transport in the vadose zone at and near the INEEL IN 1999 was summarized in Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (Wood et al., 2000). These authors identified deficiencies in knowledge of flow and contaminant transport processes in the vadose zone, and provided recommendations for additional work that should be conducted to address these deficiencies. In the period since (Wood et al., 2000) was prepared, research has been published that, to some degree, address these deficiencies. This document provides a bibliography of reports, journal articles, and conference proceedings published 1999 through mid-2003 that are relevant to the vadose zone at or near the INEEL and provides a brief description of each work. Publications that address specific deficiencies or recommendations are identified, and pertinent information from selected publications is presented.

  14. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized

  15. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) is a bond that enables qualified state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money at attractive rates to fund energy conservation projects (it is important to note that QECBs are not grants). A QECB is among the lowest-cost public financing tools because the U.S. Department of the Treasury subsidizes the issuer's borrowing costs.

  16. Tax Deduction Qualified Software

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the EnergyGauge Summit version 3.22 (incorporating DOE-2.1E (v120)) qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  17. Tax Deduction Qualified Software

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the EnergyGauge Summit version 3.21 (incorporating DOE-2.1E (v120)) qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  18. Tax Deduction Qualified Software

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the EnergyGauge Summit version 3.20 (incorporating DOE-2.1E (v120)) qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  19. Flow dynamics and potential for Biodegradation of Organic Contaminants in Fractured Rock Vadose Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, J.T.; Holman, H.-Y.; Su, T.-S.; Liou, M.S.; Conrad, M.S.; Pruess, K.; Hunter-Devera, J.C.

    1998-12-01

    We present an experimental approach for investigating the potential for bioremediation of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in fractured-rock vadose zones. This approach is based on the coupling of fluid flow dynamics and biotransformation processes. Fluid flow and distribution within fracture networks may be a significant factor in the ability of microorganisms to degrade VOCs, as they affect the availability of substrate, moisture and nutrients. Biological activity can change liquid surface tension and generate biofilms that may change the nettability of solid surfaces, locally alter fracture permeability and redirect infiltrating liquids. Our approach has four components: (1) establishing a conceptual model for fluid and contaminant distribution in the geologic matrix of interest; (2) physical and numerical experiments of liquid seepage in the fracture plane; (3) non-destructive monitoring of biotransformations on rock surfaces at the micron-scale; and, (4) integration of flow and biological activity in natural rock ''geocosms''. Geocosms are core-scale flow cells that incorporate some aspects of natural conditions, such as liquid seepage in the fracture plane and moisture content. The experimental work was performed with rock samples and indigenous microorganisms from the site of the US Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), located in a basalt flow basin where VOC contamination threatens the Snake River Aquifer. The insights gained from this approach should contribute to the design of techniques to monitor and stimulate naturally occurring biological activity and control the spread of organic contaminants.

  20. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an in-depth description of qualified energy conservation bonds, including process and mechanics, case studies, utilization trends, barriers, and regulatory and legal issues. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  1. Channelized fluid flow through shear zones during fluid-enhanced dynamic recrystallization, Northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, K.E.; Dworkin, S.I. )

    1990-08-01

    Geochemical and petrographic studies of the Triassic Portoro limestone of the Tuscan nappe in Liguria, Italy, indicate that fluid flow was channeled through interlayered bedding-parallel shear zones during Miocene shearing and low-grade metamorphism. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopic compositions and trace element concentrations in the Portoro indicate that it was precipitated from normal marine waters. In sheared and unsheared layers these isotopic compositions are indistinguishable, yet sheared layers of microspar contain less than half the amount of strontium preserved in undeformed layers. Wavy grain boundaries and a dimensional preferred orientation of elongated grains indicate that calcite within sheared zones was dynamically recrystallized. On the basis of these observations we suggest that during burial, extraformational fluids were buffered into oxygen isotopic, but not strontium-concentration, equilibrium with the Portoro. These syndeformational fluids were channeled through discrete 1- to 15-cm-thick shear zones in which strontium was expelled from calcite and incorporated into grain-boundary fluids during dynamic recrystallization.

  2. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond Webinars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of past qualified energy conservation bond webinars and associated files. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  3. Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Locate a DOE-trained Qualified Specialist in your area to identify ways to...

  4. Method and apparatus for affecting a recirculation zone in a cross flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bathina, Mahesh; Singh, Ramanand

    2012-07-17

    Disclosed is a cross flow apparatus including a surface and at least one outlet located at the surface. The cross flow apparatus further includes at least one guide at the surface configured to direct an intersecting flow flowing across the surface and increase a velocity of a cross flow being expelled from the at least one outlet downstream from the at least one outlet.

  5. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainhagu, Jon; Morrison, C.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Brusseau, Mark

    2014-10-20

    A method termed vapor-phase tomography has recently been proposed to characterize the distribution of volatile organic contaminant mass in vadose-zone source areas, and to measure associated three-dimensional distributions of local contaminant mass discharge. The method is based on measuring the spatial variability of vapor flux, and thus inherent to its effectiveness is the premise that the magnitudes and temporal variability of vapor concentrations measured at different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to evaluate this premise. A well-defined source zone was created by injection and extraction of a non-reactive gas (SF6). Spatial and temporal concentration distributions obtained from the tests were compared to simulations produced with a mathematical model describing advective and diffusive transport. Tests were conducted to characterize both areal and vertical components of the application. Decreases in concentration over time were observed for monitoring points located on the opposite side of the source zone from the localā€“extraction point, whereas increases were observed for monitoring points located between the localā€“extraction point and the source zone. The results illustrate that comparison of temporal concentration profiles obtained at various monitoring points gives a general indication of the source location with respect to the extraction and monitoring points.

  6. Recommendations for computer code selection of a flow and transport code to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS immobilized environmental analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VOOGD, J.A.

    1999-04-19

    An analysis of three software proposals is performed to recommend a computer code for immobilized low activity waste flow and transport modeling. The document uses criteria restablished in HNF-1839, ''Computer Code Selection Criteria for Flow and Transport Codes to be Used in Undisturbed Vadose Zone Calculation for TWRS Environmental Analyses'' as the basis for this analysis.

  7. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  8. Estimation of unsaturated zone traveltimes for Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, using a source-responsive preferential-flow model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian A. Ebel; John R. Nimmo

    2009-09-11

    Traveltimes for contaminant transport by water from a point in the unsaturated zone to the saturated zone are a concern at Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain in the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Where nuclear tests were conducted in the unsaturated zone, contaminants must traverse hundreds of meters of variably saturated rock before they enter the saturated zone in the carbonate rock, where the regional groundwater system has the potential to carry them substantial distances to a location of concern. The unsaturated-zone portion of the contaminant transport path may cause a significant delay, in addition to the time required to travel within the saturated zone, and thus may be important in the overall evaluation of the potential hazard from contamination. Downward contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone occurs through various processes and pathways; this can lead to a broad distribution of contaminant traveltimes, including exceedingly slow and unexpectedly fast extremes. Though the bulk of mobile contaminant arrives between the time-scale end members, the fastest contaminant transport speed, in other words the speed determined by the combination of possible processes and pathways that would bring a measureable quantity of contaminant to the aquifer in the shortest time, carries particular regulatory significance because of its relevance in formulating the most conservative hazard-prevention scenarios. Unsaturated-zone flow is usually modeled as a diffusive process responding to gravity and pressure gradients as mediated by the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the materials traversed. The mathematical formulation of the diffuse-flow concept is known as Richards' equation, which when coupled to a solute transport equation, such as the advection-dispersion equation, provides a framework to simulate contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. In recent decades awareness has increased that much fluid flow and contaminant transport within the unsaturated

  9. Excepted Service Authority for Exceptionally Well Qualified ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Authority for Exceptionally Well Qualified (EWQ) EQ Pay Plan Employees by Erin Moore Functional areas: Excepted Service, EWQ Pay Plan Employees The order establishes...

  10. Qualifying for EERE Small Business Contracting Opportunities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Does My Small Business Qualify? Read the SBA Government Contract Overview Web page to ... visit the EERE Small Business Program Web page or contact Small Business Program ...

  11. Hiring Qualified Contractors | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Be absolutely sure the contractor you consider hiring is qualified, honest, and registered with the State-before you sign a contract or make a down payment. Federal, State, and ...

  12. Model Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service Companies Model Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service Companies This page contains a model Request for ...

  13. Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment May 9, 2014 - 12:01pm ...

  14. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information ...

  15. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond State-by-State Summary Tables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a list of qualified energy conservation bond state summary tables. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  16. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khairallah, Saad A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Rubenchik, Alexander; King, Wayne E.

    2016-02-23

    Our study demonstrates the significant effect of the recoil pressure and Marangoni convection in laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) of 316L stainless steel. A three-dimensional high fidelity powder-scale model reveals how the strong dynamical melt flow generates pore defects, material spattering (sparking), and denudation zones. The melt track is divided into three sections: a topological depression, a transition and a tail region, each being the location of specific physical effects. The inclusion of laser ray-tracing energy deposition in the powder-scale model improves over traditional volumetric energy deposition. It enables partial particle melting, which impacts pore defects in the denudation zone.moreĀ Ā» Different pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom (during collapse of the pool depression), and at the end of the melt track (during laser power ramp down). Finally, we discuss remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed. The results are validated against the experiments and the sensitivity to laser absorptivity.Ā«Ā less

  17. Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Locate a DOE-trained Qualified Specialist in your area to identify ways to improve energy system efficiency and help optimize process heating, steam, pumps, fan, and compressed air systems. Immediate opportunities for energy and cost savings can be quantified with their help. Contact information for the Qualified Specialists is listed in the documents below. Qualified Specialists can contact

  18. DOE Qualified Energy Service Companies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Energy Service Companies DOE Qualified Energy Service Companies The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) established the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualified List of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) in accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 10 C.F.R. 436. The DOE Qualified List of ESCOs is composed of more than 110 firms that have submitted applications and have been approved by the DOE qualification review board. Companies approved for the DOE Qualified List of

  19. DOE Qualified List of ESCOs Application Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified List of ESCOs Application Forms DOE Qualified List of ESCOs Application Forms Applications for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualified List of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are accepted throughout the year. Instructions to applicants, including a non-disclosure statement text and format, are provided in the DOE cover letter for the DOE Qualified List of ESCOs application forms. To be considered for DOE's Qualified List of ESCOs, all applicants must complete and submit:

  20. DOE Qualified List of Energy Service Companies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Qualified List of Energy Service Companies DOE Qualified List of Energy Service Companies Document presents the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualified List of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). The DOE Qualified List of ESCOs is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (as implemented by 10 CFR 436.32). It is the initial component of the federal government's multi-tiered ESCO evaluation for energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) procurements. The DOE Qualified List

  1. Computer code selection criteria for flow and transport code(s) to be used in undisturbed vadose zone calculations for TWRS environmental analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-26

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) is responsible for the safe storage, retrieval, and disposal of waste currently being held in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. In order to successfully carry out its mission, TWRS must perform environmental analyses describing the consequences of tank contents leaking from tanks and associated facilities during the storage, retrieval, or closure periods and immobilized low-activity tank waste contaminants leaving disposal facilities. Because of the large size of the facilities and the great depth of the dry zone (known as the vadose zone) underneath the facilities, sophisticated computer codes are needed to model the transport of the tank contents or contaminants. This document presents the code selection criteria for those vadose zone analyses (a subset of the above analyses) where the hydraulic properties of the vadose zone are constant in time the geochemical behavior of the contaminant-soil interaction can be described by simple models, and the geologic or engineered structures are complicated enough to require a two-or three dimensional model. Thus, simple analyses would not need to use the fairly sophisticated codes which would meet the selection criteria in this document. Similarly, those analyses which involve complex chemical modeling (such as those analyses involving large tank leaks or those analyses involving the modeling of contaminant release from glass waste forms) are excluded. The analyses covered here are those where the movement of contaminants can be relatively simply calculated from the moisture flow. These code selection criteria are based on the information from the low-level waste programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as well as experience gained in the DOE Complex in applying these criteria. Appendix table A-1 provides a comparison between the criteria in these documents and those used here. This document does not define the models (that

  2. Requirements and Submission Process for Qualified Software

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    These documents provide a complete list of requirements and submission details to have software qualified for calculating energy and power cost savings for commercial building tax deductions under tax code Section 179D for systems or buildings placed in service on or after January 1, 2016, or on or before December 31, 2015.

  3. Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment | Department of Energy Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment May 9, 2014 - 12:01pm Addthis API ships first RIN-qualified cellulosic ethanol from their Alpena Biorefinery. Photo: Alex Wisniewski API ships first RIN-qualified cellulosic ethanol from their Alpena Biorefinery. Photo: Alex Wisniewski Christy

  4. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonds (New CREBs) | Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs) Provides a presentation overview of qualified energy conservation bond and new clean renewable energy bonds, including characteristics, mechanics, allocated volume, and other information. Author: U.S. Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds &

  5. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information on qualified energy conservation bonds. Transcript Presentation (2.03 MB) More Documents & Publications Aggregating QECB Allocations and Using QECBs to Support the Private Sector: A Case Study on Massachusetts Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

  6. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds: Updates from the Field

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held on March 28, 2011, focuses on qualified energy conservation bond updates, including issuance trends and performance contracting.

  7. DOE Qualified Energy Service Companies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Financing Ā» Energy Savings Performance Contracts Ā» DOE Qualified Energy Service Companies DOE Qualified Energy Service Companies The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) established the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Qualified List of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) in accordance with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and 10 C.F.R. 436. The DOE Qualified List of ESCOs is composed of more than 110 firms that have submitted applications and have been approved by the DOE qualification

  8. Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tas version 9.3.2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Tas version 9.3.2 qualified computer software and federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  9. Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tas version 9.3.1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Tas version 9.3.1 qualified computer software and federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  10. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  11. Tax Deduction Qualified Software - IES version 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    version 2015 Tax Deduction Qualified Software - IES <Virtual Environment> version 2015 On this page you'll find information about the IES <Virtual Environment> version 2015 Qualified Software for Calculating Commercial Building Tax Deductions, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings. IES <Virtual Environment> version 2015 (214.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Tax Deduction Qualified Software -

  12. DOE Qualifying Official Training Approaches | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Policy, Guidance & Reports Ā» Worker Health & Safety Ā» Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP) Ā» DOE Qualifying Official Training Approaches DOE Qualifying Official Training Approaches Qualifying Official Training Approaches Idaho Operations Office Livermore Field Office Nevada Field Office NNSA Production Office NNSA Service Center Office of Science, SC-3 Office of Science, Chicago Office of Science, Oak Ridge Savannah River Operations Office Sandia Field Office FTCP FAQS

  13. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia | Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Summarizes how the City of Philadelphia leveraged $6.25 million in qualified energy conservation bonds to upgrade the energy efficiency of city buildings. Author: Lawrence Berkeley

  14. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides a presentation overview of qualified energy conservation bond and new clean renewable energy bonds, including characteristics, mechanics, allocated volume, and other ...

  15. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Summarizes ...

  16. Qualified Software for Calculating Commercial Building Tax Deductions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On this page you'll find a list of qualified computer software for calculating commercial building energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements.

  17. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  18. Climate Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building America determines building practices based on climate zones to achieve the most energy savings in a home. This page offers some general guidelines on the definitions of the various...

  19. DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure Under an Energy Savings Performance Contract DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an ...

  20. Tax Deduction Qualified Software - IES Version 2014 Software | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Version 2014 Software Tax Deduction Qualified Software - IES <Virtual Environment> Version 2014 Software On this page you'll find information about the IES <Virtual Environment> version 2014 Qualified Software for Calculating Commercial Building Tax Deductions, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings. IES <Virtual Environment> version 2014 (135.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Tax

  1. TASK 2: QUENCH ZONE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fusselman, Steve

    2015-09-30

    Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept incorporating advanced technologies in ultra-dense phase dry feed system, rapid mix injector, and advanced component cooling to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to commercially available state-of-the-art systems. A key feature of the AR gasifier design is the transition from the gasifier outlet into the quench zone, where the raw syngas is cooled to ~ 400Ā°C by injection and vaporization of atomized water. Earlier pilot plant testing revealed a propensity for the original gasifier outlet design to accumulate slag in the outlet, leading to erratic syngas flow from the outlet. Subsequent design modifications successfully resolved this issue in the pilot plant gasifier. In order to gain greater insight into the physical phenomena occurring within this zone, AR developed a cold flow simulation apparatus with Coanda Research & Development with a high degree of similitude to hot fire conditions with the pilot scale gasifier design, and capable of accommodating a scaled-down quench zone for a demonstration-scale gasifier. The objective of this task was to validate similitude of the cold flow simulation model by comparison of pilot-scale outlet design performance, and to assess demonstration scale gasifier design feasibility from testing of a scaled-down outlet design. Test results did exhibit a strong correspondence with the two pilot scale outlet designs, indicating credible similitude for the cold flow simulation device. Testing of the scaled-down outlet revealed important considerations in the design and operation of the demonstration scale gasifier, in particular pertaining to the relative momentum between the downcoming raw syngas and the sprayed quench water and associated impacts on flow patterns within the quench zone. This report describes key findings from the test program, including assessment of pilot plant configuration simulations relative to actual

  2. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: EnergyPlus version 5.0.0.031...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Deduction Qualified Software: EnergyPlus version 5.0.0.031 Tax Deduction Qualified Software: EnergyPlus version 5.0.0.031 Provides required documentation that EnergyPlus version ...

  3. Tax Deduction Qualified Software DesignBuilder version 4.2.0.054

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the DesignBuilder version 4.2.0.054 qualified computer software (www.buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  4. Request for Proposals for Final Energy Service Company Selection from Pre-Qualified Pool Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents about the Request for Proposals to select an Energy Service Company from a pre-qualified pool.

  5. Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyPlus version 3.1.0.027

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information qualified computer software which calculates energy and power cost savings.

  6. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  7. Statistically qualified neuro-analytic failure detection method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vilim, Richard B.; Garcia, Humberto E.; Chen, Frederick W.

    2002-03-02

    An apparatus and method for monitoring a process involve development and application of a statistically qualified neuro-analytic (SQNA) model to accurately and reliably identify process change. The development of the SQNA model is accomplished in two stages: deterministic model adaption and stochastic model modification of the deterministic model adaptation. Deterministic model adaption involves formulating an analytic model of the process representing known process characteristics, augmenting the analytic model with a neural network that captures unknown process characteristics, and training the resulting neuro-analytic model by adjusting the neural network weights according to a unique scaled equation error minimization technique. Stochastic model modification involves qualifying any remaining uncertainty in the trained neuro-analytic model by formulating a likelihood function, given an error propagation equation, for computing the probability that the neuro-analytic model generates measured process output. Preferably, the developed SQNA model is validated using known sequential probability ratio tests and applied to the process as an on-line monitoring system. Illustrative of the method and apparatus, the method is applied to a peristaltic pump system.

  8. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  9. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  10. Model Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service Companies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service Companies Model Request for Qualifications to Pre-Qualify Energy Service Companies This page contains a model Request for Qualifications (RFQ) and associated documents intended for use by a state program to pre-qualify Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) to be available for as-needed Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) services for state and local governments within that state. The RFQ sets the stage for a

  11. Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on July 19, 2012, provides information on how to complete clean energy projects with qualified energy conservation bonds.

  12. Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on How to to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

  13. Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tas version 9.2.1.7

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Tas version 9.2.1.7 qualified computer software and federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  14. Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tas version 9.2.1.4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    information about the Tas version 9.2.1.4 qualified computer software and federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings

  15. Tax Deduction Qualified Software Tas version 9.2.1.5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    information about the Tas version 9.2.1.5 qualified computer software and federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings

  16. Zoning and Permitting Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zoning and permitting is commonly controlled by local governments and may be applicable to both residential and commercial properties.

  17. Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnerSim version 9.02

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the EnerSim version 9.02 qualified computer software (buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  18. Tax Deduction Qualified Software DesignBuilder version 3.0.0.105

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the DesignBuilder version 3.0.0.105 qualified computer software (www.buildings.energy.gov/qualified_software.html), which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  19. NaturAnalogs for the Unsaturated Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Simmons; A. Unger; M. Murrell

    2000-03-08

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) analog sites and processes that are applicable to flow and transport processes expected to occur at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in order to build increased confidence in modeling processes of Unsaturated Zone (UZ) flow and transport. This AMR was prepared in accordance with ''AMR Development Plan for U0135, Natural Analogs for the UZ'' (CRWMS 1999a). Knowledge from analog sites and processes is used as corroborating information to test and build confidence in flow and transport models of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This AMR supports the Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR) and the Yucca Mountain Site Description. The objectives of this AMR are to test and build confidence in the representation of UZ processes in numerical models utilized in the UZ Flow and Transport Model. This is accomplished by: (1) applying data from Boxy Canyon, Idaho in simulations of UZ flow using the same methodologies incorporated in the Yucca Mountain UZ Flow and Transport Model to assess the fracture-matrix interaction conceptual model; (2) Providing a preliminary basis for analysis of radionuclide transport at Pena Blanca, Mexico as an analog of radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain; and (3) Synthesizing existing information from natural analog studies to provide corroborating evidence for representation of ambient and thermally coupled UZ flow and transport processes in the UZ Model.

  20. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  1. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, James H.; Fruehan, Richard J.; Elliott, deceased, John F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal.

  2. Two-zone countercurrent smelter system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.H.; Fruehan, R.J.; Elliott, J.F.

    1995-01-03

    A process for continuously smelting iron ore by use of coal to yield molten iron or semi-steel is disclosed. The process comprises the steps of establishing a melt covered by slag; inducing the slag and the molten iron to flow countercurrently to one another, toward opposite ends of the smelter; maintaining iron oxide-reducing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the slag flows; maintaining carbon-oxidizing conditions in that zone of the smelter towards which the molten iron flows; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the slag from the reducing zone end of the smelter; continuously or semicontinuously tapping the molten iron from the oxidizing zone end of the smelter; and adding to both zones iron ore, coal, oxygen, and flux at addition rates sufficient to keep the molten iron in the reducing zone substantially saturated with carbon, maintain in the slag being tapped an FeO content of about 5 weight percent or less, and maintain in the molten iron being tapped a carbon content of about 0.5 to 5 weight percent. A slag dam preferably is included in the smelter, to impede the backflow of the slag from the reducing zone to the oxidizing zone. A metal bath dam with one or more flow-through portals also is preferably used, submerged below the slag dam, to impede the backflow of the hot metal. 8 figures.

  3. ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Subtype A Subtype B Subtype C Climate Zone Number 1 Zone 1A Zone 1B NA Climate Zone Number 2 Zone 2A Zone 2B NA Climate Zone Number 3 Zone 3A Zone 3B Zone...

  4. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  5. Energy Department Sets Tougher Standards for Clothes Washers to Qualify for the ENERGY STARĀ® Label

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced tougher standards for clothes washers to qualify for the ENERGY STARĀ® label, which lets American families identify which clothes...

  6. Qualified Energy Property Tax Exemption for Projects over 250 kW (Payment in Lieu)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Ohio's Renewable and Advanced Energy Project Property Tax Exemption, enacted with the passage of Ohio S.B. 232 in the summer of 2010, exempts qualified energy projects in Ohio from public utility...

  7. Building Technologies Program: Tax Deduction Qualified Software- DOE-2.2 version 47d

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the DOE-2.2 version 47d qualified computer software, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  8. Tax Deduction Qualified Software- Green Building Studio Web Service version 3.4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information about the Green Building Studio Web Service version 3.4 qualified computer software, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  9. Tax Deduction Qualified Software DesignBuilder version 3.0.0.097

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the DesignBuilder version 3.0.0.097 qualified computer software, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  10. Tax Deduction Qualified Software- EnergyPlus version 3.0.0.028

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the EnergyPlus version 3.0.0.028 qualified computer software which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  11. DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measure Under an Energy Savings Performance Contract | Department of Energy Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure Under an Energy Savings Performance Contract DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure Under an Energy Savings Performance Contract Document provides U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) guidance on the statuatory definition of "energy conservation measure" (ECM) for the purpose of a federal

  12. Renewable Energy Renaissance Zones

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For the purposes of renaissance zone designation, ā€œrenewable energy facilityā€ means a facility that creates energy, fuels, or chemicals directly from the wind, the sun, trees, grasses, bio-solids,...

  13. Deep Vadose Zone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Mission of the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative is to protect water resources across the DOE complex over the long-term by developing effective solutions to solve DOEā€™s most...

  14. Deep Vadose Zone - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Range Deep Vadose Zone Program Plan, (Rev. 0) - (PDF) Implementation Plan for the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Center (DVZ-AFRC) - (PDF) Ecology's groundwater...

  15. Multi-zone methods to predict gas well performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, L.A.; Newhouse, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The contributing elements of a formula developed for accurately predicting the performance of gas wells which include a high permeability zone interbedded with one or more low permeability zones are discussed. The theory assumes the existence of 3 conditions: (1) the well depletes without water encroachment; (2) each zone remains discreet from every other - that is, without cross flow among zones when the well is producing; and (3) each zone has either a hydraulic fracture or some skin effect. As a practical matter in using the model, only one of these reservoir conditions need to be met - freedom from water encroachment. The model developed does not adapt to reservoirs that have limited cross flow between zones. It also adapts to those with a hydraulic fracture in only some of the zones and includes equations which help to calculate matrix permeability whenever a known hydraulic fracture does exist. The functions of the model are illustrated by assuming the existence of a shaley-sand, 6-zone reservoir and by ascribing to it certain characteristics. The use of the model is examined and its results are discussed.

  16. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  17. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  18. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  19. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program grantees regarding Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs)

  20. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hannum, David W.; Conrad, Frank James

    1999-01-01

    A portal apparatus for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow.

  1. Vertical flow chemical detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, K.L.; Hannum, D.W.; Conrad, F.J.

    1999-06-22

    A portal apparatus is described for screening objects or persons for the presence of trace amounts of chemical substances such as illicit drugs or explosives. The apparatus has a test space, in which a person may stand, defined by two generally upright sides spanned by a horizontal transom. One or more fans in the transom generate a downward air flow (uni-directional) within the test space. The air flows downwardly from a high pressure upper zone, past the object or person to be screened. Air moving past the object dislodges from the surface thereof both volatile and nonvolatile particles of the target substance. The particles are entrained into the air flow which continues flowing downward to a lower zone of reduced pressure, where the particle-bearing air stream is directed out of the test space and toward preconcentrator and detection components. The sides of the portal are specially configured to partially contain and maintain the air flow. 3 figs.

  2. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energy’s Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  3. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration

  4. Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Deep Vadose Zone ā€“ Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue.

  5. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  6. Enterprise Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEnterpriseZone&oldid542697"...

  7. Tax Deduction Qualified Software: TRACE 700 version 6.3.3

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On this page you'll find information about the TRACE 700 version 6.3.3 Qualified Software for Calculating Commercial Building Tax Deductions | Department of Energy, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  8. Policy Guidance Memorandum #37 Procedures for Excepted Service Exceptionally Well Qualified (EWQ) Appointments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE received a new hiring flexibility under the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2014 that allows us to appoint up to 120 exceptionally well qualified (EWQ) individuals to scientific, engineering, or other critical technical positions without regard to chapter 33 of title 5, USC.

  9. Santa Clara County- Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Santa Clara County's Zoning Ordinance includes standards for wind and solar structures for residential, agricultural, and commercial uses.

  10. GrndWaterFlow.book

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Section 8.0 Groundwater Flow Model of CAUs 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada 8-10 8.3 Flow Model Sensitivity to Steady-State Temperature Distribution 8.3.1 Introduction The Pahute Mesa CAU flow model spans an area 50 by 53 km with elevations between 3.5 km bmsl to 1.5 km amsl. Within the domain, there are three volcanic caldera complexes and extensive extra-caldera zones as well. Temperatures are not the same everywhere in this model domain. In the flow model,

  11. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  12. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation

  13. Liquid zone seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that provides a means for establishing multiple pressure zones within a system. The seal assembly combines a plate extending from the inner wall of a housing or inner enclosure that intersects with and is immersed in the fluid contained in a well formed in a tray contained within the enclosure. The fluid is a low vapor pressure oil, chemically inert and oxidation resistant. The use of a fluid as the sealing component provides a seal that is self-healing and mechanically robust not subject to normal mechanical wear, breakage, and formation of cracks or pinholes and decouples external mechanical vibrations from internal structural members.

  14. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a summary of the June 2012 U.S. Department of Treasury clarification of what constitutes a qualified project for potential issuers of qualified energy conservation bond capacity. Author: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  15. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  16. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  17. City of Austin- Zoning Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Zoning Code also allows for preservation plans in historic districts to incorporate sustainability measures such as solar technologies and other energy generation and efficiency measures.

  18. Western Renewable Energy Zones (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, J.

    2011-06-01

    This presentation summarizes recent developments and trends pertaining to competitive renewable energy zones, transmission planning and the integration of renewable generation resources.

  19. Sandia defines solar variability zones

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    defines solar variability zones - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  20. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Partial Basin and Range Heat and Zones of Critical Stress Maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Interpolated maps of heat flow, temperature gradient, and quartz geothermometers are included as TIF files. Zones of critical stress map is also included as a TIF file. The zones are given a 5km diameter buffer. The study area is only a part of the Basin and Range, but it does includes the Tularosa Basin.

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  3. Tax Deduction Qualified Software TRNSYS version 17.01.0016 TESS Libraries version 17.1.01

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    provides information about the TRNSYS version 17.01.0016 and TESS Libraries version 17.1.01 qualified computer software, which calculates energy and power cost savings that meet federal tax incentive requirements for commercial buildings.

  4. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  5. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  6. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel ... zone.more An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the ...

  7. Flume simulation of sedimentation in recirculating flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.C. (Middlebury College, VT (USA)); Rubin, D.M. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Ikeda, H. (Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    A 4-m-wide flume at the University of Tsukuba Environmental Research Center was used to simulate flow conditions near debris fans in bedrock gorges. Flow was constricted to 2 m by a semicircular obstruction. During the authors experiments (discharge = 600 L/sec; Froude number of constricted flow = 1) a zone of recirculating current extended 25-30 m downstream from the separation point at the constriction. The pattern and velocity of surface flow was determined using time-lapse photography; subsurface velocity was measured with a two-dimensional electromagnetic current meter. During 32-hr of run time, a fine, very coarse sand mixture was fed into the flow at a rate between 0.5-1 kg/sec. Oscillation ripples developed beneath the separation surface that bounds the recirculation zone, and upstream-migrating dunes and ripples developed within the recirculation zone upstream from the reattachment point. A mid-channel expansion bar was deposited downstream from the reattachment point. Sedimentation within the recirculation zone continued by vertical aggradation and by upstream migration of dunes and ripples. Sediments within the recirculation zone were areally sorted with the finest sediment deposited near the separation point. These patterns are consistent with field observations of bars along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon.

  8. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, Mark C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

  9. Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bronson, M.C.

    1995-02-14

    A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

  10. Mass transport of volatile organic compounds between the saturated and vadose zones. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harner, M.S.

    1996-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in the saturated zone are transported into the vadose zone primarily by gaseous phase diffusion. If the saturated zone is remediated, VOCs present in the vadose zone may become a secondary source of contamination for the groundwater. The amount of VOCs that remain in the vadose zone is dependent on site hydrology, soil properties, and the chemical properties of the contaminants. The purpose of this study was to determine what conditions caused VOC concentrations in the vadose zone to significantly recontaminate the saturated zone. A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to investigate the transport of a VOC, trichioroethylene, between the saturated and vadose zones under a variety of conditions. The model featured steady-state unsaturated water flow and transient contaminant transport. Transport mechanisms included aqueous phase advection-dispersion and gaseous phase diffusion. Partitioning between the water, gas, and soil compartments were modeled as equilibrium processes. Sensitivity analyses were performed on several variables including soil type (homogeneous and heterogeneous profiles), water infiltration rate and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant rate, and vadose zone depth. Results indicated that recontamination was most significant in the presence of heterogeneous soils, low infiltration rates and deep vadose zones.

  11. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Kids Zone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZONE NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Cartoon drawing of science girl Kids Zone Welcome K-12 students and teachers The NNSANFO Kids Zone contains ...

  12. Climate Zone 1B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Climate Zone 1B is defined as Dry with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1B climate zones:...

  13. Turkey Near-Zero Zone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Turkey Near-Zero Zone is an industrial energy efficiency project designed to reduce Turkeyā€™s dependence on energy imports, bolster energy security, cut carbon emissions, and create business opportunities.

  14. Cohesive Zone Model User Element

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-17

    Cohesive Zone Model User Element (CZM UEL) is an implementation of a Cohesive Zone Model as an element for use in finite element simulations. CZM UEL computes a nodal force vector and stiffness matrix from a vector of nodal displacements. It is designed for structural analysts using finite element software to predict crack initiation, crack propagation, and the effect of a crack on the rest of a structure.

  15. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  16. VARIABLE FLOW EXHAUST VENTILATION CAP FOR LEV SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VARIABLE FLOW EXHAUST VENTILATION CAP FOR LEV SYSTEMS Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2016-7687 M Patent Pending Technology Readiness Level: 7/8 Actual technology completed and qualified through test and demonstration TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION Local Exhaust

  17. Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Planned Capacity 1 Geothermal Areas within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Energy Generation Facilities within the Transition Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Power...

  18. GridZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: GridZone Sector: Efficiency, Services, Transmission Technology: Smart Grid, Energy Storage, Energy Security ParentHolding Organization: GridZone Limited Company...

  19. Wetlands and Riparian Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wetlands and Riparian Zones Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWetlandsandRiparianZones&oldid612217...

  20. FOAM: NOVEL DELIVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REMEDIATION OF VADOSE ZONE ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Zhong, Lirong; Wu, Yuxin; Foote, Martin; Zhang, Z. F.; Hubbard, Susan

    2011-07-05

    Deep vadose zone environments can be a primary source and pathway for contaminant migration to groundwater. These environments present unique characterization and remediation challenges that necessitate scrutiny and research. The thickness, depth, and intricacies of the deep vadose zone, combined with a lack of understanding of the key subsurface processes (e.g., biogeochemical and hydrologic) affecting contaminant migration, make it difficult to create validated conceptual and predictive models of subsurface flow dynamics and contaminant behavior across multiple scales. These factors also make it difficult to design and deploy sustainable remedial approaches and monitor long-term contaminant behavior after remedial actions. Functionally, the methods for addressing contamination must remove and/or reduce transport of contaminants. This problem is particularly challenging in the arid western United States where the vadose zone is hundreds of feet thick, rendering transitional excavation methods exceedingly costly and ineffective. Delivery of remedial amendments is one of the most challenging and critical aspects for all remedy-based approaches. The conventional approach for delivery is through injection of aqueous remedial solutions. However, heterogeneous deep vadose zone environments present hydrologic and geochemical challenges which limit the effectiveness. Because the flow of solution infiltration is dominantly controlled by gravity and suction, injected liquid preferentially percolates through highly permeable pathways, by-passing low-permeability zones which frequently contain the majority of contamination. Moreover, the wetting front can readily mobilize and enhance contaminant transport to the underlying aquifer prior to stabilization. Development of innovative, in-situ technologies may be the only way to meet remedial action objectives and long-term stewardship goals. Surfactants can be used to lower the liquid surface tension and create stabile foams

  1. Adams County, Washington ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Washington ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  2. Zone approaches to international safeguards of a nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the results of safeguards verifications for the individual facilities within it. We have examined safeguards approaches for a state nuclear fuel cycle that take into account the existence of all of the nuclear facilities in the state. We have focussed on the fresh-fuel zone of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. The intention is to develop an approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the zone approach and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches. Technical effectiveness, in these cases, means an estimate of the assurance that all nuclear material has been accounted for.

  3. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  4. Property:Buildings/ModelClimateZone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone 7A Climate Zone 7B Climate Zone 8A Climate Zone 8B Pages using the property "BuildingsModelClimateZone" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...

  5. Overlap zoned electrically heated particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Chapman, Mark R [Brighton, MI

    2011-07-19

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter that includes an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one, and wherein the N zones and the M sub-zones are arranged in P layers, where P is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  6. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  7. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  8. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-02-17

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel.

  9. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection Statesā€™ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  10. Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and method of connecting electrical conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

  11. Pellet Zone Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet Zone Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pellet Zone Ltd Place: England, United Kingdom Zip: NR19 1AE Sector: Biomass Product: UK based biomass pellet trading firm....

  12. Climate Zone 8B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype B. Climate Zone 8B is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8B climate zones:...

  13. Climate Zone 8A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone Number 8A is defined as Subarctic with IP Units 12600 < HDD65F and SI Units 7000 < HDD18C . The following places are categorized as class 8A climate zones:...

  14. Climate Zone 1A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A. Climate Zone 1A is defined as Very Hot - Humid with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C . The following places are categorized as class 1A climate zones:...

  15. Climate Zone Number 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 5 Jump to: navigation, search A type of climate defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standard. Climate Zone Number 5 is defined as Cool- Humid(5A) with IP Units 5400...

  16. Farmland Security Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Security Zone Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Farmland Security ZoneLegal Abstract California Department of...

  17. Zero Zone Comment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zero Zone Comment Zero Zone Comment These comments are submitted by Zero Zone Inc., a manufacturer of CRE equipment, in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome. Zero Zone comments (101.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden RFI Executive Order 13563 certification, compliance and

  18. A study of a zone approach to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards: The low-enriched-uranium zone of a light-water-reactor fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishbone, L.G.; Higinbotham, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    At present the IAEA designs its safeguards approach with regard to each type of nuclear facility so that the safeguards activities and effort are essentially the same for a given type and size of nuclear facility wherever it may be located. Conclusions regarding a state are derived by combining the conclusions regarding the effectiveness of safeguards for the individual facilities within a state. In this study it was convenient to define three zones in a state with a closed light-water-reactor nuclear fuel cycle. Each zone contains those facilities or parts thereof which use or process nuclear materials of the same safeguards significance: low-enriched uranium, radioactive spent fuel, or recovered plutonium. The possibility that each zone might be treated as an extended material balance area for safeguards purposes is under investigation. The approach includes defining the relevant features of the facilities in the three zones and listing the safeguards activities which are now practiced. This study has focussed on the fresh-fuel zone, the several facilities of which use or process low-enriched uranium. At one extreme, flows and inventories would be verified at each material balance area. At the other extreme, the flows into and out of the zone and the inventory of the whole zone would be verified. There are a number of possible safeguards approaches which fall between the two extremes. The intention is to develop a rational approach which will make it possible to compare the technical effectiveness and the inspection effort for the facility-oriented approach, for the approach involving the zone as a material balance area, and for some reasonable intermediate safeguards approaches.

  19. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  20. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  1. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  2. Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barron County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  3. Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Becker County, Minnesota ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  4. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  5. Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Atkinson County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  6. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Central Nevada Seismic Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

  7. Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Mississippi ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  8. Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kentucky ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  9. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  10. DOE Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance on the Elements Necessary to Qualify as an Energy Conservation Measure under an Energy Savings Performance Contract August 2013 This document provides guidance on the statutory definition of "energy conservation measure" (ECM) for the purpose of an energy savings performance contract (ESPC), including clarification that multiple ECMs under the same ESPC may be "bundled" when evaluating lifecycle cost-effectiveness. Additionally, this document clarifies that an ESPC

  11. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  12. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Climate Zone U. S. Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS: climate zones map Note:Map updated with corrections, February 2012 Further Explanation on How Climate Zones are Defined...

  13. U.S. Climate Zones Map for Commercial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Past Climate Zones U. S. Climate Zones for 1979-1999 CBECS: climate zone map Return to Climate Zones for 2003 CBECS Return to CBECS Home Page Note:Map updated with corrections,...

  14. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Subtype | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype A + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Subtype B + Adams County,...

  15. Property:ASHRAE 169 Climate Zone Number | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 + Adair County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 3 + Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone + Climate Zone Number 5 + Adams County,...

  16. Old F-Area Seepage Basin Transport Analyses in Support of a SCDHEC Mixing Zone Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aleman, S.E.

    1998-12-04

    This report documents the groundwater flow and transport results presented in the groundwater mixing zone application (GWMZ) for the Old F-Area Seepage Basin (OFASB) submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) in March, 1997 (WSRC, 1997).

  17. Stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    The unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are made up of at least 178 basalt-flow groups, 103 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 4 rhyolite domes. Stratigraphic units identified in 333 wells in this 890-mile{sup 2} area include 121 basalt-flow groups, 102 sedimentary interbeds, 6 andesite-flow groups, and 1 rhyolite dome. Stratigraphic units were identified and correlated using the data from numerous outcrops and 26 continuous cores and 328 natural-gamma logs available in December 1993. Basalt flows make up about 85% of the volume of deposits underlying the area.

  18. Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Applied Field Research Initiative Deep Vadose Zone Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. Led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Initiative is a collaborative effort that leverages Department of Energy (DOE) investments in basic science and applied

  19. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  20. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations (NOAA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nationā€™s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  1. Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory Handbook | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Washington Coastal Zone Management Regulatory HandbookPermittingRegulatory GuidanceGuideHandbook Author Washington...

  2. Vadose Zone Microbiology: Science and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockman, Fred J.; Bradley, Stephen D.; Kieft, Thomas L.

    2002-03-12

    Brockman FJ, SN Bradley and TL Kieft. 2002. Vadose zone microbiology. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, volume 6, pp. 3236-3246. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

  3. Maricopa County- Renewable Energy Systems Zoning Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maricopa County Zoning Ordinance contains provisions for siting renewable energy systems. The ordinance defines renewable energy as "energy derived primarily from sources other than fossil...

  4. Climate Zone 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are categorized as class 2B climate zones: Bandera County, Texas Dimmit County, Texas Edwards County, Texas Frio County, Texas Imperial County, California Kinney County, Texas La...

  5. Coastal Zone Management Act | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the National Estuarine Research Reserve System. The 34 coastal programs aim to balance competing land and water issues in the coastal zone, while estuarine reserves serve...

  6. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  7. Coastal Zone Management Act and Regulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) of 1972 provides for the management of the nationā€™s coastal resources, including the Great Lakes.

  8. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex A. Vadie; Lewis R. Brown

    1998-04-20

    The use of indigenous microbes as a method of profile control in waterfloods is investigated. It is expected that as the microbial population is induced to increase the expanded biomass will selectively block the more permeable zones of the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through the less permeable zones which will result in improved sweep efficiency.

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, William Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  10. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet -Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2015-10-06

    Redox flow devices are described including a positive electrode current collector, a negative electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable membrane separating said positive and negative current collectors, positioned and arranged to define a positive electroactive zone and a negative electroactive zone; wherein at least one of said positive and negative electroactive zone comprises a flowable semi-solid composition comprising ion storage compound particles capable of taking up or releasing said ions during operation of the cell, and wherein the ion storage compound particles have a polydisperse size distribution in which the finest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume, is at least a factor of 5 smaller than the largest particles present in at least 5 vol % of the total volume.

  11. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  13. Inductively coupled plasma torch with laminar flow cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rayson, Gary D.; Shen, Yang

    1991-04-30

    An improved inductively coupled gas plasma torch. The torch includes inner and outer quartz sleeves and tubular insert snugly fitted between the sleeves. The insert includes outwardly opening longitudinal channels. Gas flowing through the channels of the insert emerges in a laminar flow along the inside surface of the outer sleeve, in the zone of plasma heating. The laminar flow cools the outer sleeve and enables the torch to operate at lower electrical power and gas consumption levels additionally, the laminar flow reduces noise levels in spectroscopic measurements of the gaseous plasma.

  14. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  15. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, William H.; Ganoe, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.

  16. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiffbauer, W.H.; Ganoe, C.W.

    1999-08-17

    A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine. The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine. 3 figs.

  17. Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

  18. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  19. Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2013-05-01

    Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

  20. Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Category Edit History Category:ASHRAE Climate Zones Jump to: navigation, search Climate Zones defined in the ASHRAE 169-2006 standards. Pages in category "ASHRAE Climate Zones" The...

  1. China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China-Low Carbon Development Zones (Redirected from E3G-China-Low Carbon Development Zones) Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones AgencyCompany...

  2. San Diego County- Solar Zoning Regulations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The County of San Diego has established zoning guidelines for solar electric systems of varying sizes in the unincorporated areas of San Diego County. Photovoltaic (PV) systems which have their...

  3. Local Option- Rural Renewable Energy Development Zones

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial renewable energy property in these zones are eligible for a 3 to 5 year local property tax exemption. Eligible property includes either wind, geothermal, solar, biomass, or other uncon...

  4. Climate Zone 5C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C. Climate Zone 5C is defined as Marine with IP Units 5400 < HDD65F 7200 and SI Units 3000 < HDD18C 4000 . The following places are categorized as class 5C...

  5. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  6. Zone heated diesel particulate filter electrical connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.

    2010-03-30

    An electrical connection system for a particulate filter is provided. The system includes: a particulate filter (PF) disposed within an outer shell wherein the PF is segmented into a plurality of heating zones; an outer mat disposed between the particulate filter and the outer shell; an electrical connector coupled to the outer shell of the PF; and a plurality of printed circuit connections that extend along the outer surface of the PF from the electrical connector to the plurality of heating zones.

  7. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  8. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  9. Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Androscoggin County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  10. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid ...

  11. Future Energy Zone Private Ltd FEZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Private Ltd FEZ Jump to: navigation, search Name: Future Energy Zone Private Ltd (FEZ) Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Focused on building...

  12. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett,...

  13. Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alleghany County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  14. Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alamance County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  15. Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alexander County, North Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  16. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date...

  17. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  18. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  19. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis...

  20. Isotopic Analysis At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date...

  1. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  2. Geographic Information System At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geographic Information System Activity...

  3. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  4. Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California Archive Reference Buildings by Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada Archive ...

  5. Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Longyang Zone Hongqiang Hydroelectric Power Development Co., Ltd. Place: Baoshan...

  6. Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Belknap County, New Hampshire ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone...

  7. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Details Areas (3) Power...

  8. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  9. Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Law Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Streamside Management Zone Law Webpage Abstract Provides information on...

  10. LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise LILE Jump to: navigation, search Name: LADOL Integrated Logistics Free Zone Enterprise (LILE) Place: Lagos, Nigeria Product:...

  11. Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SW Rift Zone Exploration Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Development Project: Haleakala SW Rift Zone Exploration Project Location Information...

  12. Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Pennsylvania ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  13. Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  14. Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Berkeley County, West Virginia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  15. Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Tennessee ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  16. Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, South Carolina ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  17. Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alameda County, California ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Alameda County, California ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate...

  18. Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bernalillo County, New Mexico ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006...

  19. Workers Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant Workers Create Demolition Zone at Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis The ...

  20. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montazer, P.; Wilson, W.E.

    1985-12-31

    The unsaturated volcanic tuff beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy as a host rock for a potential mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Assessment of site suitability needs an efficient and focused investigative program. A conceptual hydrogeologic model that simulates the flow of fluids through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain was developed to guide the program and to provide a basis for preliminary assessment of site suitability. The study was made as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project of the US Department of Energy. Thickness of the unsaturated zone is about 1640 to 2460 feet (500 to 750 meters). Based on physical properties, the rocks in the unsaturated zone are grouped for the purpose of this paper into five informal hydrogeologic units. From top to bottom these units are: Tiva Canyon welded unit, Paintbrush nonwelded unit. Topopah Spring welded unit, Calico Hills nonwelded unit, and Crater Flat unit. Welded units have a mean fracture density of 8 to 40 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 12 to 23%, matrix hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 6.5 x 10{sup -6} to 9.8 x 10{sup -6} foot per day (2 x 10{sup -6} to 3 x 10{sup -6} meter per day), and bulk hydraulic conductivities of 0.33 to 33 feet per day (0.1 to 10 meters per day). The nonwelded units have a mean fracture density of 1 to 3 fractures per unit cubic meter, mean matrix porosities of 31 to 46%, and saturated hydraulic conductivities with geometric means ranging from 2.6 x 10{sup -5} to 2.9 x 10{sup -2} foot per day (8 x 10{sup -6} to 9 x 10{sup -3} meter per day). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades. Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark

    2012-07-18

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized bonds that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of energy conservation projects, including public building upgrades that reduce energy use by at least 20 percent, at very attractive borrowing rates and long terms. As part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the City of Philadelphia received a $15 million QECB award from the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury). The city leveraged $6.25 million of its QECB allocation to finance half of a $12.6 million initiative to upgrade the energy efficiency of City buildings. The upgrades to four city facilities are expected to deliver over $10 million of net savings, and are a major step towards achieving the cityā€™s goal of reducing government energy consumption by 30 percent by 2015.

  2. When did movement begin on the Furnace Creek fault zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reheis, M. )

    1993-04-01

    About 50 km of post-Jurassic right-lateral slip has occurred on the northern part of the Furnace Creek fault zone (FCFZ). The sedimentology, stratigraphy, and structure of Tertiary rocks suggest that movement on the fault began no earlier than 12--8 Ma and possibly as late as 5--4 Ma. Large remnants of erosion surfaces occur on both sides of the FCFZ in the southern White Mountains and Fish Lake Valley and are buried by rhyolite and basalt, mostly 12--10 Ma; the ash flows and welded tuffs were likely erupted from sources at least 40 km to the east. Thus, the area probably had gentle topography, suggesting a lengthy period of pre-late Miocene tectonic stability. On the west side of the FCFZ, Cambrian sedimentary rocks are buried by a fanglomerate with an [sup [minus

  3. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-06-23

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

  4. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels The ...

  5. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels You are ...

  6. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  7. Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  8. Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baxter County, Arkansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone...

  9. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ETC.) ...... 20 1C IMPACT OF PHYSICS ON THE FLOW (RADIATION, MOISTURE, ETC.) ... shear across scales, global scale physics, flow forcing, coupling kilometer-scale ...

  10. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  11. EIN Cash Flow Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIN Cash Flow Model Energy Independence Now (EIN) Objectives Identify financial risks in early hydrogen infrastructure systems and illustrate hydrogen station cash flows under a ...

  12. Water and Heat Balance Model for Predicting Drainage Below the Plant Root Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    UNSAT-H Version 2.0 is a one-dimensional model that simulates the dynamic processes of infiltration, drainage, redistribution, surface evaporation, and the uptake of water from soil by plants. The model was developed for assessing the water dynamics of arid sites used or proposed for near-surface waste disposal. In particular, the model is used for simulating the water balance of cover systems over buried waste and for estimating the recharge rate (i.e., the drainage rate beneath themoreĀ Ā» plant root zone when a sizable vadose zone is present). The mathematical base of the model are Richards'' equation for water flow, Ficks'' law for vapor diffusion, and Fouriers law for heat flow. The simulated profile can be homogeneous or layered. The boundary conditions can be controlled as either constant (potential or temperature) or flux conditions to reflect actual conditions at a given site.Ā«Ā less

  13. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  14. Conditional stochastic modeling of transport of contaminant in the vadose zone. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, T.C.J.; Harter, T.

    1995-06-01

    Spatial heterogeneity media leads to uncertainty in predicting both flow and transport in the vadose zone. In this work an efficient and flexible, combined analytical-numerical Monte Carlo approach is developed for the analysis of steady-state flow and transient transport processes in highly heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media. The approach is also used for the investigation of the validity of linear, first order analytical stochastic models. A combined analytical-numerical conditional simulation algorithm is developed to estimate the impact of in-situ soil hydraulic measurements on reducing the uncertainty of concentration and solute flux predictions.

  15. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  16. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  17. Zoned electrical heater arranged in spaced relationship from particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-11-15

    A system comprises a particulate matter (PM) filter that comprises an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A zoned heater is arranged spaced from the upstream end and comprises N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones comprises M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  18. Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Planning and Zoning Innovation and Success in Planning and Zoning This document summarizes several successful initiatives to implement solar-friendly planes and zoning codes. webinar_072413_planning_zoning.pdf (2.99 MB) More Documents & Publications webinar_innovation_planning_zoning.doc SunShot Vision Study: February 2012 (Book), SunShot, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) The SunShot Vision Study

  19. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  20. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 8 Fairbanks, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  2. Climate Zone Number 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Number 1 is defined as Very Hot - Humid(1A) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C Dry(1B) with IP Units 9000 < CDD50F and SI Units 5000 < CDD10C...

  3. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  4. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection Statesā€™ Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  5. Webinar: EISPC Energy Zones Mapping Tool Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory has organized a webinar demonstration of the Eastern Interconnection Statesā€™ Planning Council (EISPC) Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free online mapping tool for identifying areas in all 39 EISPC states that may be suitable for new clean power generation. The tool is maintained by Argonne National Laboratory with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 7 Duluth, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 7 Duluth, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  8. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  9. Guideline for Performing Systematic Approach to Evaluate and Qualify Legacy Documents that Support Advanced Reactor Technology Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honma, George

    2015-10-01

    The establishment of a systematic process for the evaluation of historic technology information for use in advanced reactor licensing is described. Efforts are underway to recover and preserve Experimental Breeder Reactor II and Fast Flux Test Facility historical data. These efforts have generally emphasized preserving information from data-acquisition systems and hard-copy reports and entering it into modern electronic formats suitable for data retrieval and examination. The guidance contained in this document has been developed to facilitate consistent and systematic evaluation processes relating to quality attributes of historic technical information (with focus on sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology) that will be used to eventually support licensing of advanced reactor designs. The historical information may include, but is not limited to, design documents for SFRs, research-and-development (R&D) data and associated documents, test plans and associated protocols, operations and test data, international research data, technical reports, and information associated with past U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews of SFR designs. The evaluation process is prescribed in terms of SFR technology, but the process can be used to evaluate historical information for any type of advanced reactor technology. An appendix provides a discussion of typical issues that should be considered when evaluating and qualifying historical information for advanced reactor technology fuel and source terms, based on current light water reactor (LWR) requirements and recent experience gained from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP).

  10. Model Fit to Experimental Data for Foam-Assisted Deep Vadose Zone Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roostapour, A.; Lee, G.; Zhong, Lirong; Kam, Seung I.

    2014-01-15

    Foam has been regarded as a promising means of remeidal amendment delivery to overcome subsurface heterogeneity in subsurface remediation processes. This study investigates how a foam model, developed by Method of Characteristics and fractional flow analysis in the companion paper of Roostapour and Kam (2012), can be applied to make a fit to a set of existing laboratory flow experiments (Zhong et al., 2009) in an application relevant to deep vadose zone remediation. This study reveals a few important insights regarding foam-assisted deep vadose zone remediation: (i) the mathematical framework established for foam modeling can fit typical flow experiments matching wave velocities, saturation history , and pressure responses; (ii) the set of input parameters may not be unique for the fit, and therefore conducting experiments to measure basic model parameters related to relative permeability, initial and residual saturations, surfactant adsorption and so on should not be overlooked; and (iii) gas compressibility plays an important role for data analysis, thus should be handled carefully in laboratory flow experiments. Foam kinetics, causing foam texture to reach its steady-state value slowly, may impose additional complications.

  11. Non-axisymmetric Flows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to be different than the classical Sweet-Parker picture with symmetric inward flows. ... . 60 5 Reconnection Flow Patterns 64 5.1 Sweet-Parker and tearing reconnection . . . . . ...

  12. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, V L. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Adams, Nicolaus G. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Bill, Brian D. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Stehr, Carla M. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Wekell, John C. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Moeller, Peter (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Busman, Mark (National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Program); Woodruff, Dana L. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  13. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  14. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  15. Mixing lengths scaling in a gravity flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Micheal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Jun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the mixing processes in a gravity current. The turbulent transport of momentum and buoyancy can be described in a very direct and compact form by a Prandtl mixing length model [1]: the turbulent vertical fluxes of momentum and buoyancy are found to scale quadraticatly with the vertical mean gradients of velocity and density. The scaling coefficient is the square of the mixing length, approximately constant over the mixing zone of the stratified shear layer. We show in this paper how, in different flow configurations, this length can be related to the shear length of the flow {radical}({var_epsilon}/{partial_derivative}{sub z}u{sup 3}).

  16. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  17. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Armstrong, C.E. . Rocky Flats Plant); McKinney, J.M.; Verholek, M.G.; Fraser, P.J.; Dalfonso, P.H. )

    1991-07-18

    The Rocky Flats Plant maintains and uses significant nonradioactive chemically hazardous material (HAZMAT) inventories. Some of these materials are used in sufficient quantities to represent a credible risk to the offsite public in the event of an emergency at the facility. In Phase 2 of this project, the EG G Rocky Flats, Inc. and TENERA, L.P. Task Team (Task Team) produced an initial screening-level modeling analysis study and an Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) encompassing the Vulnerable Zones (VZs) for hazardous materials stored at the facility. The screening-level analysis will be supplemented with more refined evaluations during subsequent phases of the project. The existence of these chemicals in the Rocky Flats Plant Occupational Health Information System (OHIS) chemical inventory database was verified. All liquid and gaseous chemicals were considered as potential hazardous material source terms for further screening analysis. Hazards associated with solid substances were not considered in this phase of the project. 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.

  19. Directly imaging steeply-dipping fault zones in geothermal fields with multicomponent seismic data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ting; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-07-30

    For characterizing geothermal systems, it is important to have clear images of steeply-dipping fault zones because they may confine the boundaries of geothermal reservoirs and influence hydrothermal flow. Elastic reverse-time migration (ERTM) is the most promising tool for subsurface imaging with multicomponent seismic data. However, conventional ERTM usually generates significant artifacts caused by the cross correlation of undesired wavefields and the polarity reversal of shear waves. In addition, it is difficult for conventional ERTM to directly image steeply-dipping fault zones. We develop a new ERTM imaging method in this paper to reduce these artifacts and directly image steeply-dipping fault zones.moreĀ Ā» In our new ERTM method, forward-propagated source wavefields and backward-propagated receiver wavefields are decomposed into compressional (P) and shear (S) components. Furthermore, each component of these wavefields is separated into left- and right-going, or downgoing and upgoing waves. The cross correlation imaging condition is applied to the separated wavefields along opposite propagation directions. For converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P), the polarity correction is applied to the separated wavefields based on the analysis of Poynting vectors. Numerical imaging examples of synthetic seismic data demonstrate that our new ERTM method produces high-resolution images of steeply-dipping fault zones.Ā«Ā less

  20. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  1. Rural Productivity Zones (RPZs) for microenterprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the concept of rural productivity zones (RPZs) which are defined as a business incubator to foster income-producing opportunities for the rural poor. The essential ingredients of such a program include: electric power; business development assistance; office services; and quality work space. The electric power source must be a good quality system, consisting of a diesel/wind/photovoltaic hybrid type system, providing reliable service, with a local maintenance program and a functional load management program.

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  3. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, Arthur

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conducts is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer.

  4. Who qualifies for SAGE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1:31am Addthis National Renewable Energy Laboratory scientists found multiple uses for thin film lithium ion conductors - for batteries and for solar cells. | Photo Courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory scientists found multiple uses for thin film lithium ion conductors - for batteries and for solar cells. | Photo Courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of

  5. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  6. Baroclinic instability in stellar radiation zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2014-03-20

    Surfaces of constant pressure and constant density do not coincide in differentially rotating stars. Stellar radiation zones with baroclinic stratification can be unstable. Instabilities in radiation zones are of crucial importance for angular momentum transport, mixing of chemical species, and, possibly, for magnetic field generation. This paper performs linear analysis of baroclinic instability in differentially rotating stars. Linear stability equations are formulated for differential rotation of arbitrary shape and then solved numerically for rotation nonuniform in radius. As the differential rotation increases, r- and g-modes of initially stable global oscillations transform smoothly into growing modes of baroclinic instability. The instability can therefore be interpreted as stability loss to r- and g-modes excitation. Regions of stellar parameters where r- or g-modes are preferentially excited are defined. Baroclinic instability onsets at a very small differential rotation of below 1%. The characteristic time of instability growth is about 1000 rotation periods. Growing disturbances possess kinetic helicity. Magnetic field generation by the turbulence resulting from baroclinic instability in differentially rotating radiation zones is therefore possible.

  7. Techniques for determining physical zones of influence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamann, Hendrik F; Lopez-Marrero, Vanessa

    2013-11-26

    Techniques for analyzing flow of a quantity in a given domain are provided. In one aspect, a method for modeling regions in a domain affected by a flow of a quantity is provided which includes the following steps. A physical representation of the domain is provided. A grid that contains a plurality of grid-points in the domain is created. Sources are identified in the domain. Given a vector field that defines a direction of flow of the quantity within the domain, a boundary value problem is defined for each of one or more of the sources identified in the domain. Each of the boundary value problems is solved numerically to obtain a solution for the boundary value problems at each of the grid-points. The boundary problem solutions are post-processed to model the regions affected by the flow of the quantity on the physical representation of the domain.

  8. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  9. Gulf of California Rift Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Projects (0) Techniques (0) Map: Name The Gulf of California rift zone is a complex transition zone between the dextral (right-lateral) motion of the San Andreas transform...

  10. Evaluation of a Multifamily Retrofit in Climate Zone 5, Boulder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Name: Evaluation of a Low-Rise Multifamily Retrofit in Boulder, CO Location: ... Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold, very cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure ...

  11. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    When the effective diffusion coefficient in the first zone is several orders of magnitude lower than that in the host rock, then the two-zone geometry can be approximately by a ...

  12. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  13. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  14. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2010 | Department of Energy New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utilities Workshop, held in Memphis, TN, in July 2010 for the electric utilities in the seismic zone was a chance to bring together a diverse set of industry partners to discuss the potential effects of an earthquake in the New Madrid and Wabash Valley

  15. Zoning for Distributed Wind Power - Breaking Down Barriers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, J.; Sagrillo, M.

    2005-08-01

    Zoning regulations for the use of small wind turbines vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. This paper examines the zoning experiences of small wind turbine owners, options for local actions, and examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

    2008-02-04

    Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

  17. Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Wisconsin ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  18. Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Kansas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  19. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  20. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  1. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  2. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the ā€œmeasuredā€ relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  3. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  4. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  5. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  6. New Mexico Heat Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    This is an updated and simplified version of the New Mexico heat flow data already on the NGDS that was used for Play Fairway analysis.

  7. PLANETARY CHAOTIC ZONE CLEARING: DESTINATIONS AND TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, Sarah; Malhotra, Renu

    2015-01-20

    We investigate the orbital evolution of particles in a planet's chaotic zone to determine their final destinations and their timescales of clearing. There are four possible final states of chaotic particles: collision with the planet, collision with the star, escape, or bounded but non-collision orbits. In our investigations, within the framework of the planar circular restricted three body problem for planet-star mass ratio Ī¼ in the range 10{sup ā€“9} to 10{sup ā€“1.5}, we find no particles hitting the star. The relative frequencies of escape and collision with the planet are not scale-free, as they depend upon the size of the planet. For planet radius R{sub p} ā‰„ 0.001 R{sub H} where R{sub H} is the planet's Hill radius, we find that most chaotic zone particles collide with the planet for Ī¼ ā‰² 10{sup ā€“5}; particle scattering to large distances is significant only for higher mass planets. For fixed ratio R{sub p} /R{sub H} , the particle clearing timescale, T {sub cl}, has a broken power-law dependence on Ī¼. A shallower power law, T {sub cl} āˆ¼ Ī¼{sup ā€“1/3}, prevails at small Ī¼ where particles are cleared primarily by collisions with the planet; a steeper power law, T {sub cl} āˆ¼ Ī¼{sup ā€“3/2}, prevails at larger Ī¼ where scattering dominates the particle loss. In the limit of vanishing planet radius, we find T {sub cl} ā‰ˆ 0.024 Ī¼{sup ā€“3/2}. The interior and exterior boundaries of the annular zone in which chaotic particles are cleared are increasingly asymmetric about the planet's orbit for larger planet masses; the inner boundary coincides well with the classical first order resonance overlap zone, Ī”a {sub cl,} {sub int} ā‰… 1.2 Ī¼{sup 0.28} a{sub p} ; the outer boundary is better described by Ī”a {sub cl,} {sub ext} ā‰… 1.7 Ī¼{sup 0.31} a{sub p} , where a{sub p} is the planet-star separation.

  8. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  9. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  10. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  11. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  12. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  13. Landslides in the New Madrid seismic zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jibson, R.W.; Keefer, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    During the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12, bluffs bordering the Mississippi alluvial plain in the epicentral region underwent large-scale landsliding. Between Cairo, Illinois and Memphis, Tennessee, the authors mapped 221 large landslides of three types: (1) old, eroded, coherent block slides and slumps; (2) old earth flows; and (3) young, fresh slumps that occur only along near-river bluffs and are the only landslides present along such bluffs. Historical accounts and field evidence indicate that most or all old coherent slides and earth flows date to the 1811-12 earthquakes and that the only currently active, large-scale landsliding in the area occurs along bluffs bordering the river. Analysis of old coherent slides and earth flows indicates that landslide distribution is most strongly affected by slope height, but that proximity to the hypocenters of the 1811-12 earthquakes also has a significant effect. Slope-stability analyses of an old coherent slide and an earth flow selected as representative of the principal kinds of landslides present indicate that both were stable in aseismic conditions even when water tables were at highest possible levels. However, a dynamic Newmark displacement analysis shows that ground shaking such as that in 1811-12 would cause large displacements leading to catastrophic failure in both slides. These results indicate that in large earthquakes landsliding in much of the study are is likely. Moderate earthquakes may also trigger landslides at some locations.

  14. Double patterning HSQ processes of zone plates for 10 nm diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Using the new process, we successfully realized zone plates of 10 nm and 12 nm outermost zones. Fig. 3 shows the SEM micrographs of the zone plates outer regions. The zone plates ...

  15. Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Anderson County, Texas ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate Zone Number...

  16. Colorado Heat Flow Data from IHFC

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: The International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado IHFC Data Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: Abstract: This layer contains the heat flow sites and data of the State of Colorado compiled from the International Heat Flow Commission (IHFC) of the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) global heat flow database (www.heatflow.und.edu/index2.html). The data include different items: Item number, descriptive code, name of site, latitude and longitude, elevation, depth interval, number of temperature data, temperature gradient, number of conductivity measurement, average conductivity, number of heat generation measurements, average heat production, heat flow, number of individual sites, references, and date of publication. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4522121.800672 m Left: 165356.134075 m Right: 621836.776246 m Bottom: 4097833.419676 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGSā€™1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude Of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ā€™1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich

  17. AnalyzeHOLE: An Integrated Wellbore Flow Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith J. Halford

    2009-10-01

    Conventional interpretation of flow logs assumes that hydraulic conductivity is directly proportional to flow change with depth. However, well construction can significantly alter the expected relation between changes in fluid velocity and hydraulic conductivity. Strong hydraulic conductivity contrasts between lithologic intervals can be masked in continuously screened wells. Alternating intervals of screen and blank casing also can greatly complicate the relation between flow and hydraulic properties. More permeable units are not necessarily associated with rapid fluid-velocity increases. Thin, highly permeable units can be misinterpreted as thick and less permeable intervals or not identified at all. These conditions compromise standard flow-log interpretation because vertical flow fields are induced near the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE, an integrated wellbore analysis tool for simulating flow and transport in wells and aquifer systems, provides a better alternative for simulating and evaluating complex well-aquifer system interaction. A pumping well and adjacent aquifer system are simulated with an axisymmetric, radial geometry in a two-dimensional MODFLOW model. Hydraulic conductivities are distributed by depth and estimated with PEST by minimizing squared differences between simulated and measured flows and drawdowns. Hydraulic conductivity can vary within a lithology but variance is limited with regularization. Transmissivity of the simulated system also can be constrained to estimates from single-well, pumping tests. Water-quality changes in the pumping well are simulated with simple mixing models between zones of differing water quality. These zones are differentiated by backtracking thousands of particles from the well screens with MODPATH. An Excel spreadsheet is used to interface the various components of AnalyzeHOLE by (1) creating model input files, (2) executing MODFLOW, MODPATH, PEST, and supporting FORTRAN routines, and (3) importing and graphically

  18. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  19. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  20. Central Plateau Groundwater and Deep Vadose Zone Strategy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vadose Zone Executive Council Hanford Advisory Board River and Plateau Committee Briant L. Charboneau DOE-RL, Soil and Groundwater Federal Project Director October 9, 2012 1 Discussion Topics * Purpose of the Executive Council - Why was this established? * Who participates? * What are the integration topics of interest to the Council? * Examples of groundwater and vadose zone integration - Deep Vadose Zone treatability testing leading to evaluation of measures to protect groundwater - B complex

  1. Thermal lens elimination by gradient-reduced zone coupling of optical beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal gradient-reduced-zone laser includes a laser medium and an optically transparent plate with an index of refraction that is less than the index of refraction of the laser medium. The pump face of the laser medium is bonded to a surface of the optically transparent member. Pump light is directed through the transparent plate to optically pump the solid state laser medium. Heat conduction is mainly through the surface of the laser medium where the heat is introduced by the pump light. Heat flows in a direction opposite to that of the pump light because the side of the laser medium that is opposite to that of the pump face is not in thermal contact with a conductor and thus there is no heat flux (and hence, no temperature gradient), thus producing a thermal gradient-reduced zone. A laser cavity is formed around the laser medium such that laser light oscillating within the laser cavity reflects by total-internal-reflection from the interface between the pump face and the optically transparent plate and enters and exits through a thermal gradient-reduced zone.

  2. RETRAN-02 comparison of natural circulation flow rates at Babcock and Wilcox 177-FA plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simms, N.T.

    1985-07-01

    A very important aspect of nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) model development is the process of comparing the computer model results against actual plant responses. Good comparisons will qualify the computer model for specific engineering analyses. Flow rates and decay heat power levels were obtained from planned and unplanned natural circulation events that occurred at Arkansas Nuclear One, Crystal River, Davis-Besse, and Oconee nuclear power plants. A oneloop RETRAN model of the Oconee NSSS is used to attain a spectrum of steady-state equilibrium conditions at different power levels of 25, 50, 75, and 100 MW. The benchmark comparisons are respectable. The comparisons also illustrate the ability of the Babcock and Wilcox raised-loop plant to induce a greater natural circulation flow rate.

  3. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  4. Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  5. Tectonic analysis of the Rio Grande Rift Zone, central Colorado...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rift Zone, central ColoradoThesisDissertation Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author D.H. Knepper Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1974...

  6. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  7. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  8. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  9. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration...

  10. East Tennessee Technology Park Zones 1 and 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document explains the cleanup activities and any use limitations for the land surrounding the East Tennessee Technology Parkā€™s Zones 1 and 2.

  11. Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County...

  12. Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Baltimore City County, Maryland ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search...

  13. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  14. Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Wilson Hot Spring Geothermal Area Winnemucca Dry Lake Geothermal Area Energy Generation Facilities within the Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region...

  15. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other ...

  16. Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter regeneration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Zone heated inlet ignited diesel particulate filter ... An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system ...

  17. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005 - 2) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Data Acquisition-Manipulation Activity...

  18. Field Mapping At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Field Mapping Activity Date Usefulness...

  19. Geothermometry At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness...

  20. Refraction Survey At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date...

  1. High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum paraelectric BaFe12O19 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High pressure floating zone growth and structural properties of ferrimagnetic quantum ...

  2. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  3. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  4. Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermometry At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Shevenell & De Rocher, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry...

  5. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  6. Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Washington Coastal Zone Management Webpage Abstract Provides overview of Washington's coastal...

  7. Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  8. Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  9. EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Section 6217 Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments (CZARA) Section 6217 Webpage...

  10. Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  11. AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Systems Demonstration AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration January 22, 2013 - ...

  12. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005...

  13. Baoding High Tech Industry Development Zone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development Zone Place: China Product: Government & NGO ( State-owned commercial entity ) References: Baoding High-Tech Industry Development...

  14. Gradient zone boundary control in salt gradient solar ponds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

  15. Variation in sericite composition from fracture zones within...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    found in drillhole samples within the geothermal system at Coso Hot Springs. Low-permeability zones of the crystalline basement contain coarse-grained relict muscovite, whereas...

  16. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  17. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  18. Community Wind Handbook/Understand Permitting & Zoning | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting & Zoning < Community Wind Handbook Jump to: navigation, search WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHCommunity Wind Handbook WindTurbine-icon.png...

  19. NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy Zone.' | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NELHA Creates the 'Green Energy Zone' (5.54 MB) More Documents & Publications EA-1336: Final Environmental Assessment Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final ...

  20. Low pressure stagnation flow reactor with a flow barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A flow barrier disposed at the periphery of a workpiece for achieving uniform reaction across the surface of the workpiece, such as a semiconductor wafer, in a stagnation flow reactor operating under the conditions of a low pressure or low flow rate. The flow barrier is preferably in the shape of annulus and can include within the annular structure passages or flow channels for directing a secondary flow of gas substantially at the surface of a semiconductor workpiece. The flow barrier can be constructed of any material which is chemically inert to reactive gases flowing over the surface of the semiconductor workpiece.

  1. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. ...

  2. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  3. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  4. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  5. Flow calculations for Yucca Mountain groundwater travel time (GWTT-95)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altman, S.J.; Arnold, B.W.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Ho, C.K.; McKenna, S.A.; Eaton, R.R.

    1996-09-01

    In 1983, high-level radioactive waste repository performance requirements related to groundwater travel time were defined by NRC subsystem regulation 10 CFR 60.113. Although DOE is not presently attempting to demonstrate compliance with that regulation, understanding of the prevalence of fast paths in the groundwater flow system remains a critical element of any safety analyses for a potential repository system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Therefore, this analysis was performed to allow comparison of fast-path flow against the criteria set forth in the regulation. Models developed to describe the conditions for initiation, propagation, and sustainability of rapid groundwater movement in both the unsaturated and saturated zones will form part of the technical basis for total- system analyses to assess site viability and site licensability. One of the most significant findings is that the fastest travel times in both unsaturated and saturated zones are in the southern portion of the potential repository, so it is recommended that site characterization studies concentrate on this area. Results support the assumptions regarding the importance of an appropriate conceptual model of groundwater flow and the incorporation of heterogeneous material properties into the analyses. Groundwater travel times are sensitive to variation/uncertainty in hydrologic parameters and in infiltration flux at upper boundary of the problem domain. Simulated travel times are also sensitive to poorly constrained parameters of the interaction between flow in fractures and in the matrix.

  6. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  7. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbar, Emin Caglan

    2015-11-05

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  8. Distribution of fast hydrologic paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabryka-Martin, J.T.; Wolfsberg, A.V.; Levy, S.S.; Roach, J.L.; Winters, S.T.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Elmore, D.; Sharma, P.

    1998-12-31

    Development and testing of conceptual flow and transport models for hydrologic systems are strengthened when natural environmental tracers are incorporated into the process. One such tracer is chlorine-36 ({sup 36}Cl, half-life, 301,000 years), a radioactive isotope produced in the atmosphere and carried underground with percolating groundwater. High concentrations of this isotope were also added to meteoric water during a period of global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear devices, primarily in the 1950s. This bomb-pulse signal has been used to test for the presence of fast transport paths in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain and to provide the basis for a conceptual model for their distribution. Yucca Mountain is under investigation by the US Department of Energy as a potential site at which to host an underground high-level radioactive waste repository. Under wetter climatic conditions, fast-flow pathways will respond quickly to increases in infiltration and have the potential to become seeps in the tunnel drifts. The {sup 36}Cl data are also being used in numerical flow and transport models to establish lower bounds on infiltration rates, estimate ground water ages, and establish bounding values for hydrologic flow parameters governing fracture transport.

  9. Plasma flow in the DIII-D divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boedo, J.A.; Porter, G.D.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Indications that flows in the divertor can exhibit complex behavior have been obtained from 2-D modeling but so far remain mostly unconfirmed by experiment. An important feature of flow physics is that of flow reversal. Flow reversal has been predicted analytically and it is expected when the ionization source arising from neutral or impurity ionization in the divertor region is large, creating a high pressure zone. Plasma flows arise to equilibrate the pressure. A radiative divertor regime has been proposed in order to reduce the heat and particle fluxes to the divertor target plates. In this regime, the energy and momentum of the plasma are dissipated into neutral gas introduced in the divertor region, cooling the plasma by collisional, radiative and other atomic processes so that the plasma becomes detached from the target plates. These regimes have been the subject of extensive studies in DIII-D to evaluate their energy and particle transport properties, but only recently it has been proposed that the energy transport over large regions of the divertor must be dominated by convection instead of conduction. It is therefore important to understand the role of the plasma conditions and geometry on determining the region of convection-dominated plasma in order to properly control the heat and particle fluxes to the target plates and hence, divertor performance. The authors have observed complex structures in the deuterium ion flows in the DIII-D divertor. Features observed include reverse flow, convective flow over a large volume of the divertor and stagnant flow. They have measured large gradients in the plasma potential across the separatrix in the divertor and determined that these gradients induce poloidal flows that can potentially affect the particle balance in the divertor.

  10. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  11. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  12. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-12-31

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier ({open_quotes}funnel{close_quotes}) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone ({open_quotes}gate{close_quotes}). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be{open_quotes}Y{close_quotes}shaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost.

  13. The Impact of RELAP5 Pipe Break Flow Rates Associated With Reverse Flow Limiter Removal for Steam Generator Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Zheng; Jarvis, Julie M.; Vieira, Allen T.

    2006-07-01

    Pipe break flow rates are calculated for a main feedwater line break (FWLB) in the main steam valve vault (MSVV) for a PWR Steam Generator Replacement (SGR). A reverse flow limiter is installed in the original steam generator (OSG) feedwater nozzle to limit the blowdown flowrate in the event of a postulated FWLB. This feature is not incorporated in the replacement steam generator (RSG) design. The change in RSG nozzle design in conjunction with new operating conditions results in increased FWLB mass and energy releases which can impact environmental temperatures and pressures and flooding levels. In the United States, benchmarking for safety related analyses is necessary in consideration of 10CFR50.59 requirements. RELAP5/MOD3 is used to model the pipe break flowrates for a FWLB at different break locations. The benchmark FWLB blowdown releases are larger than the OSG design basis blowdown releases due to differences in RELAP5/MOD3 versions which are found to have different algorithms for subcooled choked flow. The SGR FWLB blowdown release rates are determined to have minimal impact on the compartment temperature and pressure response. However, the flooding levels and associated equipment qualification are potentially impacted. Modeling techniques used to minimize the impact of the SGR blowdown releases on MSVV flooding levels include modeling flashing effects, more realistic RSG temperature distribution, inventory depletion and Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) flow initiation time, and considering loss of offsite power scenarios. A detailed flooding hazard evaluation is needed, which considers the actual main feedwater isolation times to ensure that environmentally qualified safety related components, required to mitigate the effects of a FWLB inside the MSVV, can perform their safety function prior to being submerged. (authors)

  14. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  15. Observations of flow patterns in a spray dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southwell, D.B.; Langrish, T.A.G.

    2000-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on a pilot scale, cylinder-on-cone spray dryer fitted with a vaned-wheel atomizer to observe air flow patterns, with and without water spray. A combination of tufts, smoke streams and a laser light sheet, was used to provide information about regions of recirculation, flow stability, spray trajectories and wall deposition. While atomizer-induced swirl dominated the flow patterns under typical operating conditions, some instability was observed, although different in type, for situations with and without atomizer rotation. Clockwise eddies were observed to form and collapse between the wall and the strongly anti-clockwise swirling core created by anti-clockwise atomizer rotation. Without swirl, large portions of the recirculation zones at the walls were observed to have a weak tendency to change randomly between clockwise, anti-clockwise and chaotic behavior.

  16. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1994-04-04

    Since the 1960`s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970`s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970`s and well into the 1980`s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.

  17. Significance of Soft Zone Sediments at the SRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aadland, R.K.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on the origin, extent and stability of ''soft zones'' in the carbonate bearing strata at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As part of this study, a comprehensive historical compendium of how soft zones have been addressed during the past 47 years at SRS is reviewed.

  18. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) - Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-02-01

    The Deep Vadoze Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources and to address the challenge of preventing contamination in the deep vadose zone from reaching groundwater. This factsheet provides an overview of the initiative and the approach to integrate basic science and needs-driven applied research activities with cleanup operations.

  19. Category:County Climate Zones | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zone information in the United States of America. Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Pages in category "County Climate Zones" The following...

  20. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  1. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  2. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  3. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  4. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and

  5. Modelling of multiphase flow in ironmaking blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X.F.; Yu, A.B.; Burgess, J.M.; Pinson, D.; Chew, S.; Zulli, P.

    2009-01-15

    A mathematical model for the four-phase (gas, powder, liquid, and solids) flow in a two-dimensional ironmaking blast furnace is presented by extending the existing two-fluid flow models. The model describes the motion of gas, solid, and powder phases, based on the continuum approach, and implements the so-called force balance model for the flow of liquids, such as metal and slag in a blast furnace. The model results demonstrate a solid stagnant zone and dense powder hold-up region, as well as a dense liquid flow region that exists in the lower part of a blast furnace, which are consistent with the experimental observations reported in the literature. The simulation is extended to investigate the effects of packing properties and operational conditions on the flow and the volume fraction distribution of each phase in a blast furnace. It is found that solid movement has a significant effect on powder holdup distribution. Small solid particles and low porosity distribution are predicted to affect the fluid flow considerably, and this can cause deterioration in bed permeability. The dynamic powder holdup in a furnace increases significantly with the increase of powder diameter. The findings should be useful to better understand and control blast furnace operations.

  6. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-04-05

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  7. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  8. Flow line sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  9. Geochemical Processes Data Package for the Vadose Zone in the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Zachara, John M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2007-09-28

    This data package discusses the geochemistry of vadose zone sediments beneath the single-shell tank farms at the U.S. Department of Energyā€™s (DOEā€™s) Hanford Site. The purpose of the report is to provide a review of the most recent and relevant geochemical process information available for the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tank farms and the Integrated Disposal Facility. Two companion reports to this one were recently published which discuss the geology of the farms (Reidel and Chamness 2007) and groundwater flow and contamination beneath the farms (Horton 2007).

  10. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

  11. US energy flow, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1992-06-01

    Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

  12. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, D.

    1987-11-30

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

  13. Zoning for earth sheltered buildings. A guide for Minnesota communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Background information on earth sheltered buildings and the zoning issues related to this construction techniques is provided. Ways to develop goals and policies on earth sheltering and integrate them into existing planning documents are outlined. Ways to eliminate prohibitions and barriers to earth-sheltered buildings from zoning language are explained. Subdivision and planned unit development (PUD) regulations designed to facilitate and encourage new developments of earth sheltered homes are considered. Model language on planning, zoning, and subdivisions and planned unit developments and a summary of the various recommendations made throughout the guidebook are included. (MHR)

  14. Carbonate gravity-flow processes on the Lower Permian slope, northwest Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Brown, A.A.; Achauer, C.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Wolfcampian carbonate gravity-flow deposits accumulated on a low-angle slope in front of a platform of relatively low relief ({approximately}220 m). A 25 m core, located approximately 15 km basinward of the self margin, was examined to determine processes of carbonate deposition in the middle to distal slope environments. The majority of the deposits are cohesive debris-flows composed of clast-supported conglomerates with a calcareous siliciclastic mudstone matrix. Other deposits include high- and low-density turbidites of lime packstones (sand- to boulder-size range), lime grainstones, and siliclastic muddy silstones and suspension deposits of calcareous siliciclastic mudstones. Cohesive debris flows are generally massive and structureless, although several flows show an inverse-graded zone at their base indicating dispersive pressure forces that developed in a traction carpet. Other flows display coarse-tail fining-upward sequences indicating deposition by suspension settling from liquefied flow. At the base of each high-density, gravelly turbidite is one to several inversely graded zones of carbonated clasts indicating a traction carpet zone. These traction carpets are overlain by normal-graded units of shell and clast material. The upper units appear to be deposited directly out of suspension. The low-density turbidites are interpreted to be the residual products of more shelfward-deposited debris flows and high-density turbidity currents. Many of the depositional features described here for carbonate gravity-flow deposits are identical to those in siliclastic deposits, therefore the depositional processes controlling these features are probably similar.

  15. Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bacon County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  16. Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Baca County, Colorado ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  17. Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Bates County, Missouri ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  18. Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Barrow County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  19. Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Apache County, Arizona ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  20. Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Indiana ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  1. Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Idaho ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  2. Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Illinois ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  3. Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Nebraska ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number...

  4. Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Adams County, Ohio ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Number Climate...

  5. Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place Ben Hill County, Georgia ASHRAE Standard ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone...

  6. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  7. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Management Program for Federally Licensed or Permitted ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  8. Certification of Consistency with Washington's Coastal Zone Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coastal Zone Management Program for Federally Funded ActivitiesLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect The date "NA" was not understood.The date "NA" was not...

  9. Montana Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guide to the Streamside Management Zone Law & Rules Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Guide to the Streamside Management...

  10. Fluid Stratigraphy and Permeable Zones of the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zones can be targeted in the future Authors Dilley, L. M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCulloch and J. Published Geothermal Resource Council Transactions 2006, 112006 DOI...

  11. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Located on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ AFRI) was established to protect water resources by addressing the challenge of...

  12. WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    24, 2015 WIPP Concludes Zone Recovery Activities for Panel 7 Disposal Pathway After months of catch-up rock bolting and contamination mitigation, zone recovery activities along the pathway to Panel 7 have been completed. Panel 7, which consists of seven disposal rooms (see map below), will be the active disposal area when waste emplacement activities resume. Initial closure of Panel 7 Room 7 was completed in May 2015. Although the pathway has been established, a significant number of activities,

  13. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  14. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report ā€“ Volume VII ā€“ Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems ā€“ Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  17. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  18. An algebraic model for a zinc/bromine flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, G.D.; White, R.E. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1989-08-01

    An algebraic model for a parallel plate, zinc/bromine flow cell is presented and used to predict various performance quantities, which are compared to those predicted by using previously published differential equation models. The results presented compare well with previous work. The model is based on the concept of using well-mixed zones and linear concentration and potential profiles for the diffusion layers and the separator. The Butler-Volmer equation is used for the electro chemical reactions, and the homogeneous reaction between bromine and bromide is included.

  19. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  20. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  1. Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Aroostook County, Maine ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone Jump to: navigation, search County Climate Zone Place...

  2. InSAR At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone Region (Laney, 2005) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique InSAR Activity Date Usefulness useful...

  3. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models withmoreĀ Ā» short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.Ā«Ā less

  4. Shear-transformation-zone theory of yielding in athermal amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langer, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Yielding transitions in athermal amorphous materials undergoing steady-state shear flow resemble critical phenomena. Historically, they have been described by the Herschel-Bulkley rheological formula, which implies singular behaviors at yield points. In this paper, I examine this class of phenomena using an elementary version of the thermodynamic shear-transformation-zone (STZ) theory, focusing on the role of the effective disorder temperature, and paying special attention to scaling and dimensional arguments. I find a wide variety of Herschel-Bulkley-like rheologies but, for fundamental reasons not specific to the STZ theory, conclude that the yielding transition is not truly critical. Specifically, for realistic many-body models with short-range interactions, there is a correlation length that grows rapidly but ultimately saturates near the yield point.

  5. Virtual Flow Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-05

    Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS) is a state-of-the-art computational fluid mechanics (CFD) package that is capable of simulating multi-physics/multi-phase flows with the most advanced turbulence models (RANS, LES) over complex terrains. The flow solver is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method to handle geometrically complex and moving domains. Different modules of the VFS package can provide different simulation capabilities for specific applications ranging from the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of solid and deformable bodies, themoreĀ Ā» two-phase free surface flow solver based on the level set method for ocean waves, sediment transport models in rivers and the large-scale models of wind farms based on actuator lines and surfaces. All numerical features of VFS package have been validated with known analytical and experimental data as reported in the related journal articles. VFS package is suitable for a broad range of engineering applications within different industries. VFS has been used in different projects with applications in wind and hydrokinetic energy, offshore and near-shore ocean studies, cardiovascular and biological flows, and natural streams and river morphodynamics. Over the last decade, the development of VFS has been supported and assisted with the help of various United States companies and federal agencies that are listed in the sponsor lists. In this version, VFS-Wind contains all the necessary modeling tools for wind energy applications, including land-based and offshore wind farms. VFS is highly scalable to run on either desktop computers or high performance clusters (up to 16,000 CPUs). This released version comes with a detailed userā€™s manual and a set of case studies designed to facilitate the learning of the various aspects of the code in a comprehensive manner. The included documentation and support material has been elaborated in a collaboration effort with Sandia National Labs under the contract DE-EE0005482

  6. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  7. HELIOSEISMIC INVESTIGATION OF EMERGING MAGNETIC FLUX IN THE SOLAR CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilonidis, Stathis; Zhao, Junwei; Hartlep, Thomas

    2013-11-10

    Helioseismology is capable of detecting signatures of emerging sunspot regions in the solar interior before they appear at the surface. Here we present measurements that show the rising motion of the acoustic travel-time perturbation signatures in the deep convection zone, and study the possible physical origin of these signatures using observational and numerical simulation data. Our results show that the detected signatures first appear at deeper layers and then rise, with velocities of up to 1 km s{sup ā€“1}, to shallower regions. We find evidences that these signatures may not be caused by subsurface flows or wave-speed perturbations, but are associated with acoustic power variations and frequency shifts of the cross-covariance function measured in the emerging-flux region. We also confirm with the use of numerical simulation data that phase travel-time shifts can be associated with frequency shifts related to acoustic power variations. The results of this work reveal the rising motion of magnetic flux in the deep convection zone and explain the large amplitude of the detected perturbation signatures.

  8. Flowing effects in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi, G.

    1984-05-01

    Currently accepted theory states that saturation intensity and gain (or optical power density) increase without limit with the increase of the flow speed. These conclusions are not true. It is shown instead that they tend to be limiting values with the increase of flow speed. The variations of the parameters mentioned above with flow speed are presented.

  9. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

  10. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  11. MAGNETIZED ACCRETION AND DEAD ZONES IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzyurkevich, Natalia; Henning, Thomas; Turner, Neal J.; Kley, Wilhelm

    2013-03-10

    The edges of magnetically dead zones in protostellar disks have been proposed as locations where density bumps may arise, trapping planetesimals and helping form planets. Magneto-rotational turbulence in magnetically active zones provides both accretion of gas on the star and transport of mass to the dead zone. We investigate the location of the magnetically active regions in a protostellar disk around a solar-type star, varying the disk temperature, surface density profile, and dust-to-gas ratio. We also consider stellar masses between 0.4 and 2 M{sub Sun }, with corresponding adjustments in the disk mass and temperature. The dead zone's size and shape are found using the Elsasser number criterion with conductivities including the contributions from ions, electrons, and charged fractal dust aggregates. The charged species' abundances are found using the approach proposed by Okuzumi. The dead zone is in most cases defined by the ambipolar diffusion. In our maps, the dead zone takes a variety of shapes, including a fish tail pointing away from the star and islands located on and off the midplane. The corresponding accretion rates vary with radius, indicating locations where the surface density will increase over time, and others where it will decrease. We show that density bumps do not readily grow near the dead zone's outer edge, independently of the disk parameters and the dust properties. Instead, the accretion rate peaks at the radius where the gas-phase metals freeze out. This could lead to clearing a valley in the surface density, and to a trap for pebbles located just outside the metal freezeout line.

  12. Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1998-08-01

    The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories.

  13. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  14. Incompressible Flows Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    NASA-VOF3D is a three-dimensional, transient, free surface, incompressible fluid dynamics program. It is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low gravity environment in which surface physics must be accurately treated. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion and includes a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. Variable mesh spacing is permitted in all three coordinate directions. Boundary conditions available are rigid free-slip wall, rigid no-slipmoreĀ Ā» wall, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure outflow boundary.Ā«Ā less

  15. Plug Flow Reactor Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-07-30

    PLUG is a computer program that solves the coupled steady state continuity, momentum, energy, and species balance equations for a plug flow reactor. Both homogeneous (gas-phase) and heterogenous (surface) reactions can be accommodated. The reactor may be either isothermal or adiabatic or may have a specified axial temperature or heat flux profile; alternatively, an ambient temperature and an overall heat-transfer coefficient can be specified. The crosssectional area and surface area may vary with axial position,moreĀ Ā» and viscous drag is included. Ideal gas behavior and surface site conservation are assumed.Ā«Ā less

  16. DETECTION OF EQUATORWARD MERIDIONAL FLOW AND EVIDENCE OF DOUBLE-CELL MERIDIONAL CIRCULATION INSIDE THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Junwei; Bogart, R. S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Hartlep, Thomas; Duvall, T. L. Jr.

    2013-09-10

    Meridional flow in the solar interior plays an important role in redistributing angular momentum and transporting magnetic flux inside the Sun. Although it has long been recognized that the meridional flow is predominantly poleward at the Sun's surface and in its shallow interior, the location of the equatorward return flow and the meridional flow profile in the deeper interior remain unclear. Using the first 2 yr of continuous helioseismology observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we analyze travel times of acoustic waves that propagate through different depths of the solar interior carrying information about the solar interior dynamics. After removing a systematic center-to-limb effect in the helioseismic measurements and performing inversions for flow speed, we find that the poleward meridional flow of a speed of 15 m s{sup -1} extends in depth from the photosphere to about 0.91 R{sub Sun }. An equatorward flow of a speed of 10 m s{sup -1} is found between 0.82 and 0.91 R{sub Sun} in the middle of the convection zone. Our analysis also shows evidence of that the meridional flow turns poleward again below 0.82 R{sub Sun }, indicating an existence of a second meridional circulation cell below the shallower one. This double-cell meridional circulation profile with an equatorward flow shallower than previously thought suggests a rethinking of how magnetic field is generated and redistributed inside the Sun.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics in flow through unsaturated fractured-porous media: Status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2002-11-27

    The need has long been recognized to improve predictions of flow and transport in partially saturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock of the vadose zone for many practical applications, such as remediation of contaminated sites, nuclear waste disposal in geological formations, and climate predictions. Until recently, flow and transport processes in heterogeneous subsurface media with oscillating irregularities were assumed to be random and were not analyzed using methods of nonlinear dynamics. The goals of this paper are to review the theoretical concepts, present the results, and provide perspectives on investigations of flow and transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soils and fractured rock, using the methods of nonlinear dynamics and deterministic chaos. The results of laboratory and field investigations indicate that the nonlinear dynamics of flow and transport processes in unsaturated soils and fractured rocks arise from the dynamic feedback and competition between various nonlinear physical processes along with complex geometry of flow paths. Although direct measurements of variables characterizing the individual flow processes are not technically feasible, their cumulative effect can be characterized by analyzing time series data using the models and methods of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. Identifying flow through soil or rock as a nonlinear dynamical system is important for developing appropriate short- and long-time predictive models, evaluating prediction uncertainty, assessing the spatial distribution of flow characteristics from time series data, and improving chemical transport simulations. Inferring the nature of flow processes through the methods of nonlinear dynamics could become widely used in different areas of the earth sciences.

  18. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  19. Annular flow diverter valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rider, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    A valve for diverting flow from the center of two concentric tubes to the annulus between the tubes or, operating in the reverse direction, for mixing fluids from concentric tubes into a common tube and for controlling the volume ratio of said flow consists of a toroidal baffle disposed in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube downstream of a plurality of ports in the inner tube, a plurality of gates in sliding engagement with the interior of the inner tube attached to the baffle for movement therewith, a servomotor having a bullet-shaped plug on the downstream end thereof, and drive rods connecting the servomotor to the toroidal baffle, the servomotor thereby being adapted to move the baffle into mating engagement with the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates away from the ports in the inner tube and to move the baffle away from the bullet-shaped plug and simultaneously move the gates to cover the ports in the inner tube.

  20. Radial flow heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valenzuela, Javier

    2001-01-01

    A radial flow heat exchanger (20) having a plurality of first passages (24) for transporting a first fluid (25) and a plurality of second passages (26) for transporting a second fluid (27). The first and second passages are arranged in stacked, alternating relationship, are separated from one another by relatively thin plates (30) and (32), and surround a central axis (22). The thickness of the first and second passages are selected so that the first and second fluids, respectively, are transported with laminar flow through the passages. To enhance thermal energy transfer between first and second passages, the latter are arranged so each first passage is in thermal communication with an associated second passage along substantially its entire length, and vice versa with respect to the second passages. The heat exchangers may be stacked to achieve a modular heat exchange assembly (300). Certain heat exchangers in the assembly may be designed slightly differently than other heat exchangers to address changes in fluid properties during transport through the heat exchanger, so as to enhance overall thermal effectiveness of the assembly.

  1. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  2. LX-17 Corner-Turning and Reactive Flow Failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H; Cook III, C F; Garza, R; Pastrone, R; Phillips, D; Roeske, F; Vitello, P; Molitoris, J

    2004-03-11

    We have performed a series of highly-instrumented experiments examining corner-turning of detonation. A TATB booster is inset 15 mm into LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% kel-F) so that the detonation must turn a right angle around an air well. An optical pin located at the edge of the TATB gives the start time of the corner-turn. The breakout time on the side and back edges is measured with streak cameras. Three high-resolution X-ray images were taken on each experiment to examine the details of the detonation. We have concluded that the detonation cannot turn the corner and subsequently fails, but the shock wave continues to propagate in the unreacted explosive, leaving behind a dead zone. The detonation front farther out from the corner slowly turns and eventually reaches the air well edge 180{sup o} from its original direction. The dead zone is stable and persists 7.7 {micro}s after the corner-turn, although it has drifted into the original air well area. Our regular reactive flow computer models sometimes show temporary failure but they recover quickly and are unable to model the dead zones. We present a failure model that cuts off the reaction rate below certain detonation velocities and reproduces the qualitative features of the corner-turning failure.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of parallel reactant flow and transverse mixing with mineral precipitation in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Don T.; Guo, Luanjing; Fujita, Yoshiko; Huang, Hai; Redden, George

    2015-12-17

    Formation of mineral precipitates in the mixing interface between two reactant solutions flowing in parallel in porous media is governed by reactant mixing by diffusion and dispersion and is coupled to changes in porosity/permeability due to precipitation. The spatial and temporal distribution of mixing-dependent precipitation of barium sulfate in porous media was investigated with side-by-side injection of barium chloride and sodium sulfate solutions in thin rectangular flow cells packed with quartz sand. The results for homogeneous sand beds were compared to beds with higher or lower permeability inclusions positioned in the path of the mixing zone. In the homogeneous and high permeability inclusion experiments, BaSO4 precipitate (barite) formed in a narrow deposit along the length and in the center of the solutionā€“solution mixing zone even though dispersion was enhanced within, and downstream of, the high permeability inclusion. In the low permeability inclusion experiment, the deflected BaSO4 precipitation zone broadened around one side and downstream of the inclusion and was observed to migrate laterally toward the sulfate solution. A continuum-scale fully coupled reactive transport model that simultaneously solves the nonlinear governing equations for fluid flow, transport of reactants and geochemical reactions was used to simulate the experiments and provide insight into mechanisms underlying the experimental observations. Lastly, migration of the precipitation zone in the low permeability inclusion experiment could be explained by the coupling effects among fluid flow, reactant transport and localized mineral precipitation reaction.

  4. CFD SIMULATION OF PROPOSED VALIDATION DATA FOR A FLOW PROBLEM RECONFIGURED TO ELIMINATE AN UNDESIRABLE FLOW INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hugh M. McIlroy

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting the development of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), which will be based on a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design. The VHTR is a single-phase helium-cooled reactor wherein the helium will be heated initially to 750 Ā°C and later to temperatures approaching 1000 Ā°C. The high temperatures are desired to increase reactor efficiency and to provide a heat source for the manufacture of hydrogen and other applications. While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has not been used in the past to design or license nuclear reactors in the U. S., it is expected that CFD will be used in the design and safety analysis of forthcoming designs. This is partly because of the maturity of CFD and partly because detailed information is desired of the flow and heat transfer inside the reactor to avoid hot spots and other conditions that might compromise reactor safety. Numerical computations of turbulent flow should be validated against experimental data for flow conditions that contain some or all of the physics expected in the thermal fluid machinery of interest. To this end, a scaled model of a narrow slice of the lower plenum of the prismatic VHTR was constructed and installed in the Idaho National Laboratoryā€™s (INL) matched index of refraction (MIR) test facility and data were taken. The data were then studied and compared to CFD calculations to help determine their suitability for validation data. One of the main findings was that the inlet data, which were measured and controlled by calibrated mass flow rotameters and were also measured using detailed stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) showed considerable discrepancies in mass flow rate between the two methods. The other finding was that a randomly unstable recirculation zone occurs in the flow. This instability has a very significant effect on the flow field in the vicinity of the inlet jets. Because its time scale is long and because it is apparently a

  5. Numerical Studies of Fluid Leakage from a Geologic DisposalReservoir for CO2 Show Self-Limiting Feedback between Fluid Flow and HeatTransfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2005-03-22

    Leakage of CO2 from a hypothetical geologic storage reservoir along an idealized fault zone has been simulated, including transitions between supercritical, liquid, and gaseous CO2. We find strong non-isothermal effects due to boiling and Joule-Thomson cooling of expanding CO2. Leakage fluxes are limited by limitations in conductive heat transfer to the fault zone. The interplay between multiphase flow and heat transfer effects produces non-monotonic leakage behavior.

  6. Coastal-zone biogeochemical dynamics under global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackenzie, F.T.; Ver, L.M.; Lerman, A.

    2000-03-01

    The coastal zone, consisting of the continental shelves to a depth of 200 meters, including bays, lagoons, estuaries, and near-shore banks, is an environment that is strongly affected by its biogeochemical and physical interactions with reservoirs in the adjacent domains of land, atmosphere, open ocean, and marine sediments. Because the coastal zone is smaller in volume and area coverage relative to the open ocean, it traditionally has been studied as an integral part of the global oceans. In this paper, the authors show by numerical modeling that it is important to consider the coastal zone as an entity separate from the open ocean in any assessment of future Earth-system response under human perturbation. Model analyses for the early part of the 21st century suggest that the coastal zone plays a significant modifying role in the biogeochemical dynamics of the carbon cycle and the nutrient cycles coupled to it. This role is manifested in changes in primary production, storage, and/or export of organic matter, its remineralization, and calcium carbonate precipitation--all of which determine the state of the coastal zone with respect to exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Under a scenario of future reduced or complete cessation of the thermohaline circulation (THC) of the global oceans, coastal waters become an important sink for atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as opposed to the conditions in the past and present, when coastal waters are believed to be a source of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere. Profound changes in coastal-zone primary productivity underscore the important role of phosphorus as a limiting nutrient. In addition, calculations indicate that the saturation state of coastal waters with respect to carbonate minerals will decline by {approximately}15% by the year 2030. Any future slowdown in the THC of the oceans will increase slightly the rate of decline in saturation state.

  7. Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chromatography - Energy Innovation Portal Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow Chromatography Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention looks at method to detect targeted analytes. DescriptionThe method most often used now is Lateral Flow Chromatography (LFC) which has many drawbacks including: the need for extensive optimization, sensitivity, specificity, lack of quantitative data and extensive

  8. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  9. Interactive display system having a scaled virtual target zone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2006-06-13

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.

  10. A library of prompt detonation reaction zone data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P. C., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    Tables are given listing literature data that allows calculation of sonic reaction zones at or near steady-state for promptly detonating explosive cylinders. The data covers homogeneous, heterogeneous, composite, inorganic and binary explosives and allows comparison across the entire explosive field. Table 1 lists detonation front curvatures. Table 2 lists Size Effect data, i.e. the change of detonation velocity with cylinder radius. Table 3 lists failure radii and detonation velocities. Table 4 lists explosive compositions. A total of 51 references dating back into the 1950`s are given. Calculated reaction zones, radii of curvature and growth rate coefficients are listed.

  11. Particle denuded zones in alumina reinforced aluminum matrix composite weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidambaram, A.; Bhole, S.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Welding Institute of Canada (WIC), Ontario, has been studying the weldability of different DURALCAN MMC`s. Research on alumina reinforced (20 vol.%) 6061 Al alloy GTA welds showed satisfactory tensile and yield strengths (0.2% Proof Stress) but the welds failed to pass the bend test requirements with fracture taking place in the relatively brittle heat affected zone (HAZ). Further, the welds were characterized by a region which was devoid of reinforcement particles adjacent to the fusion lines. The present study was undertaken to try and explain the formation of this particle denuded zone (PDZ) at the fusion lines.

  12. Category:Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Flow Test page? For detailed information on Flow Test, click here. Category:Flow Test Add.png Add a new...

  13. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii ā€“ Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report ā€“ Volume IV ā€“ Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  14. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

  15. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study

  16. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  17. Active combustion flow modulation valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hensel, John Peter; Black, Nathaniel; Thorton, Jimmy Dean; Vipperman, Jeffrey Stuart; Lambeth, David N; Clark, William W

    2013-09-24

    A flow modulation valve has a slidably translating hollow armature with at least one energizable coil wound around and fixably attached to the hollow armature. The energizable coil or coils are influenced by at least one permanent magnet surrounding the hollow armature and supported by an outer casing. Lorentz forces on the energizable coils which are translated to the hollow armature, increase or decrease the flow area to provide flow throttling action. The extent of hollow armature translation depends on the value of current supplied and the direction of translation depends on the direction of current flow. The compact nature of the flow modulation valve combined with the high forces afforded by the actuator design provide a flow modulation valve which is highly responsive to high-rate input control signals.

  18. Near field flow structure of isothermal swirling flows and reacting non-premixed swirling flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio; Cozzi, Fabio; Coghe, Aldo

    2007-04-15

    Two confined lean non-premixed swirl-stabilized flame typologies were investigated in order to achieve detailed information on the thermal and aerodynamic field in the close vicinity of the burner throat and provide correlation with the exhaust emissions. Previous finding indicated the generation of a partially premixed flame with radial fuel injection and a purely diffusive flame with co-axial injection in a swirling co-flow. In the present work, the experimental study is reported which has been conducted on a straight exit laboratory burner with no quarl cone, fuelled by natural gas and air, and fired vertically upwards with the flame stabilized at the end of two concentric pipes with the annulus supplying swirled air and the central pipe delivering the fuel. Two fuel injection typologies, co-axial and radial (i.e., transverse), leading to different mixing mechanisms, have been characterized through different techniques: particle image velocimetry (PIV) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) for a comprehensive analysis of the velocity field, still photography for the detection of flame front and main visible features, and thermocouples for the temperature distribution. Isothermal flow conditions have been included in the experimental investigation to provide a basic picture of the flow field and to comprehend the modifications induced by the combustion process. The results indicated that, although the global mixing process and the main flame structure are governed by the swirl motion imparted to the air stream, the two different fuel injection methodologies play an important role on mixture formation and flame stabilization in the primary mixing zone. Particularly, it has been found that, in case of axial injection, the turbulent interaction between the central fuel jet and the backflow generated by the swirl can induce an intermittent fuel penetration in the recirculated hot products and the formation of a central sooting luminous plume, a phenomenon totally

  19. Building Conceptual Models of Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport in a Dynamic Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.

    2008-12-04

    Subsurface simulation is being used to build, test, and couple conceptual process models to better understand controls on a 0.4 km by 1.0 km uranium plume that has persisted above the drinking water standard in the groundwater of the Hanford 300 Area over the last 15 years. At this site, uranium-contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer are subject to significant variations in water levels and velocities driven by the diurnal, weekly, seasonal, and episodic Columbia River stage dynamics. Groundwater flow reversals typically occur twice a day with significant exchange of river water and groundwater in the near-river aquifer. Mixing of the dilute solution chemistry of the river with the groundwater complicates the uranium sorption behavior as the mobility of U(VI) has been shown experimentally to be a function of pH, carbonate, calcium, and uranium. Furthermore, uranium mass transfer between solid and aqueous phases has been observed to be rate-limited in the context of the high groundwater velocities resulting from the river stage fluctuations and the highly transmissive sediments (hydraulic conductivities ~1500 m/d). One- and two-dimensional vertical cross-sectional simulations of variably-saturated flow and reactive transport, based on laboratory-derived models of distributed rate mass transfer and equilibrium multicomponent surface complexation, are used to assess uranium transport at the dynamic vadose zone – aquifer interface as well as changes to uranium mobility due to incursions of river water into the aquifer.

  20. A resolution analysis of two geophysical imaging methods for characterizing and monitoring hydrologic conditions in the Vadose zone.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brainard, James Robert; Hammond, Gary.; Alumbaugh, David L.; La Brecque, D.J.

    2007-06-01

    This research project analyzed the resolution of two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (XBGPR), for monitoring subsurface flow and transport processes within the vadose zone. The study was based on petrophysical conversion of moisture contents and solute distributions obtained from unsaturated flow forward modeling. This modeling incorporated boundary conditions from a potable water and a salt tracer infiltration experiment performed at the Sandia-Tech Vadose Zone (STVZ) facility, and high-resolution spatial grids (6.25-cm spacing over a 1700-m domain) and incorporated hydraulic properties measured on samples collected from the STVZ. The analysis process involved petrophysical conversion of moisture content and solute concentration fields to geophysical property fields, forward geophysical modeling using the geophysical property fields to obtain synthetic geophysical data, and finally, inversion of this synthetic data. These geophysical property models were then compared to those derived from the conversion of the hydrologic forward modeling to provide an understanding of the resolution and limitations of the geophysical techniques.

  1. UNDESIRABLE FLOW BEHAVIOR IN A PROPOSED VALIDATION DATA SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson; Hugh M. McIlroy; Ryan C. Johnson; Daniel P. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), whose development is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, will be a very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The VHTR is a single-phase helium-cooled reactor that will provide helium at up to 1000 Ā°C. The prospect of a coolant at these temperatures circulating in the reactor vessel demands that careful analysis be performed to ensure that excessively hot spots are not created and that sufficient mixing of the coolant is obtained. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) coupled with heat transfer will be used to perform the desired analyses. However, primarily because of the imperfect nature of modeling turbulent flow, any CFD calculations used to perform nuclear reactor safety analysis must be validated against experimental data. Experimental data have been taken in a scaled section of the lower plenum of a prismatic VHTR at the matched index of refraction (MIR) facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. These data were taken with the intent that they be examined for use as validation data. A series of investigations have been conducted to assess the MIR data. Issues that have already been examined include the extent of the required computational domain, the outlet boundary condition, the inlet data and the effect of the turbulence model. One of the jets that flow into the model impacts on a wedge, which represents a portion of a hexagonal graphite block that is part of the inner wall of the lower plenum. The nature of the flow below this particular jet is such that a randomly varying recirculation zone is created. This recirculation zone is seen to change in size, causing a relatively long-time scale of motion or disturbance on the flow downstream. It is concluded that such a feature is undesirable in a validation data set, firstly because of its apparent random nature and, secondly, because to obtain an appropriate long-time average would be impractical because of the compute time required. It is found that by

  2. Effect of nonuniformity of subcooled boiling flow on the onset of thermoacoustic vibrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerliga, V.A.; Skalozubov, V.I.; Lesin, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops the hypothesis that the factor responsible for the onset of thermoacoustic vibrations in two-phase bubble flow is positive work by bubbles condensing in the flow core. It is shown that the predicted threshold of generation of these vibrations depends strongly on the accuracy of description of the steady-state distribution of parameters of bubbles and the liquid. The results predicted on the basis of a two-zone nonequilibrium polydisperse model are compared with those given by the uniform-flow model and an equation representing the condition of applicability of one-dimensional models for predicting the steady-state parameters of nonequilibrium boiling flows is derived.

  3. Flow Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics of the Raft River geothermal reservoir, Idaho Flow Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (2004) Raft River Geothermal Area...

  4. Financing Program Implementation Process Flow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The implementation process flow for financing with two models: a generic option for primary markets and a conceptual option for secondary markets.

  5. Module bay with directed flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  6. Flow Batteries: A Historical Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation by Robert Savinell, Case Western Reserve University, at the Flow Cells for Energy Storage Workshop held March 7-8, 2012, in Washington, DC.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3C San Francisco, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  9. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Las Vegas, Nevada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Climate Zone: TMY2 Weather Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  13. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3B Los Angeles, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  16. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  17. FORMATION OF CIRCUMBINARY PLANETS IN A DEAD ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Armitage, Philip J. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Alexander, Richard D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-10

    Circumbinary planets have been observed at orbital radii where binary perturbations may have significant effects on the gas disk structure, on planetesimal velocity dispersion, and on the coupling between turbulence and planetesimals. Here, we note that the impact of all of these effects on planet formation is qualitatively altered if the circumbinary disk structure is layered, with a non-turbulent midplane layer (dead zone) and strongly turbulent surface layers. For close binaries, we find that the dead zone typically extends from a radius close to the inner disk edge up to a radius of around 10-20 AU from the center of mass of the binary. The peak in the surface density occurs within the dead zone, far from the inner disk edge, close to the snow line, and may act as a trap for aerodynamically coupled solids. We suggest that circumbinary planet formation may be easier near this preferential location than for disks around single stars. However, dead zones around wide binaries are less likely, and hence planet formation may be more difficult there.

  18. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 5A Chicago, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  19. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 5A Chicago, Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  20. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6B Helena, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4A Baltimore, Maryland

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 1A Miami, Florida

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 3A Atlanta, Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 2B Phoenix, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesĀ is available for reference.Ā Current versionsĀ are also available.

  11. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 6A Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Climate Zone: 4B Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. VALIDATION AND RESULTS OF A PSEUDO-MULTI-ZONE COMBUSTION TRAJECTORY PREDICTION MODEL FOR CAPTURING SOOT AND NOX FORMATION ON A MEDIUM DUTY DIESEL ENGINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bittle, Joshua A.; Gao, Zhiming; Jacobs, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    A pseudo-multi-zone phenomenological model has been created with the ultimate goal of supporting efforts to enable broader commercialization of low temperature combustion modes in diesel engines. The benefits of low temperature combustion are the simultaneous reduction in soot and nitric oxide emissions and increased engine efficiency if combustion is properly controlled. Determining what qualifies as low temperature combustion for any given engine can be difficult without expensive emissions analysis equipment. This determination can be made off-line using computer models or through factory calibration procedures. This process could potentially be simplified if a real-time prediction model could be implemented to run for any engine platform this is the motivation for this study. The major benefit of this model is the ability for it to predict the combustion trajectory, i.e. local temperature and equivalence ratio in the burning zones. The model successfully captures all the expected trends based on the experimental data and even highlights an opportunity for simply using the average reaction temperature and equivalence ratio as an indicator of emissions levels alone - without solving formation sub-models. This general type of modeling effort is not new, but a major effort was made to minimize the calculation duration to enable implementation as an input to real-time next-cycle engine controller Instead of simply using the predicted engine out soot and NOx levels, control decisions could be made based on the trajectory. This has the potential to save large amounts of calibration time because with minor tuning (the model has only one automatically determined constant) it is hoped that the control algorithm would be generally applicable.

  14. Geochemical, mineralogical and microbiological characteristics of sediment from a naturally reduced zone in a uranium-contaminated aquife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, K M; K Kukkadapu, R K; Qafoku, N P; Peacock, A D; Lesher, E; Williams, K H; Bargar, J R; Wilkins, M J; Figueroa, L; Ranville, J; Davis, J A; Long, P E

    2012-05-23

    Localized zones or lenses of naturally reduced sediments have the potential to play a significant role in the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and metalloids in aquifers. To assess the mineralogy, microbiology and redox processes that occur in these zones, several cores from a region of naturally occurring reducing conditions in a U-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) were examined. Sediment samples from a transect of cores ranging from oxic/suboxic Rifle aquifer sediment to naturally reduced sediment were analyzed for U and Fe content, oxidation state, and mineralogy; reduced S phases; and solid-phase organic C content using a suite of analytical and spectroscopic techniques on bulk sediment and size fractions. Solid-phase U concentrations were higher in the naturally reduced zone, with a high proportion of the U present as U(IV). The sediments were also elevated in reduced S phases and Fe(II), indicating it is very likely that U(VI), Fe(III), and SO4 reduction has occurred or is occurring in the sediment. The microbial community was assessed using lipid- and DNA-based techniques, and statistical redundancy analysis was performed to determine correlations between the microbial community and the geochemistry. Increased concentrations of solid-phase organic C and biomass in the naturally reduced sediment suggests that natural bioreduction is stimulated by a zone of increased organic C concentration associated with fine-grained material and lower permeability to groundwater flow. Characterization of the naturally bioreduced sediment provides an understanding of the natural processes that occur in the sediment under reducing conditions and how they may impact natural attenuation of radionuclides and other redox sensitive materials. Results also suggest the importance of recalcitrant organic C for maintaining reducing conditions and U immobilization.

  15. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With tax credit bonds, generally the borrower who issues the bond pays back only the principal of the bond, and the bondholder receives federal tax credits in lieu of the traditional bond interest...

  16. CANDIDATE PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF KEPLER STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaidos, Eric

    2013-06-20

    A key goal of the Kepler mission is the discovery of Earth-size transiting planets in ''habitable zones'' where stellar irradiance maintains a temperate climate on an Earth-like planet. Robust estimates of planet radius and irradiance require accurate stellar parameters, but most Kepler systems are faint, making spectroscopy difficult and prioritization of targets desirable. The parameters of 2035 host stars were estimated by Bayesian analysis and the probabilities p{sub HZ} that 2738 candidate or confirmed planets orbit in the habitable zone were calculated. Dartmouth Stellar Evolution Program models were compared to photometry from the Kepler Input Catalog, priors for stellar mass, age, metallicity and distance, and planet transit duration. The analysis yielded probability density functions for calculating confidence intervals of planet radius and stellar irradiance, as well as p{sub HZ}. Sixty-two planets have p{sub HZ} > 0.5 and a most probable stellar irradiance within habitable zone limits. Fourteen of these have radii less than twice the Earth; the objects most resembling Earth in terms of radius and irradiance are KOIs 2626.01 and 3010.01, which orbit late K/M-type dwarf stars. The fraction of Kepler dwarf stars with Earth-size planets in the habitable zone ({eta}{sub Circled-Plus }) is 0.46, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.31-0.64. Parallaxes from the Gaia mission will reduce uncertainties by more than a factor of five and permit definitive assignments of transiting planets to the habitable zones of Kepler stars.

  17. Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleg V. Vasilyev

    2008-06-12

    have recently been completed at the Japanese Earth Simulator (Yokokawa et al. 2002, Kaneda et al. 2003) using a resolution of 40963 (approximately 10{sup 11}) grid points with a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of 1217 (Re {approx} 10{sup 6}). Impressive as these calculations are, performed on one of the world's fastest super computers, more brute computational power would be needed to simulate the flow over the fuselage of a commercial aircraft at cruising speed. Such a calculation would require on the order of 10{sup 16} grid points and would have a Reynolds number in the range of 108. Such a calculation would take several thousand years to simulate one minute of flight time on today's fastest super computers (Moin & Kim 1997). Even using state-of-the-art zonal approaches, which allow DNS calculations that resolve the necessary range of scales within predefined 'zones' in the flow domain, this calculation would take far too long for the result to be of engineering interest when it is finally obtained. Since computing power, memory, and time are all scarce resources, the problem of simulating turbulent flows has become one of how to abstract or simplify the complexity of the physics represented in the full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in such a way that the 'important' physics of the problem is captured at a lower cost. To do this, a portion of the modes of the turbulent flow field needs to be approximated by a low order model that is cheaper than the full NS calculation. This model can then be used along with a numerical simulation of the 'important' modes of the problem that cannot be well represented by the model. The decision of what part of the physics to model and what kind of model to use has to be based on what physical properties are considered 'important' for the problem. It should be noted that 'nothing is free', so any use of a low order model will by definition lose some information about the original flow.

  18. Evaluation of flow properties in the weldments of vanadium alloys using a novel indentation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Lee, E.H.; King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1996-10-01

    Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) testing, was successfully employed to determine the flow properties of the fusion zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal of the gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welds of the V-4Cr-4Ti (large heat no. 832665) and the V-5Cr-5Ti (heat 832394) alloys. ABI test results showed a clear distinction among the properties of the fusion zone, HAZ, and base metal in both GTA and EB welds of the two alloys. GTA and EB welds of both V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys show strengthening of both the fusion zone and the HAZ (compared to base metal) with the fusion zone having higher strength than the HAZ. These data correlate well with the Brinell hardness. On the other hand, GTA welds of both alloys, after a post-weld heat treatment of 950{degrees}C for 2 h, show a recovery of the properties to base metal values with V-5Cr-5Ti showing a higher degree of recovery compared to V-4Cr-4Ti. These measurements correlate with the reported recovery of the Charpy impact properties.

  19. The Effects of Heterogeneity in Magma Water Concentration on the Development of Flow Banding and Spherulites in Rhyolitic Lava

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seaman, S.; Dyar, D; Marinkovic, N

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the origin of flow-banded rhyolites that consist of compositionally similar darker and lighter flow bands of contrasting texture and color. Infrared radiation was used to obtain Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra from which water concentrations were calculated, and to map variations in water concentrations across zones of spherulites and glass from the 23 million year old Sycamore Canyon lava flow of southern Arizona. Lighter-colored, thicker flow bands consist of gray glass, fine-grained quartz, and large (1.0 to 1.5 mm) spherulites. Darker-colored, thinner flow bands consist of orange glass and smaller (0.1 to 0.2 mm) spherulites. The centers of both large and small spherulites are occupied by either (1) a quartz or sanidine crystal, (2) a granophyric intergrowth, or (3) a vesicle. Mapping of water concentration (dominantly OH- in glass and OH- and H2O in sanidine crystals) illustrates fluctuating water availability during quenching of the host melt. Textures of large spherulites in the lighter (gray) bands in some cases indicate complex quenching histories that suggest that local water concentration controlled the generation of glass versus crystals. Small spherulites in darker (orange) bands have only one generation of radiating crystal growth. Both the glass surrounding spherulites, and the crystals in the spherulites contain more water in the gray flow bands than in the orange flow bands. Flow banding in the Sycamore Canyon lava flow may have originated by the stretching of a magma that contained pre-existing zones (vesicles or proto-vesicles) of contrasting water concentration, as the magma flowed in the conduit and on the surface. Variation in the original water concentration in the alternating layers is interpreted to have resulted in differences in undercooling textures in spherulites in the lighter compared to the darker flow bands.

  20. Apparatus for measuring fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.