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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Doped zinc oxide microspheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

2

Active Zinc Oxide Production From Waste Zinc Powder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, various quality of active zinc oxides containing up to 98 wt. ... Comparison of Microstructural Evolution of Nickel During Conventional and Spark ...

3

Biological Properties of Zinc Oxide-Coated Anodized Aluminum Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We used agar diffusion assays to evaluate the activity of zinc oxide-coated ... Zirconia Stabilisation Nano-Confined by Using Electroless Nickel Cladding .... Metal Oxide Nanofibers Produced by a ForceSpinning Method for Battery Electrodes.

4

Chemists Measure Copper Levels in Zinc Oxide Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Nikoobakht. Analysis of copper incorporation into zinc oxide nanowires. ACS Nano Articles ASAP, published online Jan. 12, 2008.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

5

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

6

Formation of zinc oxide films using submicron zinc particle dispersions  

SciTech Connect

The thermal oxidation of submicron metallic Zn particles was studied as a method to form nanostructured ZnO films. The particles used for this work were characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis to evaluate the Zn-ZnO core shell structure, surface morphology, and oxidation characteristics. Significant nanostructural changes were observed for films annealed to 400 °C or higher, where nanoflakes, nanoribbons, nanoneedles and nanorods were formed as a result of stress induced fractures arising in the ZnO outer shell due to differential thermal expansion between the metallic Zn core and the ZnO shell. Mass transport occurs through these defects due to the high vapor pressure for metallic Zn at temperatures above 230 °C, whereupon the Zn vapor rapidly oxidizes in air to form the ZnO nanostructures. The Zn particles were also incorporated into zinc indium oxide precursor solutions to form thin film transistor test structures to evaluate the potential of forming nanostructured field effect sensors using simple solution processing.

Rajachidambaram, Meena Suhanya; Varga, Tamas; Kovarik, Libor; Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Han, Seungyeol; Chang, Chih-hung; Herman, Gregory S.

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

7

Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic ...

8

Fabrication and characterization of flower-like zinc oxide for dye-sensitized solar cell photoanode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide porous film consists of nanoparticles which assemble forming flake-like particle is synthesised through pyrolitic of chemical bath deposition product. Zinc oxide film consists of nanoparticle around 20 nm with surface area of 58.6 m2/gram ... Keywords: chemical bath depostition, dye sensitized soalr cell, nanoparticle, porous film, zinc carbonate hydroxide, zinc oxide

H. Abdullah; N. P. Ariyanto; B. Yuliarto; S. Junaidi; Yap Chi Chin; Muhamad Yahaya; S. Shaari

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The zinc-catalyzed copolymerization of carbon dioxide and propylene oxide, which is one of the promising reactions for the utilization of carbon dioxide, has been investigated from various aspects. Above all, considering that supercritical carbon dioxide has recently been paid attention in the field of extraction, separation, and reaction medium, its aptitude for both a reaction solvent and a reactant was examined in zinc glutarate-catalyzed reactions. As a result, it was proved that supercritical carbon dioxide was a suitable substitute for organic solvents in the copolymerization reactions. Great diffusivity of supercritical carbon dioxide into polymer segments was thought to promote carbon dioxide supply to the active sites of the zinc species and to afford alternating polycarbonate production. Low reaction temperature appeared to be advantageous to polycarbonate and cyclic carbonate formation. Apart from zinc glutarate catalyst whose detailed mechanistic studies were hard to perform due to its insolubility, some other zinc compounds were studied. A homogeneous catalyst, bis(ethyl fumarato)zinc, showed similar polycarbonate yield to zinc glutarate, and the method of the catalyst preparation affected its catalytic activity. Only a small amount of the catalyst was considered to be active in the copolymerization process even in the homogeneous systems. In the zinc dicarboxylate complexes, the carbon number between two carboxyl groups and the steric nature in the vicinity of the zinc atom might be important factors for the copolymerization catalysis.

Katsurao, Takumi

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

V1, Alkanethiol Island Formation on Single Crystal Zinc Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... through the Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center is ... A2, Observation and Elimination of Indium Surface Segregation ... B5, The Universal Optimal Seebeck Coefficient for Maximum Power Factor ..... X9, Solution-Processed Zirconium Oxide and Integration with Zinc-Tin Oxide Thin-

11

Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are a new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

1991-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

12

Interfacial electron transfer dynamics of photosensitized zinc oxide nanoclusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have prepared and characterized photosensitized zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoclusters, dispersed in methanol, using carboxylated coumarin dyes for surface adsorption. Femtosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy allows the authors to measure the photo-induced charge carrier injection rate constant from the adsorbed photosensitizer to the n-type semiconductor nanocluster. These results are compared with other photosensitized semiconductors.

Murakoshi, Kei; Yanagida, Shozo [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Capel, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide semiconductor thin film transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reported on the performance and electrical properties of co-sputtering-processed amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (?-HfIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). Co-sputtering-processed ?-HfIZO thin films have shown an amorphous phase in nature. ...

Sheng-Po Chang; San-Syong Shih

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sulfidation and reduction of zinc titanate and zinc oxide sorbents for injection in gasifier exit ducts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The sulfidation reaction kinetics of fine particles of zinc titanate and zinc oxide with H{sub 2}S were studied in order to test the potential of the sorbent injection hot-gas desulfurization process. Fine sorbent particles with diameter between 0.3 and 60 {mu}m were sulfided with H{sub 2}S and/or reduced with H{sub 2} in a laminar flow reactor over the temperature range of 500-900{degrees}C. Sulfidation/reduction conversion was compared for different particle sizes and sorbents with various porosities and atomic ratios of Zn and Ti. In reduction of ZnO with H{sub 2} and without H{sub 2}S, significant amount of Zn was formed and vaporized, while the presence of H{sub 2}S suppressed elemental Zn formation. This suggests that H{sub 2}S may suppress the surface reduction of ZnO and/or gaseous Zn may react with H{sub 2}S homogeneously and form fine particles of ZnS. Formation and vaporization of elemental Zn from zinc titanate sorbents was slower than from zinc oxide with and without H{sub 2}S.

Ishikawa, K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Akashi, Hyogo (Japan). Technical Inst.; Krueger, C.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Jl, W.; Higgins, R.J.; Bishop, B.A.; Goldsmith, R.L. [CeraMem Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Zinc ion and neutral emission from single crystal zinc oxide during 193-nm excimer laser exposure  

SciTech Connect

Mass resolved time-of-flight measurements on neutral zinc atoms and zinc ions show energetic ions and neutrals during 193-nm irradiation of single crystals of semiconducting zinc oxide. Typical Zn+ kinetic energies are 3-5 eV. At fluences (energy per unit area per pulse) below 200 mJ/cm2, the ion intensities (per laser pulse) decrease monotonically to low values with laser pulse number. The depletion kinetics change from exponential to second order near 50 mJ/cm2. We attribute this change to the annihilation of defects yielding Zn+ emission when Zn+ or other surface defects become mobile. At fluences between 200 and 300 mJ/cm2, Zn+ emission becomes more sustained due to defects created by the laser. In this same fluence range, we observe the onset of detectable neutral atomic zinc emission. These neutral atoms display Maxwell-Boltzmann kinetic energy distributions w th effective surface temperatures that approach 5000 K as the fluence is raised to 350 mJ/cm2. These high surface temperatures are remarkable given the low etch rates observed at these fluences, suggesting that heated layer is extremely thin. We propose emission mechanisms and experiments to resolve outstanding questions.

Kahn, E. H. [Washington State University; Langford, S. C. [Washington State University; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

and electrical properties of zinc oxide films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Undoped and indium-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis method. The effect of indium incorporation on structural and electrical properties of ZnO films has been investigated. Zinc acetate dihydrate, indium chloride were used as a starting material and a dopant source, respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern of the films showed hexagonal wurtzite type polycrystalline structure. The results show that indium incorporation leads to substantial changes in the structural characteristics of ZnO films. The grain size was found to be in the range 15-50 nm, depending on indium content. In addition, the surface morphology features of the films, as a function of the indium content, are shown. For all the films, a linear dependence typical of ohmic behavior was observed. The electrical conductivity of ZnO films was improved by indium incorporation. The most important changes were observed for 1 at. % In-doped ZnO film which exhibit a resistivity of 3.2x10-1 ?cm. At certain constant voltage, from Arrhenius plots of In-doped ZnO films, activation energy values have been calculated from 17 meV to 89 meV.

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel as a matrix material, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

Siriwardane, R.V.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermal Degradation of Single Crystal Zinc Oxide and the Growth of Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatment of (0001) single crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) seems to degrade the surface morphology at high temperature. The degradation, however, does not suppress the growth of ZnO nanostructures on selective regions of the single crystal ZnO that have been sputtered with metallic zinc (Zn) and annealed at 800 degree sign C. On the uncoated regions, no growth occurs but the presence of pits suggests material loss from the surface. The formation of ZnO nanostructures on the selective regions could be aided by the preferential loss of oxygen as well as zinc suboxides from the uncoated regions. Indirect evidence of the role of oxygen and zinc suboxides can be inferred from the formation of nickel zinc oxide Ni{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}O and nickel oxide NiO{sub 2} when Zn is replaced by Ni and annealed under similar conditions.

Saw, K. G.; Tan, G. L. [Physics Section, School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Hassan, Z.; Yam, F. K.; Ng, S. S. [Schools of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown ({lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

Liew, Laura-Lynn [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sankar, Gopinathan, E-mail: g.sankar@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Handoko, Albertus D. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Goh, Gregory K.L., E-mail: g-goh@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Kohara, Shinji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Biochemistry of mobile zinc and nitric oxide revealed by fluorescent sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biological mobile zinc and nitric oxide (NO) are two prominent examples of inorganic compounds involved in numerous signaling pathways in living systems. In the past decade, a synergy of regulation, signaling, and translocation ...

Pluth, Michael D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Ordered Nucleation Sites for the Growth of Zinc Oxide Nanofibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) offer a promising route to low cost photovoltaic (PV) technology that can be inexpensively manufactured on a large scale for use in power generation and commercial products. Solar power conversion efficiencies of laboratory scale OPV devices have recently reached ~5%; however, projected efficiencies of at least 10% will be required for commercialization. An analogous approach that has arisen recently that can potentially increase efficiencies employs metal oxide semiconductors as the electron acceptor, creating a hybrid organic-inorganic device. This approach offers the advantage that the conduction band of the oxide can be tuned in a systematic way through doping, thus potentially achieving higher photovoltages in the device. Additionally, nanostructures of these materials can be easily grown from precursor solutions, providing a technique to precisely control the nanoscale geometry. This work focuses on using ZnO, which is known to have high electron mobility (>100 cm2/Vs), as the electron acceptor. Nanofibers of ZnO can be grown from precursors such as zinc acetate or zinc nitrate to form arrays of nanofibers into which a conjugated polymer can be intercalated to form a composite PV device. The morphology of the nanofiber array is critical to the performance of the device, but current methods of nanofiber growth from a flat, polycrystalline nucleation layer allow for little morphological control. To overcome this limitation, we have created ordered arrays of ZnO nucleation sites with controllable size and spacing. Toluene solutions of diblock copolymer micelles with ZnCl2 incorporated into the micellar cores were spin-coated onto glass substrates and etched with an O2 plasma to yield hexagonally ordered arrays of ZnO nanoparticles that functioned as nucleation sites. Changing the concentration of ZnCl2 and the molecular weight and ratio of the diblock copolymer resulted in systematic variation in the size and spacing of the nucleation sites. Thermal anneal treatment provided further modification of the nucleation layer, from which ZnO nanofibers were successfully grown from solution, although at present it is not known if the geometry of the as-grown ZnO nanofibers precisely reflects that of the underlying nucleation layer. This work provides a simple and useful method for potentially controlling the nucleation of ZnO nanofibers to be used in hybrid ZnO/organic nanocomposite PV devices.

Wang, J.; Ginley, D.S.; Shaheen, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Nickel Zinc Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stochiometric amount of nickel nitrate and zinc nitrate were used to prepare the corresponding solution. Particles were synthesized by hydrogen reduction of the  ...

23

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

EXAMINATION OF THE OXIDATION PROTECTION OF ZINC COATINGS FORMED ON COPPER ALLOYS AND STEEL SUBSTRATES  

SciTech Connect

The exposure of metallic components at aggressive high temperature environments, usually limit their usage at similar application because they suffer from severe oxidation attack. Copper alloys are used in a wide range of high-quality indoor and outdoor applications, statue parts, art hardware, high strength and high thermal conductivity applications. On the other hand, steel is commonly used as mechanical part of industrial set outs or in the construction sector due to its high mechanical properties. The aim of the present work is the examination of the oxidation resistance of pack cementation zinc coatings deposited on copper, leaded brass and steel substrates at elevated temperature conditions. Furthermore, an effort made to make a long-term evaluation of the coated samples durability. The oxidation results showed that bare substrates appear to have undergone severe damage comparing with the coated ones. Furthermore, the mass gain of the uncoated samples was higher than this of the zinc covered ones. Particularly zinc coated brass was found to be more resistant to oxidation conditions in which it was exposed as it has the lower mass gain as compared to the bare substrates and zinc coated copper. Zinc coated steel was also proved to be more resistive than the uncoated steel.

Papazoglou, M.; Chaliampalias, D.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergioudis, G. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Skolianos, S. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Biomimetic synthesis of zinc oxide 3D architectures with gelatin as matrix  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Peanut-like and flower-like zinc oxide 3D architectures were synthesized via a facile biomimetic process using gelatin as matrix. Techniques of XRD, SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, and UV-vis absorption spectra were used to characterize the structure and property ...

Yong Gan; Fubo Gu; Dongmei Han; Zhihua Wang; Guangsheng Guo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Available Technologies: Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink  

Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. Monitoring and Imaging; Remediation; ... indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties.

27

The electronic structure of co-sputtered zinc indium tin oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Zinc indium tin oxide (ZITO) transparent conductive oxide layers were deposited via radio frequency (RF) magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature. A series of samples with gradually varying zinc content was investigated. The samples were characterized with x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS, UPS) to determine the electronic structure of the surface. Valence and conduction bands maxima (VBM, CBM), and work function were determined. The experiments indicate that increasing Zn content results in films with a higher defect rate at the surface leading to the formation of a degenerately doped surface layer if the Zn content surpasses {approx}50%. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrate that ZITO is susceptible to ultraviolet light induced work function reduction, similar to what was earlier observed on ITO and TiO{sub 2} films.

Carreras, Paz; Antony, Aldrin; Bertomeu, Joan [Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gutmann, Sebastian [Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Schlaf, Rudy [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Review of membrane separators and zinc-nickel oxide battery development  

SciTech Connect

After a discussion of membranes and their role in zinc-nickel oxide batteries, possible solutions are reviewed for problems related to membrane separators in these batteries. Experiments to characterize a membrane are also summarized. A bibliography is included to show what is being done in the field of battery research to develop practical membranes for use in Ni/Zn or Ag/Zn batteries. (LEW)

Bennion, D.N.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electrical effect of titanium diffusion on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, thermal diffusion phenomenon of Ti into amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide ({alpha}-IGZO) was carefully investigated with secondary ion mass spectroscopy, I-V, and R{sub s} measurement systems and HSC chemistry simulation tool. According to the experimental and simulated results, the diffused Ti atoms were easily oxidized due to its lowest oxidation free energy. Since oxygen atoms were decomposed from the {alpha}-IGZO during the oxidation of Ti, the number of oxygen vacancies working as electron-donating sites in {alpha}-IGZO was dramatically increased, contributing to the decrease of resistivity ({rho}) from 1.96 {Omega} cm (as-deposited {alpha}-IGZO) to 1.33 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm (350 Degree-Sign C annealed {alpha}-IGZO).

Choi, Seung-Ha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Development Group of Oxide Semiconductor, Samsung Display, Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

30

Highly conductive indium zinc oxide prepared by reactive magnetron cosputtering technique using indium and zinc metallic targets  

SciTech Connect

Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is frequently deposited from an oxide target; but the use of metallic target is increasingly expected as preparing the film with comparable properties. This work aimed to prepare a highly conductive and transparent Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on Corning Eagle{sup 2000} glass substrate by magnetron cosputtering method using indium and zinc targets. Structural characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film had an amorphous structure when the film was prepared on an unheated substrate, but had an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline structure when the film was deposited on 150 and 300 deg. C substrates. The electrical properties of the film were greatly affected by annealing; the Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film had a low resistivity of 6.1x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and an average transmittance of 81.7% when the film was deposited without substrate heating and followed a 600 deg. C annealing.

Tsai, T. K.; Chen, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Huang, Y. Y.; Fang, J. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); LinCo Technology, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

Effects of Different Precursor's Concentration on the Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were successfully grown on silicon substrate with different molarities, by a sol-gel method. In the process, the molarities were varied from 0.2-1.0 M and it was found that increasing in molarities had affected the structure of ZnO thin films. The properties of the thin films were characterized and studied by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence spectrometer (PL). It was found that the molarities affect the optical properties of the resultant ZnO thin films.

Malek, M. F.; Zakaria, N.; Sahdan, M. Z.; Mamat, M. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z. [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Origin of ferromagnetism enhancement in bi-layer chromium-doped indium zinc oxides  

SciTech Connect

This work demonstrates that by controlling the rapid thermal annealing temperature, amorphous chromium-doped indium zinc oxide films develop an amorphous-crystalline bi-layer structure and show magnetization up to {approx}30 emu/cm{sup 3}. The crystalline layer arises from significant out-diffusion of Zn from surfaces, leading to a large difference in the Zn:In ratio in amorphous and crystalline layers. Doped Cr ions in amorphous and crystalline layers form different valence configurations, creating a charge reservoir which transfers electrons through amorphous-crystalline interfaces and in turn enhances ferromagnetism.

Hsu, C. Y. [Physics Department, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

Structural and optical properties of zinc oxide film using RF-sputtering technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports the fabrication of zinc oxide (ZnO) film using RF-sputtering technique. Determination of the structural properties using High Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD) confirmed that ZnO film deposited on silicon (Si) substrate has a high quality. This result is in line with the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) which were used to image the morphology of the film, in which a rough surface was demonstrated. Photoluminescence (PL) emission is included to study the optical properties of ZnO film that shows two PL peak in the UV region at 371 nm and in visible region at 530 nm respectively.

Hashim, A. J.; Jaafar, M. S.; Ghazai, Alaa J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Pinang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Science College, Thi-Qar University (Iraq)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

Analysis of indium zinc oxide thin films by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have performed spectroscopic analysis of the plasma generated by Nd:YAG ({lambda} = 266 nm) laser irradiation of thin indium zinc oxide films with variable In content deposited by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The samples were irradiated in 5 x 10{sup 4} Pa argon using laser pulses of 5 ns duration and 10 mJ energy. The plasma emission spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector with different delays with respect to the laser pulse. The relative concentrations of indium and zinc were evaluated by comparing the measured spectra to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Plasma temperature and electron density were deduced from the relative intensities and Stark broadening of spectral lines of atomic zinc. Analyses at different locations on the deposited thin films revealed that the In/(In + Zn) concentration ratio significantly varies over the sample surface, from 0.4 at the borders to about 0.5 in the center of the film. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allows for precise and fast characterization of thin films with variable composition.

Popescu, A. C. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); Beldjilali, S. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France); LPPMCA, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, BP 1505 El Mnaouer, Oran (Algeria); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); Craciun, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); MAIC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hermann, J. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki [Department of Display Materials Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1 Seochoen-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Surface Composition, Work Function, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) possesses the electric conductivity, thermal stability, and earth abundance to be a promising transparent conductive oxide replacement for indium tin oxide electrodes in a number of molecular electronic devices, including organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. The surface chemistry of GZO is complex and dominated by the hydrolysis chemistry of ZnO, which influences the work function via charge transfer and band bending caused by adsorbates. A comprehensive characterization of the surface chemical composition and electrochemical properties of GZO electrodes is presented, using both solution and surface adsorbed redox probe molecules. The GZO surface is characterized using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy after the following pretreatments: (i) hydriodic acid etch, (ii) potassium hydroxide etch, (iii) RF oxygen plasma etching, and (iv) high-vacuum argon-ion sputtering. The O 1s spectra for the GZO electrodes have contributions from the stoichiometric oxide lattice, defects within the lattice, hydroxylated species, and carbonaceous impurities, with relative near-surface compositions varying with pretreatment. Solution etching procedures result in an increase of the work function and ionization potential of the GZO electrode, but yield different near surface Zn:Ga atomic ratios, which significantly influence charge transfer rates for a chemisorbed probe molecule. The near surface chemical composition is shown to be the dominant factor in controlling surface work function and significantly influences the rate of electron transfer to both solution and tethered probe molecules.

Ratcliff, E. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Macech, M. R.; Nebesny, K.; Lee, P. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Armstrong, N. R.; Berry, J. J.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Durability of LDPE nanocomposites with clay, silica, and zinc oxide: part I: mechanical properties of the nanocomposite materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three types of LDPE-based nanocomposites with montmorillonite clay, silica, and zinc oxide were prepared by melt blending the nanofiller with the resin. As a prelude to studying their durability, the extent of reinforcement of the LDPE matrix by the ...

Halim Hamid Redhwi, Mohammad Nahid Siddiqui, Anthony L. Andrady, Syed Hussain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films were prepared by pulsed plasma deposition from a ceramic target (90 wt. % In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt. % ZnO). The dependences of film properties upon the substrate temperature was investigated using characterization methods including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, Hall measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films grown at room temperature had a rather smooth surface due to the amorphous structure, with a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm. The atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn + In) in these films is 15.3 at. %, which is close to that in the target, and the chemical states of indium and zinc atoms were In{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. The films deposited on a substrate with a temperature of 200 Degree-Sign C exhibited polycrystalline structure and a preferred growth orientation along the (222) plane. Here the electrical properties were improved due to the better crystallinity, with the films exhibiting a minimum resistivity value of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm, a maximum carrier mobility of 45 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and an optical transmittance over 80% in the visible region.

Wan Runlai; Yang Ming; Zhou Qianfei; Zhang Qun [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Investigation of zinc oxide doped with metal impurities for use as thin film conductive phosphors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various technologies for manufacturing flat panel displays are currently being pursued world-wide. These include active matrix LCD, passive matrix LCD, and LED technologies, as well as several field emission approaches. To facilitate the development of a viable flat panel display, low voltage, conductive phosphors which emit blue, red, and green light will be required for the field emission technology. This thesis examines zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin ( ) phosphors for such an application. ZnO is a 11-VI wide bandgap semiconductor which exhibits green luminescence and has been shown to produce red luminescence as well. However, no blue light emission from ZnO thin film phosphors has been reported. An experimental survey has been conducted in which metal dopants were introduced in ZnO. This survey has revealed tungsten doped ZnO to be a previously unreported brilliant blue phosphor with high resistivity. Additional experiments indicated aluminum could be introduced in conjunction with the tungsten to increase the conductivity of the new blue ZnO phosphors. ZnO doped samples with varying amounts of tungsten and aluminum were subsequently prepared and tested. Optimization of the annealing conditions was then studied. The survey results are contained herein. Finally, it should be noted these phosphors have produced light when used as the anode material in vacuum field emission diodes.

Evatt, Steven R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Heat induced nanoforms of zinc oxide quantum dots and their characterization  

SciTech Connect

In our studies we observed heat induced phase transitions of Zinc oxide quantum dots at 60, 200, 360 and 400 Degree-Sign C, where all the transitions were irreversible except the transition at 60 Degree-Sign C which wasa reversible one. The phase transition at 60 Degree-Sign C indicated a heat induced conformational change which was supported here by studying polarizing micrographs of ZnO quantum dots thin film. The X-ray diffraction studies of the sample fired at different temperatures as indicated by the thermal analysis were performed in order to understand the changes occurred due to transitions. The study also indicated a new and simple approach to develop ZnO nanorods by just thermal decomposition of the ZnO quantum dots firing in furnace at 200 Degree-Sign C with 2h soaking. In order to have a proper insight of the structural changes we performed scanning electron microscopy. Optical characterization was done by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometer.

Dey, Anindita [Jadavpur University, Physics Department (India); Basu, Ruma [Jogamaya Devi College, Physics department (India); Das, Sukhen, E-mail: sukhendasju@gmail.com; Nandy, Papiya [Jadavpur University, Physics Department (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Zinc-Nickel Battery  

The short lifetime of the conventional zinc-nickel oxide battery has been the primary factor limiting its commercial use, ... Higher voltage, lower co ...

44

Boiling Water Reactor Zinc Addition Sourcebook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Boiling water reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the feedwater system for over 25 years to control primary system radiation fields. The zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. This evolution included transition from natural zinc oxide to depleted zinc oxide and from active zinc injection skids (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds).  Also occurring were various ...

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Processing and Characterization of P-Type Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applications of zinc oxide (ZnO) for optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, semiconductor lasers, and solar cells have not yet been realized due to the lack of high-quality p-type ZnO. In the research presented herein, pulsed laser deposition is employed to grow Ag-doped ZnO thin films, which are characterized in an attempt to understand the ability of Ag to act as a p-type dopant. By correlating the effects of the substrate temperature, oxygen pressure, and laser energy on the electrical and microstructural properties of Ag-doped ZnO films grown on c-cut sapphire substrates, p-type conductivity is achieved under elevated substrate temperatures. Characteristic stacking fault features have been continuously observed by transmission electron microscopy in all of the p-type films. Photoluminescence studies on n-type and p-type Ag-doped ZnO thin films demonstrate the role of stacking faults in determining the conductivity of the films. Exciton emission attributed to basal plane stacking faults suggests that the acceptor impurities are localized nearby the stacking faults in the n-type films. The photoluminescence investigation provides a correlation between microstructural characteristics and electrical properties of Ag- doped ZnO thin films; a link that enables further understanding of the doping nature of Ag impurities in ZnO. Under optimized deposition conditions, various substrates are investigated as potential candidates for ZnO thin film growth, including r -cut sapphire, quartz, and amorphous glass. Electrical results indicated that despite narrow conditions for obtaining p-type conductivity at a given substrate temperature, flexibility in substrate choice enables improved electrical properties. In parallel, N+-ion implantation at elevated temperatures is explored as an alternative approach to achieve p-type ZnO. The ion implantation fluence and temperature have been optimized to achieve p-type conductivity. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that characteristic stacking fault features are present throughout the p-type films, however in n-type N-doped films high-density defect clusters are observed. These results suggest that the temperature under which ion implantation is performed plays a critical role in determining the amount of dynamic defect re- combination that can take place, as well as defect cluster formation processes. Ion implantation at elevated temperatures is shown to be an effective method to introduce increased concentrations of p-type N dopants while reducing the amount of stable post-implantation disorder. Finally, the fabrication and properties of p-type Ag-doped ZnO/n-type ZnO and p-type N-doped ZnO/n-type ZnO thin film junctions were reported. For the N-doped sample, a rectifying behavior was observed in the I-V curve, consistent with N-doped ZnO being p-type and forming a p-n junction. The turn-on voltage of the device was ?2.3 V under forward bias. The Ag-doped samples did not result in rectifying behavior as a result of conversion of the p-type layer to n-type behavior under the n- type layer deposition conditions. The systematic studies in this dissertation provide possible routes to grow p-type Ag-doped ZnO films and in-situ thermal activation of N-implanted dopant ions, to overcome the growth temperature limits, and to push one step closer to the future integration of ZnO-based devices.

Myers, Michelle Anne

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Structural Properties Studies of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Grown on Silicon Carbide by Means of X-ray Diffraction Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the structural properties of the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on silicon carbide (6H-SiC) grown by radio frequency sputtering technique are investigated thoroughly by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Both conventional XRD phase analysis and rocking curve measurements are carried out in order to determine the crystalline structure and the crystalline quality of the ZnO sample. From the phase analysis, intense peaks correspond to ZnO(002), iC(006) and their multiple reflections, i.e. ZnO(004) and SiC(0012) are observed. This result suggests that the ZnO thin film is in wurzite structure. Through the simulation of XRD rocking curve of the ZnO(002) peak, the lattice mismatch of 5.49% is obtained.

Ching, C. G.; Ng, S. S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu; Al-Hardan, N. H.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

47

Observation and simulation of hard x ray photoelectron diffraction to determine polarity of polycrystalline zinc oxide films with rotation domains  

SciTech Connect

X ray photoelectron diffraction (XPD) patterns of polar zinc oxide (ZnO) surfaces were investigated experimentally using hard x rays and monochromatized Cr K{alpha} radiation and theoretically using a cluster model approach and a dynamical Bloch wave approach. We focused on photoelectrons emitted from the Zn 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s orbitals in the analysis. The obtained XPD patterns for the (0001) and (0001) surfaces of a ZnO single crystal were distinct for a given emitter and polarity. Polarity determination of c-axis-textured polycrystalline ZnO thin films was also achieved with the concept of XPD, even though the in-plane orientation of the columnar ZnO grains was random.

Williams, Jesse R.; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); NIMS Saint-Gobain Research Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials, NIMS, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Pis, Igor [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, Prague 8 18000 (Czech Republic); Kobata, Masaaki [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Winkelmann, Aimo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, NIMS, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

Kozhukh, Julia

49

Transparent Conducting Contacts Based on Zinc Oxide Substitutionally Doped with Gallium: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a critical element in photovoltaic devices. This paper describes research on Ga:ZnO (a TCO candidate) using a high-throughput combinatorial approach.

Gorrie, C. W.; Reese, M.; Perkins, J. D.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney M. S.; To, B.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

Sonawane, Yogesh S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Kanade, K.G. [Department of Chemistry, Mahatma Phule College, Pimpari, Pune 411017 (India); Kale, B.B. [Nanocrystalline Materials Laboratory, Center for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET), Pune 411008 (India)], E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.co.in; Aiyer, R.C. [Center for Sensor Studies, Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)], E-mail: rca@physics.unipune.ernet.in

2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

Influence of the film properties on the plasma etching dynamics of rf-sputtered indium zinc oxide layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The etching characteristics of indium zinc oxide (IZO) films were investigated using a high-density plasma in Ar, Ar/Cl{sub 2}, and Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} chemistries. The IZO layers were deposited by means of rf magnetron sputtering, in which the target composition and growth temperature were varied to selectively tune the film properties. X-ray diffraction, elastic recoil detection, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to determine the crystallization quality, atomic density, and composition of the as-deposited IZO films. As the In/(In+Zn) composition ratio in the IZO layer increases, the etch yield in Ar and Ar/Cl{sub 2} plasmas remains fairly constant, indicating that the etching dynamic is essentially independent of the film properties. In sharp contrast, a strong increase of the IZO etch yield with the In/(In+Zn) fraction is observed in Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma due to the preferential desorption of the group-III etch products. By comparing these experimental data to the predictions of a simple rate model accounting for preferential desorption effects, it is concluded that the balance between etching and polymer deposition in the Ar/CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasma plays an important role in the evolution of the IZO etch rate with the In concentration fraction.

Stafford, L.; Lim, W. T.; Pearton, S. J.; Chicoine, M.; Gujrathi, S.; Schiettekatte, F.; Park, Jae-Soung; Song, Ju-Il; Heo, Young-Woo; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Kravchenko, I. I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Department of Inorganic Materials Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Conducting and Optical Properties of Transparent Conducting Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides were successfully prepared from mixed zinc nitrate hexahydrate and indium nitrate hydrate solutions in ethylene glycol using sol-gel technique. The In content in the film was varied (0, 2, 10, 20, 40, 75 and 100 atom %). Films were prepared by spin coating of the liquid precursors followed by thermal decomposition at 400° C after each layer. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the pure ZnO and pure InO films (0 and at 100 % In) were crystalline as-deposited. The crystallinity was suppressed in mixed compositions such that the films with compositions between 10 and 75 at % were amorphous. All the films were transparent with the transmission cut-off frequency near 400 nm, which is characteristic of TCO materials. All as-deposited films were conductive with 0 and 100 atom % In having the lowest resistivities. The resistivity of all compositions were improved by post-deposition reducing anneal in pure Ar at 300° C. The lowest resistivity of 0.2 ?cm was obtained for the pure ZnO after Ar anneal. It was two-orders of magnitude higher than reported in the literature for the In-doped ZnO, which was attributed to the low processing temperature. The resistivities of as-deposited and annealed in Ar films were increased by consequent air anneal at 300° C.

Huang, S.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Ginley, D.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Post-Deposition Induced Conductivity in Pulsed Laser Irradiated Metal Doped Zinc Oxide Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of doped solution-deposited and rf sputter-deposited thin metal oxide films were investigated following post deposition pulsed laser irradiation. Solution deposited films were annealed at 450 ºC. Following the heating regiment, the transparent metal oxide films were subjected to 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation (4 nsec pulsewidth) at fluences between 5 and 150 mJ/cm2. Irradiation times at pulse frequencies of 30 Hz ranged from seconds to tens of minutes. Film densification, index change and a marked increase in conductivity were observed following irradiation in air and under vacuum of Al:ZnO (AZO), Ga:ZnO (GZO), and In:ZnO (IZO) films deposited on silica substrates. Despite the measured increase in conductivity, all films continued to show high transparency on the order of 90% at wavelengths from the band edge well into the near infrared region of the spectrum. Laser energies required for turning on the conductivity of these films varied depending upon the dopant. Irradiations in air yielded resistivity measurements on the order of 16 ?.cm. Resistivities of films irradiated under vacuum were on the order of 0.1 ?.cm. The increase in conductivity can be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies and subsequent promotion of free carriers into the conduction band. All irradiated films become insulating after around 24 hours. Oxygen atoms in air become reduced by electrons in the metal conduction band and diffuse into the vacancies in the lattice. The rate of this reduction process depends on the type of dopant. This work also sheds light on the damage threshold, correlating the optical properties with the presence of free carriers that have been introduced into the conduction band. All films were characterized by means of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectroscopy, visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Analysis of interference fringes in measured transmission spectra allowed film density and refractive index to be evaluated while the Raman measurements showed an increase in LO mode intensity with respect to the TO mode intensity as the films became more conducting. Results of this study are not only important for the continued development of transparent conducting oxide films that find use in photovoltaic cells and solid state lighting modules, but also provide evidence for the role of free carriers in initiating the laser damage process in these wide bandgap metal oxide films.

Wang, Lisa J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

56

Design and synthesis of novel functionalized sensors for the biological imaging of zinc(II) and nitric oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHAPTER 1: Fluorescent Sensors for the Biological sensing of Zinc(II) A variety of fluorescent techniques have been developed for the in vivo sensing of Zn2+. This chapter presents a brief overview of techniques used to ...

Won, Annie C., 1983-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Zinc Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 7   Typical applications of wrought zinc and zinc alloys...deep-drawn hardware; address plates; solar collectors Zn-Pb-Cd-Fe Building construction materials, dry-cell battery

58

Wrought Zinc and Zinc Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12   Typical applications of wrought zinc and zinc alloys...deep-drawn hardware; address plates; solar collectors Zn-Pb-Cd-Fe Building construction materials, dry-cell battery

59

Preparation of polyimide/zinc oxide nanocomposite films via an ion-exchange technique and their photoluminescence properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyimide (PI) composite films with ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the surface layer were prepared by alkali hydrolyzation following ion exchange in Zn(NO3)2 solution and thermal treatment of the zinc ion-doped PI films in air atmosphere. ...

Shuxiang Mu; Dezhen Wu; Shengli Qi; Zhanpeng Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Wrought Zinc and Zinc Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 12 Typical applications of wrought zinc and zinc alloys...materials; deep-drawn hardware; address plates; solar collectors Zn-Pb-Cd-Fe Building construction materials, dry-cell battery cans, deep-drawn hardware, address plates, electrical components Zn-Al (superplastic zinc) Shaped components such as typewriter casings, computer panels, and covers...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Highest transmittance and high-mobility amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films on flexible substrate by room-temperature deposition and post-deposition anneals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films of the highest transmittance reported in literature were initially deposited onto flexible polymer substrates at room temperature. The films were annealed in vacuum, air, and oxygen to enhance their electrical and optical performances. Electrical and optical characterizations were done before and after anneals. A partial reversal of the degradation in electrical properties upon annealing in oxygen was achieved by subjecting the films to subsequent vacuum anneals. A model was developed based on film texture and structural defects which showed close agreement between the measured and calculated carrier mobility values at low carrier concentrations (2-6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}).

Gadre, Mandar J. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alford, T. L. [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Regeneration of zinc halide catalyst used in the hydrocracking of polynuclear hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved recovery of spent molten zinc halide hydro-cracking catalyst is achieved in the oxidative vapor phase regeneration thereof by selective treatment of the zinc oxide carried over by the effluent vapors from the regeneration zone with hydrogen halide gas under conditions favoring the reaction of the zinc oxide with the hydrogen halide, whereby regenerated zinc halide is recovered in a solids-free state with little loss of zinc values.

Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

Sarma, B. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States); Downing, K.B. [Fluor Daniel, Greenville, SC (United States); Aukrust, E.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Stabilized nickel-zinc battery  

SciTech Connect

An alkaline nickel-zinc cell which has (1) a nickel-nickel hydroxide cathode; (2) a zinc-zinc oxide anode containing (A) a corrosion inhibitor such as PBO, SNO2, Tl2O3, in(OH)3 or mixtures thereof; (B) a slight corrosion accelerator such as cdo, bi2o3, ga2o3, or mixtures thereof; and (C) a zinc active material; (3) a mass-transport separator; (4) an alkaline electrolyte; and (5) means for charging the cell with an interrupted current having a frequency of from more than zero to 16 hertz with a rest period of not less than 60 milliseconds. Another desirable feature is the use of a pressure-cutoff switch to terminate charging when the internal pressure of the cell reaches a selected value in the range of from 5 to 8 psig.

Himy, A.; Wagner, O.C.

1982-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

65

Properties of double-layered Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide thin films prepared by dc magnetron sputtering applied for Si-based thin film solar cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, Ga-doped Al-zinc-oxide (GAZO)/titanium-doped indium-tin-oxide (ITIO) bi-layer films were deposited onto glass substrates by direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering. The bottom ITIO film, with a thickness of 200 nm, was sputtered onto the glass substrate. The ITIO film was post-annealed at 350 deg. C for 10-120 min as a seed layer. The effect of post-annealing conditions on the morphologies, electrical, and optical properties of ITIO films was investigated. A GAZO layer with a thickness of 1200 nm was continuously sputtered onto the ITIO bottom layer. The results show that the properties of the GAZO/ITIO films were strongly dependent on the post-annealed conditions. The spectral haze (T{sub diffuse}/T{sub total}) of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films increases upon increasing the post-annealing time. The haze and resistivity of the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films were improved with the post-annealed process. After optimizing the deposition and annealing parameters, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film has an average transmittance of 83.20% at the 400-800 nm wavelengths, a maximum haze of 16%, and the lowest resistivity of 1.04 x 10{sup -3}{Omega} cm. Finally, the GAZO/ITIO bi-layer films, as a front electrode for silicon-based thin film solar cells, obtained a maximum efficiency of 7.10%. These encouraging experimental results have potential applications in GAZO/ITIO bi-layer film deposition by in-line sputtering without the wet-etching process and enable the production of highly efficient, low-cost thin film solar cells.

Wang, Chao-Chun; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Lin, Yang-Shih; Lien, Shui-Yang; Huang, Yung-Chuan; Liu, Chueh-Yang; Chen, Chia-Fu; Nautiyal, Asheesh; Lee, Shuo-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MingDao University, Changhua 52345, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Zinc electrode with cement additive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

Charkey, Allen (Brookfield, CT)

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Spontaneous discharge in nickel-zinc accumulations  

SciTech Connect

The authors have examined discharge in nickel-zinc accumulators and monitored the gas. The measurements were made at room temperature with types having two layers of hydrated cellulose separators on the zinc electrodes and capron separators on the nickel oxide ones. There was a ratio of 2.5 between the active masses of the negative and positive electrodes. After three controlled cycles the accumulators were tested for spontaneous discharge. Then they determined the spontaneous discharge after use. The hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen in the gas were determined by a gasometric method in combination with gas chromatography. The zinc and the nickel oxide electrodes contribute to the self-discharge, which considerably exceeds the capacity loss determined from the hydrogen production. The zinc electrode corrosion indicated by the hydrogen production increases when the accumulator is operated. When a charged battery is stored, nitrogen is produced as well as hydrogen and oxygen. The nitrate accelerates the spontaneous discharge.

Dmitrenko, V.E.; Zubov, M.S.; Kuznetsova, L.N.; Okhlobystin, N.I.; Toguzov, B.M.; Tikhomirov, Yu.V.

1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Nickel/zinc batteries  

SciTech Connect

A review of the design, components, electrochemistry, operation and performance of nickel-zinc batteries is presented. 173 references. (WHK)

McBreen, J.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

70

Novel electrolyte additives to enhance zinc electrode cycle life  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical power sources that utilize zinc electrodes possess many advantages. Zinc is abundantly available, benign, inexpensive, stable over a wide operating temperature range, and has a high oxidation potential. In spite of these advantageous characteristics, rechargeable electrochemical systems based on zinc chemistry have not found widespread use. The major disadvantages of zinc electrodes are that they have limited cycle life due to zinc slumping and zinc electrode shape changes in alkaline solutions resulting from the solubility of zincate (Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2-}) in these solutions. As a result, premature cell failure often results due to cell shorting caused by dendritic growth as well as zinc slumping. In this paper we describe the chemical and physical characteristics of electrolyte solutions employing additives, particularly for zinc based electrochemical systems. These electrolytes are prepared using the alkali metal salts of 1,3,5-phenyltrisulfonic acid in combination with potassium hydroxide. The alkali metal salts of the acid possess good thermal stability, good ionic conductivity, and have a wide electrochemical voltage window in aqueous systems. With these electrolyte solutions improved cycle life was achieved in Zn/NiOOH and Zn/AgO. Improved cycle life with this additive is attributed to decreased zincate solubility, resulting in reduced zinc slumping and electrode shape changes. In addition, increased shelf-life and reduced self-discharge were also observed in many alkaline power sources.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Applications of Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Typical applications of zinc-coated steel products...galvanized Various alloys Structural steel for power generating plants, petrochemical

72

Zinc electrode shape change. 1; In situ monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on zinc electrode shape change, the redistribution of zinc material over the electrode during repeated cycling, identified as one of the main life-limiting factors for alkaline nickel oxide/zinc secondary batteries. To investigate this phenomenon in situ, a radiotracer, {sup 65}Zn, is incorporated in the battery and its movement monitored during repeated cycling of the battery. The changes in the distribution of {sup 65}Zn over the electrode during battery operation are attributed to the displacement of radioactive zincate ions via the battery electrolyte. It is shown that the spatial distribution of {sup 65}Zn offers a reliable indication for the zinc material distribution over the electrode, provided an electrode with uniformly specific radioactivity is used in the measurements. Radiotracer experiments using zinc electrodes containing 2 weight percent HgO as an additive and uniformly labeled with {sup 203}Hg, have revealed that during battery cycling no substantial net transport of mercury species occurs.

Visschev, W.; Barendrecht, E.; Einerhand, R.E.F.; deGoeij, J.J.M. (Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (NL))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Overcoming Solubility Limitations to Zinc Addition in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc addition to the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is being used for dose rate reduction and primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) mitigation. This report summarizes results of aqueous zinc oxide solubility experiments from 150 to 350 degrees Celsius (302 to 662 degrees Fahrenheit). These experiments were performed to develop quantitative models of solubility and aqueous-phase solute speciation behavior as functions of temperature, pH, and solution compositio...

2001-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sealed nickel-zinc battery  

SciTech Connect

A sealed, rechargeable nickel-zinc cell includes a zinc electrode active mass essentially free of zinc metal when at full discharge, a carboxylated styrene-butadiene binder retaining the zinc electrode mixture in a coherent structure, a predetermined amount of cadmium being included in the zinc electrode mixture, a separator preferably comprising at least two layers of material free of any adhesive binding the layers together and a wicking layer positioned between the nickel positive electrode and the separator.

Gibbard, H. F.; Menard, C. J.; Murray Jr., R. C.; Putt, R. A.; Valentine, T. W.

1985-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

Ross, Jr., Philip N. (Kensington, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilbraham, MA); Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

Corrosion Resistance of Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 15 Compatibility of untreated zinc with various media...free Excellent Gas (a) Towns, natural, propane, butane Excellent Glycerine . . . Excellent Inks Printing Excellent Aqueous writing Not recommended Insecticides Dry Excellent In solution Not recommended Lubricants Mineral, acid free Excellent Organic Not recommended Paraffin . . . Excellent...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Sources of Zinc Scrap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...and up to 1% Cu. Zinc die castings are generally small, from less than one ounce up to several pounds in weight. They are frequently found as components in complex assemblies such as in automobiles, appliances, and electronics. Separation of castings from these larger assemblies is difficult, as is the...

83

Zinc alkaline secondary battery  

SciTech Connect

A zinc alkaline secondary battery with improved service life in which a multi-layer separator is interposed between the negative and positive electrodes and the quantity of the alkaline electrolyte in the layer of the separator adjacent to the negative electrode is less than that of the electrolyte in the layer of the separator adjacent to the positive electrode.

Furukawa, N.; Nishizawa, N.

1983-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

Corrosion Resistance of Zinc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 15   Compatibility of untreated zinc with various media...Sulfur free Excellent Gas (a) Towns, natural, propane, butane Excellent Glycerine � Excellent Inks Printing Excellent Aqueous writing Not recommended Insecticides Dry Excellent In solution Not recommended Lubricants Mineral, acid free Excellent Organic Not recommended Paraffin � Excellent...

85

Doping in Zinc Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. Ahuja, J. M. Osorio Guillen, B. Johansson, and G. A.R. Ahuja, J. M. Osorio Guillen, B. Johansson, and G. A.

Yang, Zheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Zinc Injection Strategy Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All U.S. boiling water reactors (BWRs) inject depleted zinc oxide (DZO) into the reactor feedwater for the purpose of suppressing drywell shutdown radiation dose rates. Current guidance in BWRVIP-190: BWR Vessel and Internals Project, BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines2008 Revision (EPRI report 1016579) is to inject sufficient zinc to achieve a Co-60(s)/Zn(s) ratio of Utility-specific goals may encourage even lower Co-60(s)/Zn(s) levels. This may be in part because BWR e...

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

88

Iron Control in Zinc Pressure Leach Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consequently, the disposal of iron residues is an integral part of the design and operation of zinc refineries. Zinc has been recovered from sulfide concentrates ...

89

Zinc Matrix Power Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zinc Matrix Power Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Zinc Matrix Power Inc Place Santa Barbara, California Zip 93101 Product Develops high-performance rechargeable alkaline...

90

A new high energy stabilized nickel-zinc rechargeable battery system for SLI and EV applications  

SciTech Connect

The nickel oxide-zinc rechargeable battery system is a serious candidate for a high power economical EV battery. The introduction of a new chemistry has resulted in stabilization of the performance of the zinc anode without adversely affecting the nickel electrode. The result has been a major enhancement of the cycle life capability with retention of the remarkably high practical energy density (both gravimetric and volumetric) of the nickel-zinc system. Near term practical applications for both passenger car truck SLI batteries as well as long term deep cycle applications for electric vehicles are discussed.

Reisner, D.; Eisenberg, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

It's Elemental - The Element Zinc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Copper Previous Element (Copper) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gallium) Gallium The Element Zinc [Click for Isotope Data] 30 Zn Zinc 65.38 Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Weight: 65.38 Melting Point: 692.68 K (419.53°C or 787.15°F) Boiling Point: 1180 K (907°C or 1665°F) Density: 7.134 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the German word zink. Say what? Zinc is pronounced as ZINK. History and Uses: Although zinc compounds have been used for at least 2,500 years in the production of brass, zinc wasn't recognized as a distinct element until much later. Metallic zinc was first produced in India sometime in the 1400s by heating the mineral calamine (ZnCO3) with wool. Zinc was rediscovered by

93

Experience with Zinc Injection in European PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc injection is an effective technique for lowering shutdown dose rates in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report compiles information about zinc injection experience at Siemens PWRs and compares the results with the use of zinc injection at U.S. PWRs. The plant data confirm that even low concentrations of zinc in the reactor water can indeed lower shutdown dose rates, but plants should make a concerted effort to inject zinc on a continuous basis to achieve the best results.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

EFFECT OF THERMAL PROCESSES ON COPPER-TIN ALLOYS FOR ZINC GETTERING  

SciTech Connect

A contamination mitigation plan was initiated to address the discovery of radioactive zinc‐65 in a glovebox. A near term solution was developed, installation of heated filters in the glovebox piping. This solution is effective at retaining the zinc in the currently contaminated area, but the gamma emitting contaminant is still present in a system designed for tritium beta. A project was initiated to develop a solution to contain the {sup 65}Zn in the furnace module. Copper and bronze (a Cu/Sn alloy) were found to be candidate materials to combine with zinc‐65 vapor, using thermodynamic calculations. A series of binary Cu/Sn alloys were developed (after determining that commercial alloys were unacceptable), that were found to be effective traps of zinc vapor. The task described in this report was undertaken to determine if the bronze substrates would retain their zinc gettering capability after being exposed to simulated extraction conditions with oxidizing and reducing gases. Pure copper and three bronze alloys were prepared, exposed to varying oxidation conditions from 250 to 450{degree}C, then exposed to varying reduction conditions in He-H{sub 2} from 250-450{degree}C, and finally exposed to zinc vapor at 350{degree}C for four hours. The samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, mass change, and visual observation. It was observed that the as fabricated samples and the reduced samples all retained their zinc gettering capacity while samples in the "as-oxidized" condition exhibited losses in zinc gettering capacity. Over the range of conditions tested, i.e., composition, oxidation temperature, and reduction temperature, no particular sample composition appeared better. Samples reduced at 350{degree}C exhibited the greatest zinc capacity, although there were some testing anomalies associated with these samples. This work clearly demonstrated that the zinc gettering was not adversely affected by exposure to simulated process conditions and a full scale lithium and zinc trap should be fabricated for testing in the Tritium Extraction Facility.

Korinko, P.; Golyski, M.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Electrochemical studies of the automotive lubricant additive zinc n-dibutyldithiophosphate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDTPs) are widely incorporated in lubricant formulations as antioxidant and antiwear additives. Using the model compound zinc n-dibutyldithiophosphate (Bu-ZDTP) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution, cyclic voltammetry is applied to a detailed study of Bu-ZDTP electro-oxidation. Bu-ZDTP is shown to be oxidized in a chemically irreversible electron transfer process under diffusion-limited conditions. A similar study of Bu-ZDTP reduction revealed nucleation of zinc at the electrode surface. A chronoamperometric investigation of zinc deposition classified the nucleation according to a progressive mechanism with the diffusion coefficient for Bu-ZDTP in DMF solution as 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. By comparison with diffusion coefficients obtained via Levich analysis of Bu-ZDTP oxidation, the oxidation process is assigned as a two-electron transfer. The use of atomic force microscopy as a means of directly visualizing zinc nuclei formed as a result of Bu-ZDTP reduction is described.

Jacob, S.R.; Compton, R.G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Lab.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Absorption of zinc and iron by rats fed meals containing sorghum food products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc and iron absorption from freeze-dried traditionally-prepared sorghum food products was studied in rats. After a period of marginal zinc or iron depletion, rats were fed test meals containing 1 of 4 sorghum foods cooked maize gruel or an inorganic mineral each of which was extrinsically labeled with either /sup 65/Zn or /sup 59/Fe before being added to the diets. Absorption was determined by whole body percent retention of the initial radioisotope dose over a period of 19 days. Iron was highly available from all products tested (75-83%) with no significant differences in absorption among groups (p>0.05). Zinc from fermented Aceta (97%) was more available than that from the other sorghum products (69-78%) or maize gruel (76%). Zinc from acid To (78%) and Aceta (97%) was as available as that from zinc oxide in the control diet (93%) (p>0.05). There were no significant differences in zinc absorption among groups fed Acid To (78%), neutral To (76), alkali To (69%) or maize gruel (76%) (psorghum foods. Iron and zinc were highly available from all sorghum foods. Reduction phytate by fermentation increased Zn availability.

Stuart, S.M.A.; Johnson, P.E.; Hamaker, B.; Kirleis, A.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Low Temperature Fully Lithographic Process For Metal–Oxide Field-Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a low temperature ( ~ 100à °C) lithographic method for fabricating hybrid metal oxide/organic field-effect transistors (FETs) that combine a zinc-indium-oxide (ZIO) semiconductor channel and organic, parylene, ...

Sodini, Charles G.

98

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc Influx and Efflux in Neurons1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zinc and Health: Current Status and Future Directions Zinc Transport in the Brain: Routes of Zinc and that mediate extracellular zinc toxicity and (3) a plasma membrane transporter potentially present in all of mechanism, is the transporter pathway. The kinetics of zinc uptake in cultured neurons under resting

99

Amine templated zinc phosphates phases for membrane separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research is focused on developing inorganic molecular sieve membranes for light gas separations such as hydrogen recovery and natural gas purification, and organic molecular separations, such as chiral enantiomers. The authors focus on zinc phosphates because of the ease in crystallization of new phases and the wide range of pore sizes and shapes obtained. With hybrid systems of zinc phosphate crystalline phases templated by amine molecules, the authors are interested in better understanding the association of the template molecules to the inorganic phase, and how the organic transfers its size, shape, and (in some cases) chirality to the bulk. Furthermore, the new porous phases can also be synthesized as thin films on metal oxide substrates. These films allow one to make membranes from organic/inorganic hybrid systems, suitable for diffusion experiments. Characterization techniques for both the bulk phases and the thin films include powder X-ray diffraction, TGA, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS).

Nenoff, T.M.; Chavez, A.V.; Thoma, S.G.; Provencio, P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harrison, W.T.A. [Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia); Phillips, M.L.F. [Gemfire Corp., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

Underkoffler, V.S.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Nanowire-based All Oxide Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an all-oxide solar cell fabricated from vertically oriented zinc oxide nanowires and cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solar cell consists of vertically oriented n-type zinc oxide nanowires, surrounded by a film constructed from p-type cuprous oxide nanoparticles. Our solution-based synthesis of inexpensive and environmentally benign oxide materials in a solar cell would allow for the facile production of large-scale photovoltaic devices. We found that the solar cell performance is enhanced with the addition of an intermediate oxide insulating layer between the nanowires and the nanoparticles. This observation of the important dependence of the shunt resistance on the photovoltaic performance is widely applicable to any nanowire solar cell constructed with the nanowire array in direct contact with one electrode.

Yang*, Benjamin D. Yuhas and Peidong; Yang, Peidong

2008-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

Thermodynamic simulation of transfer of lead, cadmium, and zinc to the gas phase during oxidative and reductive thermal treatment of coals from some coal deposits of the Russian federation  

SciTech Connect

The results of thermodynamic study of the distribution of Pb, Cd, and Zn during the thermal processing of coals from the Kuznetsk and Moscow basins and the Berezovskoe coal deposit of the Kansk-Achinsk basin at different excess oxidant (air) factors and in an inert (argon) medium are presented. The equilibrium forms of compounds were revealed, and their concentrations in the gas and condensed phase were calculated. Trace elements get into the gas phase during the heat treatment of coals in both oxidizing and reducing media. Their most intense transfer to the gas phase takes place at a = 0.4. An increase in temperature enhances this process, and an increase in the ash content of coal decreased the extent of transfer. 9 refs., 10 tabs.

L.N. Lebedeva; L.A. Kost; E.G. Gorlov; E.V. Samuilov [FGUP Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

Upper Stage Explosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion of a failed launch vehicle upper stage on 16 October created thousands of new debris which pose collision risks to hundreds of satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO), including the International Space Station (ISS). Fortunately, the threat will be relatively short-lived with the majority of the debris expected to reenter the atmosphere within one year. The explosion of the Proton Briz-M stage (International Designator 2012-044C, U.S. Satellite Number 38746) occurred just a day after the publication of the October 2012 issue of the Orbital Debris Quarterly News, which contained an article describing the potential for just such a breakup (ODQN, October 2012, pp. 2-3). The stage

Places Leo; Satellites Risk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup The Upper Los Alamos Canyon Project involves cleaning up hazardous materials left over from some of the Laboratory's earliest activities. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Located along Los Alamos Canyon from 7th Street to the Pajarito Ski Hill, the Upper Los Alamos Canyon Project involves examining sites in present and former Laboratory technical areas to see if any further environmental cleanup actions are needed. If not, the Laboratory can apply to have these sites removed permanently from LANL's Hazardous Waste Permit, meaning that no further actions are needed at those sites. Among the 115 sites included in the Upper LA Canyon Project, 54 have been

106

Upper Los Alamos Canyon Cleanup  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

septic tanks, sanitary and industrial waste lines, storm drains, incinerators, transformer sites, and areas in which soil has been contaminated. The Upper Los Alamos Canyon...

107

MTF-1-Mediated Repression of the Zinc Transporter Zip10 Is Alleviated by Zinc Restriction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The regulation of cellular zinc uptake is a key process in the overall mechanism governing mammalian zinc homeostasis and how zinc participates in cellular functions. We analyzed the zinc transporters of the Zip family in both the brain and liver of zinc-deficient animals and found a large, significant increase in Zip10 expression. Additionally, Zip10 expression decreased in response to zinc repletion. Moreover, isolated mouse hepatocytes, AML12 hepatocytes, and Neuro 2A cells also respond differentially to zinc availability in vitro. Measurement of Zip10 hnRNA and actinomycin D inhibition studies indicate that Zip10 was transcriptionally regulated by zinc deficiency. Through luciferase promoter constructs and ChIP analysis, binding of MTF-1 to a metal response element located 17 bp downstream of the transcription start site was shown to be necessary for zinc-induced repression of Zip10. Furthermore, zinc-activated MTF-1 causes down-regulation of Zip10 transcription by physically blocking Pol II movement through the gene. Lastly, ZIP10 is localized to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and neuro 2A cells. Collectively, these results reveal a novel repressive role for MTF-1 in the regulation of the Zip10 zinc transporter expression by pausing Pol II transcription. ZIP10 may have roles in control of zinc homeostasis in specific sites particularly those of the brain and liver. Within that context ZIP10 may act as an important survival mechanism during

Louis A. Lichten; Moon-suhn Ryu; Liang Guo; Jennifer Embury; Robert J. Cousins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Direct Leaching Alternatives for Zinc Concentrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biosorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Poplar Cotton · Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc Electrowinning.

109

Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this soluble'' zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. (MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The marine biogeochemistry of zinc isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zinc (Zn) stable isotopes can record information about important oceanographic processes. This thesis presents data on Zn isotopes in anthropogenic materials, hydrothermal fluids and minerals, cultured marine phytoplankton, ...

John, Seth G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles Title Laboratory-scale evaluation of secondary alkaline zinc batteries for electric vehicles...

112

The zinc electrode: Reactions and mechanisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. This paper reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on supersaturated zincate and on mossy deposits.

McBreen, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

Korinko, P.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

114

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K[sub 2]CO[sub 3] salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics. 8 figures.

Adler, T.C.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

115

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing KOH and a combination of KF and K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 salts which inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

Adler, Thomas C. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Cairns, Elton J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Photovoltaic devices comprising zinc stannate buffer layer and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device has a buffer layer zinc stannate Zn.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed between the semiconductor junction structure and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer to prevent formation of localized junctions with the TCO through a thin window semiconductor layer, to prevent shunting through etched grain boundaries of semiconductors, and to relieve stresses and improve adhesion between these layers.

Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

192 Catalyst-Assisted Low Temperature Synthesis of Zinc Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of LiMnxFe1-xPO4 Glass and Glass-Ceramics for Lithium Ion Battery .... and Comparing the Inhibition Effect of Chromate, Bromate and Molybdate on the ...

118

069 Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Bandgap Engineering for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

005 Calcium Phosphates for Drug Carrier: Adsorption and Release Kinetics of Drugs ... 058 Properties Optimization of Refractory Mineral Resources in China.

119

Properties and sensor performance of zinc oxide thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactively sputtered ZnO thin film gas sensors were fabricated onto Si wafers. The atmosphere dependent electrical response of the ZnO micro arrays was examined. The effects of processing conditions on the properties and ...

Min, Yongki, 1965-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

MICROSTRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS OF A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MATERIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTRAST MICROGRAPHS NO BIAS 10-VOLT REVERSE BIAS 10-·v'OlT~~-40V NO BIAS 20-VOLT BIAS DIFFERENCE DISTANCE (ACROSS i!MICRODENSITOMETER TRACES 5-VOLT BIAS 5-VOLT REVERSE BIAS NO

Williama, Pamela Louise

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Zinc Oxide and Nitride Nanowire Based Light Emitting Diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

light sources have wasted emission and energy as can be seenor in other words, wasted electrical energy). Extraction

Lai, Elaine Michelle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Zinc Oxide and Nitride Nanowire Based Light Emitting Diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lumens/W, the LED beats the incandescent bulb and is on thefor an LED as opposed to an incandescent light bulb as shownbulb, fluorescent lamp, and blue light emitting diode. (24) (25) 2.2 LED

Lai, Elaine Michelle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Possibilities for the Improvement of Secondary Zinc Oxide Quality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Recovery of Gold from E-wastes by Using Cellulosic Wastes · Stabilization of Chromium-Based Slags with FeS2 and FeSO4 · Sulphide Precipitation ...

124

Zinc Oxide and Nitride Nanowire Based Light Emitting Diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-x)Ga(x)N alloys: Full-solar-spectrum photovoltaic materialas compared to solar spectrum, taken from LBL website (as compared to solar spectrum, taken from LBL website (50)

Lai, Elaine Michelle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Nanostructures and Their Potential for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using piezoelectric ZnO nanowire arrays, we demonstrated a novel approach for converting nanoscale mechanical energy into electric energy. The mechanism ...

126

Analysis of Copper Incorporation Into Zinc Oxide Nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sensors, solar cells, field emission sources, and piezoelectric devices ... optical properties; Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and energy dispersive X ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

127

B9: Facile Synthesis of Transparent and Conductive Zinc Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

D11: Binary and Ternary Phase Diagram Studies of Thermal Energy Storage Materials ... for Use in 3-state and Non-volatile Memory FETs on Si and InGaAs substrates ... E9: Low-temperature Spin Spray Deposited Ferrite/Piezoelectric Thin Film .... of Core-shell Structured Multiferroic Nanocomposites for Energy Harvesting.

128

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

129

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

130

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for bioremediation. It is known that some organics promote aggregation. Amine-bearing molecules, for example, can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide nanocrystals in the biofilms. Their examination yielded excellent results and some surprises. They were able to prove that natural organic matter promotes dense aggregation of the zinc sulfide nanocrystals into much larger spheroids and that the organic matter is preserved in nanometer-scale pores in the spheroids. What was not expected was the presence of proteins in the spheroids, making them a key component in aggregation and an example of extracellular biomineralization.

131

Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

132

STUDIES OF MICROMORPHOLOGY AND CURRENT EFFICIENCY OF ZINC ELECTRODEPOSITED FROM FLOWING CHLORIDE ELECTROLYTES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rechargeable zinc/chlorine and zinc/bromine batteriesthis section. The zinc/chlorine and zinc/bromine batteriesare high: 2.32 V for the chlorine (12) and tions are 1.85 V

Mc Vay, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition with lead additive  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates to a zinc halogen battery electrolyte composition containing an additive providing improved zinc-on-zinc recyclability. The improved electrolyte composition involves the use of a lead additive to inhibit undesirable irregular plating and reduce nodular or dendritic growth on the electrode surface. The lead-containing electrolyte composition of the present invention appears to influence not only the morphology of the base plate zinc, but also the morphology of the zinc-on-zinc replate. In addition, such lead-containing electrolyte compositions appear to reduce hydrogen formation.

Henriksen, Gary L. (Troy, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Feasibility study of a new zinc-air battery concept using flowing alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

Proof-of-principle experiments are reported for a new concept in electrically rechargeable zinc-air battery. The zinc electrode is a porous flow-thru type using a copper foam metal substrate with zinc deposition onto the foam metal from concentrated zincate electrolyte (as used in zinc-slurry type batteries). The bifunctional air electrode employs low-cost materials, being fabricated entirely from carbon-based precursors and small amounts of nickel and/or cobalt oxide. Corrosion measurements on the graphite materials in the air electrode indicate sufficient corrosion resistance for 8000 h life on charge. A prototype single cell was constructed having 1.5 Ah capacity producing 1.2 V discharge -2.0 charge at the three hour rate and has produced stable voltages for more than 150 cycles. Based on the 1.5 Ah prototype characteristics, design calculations for a 32 kWh battery project an energy density of about 110 Wh/kg, peak power density of 140 W/kg, electrical efficiency of 60% and an attractive materials cost of less than or equal to$20 per kWh.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrometallurgical process for recovering iron sulfate and zinc sulfate from baghouse dust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for recovering zinc-rich and iron-rich fractions from the baghouse dust that is generated in various metallurgical operations, especially in steel-making and other iron-making plants, comprises the steps of leaching the dust by hot concentrated sulfuric acid so as to generate dissolved zinc sulfate and a precipitate of iron sulfate, separating the precipitate from the acid by filtration and washing with a volatile liquid, such as methanol or acetone, and collecting the filtered acid and the washings into a filtrate fraction. The volatile liquid may be recovered by distillation, and the zinc may be removed from the filtrate by alternative methods, one of which involves addition of a sufficient amount of water to precipitate hydrated zinc sulfate at 10 C, separation of the precipitate from sulfuric acid by filtration, and evaporation of water to regenerate concentrated sulfuric acid. The recovery of iron may also be effected in alternative ways, one of which involves roasting the ferric sulfate to yield ferric oxide and sulfur trioxide, which can be reconverted to concentrated sulfuric acid by hydration. The overall process should not generate any significant waste stream. 1 figure.

Zaromb, S.; Lawson, D.B.

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Quick-start catalyzed methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic methanol partial oxidation reformer described in this paper offers all the necessary attributes for use in transportation fuel cell systems. The bench-scale prototype methanol reformer developed at Argonne is a cylindrical reactor loaded with copper zinc oxide catalyst. Liquid methanol, along with a small amount of water, is injected as a fine spray into a flowing air stream, past an igniter onto the catalyst bed where the partial oxidation reaction takes place.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Electrically and Hydraulically Rechargeable Zinc-air Battery  

A secondary zinc air battery, which can be either eletrically or hydraulically recharged, is provided with an inventive metal ...

139

Processing of Lead, Zinc, Copper and Nickel Concentrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Processing of copper, zinc, lead and nickel concentrates is becoming more challenging due increasingly complex mineralogy. Smelters are  ...

140

Cadmium zinc telluride substrate growth, characterization, and evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: cadmium zinc telluride (CZT), chemical analysis, infrared focal plane arrays (INFRAs), single crystal growth, subsstrate defects, substrates

M. Kestigian; A. B. Bollong; J. J. Derby; H. L. Glass; K. Harris; H. L. Hettich; P. K. Liao; P. Mitra; P. W. Norton; H. Wadley

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Comprehensive Historical Upper-Air Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To better understand variability in weather and climate, it is vital to address past atmospheric circulation. This need requires meteorological information not just from the surface but also at upper levels. Current global upper-level datasets ...

A. Stickler; A. N. Grant; T. Ewen; T. F. Ross; R. S. Vose; J. Comeaux; P. Bessemoulin; K. Jylhä; W. K. Adam; P. Jeannet; A. Nagurny; A. M. Sterin; R. Allan; G. P. Compo; T. Griesser; S. Brönnimann

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Regenerative zinc/air and zinc/ferricyanide batteries for stationary power applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors report a novel configuration for a zinc-particle, packed-bed anode in which an open structure of high hydraulic permeability is maintained indefinitely in a cell with closely spaced walls by the formation of particle bridges and associated gaps. The configuration minimizes electrolyte pumping costs, allows rapid refueling and partial recharge, and provides for 100% zinc consumption. This approach benefits zinc/air fuel batteries by allowing nearly continuous operation and fuel recycle without commercial infrastructure; it benefits Zn/[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup {minus}3} batteries by eliminating shape-change and polarization problems found with planar anodes.

Cooper, J.F.; Keene, L.E.; Noring, J.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

CdS/CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cell with a Zinc Stannate Buffer Layer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes an improved CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin-film solar-cell device structure that integrates a zinc stannate (Zn2SnO4 or ZTO) buffer layer between the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer and the CdS window layer. Zinc stannate films have a high bandgap, high transmittance, low absorptance, and low surface roughness. In addition, these films are chemically stable and exhibit higher resistivities that are roughly matched to that of the CdS window layer in the device structure. Preliminary device results have demonstrated that by integrating a ZTO buffer layer in both SnO2-based and Cd2SnO4 (CTO)-based CdS/CdTe devices, performance and reproducibility can be significantly enhanced

Wu, X.; Sheldon, P.; Mahathongdy, Y.; Ribelin, R.; Mason, A.; Moutinho, H. R.; Coutts, T. J.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

146

Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Rechargeable zinc cell with alkaline electrolyte which inhibits shape change in zinc electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable zinc cell is described comprising a zinc electrode and another electrode such as, for example, a nickel-containing electrode, and having an electrolyte containing one or more hydroxides having the formula M(OH), one or more fluorides having the formula MF, and one or more carbonates having the formula M.sub.2 CO.sub.3, where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of alkali metals. The electrolyte inhibits shape change in the zinc electrode, i.e., the zinc electrode exhibits low shape change, resulting in an improved capacity retention of the cell over an number of charge-discharge cycles, while still maintaining high discharge rate characteristics.

Adler, Thomas C. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Cairns, Elton J. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Upper Estimates for Banach Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the relationship of dominance for sequences and trees in Banach spaces. In the context of sequences, we prove that domination of weakly null sequences is a uniform property. More precisely, if $(v_i)$ is a normalized basic sequence and $X$ is a Banach space such that every normalized weakly null sequence in $X$ has a subsequence that is dominated by $(v_i)$, then there exists a uniform constant $C\\geq1$ such that every normalized weakly null sequence in $X$ has a subsequence that is $C$-dominated by $(v_i)$. We prove as well that if $V=(v_i)_{i=1}^\\infty$ satisfies some general conditions, then a Banach space $X$ with separable dual has subsequential $V$ upper tree estimates if and only if it embeds into a Banach space with a shrinking FDD which satisfies subsequential $V$ upper block estimates. We apply this theorem to Tsirelson spaces to prove that for all countable ordinals $\\alpha$ there exists a Banach space $X$ with Szlenk index at most $\\omega^{\\alpha \\omega +1}$ which is universal for all Banach spaces with Szlenk index at most $\\omega^{\\alpha\\omega}$.

Freeman, Daniel B.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

150

Enhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfide buffer layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S absorber layers without breaking vacuum. Indium tin oxide (ITO) (200 nm) was deposited at room temperature at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), exhibiting an improved cell performance of Jsc ¼ 19.4mA/cm2 by vapor deposition of p-type tin(II) sulfide, SnS, and n-type zinc oxysulfide, Zn(O,S), using a device

Gordon, Roy

151

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixtures derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fluorescent chemosensors for exploring zinc metalloneurochemistry and detecting mercury in aqueous solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. An Introduction to Zinc Metalloneurochemistry and Zinc Detection in Biology. This chapter presents an overview of zinc neurophysiology and pathology, which provides motivation for the design of new tools and ...

Nolan, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Marie), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Mechanical Pretreatment of Lead Based Alloy Anode for Zinc ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biosorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Poplar Cotton · Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc Electrowinning.

155

Reduction Process Of Zinc From Concentrates With CO2 Reduced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recoveries of >90% of Zinc, and reduced CO2 gas emission product are expected after evaluation. Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: A print-only volume ...

156

Zinc air battery development for electric vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of research conducted during the sixteen month continuation of a program to develop rechargeable zinc-air batteries for electric vehicles. The zinc-air technology under development incorporates a metal foam substrate for the zinc electrode, with flow of electrolyte through the foam during battery operation. In this ``soluble`` zinc electrode the zincate discharge product dissolves completely in the electrolyte stream. Cycle testing at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where the electrode was invented, and at MATSI showed that this approach avoids the zinc electrode shape change phenomenon. Further, electrolyte flow has been shown to be necessary to achieve significant cycle life (> 25 cycles) in this open system. Without it, water loss through the oxygen electrode results in high-resistance failure of the cell. The Phase I program, which focused entirely on the zinc electrode, elucidated the conditions necessary to increase electrode capacity from 75 to as much as 300 mAh/cm{sup 2}. By the end of the Phase I program over 500 cycles had accrued on one of the zinc-zinc half cells undergoing continuous cycle testing. The Phase II program continued the half cell cycle testing and separator development, further refined the foam preplate process, and launched into performance and cycle life testing of zinc-air cells.

Putt, R.A.; Merry, G.W. [MATSI, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Zinc Electrowinning Using Novel Rolled Pb-Ag-Ca Anodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2003 ... Since May 2001, industrial-scale tests have been carried out at two zinc refineries in North America in industrial electrowinning cells.

158

Dechlorination Thermodynamics of CuCl Residue from Zinc ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commissioning of a Second Cobalt Recovery Furnace at Nchanga Smelter .... Study of Dielectric Properties and Drying Characteristics on Zinc Alloy Power from ...

159

On the Effects of Zinc and AlB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, On the Effects of Zinc and AlB2 Particles on Absorbed Impact ... on Mechanical Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Nickel-CNT Composites.

160

Chromium-free Conversion Coating for Electroplated Zinc-nickel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Chromium-free Conversion Coating for Electroplated Zinc- nickel. Author(s), Melissa L. Klingenberg, Clayton Drees, Elizabeth Berman, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Research on separators for alkaline zinc batteries. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the research and development of a hybrid separator as an improved battery separator in alkaline zinc secondary batteries. Particular emphasis has been directed toward increasing the cycle life of zinc electrodes by controlling the permselectivity of the separator.

Yeo, R.S.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non?adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350?450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

Korinko, P. S.

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

163

Upper Scioto Valley School | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley School Valley School Jump to: navigation, search Name Upper Scioto Valley School Facility Upper Scioto Valley School Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Upper Scioto Valley Schools Energy Purchaser Upper Scioto Valley Schools Location McGuffey OH Coordinates 40.691542°, -83.786353° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.691542,"lon":-83.786353,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

164

PV Frontogenesis and Upper-Tropospheric Fronts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-tropospheric fronts and frontogenesis are viewed from a potental vorticity (PV) perspective. The rudiments of this approach are to regard such a front as a zone of strong PV gradient on isentropic surfaces, and to treat the accompanying ...

H. C. Davies; A. M. Rossa

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Neutrally Buoyant, Upper Ocean Sediment Trap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have designed and deployed a neutrally buoyant sediment trap (NBST) intended for use in the upper ocean. The aim was to minimize hydrodynamic flow interference by making a sediment trap that drifted freely with the ambient current. ...

James R. Valdes; James F. Price

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Balanced and Unbalanced Upper-Level Frontogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of frontogenesis at upper levels are investigated using a hierarchy of three numerical models. They are, in order of decreasing sophistication, the anelastic (AN), the geostrophic momentum (GM), and the quasi-geostrophic (QG) ...

Michael J. Reeder; Daniel Keyser

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

About Upper Great Plains Regional Office  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Upper Great Plains Region carries out Western's mission in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota. We sell more than 9 billion kilowatt-hours of...

168

Multifunctional Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3) Electric, ferroelectric, magnetic and photonic properties of oxides 4) Theoretical modeling of epitaxial growth, interfaces and microstructures 5) Composition ...

169

Schlumberger soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys, Idaho and Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Schlumberger soundings in the Upper...

170

Copper and Zinc Metallation Status of Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase form Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Transgenic Mice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mutations in the metalloenzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and metals are suspected to play a pivotal role in ALS pathology. To learn more about metals in ALS, we determined the metallation states of human wild-type or mutant (G37R, G93A, and H46R/H48Q) SOD1 proteins from SOD1-ALS transgenic mice spinal cords. SOD1 was gently extracted from spinal cord and separated into insoluble (aggregated) and soluble (supernatant) fractions, and then metallation states were determined by HPLC inductively coupled plasma MS. Insoluble SOD1-rich fractions were not enriched in copper and zinc. However, the soluble mutant and WT SOD1s were highly metallated except for the metal-binding-region mutant H46R/H48Q, which did not bind any copper. Due to the stability conferred by high metallation of G37R and G93A, it is unlikely that these soluble SOD1s are prone to aggregation in vivo, supporting the hypothesis that immature nascent SOD1 is the substrate for aggregation. We also investigated the effect of SOD1 overexpression and disease on metal homeostasis in spinal cord cross-sections of SOD1-ALS mice using synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. In each mouse genotype, except for the H46R/H48Q mouse, we found a redistribution of copper between gray and white matters correlated to areas of high SOD1. Interestingly, a disease-specific increase of zinc was observed in the white matter for all mutant SOD1 mice. Together these data provide a picture of copper and zinc in the cell as well as highlight the importance of these metals in understanding SOD1-ALS pathology.

Lelie, H.L.; Miller, L.; Liba, A.; Bourassa, M.W.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Chan, P.K.; Gralla, E.B.; Borchelt, D.R.; et al

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

171

Changes in Zinc Speciation with Mine Tailings Acidification in a Semiarid Weathering Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High concentrations of residual metal contaminants in mine tailings can be transported easily by wind and water, particularly when tailings remain unvegetated for decades following mining cessation, as is the case in semiarid landscapes. Understanding the speciation and mobility of contaminant metal(loid)s, particularly in surficial tailings, is essential to controlling their phytotoxicities and to revegetating impacted sites. In prior work, we showed that surficial tailings samples from the Klondyke State Superfund Site (AZ, USA), ranging in pH from 5.4 to 2.6, represent a weathering series, with acidification resulting from sulfide mineral oxidation, long-term Fe hydrolysis, and a concurrent decrease in total (6000 to 450 mg kg{sup -1}) and plant-available (590 to 75 mg kg{sup -1}) Zn due to leaching losses and changes in Zn speciation. Here, we used bulk and microfocused Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data and a six-step sequential extraction procedure to determine tailings solid phase Zn speciation. Bulk sample spectra were fit by linear combination using three references: Zn-rich phyllosilicate (Zn{sub 0.8}talc), Zn sorbed to ferrihydrite (Zn{sub adsFeOx}), and zinc sulfate (ZnSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O). Analyses indicate that Zn sorbed in tetrahedral coordination to poorly crystalline Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxides decreases with acidification in the weathering sequence, whereas octahedral zinc in sulfate minerals and crystalline Fe oxides undergoes a relative accumulation. Microscale analyses identified hetaerolite (ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}), hemimorphite (Zn{sub 4}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O) and sphalerite (ZnS) as minor phases. Bulk and microfocused spectroscopy complement the chemical extraction results and highlight the importance of using a multimethod approach to interrogate complex tailings systems.

Hayes, Sarah M.; O’ Day, Peggy A.; Webb, Sam M.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon (UCM); (SLAC); (Ariz)

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Pressurized Water Reactor Zinc Application: Data Analysis and Evaluation of Primary Chemistry Responses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Pressurized Water Reactor Zinc Application Users Group (PWR ZUG) facilitates and improves the use of zinc injection in PWR primary coolant systems by assisting in the evaluation of zinc injection performance; documentation of lessons learned; communication of information on zinc injection qualification, monitoring, and operating experience; and review of zinc application effectiveness regarding primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and radiation fiel...

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Testing of a refuelable zinc/air bus battery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report tests of a refuelable zinc/air battery of modular, bipolar-cell design, intended for fleet electric busses and vans. The stack consists of twelve 250-cm{sup 2} cells built of two units: (1) a copper-clad glass-reinforced epoxy board supporting anode and cathode current collectors, and (2) polymer frame providing for air- and electrolyte distribution and zinc fuel storage. The stack was refueled in 4 min. by a hydraulic transfer of zinc particles entrained in solution flow.

Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Koopman, R.; Hargrove, D.; Maimoni, A.; Peterman, K.

1995-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

Dr. Ramana Reddy

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

175

Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth  

SciTech Connect

A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

176

AN INVENTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF ZINC ELECTRODEPOSITED FROM ACID ELECTROLYTES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for publication AN INVENTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF ZINCemployer. LBL-16601 AN INVENTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF ZINCNo. DE-AC03-76SF00098 AN INVENTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHS OF ZINC

Faltemier, J.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Spouted Bed Electrowinning of Zinc from Chloride Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Current efficiencies, for the cell with the SBE, have been as high as 90% and DC energy consumption as Iow as 2.8 kWh/kg zinc deposited.

178

Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Zinc Application Sourcebook, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities continually strive to optimize core design, address primary system material issues, and minimize dose impact on plant personnel. To meet these challenges, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Westinghouse, and Southern Nuclear-Plant Farley began zinc injection in 1994 for mitigation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) and radiation field reductions. Additional information from industry research continues to show the beneficial impact of zinc injection on radiation fields...

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

179

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have adverse affects on bone growth and maintenance, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective of this research was to look at the relationship between zinc and alcohol as a possible mechanism for the negative effects of ethanol consumption on bone health. Five studies were performed in order to analyze the effects of different types of alcohol consumption on female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages. The animals were fed one of three diets (alcohol, pair-fed or chow). The rats were sacrificed at varying time intervals according to the specific study. Zinc analysis of the serum, femur and tibia was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alcohol eventually affected the serum zinc status of the rats in the adolescent project. The zinc status of the animals in the moderate alcohol, 2-day binge, 5-day binge and short-term adult alcohol projects was not significantly altered due to the alcohol. A longer duration and/or a higher amount of ethanol was needed to consistently detect changes in the serum and bone zinc concentrations of all the animals. Although zinc status is altered by ethanol consumption, this relationship is not likely to be the sole mechanism behind the effects of alcohol on bone health.

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Upper Ocean Response to a Hurricane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upper ocean response to a moving hurricane is studied using historical air-sea data and a three-dimensional numerical ocean model. Sea surface temperature (SST) response is emphasized. The model has a surface mixed-layer (ML) that entrains ...

James F. Price

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization reactions of butane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupling of oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane by using a dual function catalyst has led to a significant enhancement of the yields (from 25 to 40%) and selectivities to aromatics (from 39 to 64%). Butane is converted to aromatics by using either zinc-promoted [Ga]-ZSM-5 or zinc and gallium copromoted [Fe]-ZSM-5 zeolite as a catalyst. However, the formation of aromatics is severely limited by hydrocracking of butane to methane, ethane, and propane due to the hydrogen formed during aromatization reactions. On the other hand, the oxidative dehydrogenation of butane to butene over molybdate catalysts is found to be accompanied by a concurrent undesirable reaction, i.e., total oxidation. When two of these reactions (oxidative dehydrogenation and aromatization of butane) are coupled by using a dual function catalyst they have shown to complement each other. It is believed that the rate-limiting step for aromatization (butane to butene) is increased by adding an oxidative dehydrogenation catalyst (Ga-Zn-Mg-Mo-O). The formation of methane, ethane, and propane was suppressed due to the removal of hydrogen initially formed as water. Studies of ammonia TPD show that the acidities of [Fe]-ZSM-5 are greatly affected by the existence of metal oxides such as Ga[sub 2]O[sub 3], MgO, ZnO, and MoO[sub 3]. 40 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Xu, Wen-Qing; Suib, S.L. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Preparation, characterization, and stability of calcium zinc hydrophosphate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calcium zinc hydrophosphate phases with different Zn/(Zn + Ca) molar ratios (x{sub Zn}, from 0 to 1) were synthesized using co-precipitation method at pH 10, 25 deg. C. X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to characterize the synthesized products. Thermal behavior of the products was examined by thermal analytical instruments (TG-DSC-MS), while the chemical stability of the products was tested by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The results showed that the phase constituents of formed calcium zinc hydrophosphate phases were related to the molar contents of Zn{sup 2+}. With the increase of x{sub Zn}, it formed calcium-deficient hydorxyapatite (CaHap), calcium zinc hydorxyapatite (CaZnHap), CaZn{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O, and Zn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O, respectively. All the calcium zinc hydrophosphates were thermally stable up to 600 deg. C, and less Zn{sup 2+} leached in a wide pH range of 2-11, which indicated that calcium zinc hydrophosphate could effectively hold Zn{sup 2+} in their crystal phases with stabilization ratios of over 99.99%.

Qian Guangren [School of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)], E-mail: grqian@shu.edu.cn; Xu Xia; Sun Weimin; Xu Yunfeng; Liu Qiang [School of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A NEW CONCEPT IN AN ELECTRICALLY RECHARGEABLE ZINC-AIR ALKALINE BATTERY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of a New Zinc-Air Battery Concept Using Flowingdiagram of the zinc-air battery single cell prototype usedDivision . Presented at the Battery and Electrochemical

Ross, P.N.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A new concept in an electrically rechargeable zinc-air alkaline battery. [Porous electrodes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a new idea for zinc-air battery design. The novel idea is a porous zinc electrode surrounded with a supersaturated zincate solution. 3 figs. (JDH)

Ross, P.N.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Evaluation of Zinc Addition During Cycle 9 at Diablo Canyon Unit 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies have shown that zinc addition to primary coolant can mitigate primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 and reduce radiation fields in PWRs. This report documents experience with zinc addition during Cycle 9 at Diablo Canyon Power Plant Unit 1 (DCPP-1), operated by Pacific Gas & Electric. This project evaluated the effect of zinc addition on PWSCC initiation and propagation. It also examined the impact of zinc addition on radiation fields and fuel cladding deposition...

1999-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

187

Climatic Aspects of the 1993 Upper Mississippi River Basin Flood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1993 record-breaking summer flood in the Upper Mississippi River Basin resulted from an unprecedentedly persistent heavy rain pattern. Rainfall totals for the Upper Mississippi River Basin were, by a large margin, the largest of this century ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel; Stanley A. Changnon; James R. Angel

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor from UARS MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial results of upper-tropospheric water vapor obtained from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented. MLS is less affected by clouds than infrared or visible techniques, and the UARS ...

W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; D. A. Flower; L. Froidevaux; R. F. Jarnot; D. L. Hartmann; R. S. Harwood; R. B. Rood

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Upper-Tropospheric Humidity from MLS and ECMWF Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares upper-tropospheric humidity from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data. MLS measurements are not included in the ECMWF ...

H. L. Clark; R. S. Harwood

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Marginal Sea Overflows and the Upper Ocean Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Marginal sea overflows and the overlying upper ocean are coupled in the vertical by two distinct mechanisms—by an interfacial mass flux from the upper ocean to the overflow layer that accompanies entrainment and by a divergent eddy flux ...

Shinichiro Kida; Jiayan Yang; James F. Price

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Upper internals arrangement for a pressurized water reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a pressurized water reactor with all of the in-core instrumentation gaining access to the core through the reactor head, each fuel assembly in which the instrumentation is introduced is aligned with an upper internals instrumentation guide-way. In the elevations above the upper internals upper support assembly, the instrumentation is protected and aligned by upper mounted instrumentation columns that are part of the instrumentation guide-way and extend from the upper support assembly towards the reactor head in hue with a corresponding head penetration. The upper mounted instrumentation columns are supported laterally at one end by an upper guide tube and at the other end by the upper support plate.

Singleton, Norman R; Altman, David A; Yu, Ching; Rex, James A; Forsyth, David R

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

192

Observed and Simulated Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite measurements from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) in the upper troposphere over 4.5 yr are used to assess the covariation of upper-tropospheric humidity and temperature with surface temperatures, which can be used to constrain ...

A. Gettelman; Q. Fu

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Life History of Mobile Troughs in the Upper Westerlies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing evidence indicates that surface cyclogenesis is predominantly a response to the approach of a preexisting trough at upper levels. A question then arises about the origin of the upper-level predecessor. As an initial approach to this ...

Frederick Sanders

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Frontogenesis Processes in the Middle and Upper Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Basic issues regarding upper-level frontogenesis addressed in this paper are: (i) simulated frontogenesis influenced by the initial flow, (ii) upper-level frontogenesis as essentially a two-dimensional process, and (iii) frontal-scale positive ...

Keith M. Hines; Carlos R. Mechoso

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

PRELIMINARY STUDY OF METHODS TO CHEMICALLY BIND ZINC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first two experimental tasks were completed. The results of the third experimental task are reported here. This task was conducted to determine if the zinc vapors could be chemically bound on two non hydrogen active substrates. Based on a thermodynamic study copper and cobalt were the most favorable for capturing zinc without forming hydrides. Within the experimental parameters tested, which include temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 C at pressures of nominally 20-40 millitorr, the zinc deposited on the both copper screen and cobalt rods but did not react to form a compound. The conditions that were tested are not prototypic and additional testing under higher vacuum conditions, i.e., .01 millitorr, may enhance the reactivity of the surfaces and is recommended.

Korinko, P.

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

Cleanup of plutonium oxide reduction black salts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes pyrochemical processes employed to convert direc oxide reduction (DOR) black salts into discardable white salt and plutonium metal. The DOR process utilizes calcium metal as the reductant in a molten calcium chloride solvent salt to convert plutonium oxide to plutonium metal. An insoluble plutonium-rich dispersion called black salt sometimes forms between the metal phase and the salt phase. Black salts accumulated for processing were treated by one of two methods. One method utilized a scrub alloy of 70 wt % magnesium/30 wt % zinc. The other method utilized a pool of plutonium metal to agglomerate the metal phase. The two processes were similar in that calcium metal reductant and calcium chloride solvent salt were used in both cases. Four runs were performed by each method, and each method produced greater than 93% conversion of the black salt.

Giebel, R.E.; Wing, R.O.

1986-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

197

Separation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil shale ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jordanian oil shale ash was used as an adsorbent for the removal of copper and zinc from aqueous solution.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Oil shale; Ash; Adsorption; Copper and zinc removal 1. IntroductionSeparation and Purification Technology 40 (2004) 251­257 Copper and zinc sorption by treated oil

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

198

The Upper-Ocean Response to Surface Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moored observations of atmospheric variables and upper-ocean temperatures from the Long-Term Upper-Ocean Study (LOTUS) and the Frontal Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (FASINEX) are used to examine the upper-ocean response to surface heating. ...

Craig M. Lee; Daniel L. Rudnick

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

Poa, D.S.

1984-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

200

Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

Poa, David S. (Naperville, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents  

SciTech Connect

One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

Ayala, R.E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

Chu, T.L. (University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Upper Cumberland EMC - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Upper Cumberland EMC - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Upper Cumberland EMC - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Upper Cumberland EMC - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Residential Heat Pump: $150 per unit Commercial Heat Pump: $150 per three tons Water Heater: $100 Provider Upper Cumberland Electric Membership Corporation Upper Cumberland Electric Membership Corporation (UCEMC), in collaboration with the Tennessee Valley Authority, offers incentives for its customers to purchase and install energy efficient equipment through the Energy Right

204

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

205

Upper Peninsula Power Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Peninsula Power Co Peninsula Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Upper Peninsula Power Co Place Michigan Utility Id 19578 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png A-1 - Residential Seasonal Service Power Supply Service Residential A-1 - Residential Service Seasonal Residential A-2 - Residential Service Seasonal Residential Capacity Buyback Rider CP-IB

206

Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

M. Saha Sarkar; Abhijit Bisoi; Sudatta Ray; Ritesh Kshetri; S. Sarkar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.

Burgos, W. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Effects of zinc on Salmonella in the layer house environments and laying hens, and the ability of zinc to induce molt in laying hens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is increasing interest in developing methods to detect and identify Salmonella, to eliminate or reduce the risk of contamination of shell eggs, and to retain the economic advantages of induced molting without increasing the risk of Salmonella enteritidis infection. S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium are the most common serotypes among 2449 known serotypes of the Salmonella, and are the causes of most egg- related foodborne salmonellosis in humans in the U. S. These two species are also responsible for environmental contamination and the incidence of infections. Therefore, this study was conducted in three phases consisting of ten in vivo and in vitro experiments. This study investigated the effects of zinc on Salmonella growth and survivability in poultry environments, and its ability to induce a molt in single comb white leghorn hens. In part, the antibacterial properties of zinc may reduce environmental contamination in a poultry house by interrupting airborne routes. The first phase involved detecting airborne bacteria by aerosol sampling methods, and then screening any Salmonella mutant (s) that survived desiccation by transposon footprinting. The second phase examined, in vitro, the addition of zinc on the growth kinetics of Salmonella under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, the effects of combinating zinc and acidic conditions on the growth kinetics of Salmonella in vitro under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and the effects of zinc amended feed on the survival of a dry inoculum of Salmonella. The third phase investigated the ability of zinc propionate, as an alternative salt form of zinc, to induce molt in laying hens, the influence of zinc acetate and zinc propionate on gastrointestinal tract fermentation, and susceptibility of laying hens to S. enteritidis during an induced molt, and the comparison of digestive microbial crop and cecal communities among molted hens fed by either zinc acetate or zinc propionate amended molting diets with hens undergoing feed withdrawal or full fed nonmolted hens using molecular-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

Park, Shinyoung

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Low Cost Fabrication of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Materials Background To obtain significant increases in the efficiency of coal fired power plants, steam pressure and temperature must be increased beyond current technology to advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) conditions -temperatures and pressures up to 760 degrees Celsius (°C) and 35 megapascals (MPa). The upper bounds of operating pressure and temperature are limited by the properties of the current set

210

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop approaches to direct catalytic oxidation of methane over oxides that are doubly doped with transition metal ions. The desired process aims at employing a double redox mechanism, where one redox couple is utilized for activation of oxygen and another for the trapping of CH{sub 3} radicals. The methyl radicals can either recombine, giving C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, or be converted, via electron transfer reaction, to carbocations. The latter species can react with surface OH{sup {minus}} groups to form methanol or formaldehyde. To choose from several possible catalytic systems, this research initially involved the characterization of the micromorphology and crystalline dimensions of zinc oxide catalysts doped with Cu, Fe, and Sn by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the determination of surface composition and oxidation states by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out. A newly constructed high temperature catalytic testing system has been calibrated (flow meters and temperature controllers), tested for possible gas leaks and integrated with a gas chromatographic analytical unit. A preliminary catalytic test study over a Cu/Fe/ZnO sample was performed. The following products of the methane coupling reaction was found: C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O together with CO{sub 2}. The maximum space time yield of 14 mmol C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/g cat/h was obtained at 848{degrees}C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Exploration...

212

Stretches of Upper Mississippi River near record-low levels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

As a result of last year's drought, stretches of the Upper Mississippi River have approached record lows. These low water levels have jeopardized commercial barge ...

213

Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nye County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada...

214

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

215

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

216

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

Fluxes in ;Free; and Total Zinc Are Essential for Progression of Intraerythrocytic Stages of Plasmodium falciparum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamic fluxes in the concentration of ions and small molecules are fundamental features of cell signaling, differentiation, and development. Similar roles for fluxes in transition metal concentrations are less well established. Here, we show that massive zinc fluxes are essential in the infection cycle of an intracellular eukaryotic parasite. Using single-cell quantitative imaging, we show that growth of the blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite requires acquisition of 30 million zinc atoms per erythrocyte before host cell rupture, corresponding to a 400% increase in total zinc concentration. Zinc accumulates in a freely available form in parasitophorous compartments outside the food vacuole, including mitochondria. Restriction of zinc availability via small molecule treatment causes a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential and severely inhibits parasite growth. Thus, extraordinary zinc acquisition and trafficking are essential for parasite development.

Marvin, Rebecca G.; Wolford, Janet L.; Kidd, Matthew J.; Murphy, Sean; Ward, Jesse; Que, Emily L.; Mayer, Meghan L.; Penner-Hahn, James E.; Haldar, Kasturi; O; Halloran, Thomas V. (Michigan); (UWASH); (NWU); (Notre)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

218

Development of the Zinc-Chloride Battery for Utility Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews progress in Phase 2 (April 1978-March 1980) of a program to develop the zinc-chloride battery for utility load-leveling applications. Tasks in this phase included refurbishment of a 45-kWh module to increase capacity and efficiency, cycle testing of a 1.7-kWh battery, and development of a 50-kWh module to serve as the building block for the 4-MWh battery for the Battery Energy Test Facility.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following operating conditions: Temperature - 375 C and 400 C; Total Pressure--13.6 MPa (2000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr; and H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for twelve days of continuous operation. Unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst then was re-examined under the same operating conditions. Reproducible data was achieved with a continuous liquid make-up. Compared with unpromoted zinc chromite catalyst, 6 wt.% Cs-promoted catalyst shifted the product distribution from methanol to higher alcohols, even though methanol was still the major product. The effect of operating conditions was less important than the addition of promoter. However, it was observed that higher temperature favors higher alcohol synthesis, and that a higher H{sub 2}/CO ratio leads to lower oxygenates selectivity and higher hydrocarbons selectivity. These trends showed clearly with the Cs-promoted catalyst, but were not as prominent with the unpromoted catalyst. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during either continuous, 12 - day experiment, even with the higher reactor temperature (400 C). There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment with the promoted catalyst, but not with the unpromoted catalyst.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Zinc Addition Fuel Study for Byron Unit 1 and Braidwood Unit 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study reports on an ongoing program to qualify zinc for use in higher duty cores. Braidwood Unit 1 and Byron Unit 1 represent two of the highest duty plants in the U.S. Therefore, prior to injecting zinc at these units, a thorough risk assessment was required to identify the optimum conditions to add zinc while maintaining margin for fuel cladding integrity and other fuel performance issues.

2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Modeling and Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Primary Coolant Zinc Transients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of plant responses to transients in power production and zinc injection rates has the potential to reveal additional information about how, where, and at what rate zinc is deposited and incorporated into the films on primary system surfaces. Although the process of zinc transport and incorporation is complicated by the numerous mechanisms and surfaces available for incorporation, a control theory type analysis (linear systems analysis) could be useful for the analysis of transients, including in...

2009-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor contact metal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 157-159 (2008). 22 W.L. Bragg, Philosophical Magazine Series 6, 40:236, 169-189 (1920). 23 N.E. Holden, Pure & Appl. Chem. 52, 2349-2384 (1979). 24 J.F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, Materials science and engineering handbook, ed. 3. (CRC...

Kiani, Ahmed; Hasko, David G.; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Design of Zinc Oxide Based Solid-State Excitonic Solar Cell with Improved Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excitonic photovoltaic devices, including organic, hybrid organic/inorganic, and dye-sensitized solar cells, are attractive alternatives to conventional inorganic solar cells due to their potential for low cost and low temperature solution-based processing on flexible substrates in large scale. Though encouraging, they are currently limited by the efficiency from not yet optimized structural and material parameters and poor overall knowledge regarding the fundamental details. This dissertation aims to achieve improved performance of hybrid solar cells by enhancing material property and designing new device architecture. The study begins with the addition of XD-grade single-walled carbon nanotube (XDSWNT) into poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to improve the current density. By having a weight ratio of XDSWNT and P3HT equaled to 0.1:1, short-circuit current was quadrupled from 0.12 mA cm-2 to 0.48 mA cm-2 and solar cell efficiency was tripled from 0.023% to 0.07%, compared to devices with pure P3HT as a hole transport material. Secondly, a significant improvement in device efficiency with 250 nm long ZnO nanorod arrays as photoanodes has been achieved by filling the interstitial voids of the nanorod arrays with ZnO nanoparticles. The overall power conversion efficiency increased from 0.13% for a nanorod-only device to 0.34% for a device with combined nanoparticles and nanorod arrays. The higher device efficiency in solid-state DSSCs with hybrid nanorod/nanoparticle photoanodes is originated from both large surface area provided by nanoparticles for dye adsorption and efficient charge transport provided by the nanorod arrays to reduce the recombinations of photogenerated carriers. Followed by the novel layer-by-layer self-assembly deposition process, the hybrid photoanode study was extended to the longer ZnO nanorod arrays. The best performance, 0.64%, was achieved when the thickness of the photoanodes equaled to 1.2 ?m. Finally, the photovoltaic devices were modified by adding ZnO nanoarpticles into P3HT to increase interfacial area between ZnO and P3HT. The efficiency was enhanced from 0.18% to 0.45% when the ZnO nanorod arrays were 625 nm in length. Our successful design of the device morphology significantly contributes to the performance of solid-state hybrid solar cells.

Lee, Tao Hua

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fixed bed testing of durable, steam resistant zinc oxide containing sorbents  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy is currently developing Integrated Gasification combined Cycle (IGCC) systems for electrical power generation. It has been predicted that IGCC plants with hot gas cleanup will be superior to conventional pulverized coal-fired power plants in overall plant efficiency and environmental performance. Development of a suitable regenerable sorbent is a major barrier issue in the hot gas cleanup program for IGCC systems. This has been a challenging problem during the last 20 years, since many of the sorbents developed in the program could not retain their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration reactions. Two promising sorbents and (METC6), which were capable of sustaining their reactivity and physical integrity during repeated sulfidation/regeneration cycles, have been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) during the past year. These sorbents were tested (sulfided) both in low-pressure (260 kPa/37.7 psia) and high-pressure (1034 kPa/150 psia) fixed-bed reactors at 538{degrees}C (1000{degrees}F) with simulated KRW coal gas. High-pressure testing was continued for 20 cycles with steam regeneration. There were no appreciable changes in sulfidation capacity of the sorbents during the 20-cycle testing. The crush strength of the sorbent actually improved after 20 cycles and there were no indications of spalling or any other physical deterioration of the sorbents. In testing to date, these sorbents exhibit better overall sulfur capture performance than the conventional sorbents.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Grimm, U.; Poston, J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Monaco, S.J. [EG& G dTechnical Services of West Virginia, Inc., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity > 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Visual observations of early shape changes in a zinc/nickel oxide cell  

SciTech Connect

Visual observations of the back side of a Zn electrode in a Zn/NiOOH single cell indicate that the patterns of Zn formed during charge, and the patterns of ZnO formed during discharge, are both very reproducible. Comparison of these patterns after various early cycles shows identical shapes, indicating that these patterns are established during the initial formation. Potential oscillations of the Zn electrode, during the middle of the charge period, indicate that the electrode oscillates between the Zn- and the ZnO dominating states. It is proposed that the formation, which is obtained at very low current density, is at least partially responsible for nonuniform distributions of Zn and ZnO, which are then maintained throughout the cycling of the cell. It is suggested to investigate the effect of the formation procedure on the shape change of the Zn electrodes It is quite possible that a fast initial formation step might improve the uniformity of the Zn electrode and its shape change later on during cycling.

Jorne, J.; Adler, T.C.; Cairns, E.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Division

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Zinc Oxide Nanorods by the Pulsed Plasma in Liquid and Their ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulsed plasma submerged into a liquid enables us to synthesize metastable, high-temperature phase nanocrystalline materials by rapidly quenching from ...

228

Polyol-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and nanocomposites with poly(methyl methacrylate)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ZnO nanorods (length 30-150 nm) were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) using Zn(CH3COO)2 as a precursor and para-toluene sulphonic acid, p-TSA, as an end-capping agent. Increasing the concentration of p-TSA above 0.1M causes the ...

Alojz Anžlovar; Zorica Crnjak Orel; Ksenija Kogej; Majda Žigon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Urchin-inspired zinc oxide as building blocks for nanostructured solar cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High surface area nanowire based architectures have been identified as important components for future optoelectronic nanodevices, solar cells, wettability coatings, gas sensors, and biofuel cells. Here we report on a novel urchin-inspired nanowire architecture: its interwoven three-dimensional, high-surface-area nanowire arrangement can be precisely controlled by using a low-cost and scalable synthesis based on a combination of nanosphere lithography, low-temperature atomic layer deposition, and electrodeposition. The performance of single-layer arrays of urchin-inspired ZnO nanowire building blocks competes to that of planar nanowire carpets. We illustrate this capability by fabricating fully-inorganic extremely thin absorber solar cells using CdSe as absorber and CuSCN as hole-collector material. The light diffusion of the urchin-inspired nanowire arrays was varied from 15% to 35%. Homogenous absorption in the wavelength range of 400-800 nm of up to 90% was obtained. Solar conversion efficiencies of ~ 1.33...

Elias, Jamil; Utke, Ivo; Erni, Rolf; Hosseini, Davood; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity {sigma} >; 3000 S/cm.

Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Face-selective electrostatic control of hydrothermal zinc oxide nanowire synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rational control over the morphology and the functional properties of inorganic nanostructures has been a long-standing goal in the development of bottom-up device fabrication processes. We report that the geometry of ...

Joo, Jaebum

232

Origin of stress in radio frequency magnetron sputtered zinc oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect

Highly c-axis oriented ZnO thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by planar rf magnetron sputtering under varying pressure (10-50 mTorr) and oxygen percentage (50-100%) in the reactive gas (Ar + O{sub 2}) mixture. The as-grown films were found to be stressed over a wide range from -1 x 10{sup 11} to -2 x 10{sup 8} dyne/cm{sup 2} that in turn depends strongly on the processing conditions, and the film becomes stress free at a unique combination of sputtering pressure and reactive gas composition. Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) analyses identified the origin of stress as lattice distortion due to defects introduced in the ZnO thin film. FTIR study reveals that Zn-O bond becomes stronger with the increase in oxygen fraction in the reactive gas mixture. The lattice distortion or stress depends on the type of defects introduced during deposition. PL spectra show the formation of a shoulder in band emission with an increase in the processing pressure and are related to the presence of stress. The ratio of band emission to defect emission decreases with the increase in oxygen percentage from 50 to 100%. The studies show a correlation of stress with the structural, vibrational, and photoluminescence properties of the ZnO thin film. The systematic study of the stress will help in the fabrication of efficient devices based on ZnO film.

Menon, Rashmi; Gupta, Vinay; Sreenivas, K. [Electronic Material and Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 11007 (India); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

233

EFSA sets upper intake level for LC-PUFA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article, from our Health & Nutrition News department, discusses EFSA’s establishment of an upper intake level for DHA and EPA and the agency’s work on health claims. EFSA sets upper intake level for LC-PUFA Inform Magazine Biofuels and Bioproducts a

234

Upper Oceanic Energy Response to Tropical Cyclone Passage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The upper oceanic temporal response to tropical cyclone (TC) passage is investigated using a 6-yr daily record of data-driven analyses of two measures of upper ocean energy content based on the U.S. Navy’s Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation System ...

John A. Knaff; Mark DeMaria; Charles R. Sampson; James E. Peak; James Cummings; Wayne H. Schubert

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Isolation and characterization of a new zinc-binding protein from albacore tuna plasma  

SciTech Connect

The protein responsible for sequestering high levels of zinc in the plasma of the albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) has been isolated by sequential chromatography. The glycoprotein has a molecular weight of 66,000. Approximately 8.2% of its amino acid residues are histidines. Equilibrium dialysis experiments show it to bind 3 mol of zinc/mol of protein. The stoichiometric constant for the association of zinc with a binding site containing three histidines was determined to be 10/sup 9.4/. This protein is different from albumin and represents a previously uncharacterized zinc transport protein.

Dyke, B.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.; Laurs, R.M.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

236

Investigation of the zinc electrode reaction. Annual report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The excellent performance characteristics of the nickel-zinc battery make it an attractive option for both all-battery and hydride electric vehicles. Commercialization of the battery has been delayed because of limited cycle life particularly under conditions of deep discharge. In nickel-zinc batteries, with pasted zinc electrodes, zinc electrode shape change or redistribution of the active material from the edge of the electrodes toward the center has been the major life-limiting factor. In batteries with soluble free electrolyte zinc electrodes, morphology changes, particularly under random cycling conditions, is a major operational problem. The present work was focussed on finding insights and possible solutions to these two problems. The areas covered in the work were (1) additive and substrate effects on zinc electrode morphology; (2) investigations of zinc electrodes of the second kind; (3) separator effects on zinc electrode shape change; and (4) investigation of the effect of modified charging methods on the morphology and behavior of both pasted and soluble free electrolyte zinc electrodes.

McBreen, J.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Selective electrodiffusion of zinc ions in a Zrt-, Irt-like protein, ZIPB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All living cells need zinc ions to support cell growth. Zrt-, Irt-like proteins (ZIPs) represent a major route for entry of zinc ions into cells, but how ZIPs promote zinc uptake has been unclear. Here we report the molecular characterization of ZIPB from Bordetella bronchiseptica, the first ZIP homolog to be purified and functionally reconstituted into proteoliposomes. Zinc flux through ZIPB was found to be nonsaturable and electrogenic, yielding membrane potentials as predicted by the Nernst equation. Conversely, membrane potentials drove zinc fluxes with a linear voltage-flux relationship. Direct measurements of metal uptake by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy demonstrated that ZIPB is selective for two group 12 transition metal ions, Zn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, whereas rejecting transition metal ions in groups 7 through 11. Our results provide the molecular basis for cellular zinc acquisition by a zinc-selective channel that exploits in vivo zinc concentration gradients to move zinc ions into the cytoplasm.

Lin, W.; Fu, D.; Chai, J.; Love, J.

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Transparent p-ZnO by oxidation of Zn-based compounds  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of ZnO:N by thermal oxidation of Zn-based compounds. In particular, we achieved p-type conductivity with carrier concentration in mid 1017 cm-3 range and mobility of {approx}10 cm2/Vs using sputter-deposited zinc nitride as starting material. The transmittance of p-ZnO:N in the whole visible spectrum is 70-80% making it very interesting for transparent electronics.

Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Kowalczyk, E. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kossut, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); ERATO Semiconductor Spintronics (Poland); Przezdziecka, E.; Dobrowolski, W.; Dynowska, E.; Butkute, R.; Jakiela, R.; Aleszkiewicz, M.; Janik, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Barcz, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw, (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 6: Lead and Zinc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6 6 Lead and Zinc Lead and zinc ores are usually found together with gold and silver. A lead-zinc ore may also contain lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, iron sulfide, iron carbonate, and quartz. When zinc and lead sulfides are present in profitable amounts they are regarded as ore minerals. The remaining rock and minerals are called gangue. Forms of Lead and Zinc Ore The two principal minerals containing lead and zinc are galena and sphalerite. These two minerals are frequently found together along with other sulfide minerals, but one or the other may be predominant. Galena may contain small amounts of impurities including the precious metal silver, usually in the form of a sulfide. When silver is present in sufficient quantities, galena is regarded as a silver ore and called argentiferous galena. Sphalerite is zinc sulfide, but

240

Lipid Oxidation Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book reviews state-of-the-art developments in the understanding of the oxidation of lipids and its connection with the oxidation of other biological molecules such as proteins and starch. Lipid Oxidation Pathways Hardback Books Health - Nutrition -

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to selectively oxidize methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons and to oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol, in high space time yields under relatively mild reaction conditions. Results in this document are reported under the headings: methane oxidation over silica, methane oxidation over Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, and oxidative coupling of methane over sulfate-doped Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. 24 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

Evaluation of Zinc Addition to Primary Coolant of Farley-2 PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A demonstration project at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Farley Unit 2 showed that the addition of 35-45 ppb zinc to the primary coolant resulted in lower radiation dose rates and an apparent decrease in primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. The zinc had no significant effect on fuel cladding corrosion.

1996-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Sugar Creek zinc deposit, Jackson Co. TN -- Exploration history, geology and mineralization  

SciTech Connect

During the 60's and 70's zinc exploration of central TN and KY was active. The Sugar Creek Project was one of several investigated by Exxon. The discovery hole, Cu 15, was drilled in early 1973. The Sugar Creek Zinc Deposit was acquired by Independence Mining Co. in 1986 and I.M.C. has subsequently completed additional drilling, both stepout and confirmation holes. A total of 137 holes for 300,833 ft have been drilled. The Sugar Creek deposit is a typical Tennessee zinc deposit (Mississippi Valley Type) which occurs in solution collapse breccias in the Lower Ordovician, Knox Dolomite. The Knox consists of fine grained dolomite with interlayered limestones and crystalline dolomite. Only scattered residual limestone is found in the Sugar Creek area. Collapse breccias have formed which control zinc deposition and are similar to other TN Zn. deposits. At Sugar Creek the types of breccias include: a vertically exaggerated glory hole breakthrough breccia which extends to within 137 ft. of the Knox unconformity, has 500 ft. of zinc mineralization with 8 significant zinc intervals; holes with stacked zinc intervals interpreted to be sides of breakthrough breccia; and single zinc intervals in laterally positioned bedded mineral zones. A total of 99 holes were drilled in the more intense mineralized areas. The ratio of ore to non ore holes is nearly 1 to 1. The mineralization is typical M.V.T. with predominantly sphalerite and only minor occurrences of galena, fluorite, pyrite, etc.

Reinbold, G.; Moran, A.V.; Stevens, D.L. (Independence Mining Co. Inc., Reno, NV (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work carried out under the Yardney Contract with ANL for R, D and D on nickel zinc batteries over the past year was directed in three major areas: (1) elucidating the failure modes of the nickel-zinc battery system; (2) improving performance of the system; and (3) effecting a cost reduction program. Progress on the three areas is reported. (TFD)

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work during the report period was concentrated on developing analytical techniques. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used in an attempt to define the best mobile phase to separate the components of ''spent'' tetrahydroquinoline by liquid chromatography in a silica gel column. Conditions have been defined for separating the light gases produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over promoted ''zinc chromite'' catalysts. This will be done with a temperature-programmed Carboxen-1000 column, using a thermal conductivity detector for analysis. A Petrocol DM 150 capillary column will be purchased to separate the heavier products, which will be analyzed using a flame ionization detector.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

246

Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area (Redirected from Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (2) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure

247

Effects of Penetrative Radiation on the Upper Tropical Ocean Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation have been investigated with an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) with attenuation depths derived from remotely sensed ocean color data. The OGCM is a reduced ...

Raghu Murtugudde; James Beauchamp; Charles R. McClain; Marlon Lewis; Antonio J. Busalacchi

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Influence of an Upper Thermocline Current on Intrathermocline Eddies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of an upper-layer current on the propagation of intermediate vortices, such as Mediterranean Water eddies, is investigated. The author discusses the advection mechanism proposed by Hogg and Stommel and shows how the ...

Y. G. Morel

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Initiation and Evolution of an Intense Upper-Level Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within confluent northwesterly flow of an intensifying baroclinic wave over North America in late October 1963, an intense frontal zone developed in 12 h near the inflection point in the middle and upper troposphere. By 24 h after its initial ...

Frederick Sanders; Lance F. Bosart; Chung-Chieng Lai

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Upper Skagit Indian Tribe Strategic Energy Planning Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Skagit Indian Tribe was honored with a grant through the DOE's Tribal Energy Program - Golden Field Office to develop a Strategic Energy Plan for the Tribal Lands.

Lauren Rich

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

251

The Circulation Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Upper Ocean Density Fronts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper extends a previous hydrodynamic circulation model of established, persistent upper ocean density fronts by including a thermodynamic or buoyancy equation in the integral treatment. An analysis is also conducted of the variables related ...

Richard W. Garvine

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Convectively Driven Turbulent Mixing in the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two experiments were performed to study the characteristics of turbulence in convective mixed layers in the upper Ocean. In the first, a diurnal convective mixed layer developed in the Bahamas under the influence of the cycle of daytime solar ...

T. J. Shay; M. C. Gregg

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature data for seven instrumental records in the Karakoram and Hindu Kush Mountains of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) have been analyzed for seasonal and annual trends over the period 1961–2000 and compared with neighboring mountain regions ...

H. J. Fowler; D. R. Archer

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Upper Skagit Indian Tribe Strategic Energy Planning Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Skagit Indian Tribe was honored with a grant through the DOE's Tribal Energy Program - Golden Field Office to develop a Strategic Energy Plan for the Tribal Lands.

Lauren Rich

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Upper Equatorial Indian Ocean. The Climatological Seasonal Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The climatological seasonal cycle of the upper equatorial Indian Ocean is discussed. A summary of the observations is given. Near the surface and below the equatorial thermocline, the observations indicate an intense variability of the equatorial ...

Gilles Reverdin

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Radiative Processes in Upper Tropospheric Mixed-Phase Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diffusional mass evolution of hydrometeors in upper tropospheric clouds for various radiative conditions in the cloud and for varying ambient moisture Supply is simulated using a time dependent microphysical model. Radiation can play an ...

Douglas A. Wesley; Stephen K. Cox

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

An Objective Isobaric/Isentropic Technique for Upper Air Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective meteorological analysis technique has been developed to provide both horizontal and vertical (cross-sectional) upper air analyses. The horizontal analyses are made at grid points that lie on isobaric levels in a conventional manner. ...

Robert L. Mancuso; Roy M. Endlich; L. J. Ehernberger

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

A Climatic Review of Summer 1983 in the Upper Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The review of the climate of the summer of 1983 and associated economic impacts were collated by the state climatologists of 12 states of the Upper Midwest. Their data archives and facilities permitted relatively fast analysis of cooperative ...

W. M. Wendland; L. D. Bark; D. R. Clark; R. B. Curry; J. W. Enz; K. G. Hubbard; V. Jones; E. L. Kuehnast; W. Lytle; J. Newman; F. V. Nurnberger; P. Waite

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Upper-Layer Circulation in the South China Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-layer circulation is investigated by using all available historical temperature profiles combined with climatological temperature–salinity relationships in the South China Sea. Two cyclonic eddies are revealed: one is located east of ...

Tangdong Qu

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

An Upper-Tropospheric Low over Texas during Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National Meteorological Center 200-mb analyses are used to develop an abridged six-year climatology of the tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) over the Gulf of Mexico. The climatology reveals large intraseasonal and interannual variability ...

Mary Beth Whitfield; Steven W. Lyons

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ZINC/AIR BATTERY R & D RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIFUNCTIONAL OXYGEN ELECTRODE TASKS I AND II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENCE DIVISION ZINC/AIR BATTERY R&D C-.J(~ur.1":! rfS SECTIONLBL-22661 ZINC/AIR BATTERY R&D RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OFTask III - Zinc Air for EV Battery - an engineerin~~~~~¥! 3!

Klein, M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A preliminary report on zinc-induced resistance to nitrogen mustard toxicity in mice  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies with cultured human normal fibroblasts indicated that treatment of cells with zinc before exposure to alkylating agents enhanced cell survival by seven- to nine-fold. To establish whether a similar zinc-induced protective response could be elicited in vivo, a set of preliminary experiments was carried out in which Balb/cJ mice were treated with zinc chloride (2 mg/kg body weight) or saline by intraperitoneal (ip) injection at 48, 36, 24, and 12 h before ip administration of 4 mg/kg of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard. Of the animals that received saline before nitrogen mustard, 57% were killed compared with only 20% in the group treated with zinc before administration of the alkylating agent. These results (which almost certainly were achieved with less than optimal induction conditions) provide evidence for the existence, in vivo, of a zinc-inducible process that reduces alkylating agent lethality. 12 refs., 4 figs.

Shackelford, M.E.; Tobey, R.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

Sutija, D.P.; Muller, R.H.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Zinc Uptake and Radial Transport in Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana: A Modelling Approach to Understand Accumulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zinc uptake in roots is believed to be mediated by ZIP (ZRT-, IRT- like Proteins) transporters. Once inside the symplast, zinc is transported to the pericycle, where it exits by means of HMA (Heavy Metal ATPase) transporters. The combination of symplastic transport and spatial separation of influx and efflux produces a pattern in which zinc accumulates in the pericycle. Here, mathematical modelling was employed to study the importance of ZIP regulation, HMA level and symplastic transport in creation of the radial pattern of zinc in primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. A comprehensive one-dimensional dynamical model of radial zinc transport in roots was developed and used to conduct simulations. The model accounts for the structure of the root consisting of symplast and apoplast and includes effects of water flow, diffusion, and cross-membrane transport via transporters. It also incorporates the radial geometry and varying porosity of root tissues, as well as regulation of ZIP transporters. Steady state patt...

Claus, Juliane; Chavarría-Krauser, Andrés

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

The development of an index for the proximal upper extremity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis techniques specific to the proximal upper extremity have historically been overlooked in the field of ergonomics. This research effort provides a methodology that will allow the ergonomics practitioner to analyze a job and predict whether or not that job exposes workers to increased risk of proximal upper extremity disorders. Literature from the fields of physiology, biomechanics, and epidemiology was assimilated in order to understand the theories of pathogenesis of disorders in the rotator cuff and to identify the risk factors associated with proximal upper extremity disorders. A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted to identify job task variables that may contribute to the occurrence of proximal upper extremity disorders. Two proximal upper extremity constructs were proposed: a fatigue-based model and a compressive load-based model. The constructs incorporated lessons learned from the literature and results from the epidemiological study. Validation of the models was performed using data from the epidemiological study. It was determined that the fatigue-based model was a good predictor of proximal upper extremity disorders.

Walline, Erin Kurusz

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thermo-Oxidation of Tokamak Carbon Dust  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation of dust and flakes collected from the DIII-D tokamak, and various commercial dust specimens, has been measured at 350 ºC and 2.0 kPa O2 pressure. Following an initial small mass loss, most of the commercial dust specimens showed very little effect due to O2 exposure. Similarly, dust collected from underneath DIII-D tiles, which is thought to comprise largely Grafoil™ particulates, also showed little susceptibility to oxidation at this temperature. However, oxidation of the dust collected from tile surfaces has led to ~ 18% mass loss after 8 hours; thereafter, little change in mass was observed. This suggests that the surface dust includes some components of different composition and/or structure – possibly fragments of codeposited layers. The oxidation of codeposit flakes scraped form DIII-D upper divertor tiles showed an initial 25% loss in mass due to heating in vacuum, and the gradual loss of 30-38% mass during the subsequent 24 hours exposure to O2. This behavior is significantly different from that observed for the oxidation of thinner DIII-D codeposit specimens which were still adhered to tile surfaces, and this is thought to be related to the low deuterium content (D/C ~ 0.03 – 0.04) of the flakes.

J.W. Davis; B.W.N. Fitzpatrick; J.P. Sharpe; A.A. Haasz

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Research on separators for alkaline zinc batteries. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the research and development of a hybrid separator as an improved battery separator in alkaline zinc secondary batteries. Particular emphasis has been directed toward mitigating the failure of zinc electrodes by controlling the permselectivity of the separator. Hybrid separators were synthesized and fabricated. These separators consist of a microporous film, radiation-grafted with a monomer containing ion-exchange groups. The new separator incorporates the favorable aspects of both ion-exchange membranes and microporous separators. Such a hybrid separator should ideally be highly specific for fast transport of electrolyte while inhibiting zincate diffusion. Hybrid separators with a wide range of percent graft (0 to 60%) were made by varying the monomer concentration and radiation time. The grafting of these ionic groups imparts the ion selectivity of the separators. The electrolyte uptake of hybrid separators is ca. 60 wt %. The higher the percent graft of the separator, the higher the water uptake and the lower the KOH uptake that are observed. The permeabilities of zincate ions were measured for a series of hybrid separators.

Yeo, R.S.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Induced Positron Annihiliation Investigation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride Crystal Microstructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) crystals are used in semiconductor radiation detectors for the detection of x-ray and gamma radiation. However, production of detector grade crystals is difficult as small variations in compositional uniformity and primarily the zinc content can significantly affect the ability of the CZT crystal to function as a radiation detector. Currently there are no known nondestructive methods that can be used to identify detector grade crystals. The current test method is to fabricate and test the detector to determine if the crystal is sufficiently uniform and of the correct composition to be considered a detector grade crystal. Consequently, nondestructive detection methods are needed to identify detector grade crystals prior to the fabrication process. The purpose of this feasibility study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the ability of several new, nondestructive technologies based on Induced Positron Annihilation (IPA) to determine if detector grade CZT crystals can be identified. Results of measurements performed on specimens from Fisk University and EV Products, Inc. indicate that both the near surface Distributed Source Positron Annihilation (up to 3 mm penetration) and the volumetric Photon Induced Positron Annihilation methods may be suitable for determining CZT crystal quality. Further work on CZT crystals with a broader range of compositions and detector characteristics is needed to provide a well defined, calibrated, method for assessing CZT crystal quality.

D. W. Akers

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics  

SciTech Connect

During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Upper ocean processes observed by underwater gliders in the California Current System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 5 Upper ocean thermohaline structure in thevariability in the upper ocean, J. Geophys. Res. , 105 (C7),Gill, A. E. (1982), Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics, Int. Geophys.

Todd, Robert E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Multifunctional Oxides: Multifunctional Oxides: Synthesis and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy to Explore Magneoelectric Coupling in Multiferroic Oxide Heterostructures: Y-M Sheu1; S. Trugman1; L Yan1; C-P Chuu 1; ...

273

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement performance has not been considered adequately in pavement design. Part of the reason is that the process of asphalt oxidation in pavement is not well understood. This work focused on understanding the asphalt oxidation kinetics and on developing pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation and hardening in pavement under environmental conditions. A number of asphalts were studied in laboratory condition. Based on kinetics data, a fast-rate ? constant-rate asphalt oxidation kinetics model was developed to describe the early nonlinear fast-rate aging period and the later constant-rate period of asphalt oxidation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics parameters for the fast-rate and constant-rate reactions were empirically correlated, leading to a simplified model. And the experimental effort and time to obtain these kinetics parameters were significantly reduced. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanism of asphalt oxidation, two antioxidants were studied on their effectiveness. Asphalt oxidation was not significantly affected. It was found that evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness based on viscosity only is not reliable. The asphalt oxidation kinetics model was incorporated into the pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation in pavement. The pavement oxidation model mimics the oxidation process of asphalt in real mixture at pavement temperatures. A new parameter, diffusion depth, defined the oxygen diffusion region in the mastic. A field calibration factor accounted for the factors not considered in the model such as the effect of small aggregate particles on oxygen diffusion. Carbonyl area and viscosity of binders recovered from field cores of three pavements in Texas were measured and were used for model calibration and validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed model estimates carbonyl growth over time in pavement, layer-by-layer, quite well. Finally, this work can be useful for incorporating asphalt oxidation into a pavement design method that can predict pavement performance with time and for making strategic decisions such as optimal time for maintenance treatments.

Jin, Xin

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (2) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Nevada Exploration Region: Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region GEA Development Phase: 2008 USGS Resource Estimate Mean Reservoir Temp: Estimated Reservoir Volume: Mean Capacity: Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and Infrastructure Operating Power Plants: 0 No geothermal plants listed.

275

Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology  

SciTech Connect

A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.

Goodwin, Frank [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc.] [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc.

2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

276

Study on thermal annealing of cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) has attracted increasing interest with its promising potential as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. However, different defects in CZT crystals, especially Te inclusions and dislocations, can degrade the performance of CZT detectors. Post-growth annealing is a good approach potentially to eliminate the deleterious influence of these defects. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we built up different facilities for investigating post-growth annealing of CZT. Here, we report our latest experimental results. Cd-vapor annealing reduces the density of Te inclusions, while large temperature gradient promotes the migration of small-size Te inclusions. Simultaneously, the annealing lowers the density of dislocations. However, only-Cd-vapor annealing decreases the resistivity, possibly reflecting the introduction of extra Cd in the lattice. Subsequent Te-vapor annealing is needed to ensure the recovery of the resistivity after removing the Te inclusions.

Yang, G.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; Fochuk, P.M.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Horace, J.; McCall, B.; Gul, R.; Xu, L.; Kopach, O.V.; and James, R.B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Electric Field Distribution of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) is attracting increasing interest with its promise as a room-temperature nuclear-radiation-detector material. The distribution of the electric field in CZT detectors substantially affects their detection performance. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), we employed a synchrotron X-Ray mapping technique and a Pockels-effect measurement system to investigate this distribution in different detectors. Here, we report our latest experimental results with three detectors of different width/height ratios. A decrease in this ratio aggravates the non-uniform distribution of electric field, and focuses it on the central volume. Raising the bias voltage effectively can minimize such non-uniformity of the electric field distribution. The position of the maximum electric field is independent of the bias voltage; the difference between its maximum- and minimum-intensity of electric field increases with the applied bias voltage.

Yang,G.; Bolotnikov, A.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; James, R.B.

2009-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ion Beam Layer Separation of Cadmium Zinc Telluride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the approach of ion induced layer separation process for layer splitting from Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) bulk single crystal and transferring and bonding the separated layers with Silicon (Si) wafers. Layer separation experiments have been carried out at UES using 1 MeV H{sup +} ions from the high energy accelerator (1.7 MV Tandetron). Ion dose and annealing temperature for complete separation of 1 cmx1 cm size layers have been optimized. Bonding of CZT with Si was accomplished using various IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. Cracking of separated CZT films was occurring for chalcogenide glass bonded films. Optimization of thermal treatment has led to the minimization of such cracks. Detailed characterizations of the separated films will be presented.

Bhattacharya, Rabi S.; He, P.; Xu, Y. [UES, Inc. 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, OH 45432 (United States); Goorsky, M. [University of California at Los Angeles, 10920 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 107, Los Angeles CA 90024 (United States)

2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

279

COAL LIQUEFACTION USING ZINC CHLORIDE CATALYST IN AN EXTRACTING SOLVENT MEDIUM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rate Data o a o u a a Catalyst Loading • . Reaction Time . •and Pressure Effect of CO-catalysts and Additives .Co-catalysts • • a. Zinc Metal • b. Nickel and Nickel

Gandhi, Shamim Ahmed

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Relating the biogeochemistries of zinc, cobalt, and phosphorus to phytoplankton activities in the sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores the potential of zinc, cobalt, and phosphorus to influence primary production in the subarctic North Pacific, the Bering Sea, and the North Atlantic Ocean. In the North Pacific and Bering Sea, total ...

Wisniewski, Rachel J. (Rachel Jane), 1978-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Flow-Assisted Zinc Anode Batteries for...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6&91&>09-+&@C:40(:&O7B0& %.PQRR340(+;"""GS8P(+:S:75& FLOW-ASSISTED ZINC ANODE BATTERIES FOR GRID-SCALE ELECTRICITY STORAGE Prof. Sanjoy Banerjee, banerjee@che.ccny.cuny.e...

282

Fabrication and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate film on aluminum substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC) films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum ...

Jin Liang, Yunchu Hu, Yiqiang Wu, Hong Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal is disclosed that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface. 3 figs.

James, R.; Burger, A.; Chen, K.T.; Chang, H.

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

285

Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

James, Ralph (5420 Lenore Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Burger, Arnold (753 Adkisson La., Nashville, TN 37205); Chen, Kuo-Tong (7800 River Fork Dr., Nashville, TN 37221); Chang, Henry (6535 Premier Dr., Apt. A7, Nashville, TN 37209)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

C:\Documents and Settings\burris\My Documents\My Files\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Zinc\June 2007\Eco-SSL for Zinc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-73 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 June 2007 This page intentionally left blank i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2.0 SUMMARY OF ECO-SSLs FOR ZINC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3.0 ECO-SSL FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4.0 ECO-SSL FOR SOIL INVERTEBRATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5.0 ECO-SSL FOR AVIAN WILDLIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.1 Avian TRV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5.2 Estimation of Dose and Calculation of the Eco-SSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 6.0 ECO-SSL FOR MAMMALIAN WILDLIFE .

287

NETL: Ambient Monitoring - Upper Ohio River Valley Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Upper Ohio River Valley Project Upper Ohio River Valley Project In cooperation with key stakeholders including EPA, local and state environmental agencies, industry, and academia, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Upper Ohio River Valley Project (UORVP), a network for monitoring and characterizing PM2.5 in the Upper Ohio River Valley. This region was chosen because it has a high density of coal-fired electric utilities, heavy industries (e.g. coke and steel making), light industry, and transportation emission sources. It is also ideally situated to serve as a platform for the study of interstate pollution transport issues. This region, with its unique topography (hills and river valleys) as well as a good mix of urban and rural areas, has a high population of elderly who are susceptible to health impacts of fine particulate as well as other related environmental issues (e.g., acid rain, Hg deposition, ozone). A world-class medical research/university system is also located in the region, which will facilitate the subsequent use of the air quality data in studies of PM2.5 health effects.

288

A General Circulation Model for Upper Ocean Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general circulation model (GCM) of the ocean that emphasizes the simulation of the upper ocean has been developed. This emphasis is in keeping with its future intent, that of an air-sea coupled model. The basic model is the primitive equation ...

A. Rosati; K. Miyakoda

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

ENSO Signals in Global Upper-Ocean Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-space evolution of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in sea surface temperature (SST) and heat storage of the upper 400 m (HS400) for the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans is investigated for 13 years (1979–1991). EOF and rotated EOF (...

Yves M. Tourre; Warren B. White

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Closed-Form Upper Bounds in Static Cost Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The classical approach to automatic cost analysis consists of two phases. Given a program and some measure of cost, the analysis first produces cost relations (CRs), i.e., recursive equations which capture the cost of the program in ... Keywords: Abstract interpretation, Automatic complexity analysis, Closed-form upper bounds, Cost analysis, Programming languages, Resource analysis, Static analysis

Elvira Albert; Puri Arenas; Samir Genaim; Germán Puebla

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 5 References  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Hyndman. 1989. Roadside geology of Idaho. Mountain Press Publishing, Missoula, MT. 394 pp. American Fisheries Society (AFS), Idaho Chapter. 2000. Website. http://www.fisheries.org/idaho/. Accessed November. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: an ecological treasure on the upper Snake River Plain. Rangelands

292

Upper Snake Provincial Assessment May 2004 6. Participants and Affiliations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the Upper Snake Provincial Assessment Idaho Department of Fish and Game: Gregg Servheen Jon Beals Lance-Bannock Tribes Jim Fredericks Idaho Fish and Game Dan Garren Idaho Fish and Game Lauri Hanauska-Brown Idaho Fish Management Jim Mende Idaho Fish and Game Kevin Meyer Idaho Fish and Game Deb Mignogno US Fish and Wildlife

293

Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://www.iugonet.org/en IUGONET Development of analysis software The IUGONET project - objectives Metadata DB for Upper Atmosphere on TDAS (THEMIS Data Analysis Software Suite) composed of IDL routines. The software will have capability AE index MAGAS KTB Meteor EAR MU GUI mode Loaded data list Time-range set Choice of instrument Choice

Takada, Shoji

294

Upper-Ocean Heat Balance in the Kuroshio Extension Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A horizontally two-dimensional mixed-layer model is used to study the upper-ocean heat balance in the Kuroshio Extension region (30°–40°N, 141°–175°E). Horizontal dependency is emphasized because, in addition to vertical entrainment and surface ...

Bo Qiu; Kathryn A. Kelly

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions  

SciTech Connect

There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; (CIW); (RITS)

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

296

Upper Limits from Counting Experiments with Multiple Pipelines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In counting experiments, one can set an upper limit on the rate of a Poisson process based on a count of the number of events observed due to the process. In some experiments, one makes several counts of the number of events, using different instruments, different event detection algorithms, or observations over multiple time intervals. We demonstrate how to generalize the classical frequentist upper limit calculation to the case where multiple counts of events are made over one or more time intervals using several (not necessarily independent) procedures. We show how different choices of the rank ordering of possible outcomes in the space of counts correspond to applying different levels of significance to the various measurements. We propose an ordering that is matched to the sensitivity of the different measurement procedures and show that in typical cases it gives stronger upper limits than other choices. As an example, we show how this method can be applied to searches for gravitational-wave bursts, where multiple burst-detection algorithms analyse the same data set, and demonstrate how a single combined upper limit can be set on the gravitational-wave burst rate.

Patrick J. Sutton

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

297

Channeling and Countercurrent in the Upper Rhine Valley: Numerical Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the upper Rhine Valley, located in the southwest part of the Federal Republic of Germany, a pronounced channeling of the airflow is observed and occasionally also a countercurrent, although the valley is very flat and very broad (35 km), and ...

G. Gross; F. Wippermann

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Solar fuels : integration of molecular catalysts with p-type semiconductor photocathode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrical homogeneity of indium zinc oxide films”, Appliedand P. Wu, “Transparent Indium Zinc Oxide Ohmic Contact toundoped amorphous indium zinc oxide thin films with low

Kumar, Bhupendra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Amorphous Gallium Indium Zinc Oxide NonvolatileAmorphous gallium indium zinc oxide thin film transistors:Effects in Amorphous Gallium–Indium Zinc- xv Oxide Thin Film

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Partial oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first annual report describing progress in the 33-month cooperative program between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Inc.'s Nickel-Zinc/Electric Vehicle Project. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of the nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion. The successful completion of the program will qualify the nickel-zinc battery for use in the Department of Energy's demonstration program under the auspices of Public Law 94-413.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

ZINC/AIR BATTERY R & D RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BIFUNCTIONAL OXYGEN ELECTRODE TASKS I AND II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

requirements, weight of battery and cost comparisons arecost, convenience and com- plexity of each of the schemes. The following zinc-air battery

Klein, M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

Upper Cumberland E M C | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Upper Cumberland E M C Upper Cumberland E M C Place Tennessee Utility Id 19574 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial GSA 1 Commercial Commercial GSA 2 Commercial Commercial GSA 3 Commercial Industrial GSA 1 Industrial Industrial GSA 2 Industrial Industrial GSA 3 Industrial Residential Residential outdoor light(Mercury 175 Watt) Lighting outdoor light(Mercury 400 Watt) Lighting outdoor light(Metal Halide 1000 watt FL) Lighting outdoor light(Metal Halide 250 watt FL) Lighting

305

EIS-0408: Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS, being prepared jointly by DOE's Western Area Power Administration and the Department of the Interior’s Fish and Wildlife Service, will evaluate the environmental impacts of wind energy development in Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota – Western’s Upper Great Plains customer service region. Western will use the EIS to implement a comprehensive regional program to manage interconnection requests for wind energy projects.

306

Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI); Mashikian, Matthew S. (Huntington Woods, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Proof-of-concept zinc/bromine electric vehicle battery  

SciTech Connect

At the inception of the contract, Johnson Controls acquired and tested the zinc/bromine battery design developed by Exxon Research and Engineering Corporation (the Z-design) and, with Exxon, determined the key problems in this design: expansion and warping of electrodes, leaking of electrolyte from the battery stack, and excessive self-discharge brought about by transfer of bromine across the separator. The problems of electrode expansion and high self-discharge were mitigated by developing improved electrode and separator materials. Starting in the second year of the contract, JCI developed a new V-design battery stack which used different hardware and tooling to address the problem of stack leakage. The V-design uses thermal welding to achieve a hermetically sealed construction. The flow distribution is improved, and the massive endblocks of the original system have been replaced by thinner, lighter endblocks which are stiffened by means of rigid aluminum honeycomb inserts. Highlights of performance characteristics of batteries built and tested under the contract given. The battery was developed for the ETX-II, a Ford Aerostar minivan. 44 figs., 21 tabs.

Bolsted, J.; Eidler, P.; Miles, R.; Petersen, R.; Yaccarino, K. (Johnson Controls, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (USA). Advanced Battery Engineering); Lott, S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Root Uptake of Lipophilic Zinc?Rhamnolipid Complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the formation and plant uptake of lipophilic metal-rhamnolipid complexes. Monorhamnosyl and dirhamnosyl rhamnolipids formed lipophilic complexes with copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Rhamnolipids significantly increased Zn absorption by Brassica napus var. Pinnacle roots in {sup 65}Zn-spiked ice-cold solutions, compared with ZnSO{sub 4} alone. Therefore, rhamnolipid appeared to facilitate Zn absorption via a nonmetabolically mediated pathway. Synchrotron XRF and XAS showed that Zn was present in roots as Zn-phytate-like compounds when roots were treated with Zn-free solutions, ZnSO{sub 4}, or Zn-EDTA. With rhamnolipid application, Zn was predominantly found in roots as the Zn-rhamnolipid complex. When applied to a calcareous soil, rhamnolipids increased dry matter production and Zn concentrations in durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Balcali-2000) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BDME-10) shoots. Rhamnolipids either increased total plant uptake of Zn from the soil or increased Zn translocation by reducing the prevalence of insoluble Zn-phytate-like compounds in roots.

Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Michael J.; Cakmak, Ismail; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Karkkainen, Michael (Sabanci); (EPA); (CSIRO/LW); (Adelaide)

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical protocols that were developed during the last two years to analyze ''spent'' THQ (tetrahydroquinoline) slurry liquid. Identification of the components of the ''spent'' THQ should help to understand the influence of the slurry medium on the methanol synthesis reaction, and on other reactions with THQ as the slurry liquid. Silica gel liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the major compounds in the ''spent'' slurry liquid. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to identify the major compounds. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-THQ were found to comprise more than 80% of the ''spent'' liquid. The balance was various methylated indoles. A methyl group always is attached to the N atom in the ring structure. Speculative mechanisms are presented that may help to understand the interaction between the catalyst and the alkylated THQ slurry liquid, and the effect of liquid composition on the methanol synthesis reaction. A poster entitled ''Promoted Zinc Chromite Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor-2. Spent Liquid Analysis'' was presented at the AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 12-17, 2000.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following conditions: Temperature--375 C; Total Pressure--6.8 MPa (1000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr, and; H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--1.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for eight days of continuous operation. Although the experimental data once again did not exhibit the desired degree of consistency, the data did show that methanol was the primary reaction product. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during the continuous 8-day experiment. There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of various fractions of ''spent'' THQ was carried out. The fractions were prepared by silica gel liquid chromatography (LC). Chemical formuli and probable structures for each major compound were obtained. However, a higher degree of purification will be necessary to allow nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to be used for definitive compound identification. A new Maxpro gas booster (DLE 15-75) was purchased because the existing Haskel gas booster once again developed a severe leak of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and was judged to be unworthy of repair.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

311

Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

McQuaid, James H. (Livermore, CA); Lavietes, Anthony D. (Hayward, CA)

1998-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

312

Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

313

Prepared for 1 st Upper Midwest Regional Freight Transportation Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We are here at this workshop because of a common interest in freight. We bring a wide variety of perspectives – the typically longer-range perspective of the public providers of highways; the often short-range perspective of the private sector carriers, shippers and logistics managers; and the independent perspective of university researchers. Our immediate goal is to identify critical issues in facilitating regional freight transportation in the Upper Midwest. What are the gaps in current planning, organizational and financial methods? What key infrastructure improvements are needed to make the region competitive in the twenty first century? A regional perspective is logical because most freight does not stay within the borders of an individual state. For the Upper Midwest region Figures 1 and 2 show that the proportion of all ton-miles of truck shipments that stay within a state ranges from a low of 17 % in Indiana to a high of 46 % in Michigan. The regional average is 26 % which is essential the same as the national average of 27 % (1). Because rail shipments tend to be much longer than truck shipments, the proportion of rail shipments that stay within a state are likely to be even smaller. Thus, most freight shipments are affected by conditions outside of the state of origin or destination. By working together states, carriers, shippers and other stakeholders in the Upper

Dr. Robert; L. Smith

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The darkening of zinc yellow: XANES speciation of chromium in artist;s paints after light and chemical exposures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The color darkening of selected brushstrokes of the masterpiece A Sunday on La Grande Jatte - 1884 (by Georges Seurat) has been attributed to the alteration of the chromate pigment zinc yellow. The pigment originally displays a bright greenish-yellow color but may undergo, after aging, darkening to a dull, ocher tone. We used XANES to probe the oxidation state of Cr on paint reconstructions, and show that color changes are associated with the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Paint mixtures containing the pigment and linseed oil to mimic mixtures used in La Grande Jatte were subjected to artificial aging in the presence of light, SO{sub 2}, and variable air humidity - 50 and 90% relative humidity. High relative humidity led to the largest degree of Cr(VI) reduction whereas low relative humidity promoted light-induced alterations. These results are corroborated by visible reflectance measurements on the same laboratory samples and contribute to a better understanding of the chemical reactivity of chromate pigments, which are present in many historical works of art.

Zanella, Luciana; Casadio, Francesca; Gray, Kimberly A.; Warta, Richard; Ma, Qing; Gaillard, Jean-François

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

315

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

Multifunctional Oxide Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book is devoted to the rapidly developing field of oxide thin-films and heterostructures. Oxide materials combined with atomic-scale precision in a heterostructure exhibit an abundance of macroscopic physical properties involving the strong coupling between the electronic, spin, and structural degrees of freedom, and the interplay between magnetism, ferroelectricity, and conductivity. Recent advances in thin-film deposition and characterization techniques made possible the experimental realization of such oxide heterostructures, promising novel functionalities and device concepts.

Tsymbal, E Y [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL; Eom, Professor Chang-Beom [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy [University of California, Berkeley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Defect Structure of Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of electrical conductors: oxides, sulfides, and nitrides...2 O 4 , NiAl 2 O 4 , (Tl 2 O),

319

Oxidation of gallium arsenide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to gallium arsenide semiconductors and, more particularly, to the oxidation of surface layers of gallium arsenide semiconductors for semiconductor device fabrication.

Hoffbauer, M.A.; Cross, J.B.

1991-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

320

Oxidation/Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... International Symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Oxidation/ ... on combustor liners of a Solar Turbines' industrial gas turbine engine, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Threshold concentrations in zinc-doped lithium niobate crystals and their structural conditionality  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of precise X-ray diffraction study of lithium niobate single crystals of congruent composition and four zinc-doped (at 2.8, 5.2, 7.6, and 8.2 mol %) crystals, structural conditionality of the threshold concentrations of the dopant has been established. At these concentrations, the mechanism of zinc incorporation into crystal changes. As the zinc concentration increases, this element first substitutes excess niobium, localized in lithium positions, with a simultaneous decrease in the number of vacancies in these positions. Then zinc substitutes lithium with formation of new lithium vacancies. When a certain limit on the number of vacancies is reached, zinc begins to substitute niobium in its main positions. This process is naturally accompanied by a decrease in the number of vacancies to their complete disappearance and formation of a self-compensating crystal. The character of the dependence of the crystal physical properties on the dopant concentration changes specifically when the impurity concentration passes through the threshold values.

Chernaya, T. S.; Volk, T. R.; Verin, I. A.; Simonov, V. I., E-mail: simonov@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, [March--May 1992  

SciTech Connect

during the seventh quarter, electrokinetic, humic acid extraction and film flotation tests were done on oxidized samples of Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign} 2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis was done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal, oxidized coal after extraction of humic acids and humic acid extracted from oxidized coal. In addition, electrochemical studies were done on electrodes prepared from coal pyrite samples.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Regression Forecasting of the Onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon with Antecedent Upper Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is shown that the recorded onset dates of the summer monsoon in southwestern India can be closely related functionally to the antecedent upper air conditions. The antecedent upper air conditions are represented by April mean values of the ...

Ernest C. Kung; Taher A. Sharif

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upper Midwest History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

>, PhD Student, Department of History, PO Box 6023, BuildingRiver in Upper Midwest History. By McMahon, Eileen M. andRiver in Upper Midwest History. Madison, WI: University of

Karalus, Daniel E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Can Lightning Observations be Used as an Indicator of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Variability?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lightning activity in thunderstorms is closely related to the intensity of vertical updrafts indeep convective clouds that also transport large amounts of moisture into the upper troposphere. Small changes in the amount of upper-tropospheric ...

Colin Price; Mustafa Asfur

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Global Observations of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Derived from TOVS Radiance Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a physically based method for the retrieval of upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) and upper-tropospheric column water vapor (UTCWV) based an the use of radiance data collected by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), ...

Graeme L. Stephens; Darren L. Jackson; Ian Wittmeyer

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Observational Analysis of an Upper-Level Inverted Trough during the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-level inverted troughs (IVs) associated with midlatitude breaking Rossby waves or tropical upper-troposphere troughs (TUTTs) have been identified as important contributors to the variability of rainfall in the North American monsoon (NAM) ...

Zachary O. Finch; Richard H. Johnson

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Triboluminescent properties of zinc sulfide phosphors due to hypervelocity impact  

SciTech Connect

The emission of light due to crystal fracture, or triboluminescence (TL), is a phenomenon that has been known for centuries. One of the most common examples of TL is the flash created from chewing Wint-O-Green Lifesavers . From 2004 to 2006, research was completed using the two-stage light gas gun located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama to measure the TL properties for zinc sulfide doped with both manganese (ZnS:Mn) and copper (ZnS:Cu). Results clearly show that hypervelocity impact-induced TL has been observed for both ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. For ZnS:Mn, TL produced during 4.7 and 5.7km/s impacts was statistically more luminous than was observed from similar data collected at 3.3km/s. The TL decay time for ZnS:Mn was found to be 292 58 s, which is totally consistent with earlier measurements that did not use impact as an excitation source. Further, the emission of TL from ZnS:Mn undergoing hypervelocity impact has been demonstrated to have a significant component at the known peak emission wavelength of ZnS:Mn of 585nm. Small TL emission generated as a result of hypervelocity impact was also observed from ZnS:Cu. The most intriguing conclusion from this research is that it may be possible to discriminate impact velocity by measuring the time-integrated luminosity of TL phosphors. An ability to measure the velocity of a hypervelocity impact is a significant indicator of the potential usefulness for this concept for use as an impact sensor in future spacecraft.

Bergeron, Mr. Noah P. [Louisiana Tech University; HollermanPh.D., Dr. William A. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette; Goedeke, Shawn [ORNL; Moore, R. J. [University of Louisiana, Lafayette

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A zinc-air battery and flywheel zero emission vehicle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In response to the 1990 Clean Air Act, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) developed a compliance plan known as the Low Emission Vehicle Program. An integral part of that program was a sales mandate to the top seven automobile manufacturers requiring the percentage of Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) sold in California to be 2% in 1998, 5% in 2001 and 10% by 2003. Currently available ZEV technology will probably not meet customer demand for range and moderate cost. A potential option to meet the CARB mandate is to use two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) technologies, namely, zinc-air refuelable batteries (ZARBs) and electromechanical batteries (EMBs, i. e., flywheels) to develop a ZEV with a 384 kilometer (240 mile) urban range. This vehicle uses a 40 kW, 70 kWh ZARB for energy storage combined with a 102 kW, 0.5 kWh EMB for power peaking. These technologies are sufficiently near-term and cost-effective to plausibly be in production by the 1999-2001 time frame for stationary and initial vehicular applications. Unlike many other ZEVs currently being developed by industry, our proposed ZEV has range, acceleration, and size consistent with larger conventional passenger vehicles available today. Our life-cycle cost projections for this technology are lower than for Pb-acid battery ZEVs. We have used our Hybrid Vehicle Evaluation Code (HVEC) to simulate the performance of the vehicle and to size the various components. The use of conservative subsystem performance parameters and the resulting vehicle performance are discussed in detail.

Tokarz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Cooper, J.; Bender, D.; Aceves, S.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

330

Zinc and Zinc Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...deep-drawn hardware; address plates; solar collectors Zn-Pb-Cd-Fe Building construction materials, dry-cell battery

331

Zinc Deficiency Linked to Increased Risk of Less-Common Form of Esophageal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Cancer Institute National Cancer Institute Journal of the NCI X-ray Microscopy Group Zinc Deficiency Linked to Increased Risk of Less-Common Form of Esophageal Cancer Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at X-ray Operations and Research beamline 2-BM at the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Photon Source have found that zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, an often-fatal form of esophageal cancer that has about 7,000 cases a year. NCI researchers used a novel approach to measure the concentration of zinc and other elements directly in the esophageal tissue. Their results, appearing in the February 15, 2005, Journal of the National

332

A procedure for finding an improved upper bound on the number of optimal design points  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowing an upper bound on the number of optimal design points greatly simplifies the search for an optimal design. Caratheodory's Theorem is commonly used to identify an upper bound. However, the upper bound from Caratheodory's Theorem is relatively ... Keywords: Carathéodory's theorem, Cardinality of design, Experimental design, Nonlinear regression

Seung Won Hyun; Min Yang; Nancy Flournoy

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effects of tensile loading on upper shelf fracture toughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraint has been an important consideration in fracture mechanics from the earliest work that was done to develop the 1974 version of the ASTM Standard E399. O`Dowd and Shih (1991) have proposed that the difference in crack tip stress fields can be quantified in terms of a field quantity that they have call Q. The Q quantity is a function of J, the crack shape and size, the structural geometry, mode of loading and on the level of deformation and can only be calculated from a high resolution elastic-plastic computational analysis. A similar, simpler, but more controversial approach has been suggested by Betegon and Hancock (1991), who use the non-singular term of the elastic, crack singularity solution, called the T-Stress, as a measure of elastic-plastic crack tip constraint. The objective of this work is to develop some upper shelf, elastic-plastic experimental results to attempt to investigate the applicability of the Q and T stress parameters to the correlation of upper shelf initiation toughness and J resistance curves. The first objective was to obtain upper shelf J resistance curves, J{sub Ic}, and tearing resistance results for a range of applied constraint. The J-Q and J-T stress loci were developed and compared with the expectations of the O`Dowd and Shih and the Betegon and Hancock analyses. Constraint was varied by changing the crack length and also by changing the mode of loading from bending to predominantly tensile. The principle conclusions of this work are that J{sub Ic} does not appear to be dependent on T stress or Q while the material tearing resistance is dependent on T stress and Q, with the tearing modulus increasing as constraint decreases.

Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Link, R.E. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

336

Upper critical field of Mo-Ni heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

Upper critical field and its anisotropy have been measured on two very short wavelength Mo-Ni heterostructures of different degrees of perfection, lambda = 13.8A (disordered structure) and lambda = 16.6A (layered structure). In both cases the parallel critical field has an unexpected temperature dependence, a large and temperature dependent anisotropy, and over 60% enhancement over the Clogston-Chandrasekhar limit. Data are fit to the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory and the spin-orbit scattering times are found to be 1.79 x 10 T s and 2 x 10 T s, respectively.

Uher, C.; Watson, W.J.; Cohn, J.L.; Schuller, I.K.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Disassembly and defueling of the upper core support assembly  

SciTech Connect

During normal operation of the reactor plant, the upper core support assembly (UCSA) holds the fuel assemblies in a defined geometry and establishes the flow path of the reactor coolant in the reactor vessel. Sometime during the course of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident, molten core material melted through a portion of the UCSA and flowed outside the confines of the core region into normally inaccessible areas. As a result, the UCSA must now be disassembled to remove the relocated core material. The paper includes UCSA description, a discussion of equipment design basis, and a discussion of the defueling approach.

Rodabaugh, J.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Upper Limits on a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed a third science run with much improved sensitivities of all three interferometers. We present an analysis of approximately 200 hours of data acquired during this run, used to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We place upper bounds on the energy density stored as gravitational radiation for three different spectral power laws. For the flat spectrum, our limit of Omega_0<8.4e-4 in the 69-156 Hz band is ~10^5 times lower than the previous result in this frequency range.

Abbott, B; Adhikari, R; Ageev, A; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Asiri, F; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Balasubramanian, R; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barnes, M; Barr, B; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Beausoleil, R; Belczynski, K; Bennett, R; Berukoff, S J; Betzwieser, J; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Bland, B; Bochner, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burgess, R; Busby, D; Butler, W E; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cantley, C A; Cardenas, L; Carter, K; Casey, M M; Castiglione, J; Chandler, A; Chapsky, J; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chickarmane, V; Chin, D; Christensen, N; Churches, D; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C; Coldwell, R; Coles, M; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Csatorday, P; Cusack, B J; Cutler, C; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Daw, E; De Bra, D; Delker, T; Dergachev, V; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Ding, H; Drever, R W P; Dupuis, R J; Edlund, J A; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E J; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fallnich, C; Farnham, D; Fejer, M M; Findley, T; Fine, M; Finn, L S; Franzen, K Y; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Ganezer, K S; Garofoli, J; Giaime, J A; Gillespie, A; Goda, K; González, G; Goler, S; Grandclément, P; Grant, A; Gray, C; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, E; Gustafson, R; Hamilton, W O; Hammond, M; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Hartunian, A; Heefner, J; Hefetz, Y; Heinzel, G; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Hepler, N; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hoang, P; Hough, J; Hrynevych, M; Hua, W; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jennrich, O; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Johnston, W R; Jones, D I; Jones, L; Jungwirth, D; Kalogera, V; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kells, W; Kern, J; Khan, A; Killbourn, S; Killow, C J; Kim, C; King, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Koranda, S; Kotter, K; Kovalik, Yu; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Landry, M; Langdale, J; Lantz, B; Lawrence, R; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lindquist, P; Liu, S; Logan, J; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Lyons, T T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Majid, W; Malec, M; Mann, F; Marin, A; Marka, S; Maros, E; Mason, J; Mason, K; Matherny, O; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McHugh, M; McNabb, J W C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Miyoki, S; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Müller, G; Mukherjee, S; Murray, P; Myers, J; Nagano, S; Nash, T; Nayak, R; Newton, G; Nocera, F; Noel, J S; Nutzman, P; Olson, T; O'Reilly, B; Ottaway, D J; Ottewill, A; Ouimette, D A; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Parameswariah, C; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rao, S R; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Redding, D; Regehr, M W; Regimbau, T; Reid, S; Reilly, K T; Reithmaier, K; Reitze, D H; Richman, S; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Rizzi, A; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robison, L; Roddy, S; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Rong, H; Rose, D; Rotthoff, E; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Salzman, I; Sandberg, V; Sanders, G H; Sannibale, V; Sathyaprakash, B; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sazonov, A; Schilling, R; Schlaufman, K; Schmidt, V; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seel, S; Seifert, F; Sengupta, A S; Shapiro, C A; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Shu, Q Z; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sievers, L; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Smith, J R; Smith, M; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P H; Spero, R; Stapfer, G; Steussy, D; Strain, K A; Strom, D; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sumner, M C; Sutton, P J; Sylvestre, J; Takamori, A; Tanner, D B; Tariq, H; Taylor, I; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Tibbits, M; Tilav, S; Tinto, M; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vallisneri, M; Van Putten, M H P M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Wallace, L; Walther, H; Ward, H; Ware, B; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weiland, U; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Welling, H; Wen, L; Wen, S; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wiley, S; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, P R; Williams, R; Willke, B; Wilson, A; Winjum, B J; Winkler, W; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yoshida, S; Zaleski, K D; Zanolin, M; Zawischa, I; Zhang, L; Zhu, R; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zweizig, J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Oxidative Degradation of Monoethanolamine Susan Chi Gary T. Rochelle* (gtr@che.utexas.edu, 512-471-7230) The University of Texas at Austin Department of Chemical Engineering Austin, Texas 78712 Prepared for presentation at the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001 Abstract Oxidative degradation of monoethanolamine (MEA) was studied under typical absorber condition of 55°C. The rate of evolution of NH 3 , which was indicative of the overall rate of degradation, was measured continuously in a batch system sparged with air. Dissolved iron from 0.0001 mM to 1 mM yields oxidation rates from 0.37 to 2 mM/hr in MEA solutions loaded with 0.4 mole CO 2 / mole MEA. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N,N-bis(2- hydroxyethyl)glycine effectively decrease the rate of oxidation in the presence of iron by 40 to

340

Nickel-zinc batteries for RPV applications. Interim technical report 15 Nov 78-15 Dec 79  

SciTech Connect

Interim results are presented for a program dealing with the placement of nickel-zinc batteries in specific military applications, namely the BQM-34A and the PQM-102 Remotely Piloted Vehicles. The nickel-zinc system was chosen for these applications because RPV's demand a high quality secondary battery that offers a compromise between long life (calendar and cycle) and low weight and volume. Program tasks include continued development of the nickel zinc system, calendar and cycle life testing of the two candidate batteries, qualification testing, and flight testing in operational RPV's. Test results of developmental cells and batteries include cycle life testing of various separator materials, high rate/low temperature discharges with various types of nickel electrodes, zinc electrode substrate, and charging methods. Calendar and cycle life testing is underway which will demonstrate the ability of the nickel-zinc system to be routinely cycled over an extended period of time.

Dappert, D.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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341

State of zincate in supersaturated solutions obtained during the discharging of a nickel-zinc electrochemical system  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of supersaturated zincate solutions obtained as a result of the discharging of the nickel-zinc system during their aging. A disadvantage of the nickel-zinc storage battery is its relatively short service life due to the instability of the zinc electrode. This instability is caused by the tendency of the zincate solution to become supersaturated. The UV spectra of the supersaturated zincate solutions obtained in the silver-zinc and nickel-zinc systems show significant absorption at 240 nm and strong absorption at 280 nm. The strong absorption at 280 nm in the supersaturated zincate solutions corresponds to the weak absorption in the solution obtained by ordinary dissolution. It is suggested that the stability of supersaturated zincate solutions may be increased by the formation of additional bridging bonds, which link the individual molecules of their aggregates to form a three-dimensional structure.

Smitrenko, V.E.; Baulov, V.I.; Kotov, A.V.; Zubov, M.S.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

Doyle, F.M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

343

Visible and Infrared Optical Design for the ITER Upper Ports  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the results of an optical design scoping study of visible-light and infrared optics for the ITER upper ports, performed by LLNL under contract for the US ITER Project Office. ITER is an international collaboration to build a large fusion energy tokamak with a goal of demonstrating net fusion power for pulses much longer than the energy confinement time. At the time of this report, six of the ITER upper ports are planned to each to contain a camera system for recording visible and infrared light, as well as other diagnostics. the performance specifications for the temporal and spatial resolution of this system are shown in the Section II, Functional Specifications. They acknowledge a debt to Y. Corre and co-authors of the CEA Cadarache report ''ITER wide-angle viewing and thermographic and visible system''. Several of the concepts used in this design are derived from that CEA report. The infrared spatial resolution for optics of this design is diffraction-limited by the size of the entrance aperture, at lower resolution than listed in the ITER diagnostic specifications. The size of the entrance aperture is a trade-off between spatial resolution, optics size in the port, and the location of relay optics. The signal-to-noise ratio allows operation at the specified time resolutions.

Lasnier, C; Seppala, L; Morris, K; Groth, M; Fenstermacher, M; Allen, S; Synakowski, E; Ortiz, J

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability Assessment of a Zinc Chloride Battery System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UNIRAM analyses guided the design of an advanced energy storage system for load leveling and management. The study showed that, in comparison with competing technologies that are available approximately 90% of the time, a 2-MW system of zinc chloride batteries would have an availability greater than 98%.

1986-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Speciation and Release Kinetics of Zinc in Contaminated Paddy Soils Saengdao Khaokaew,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Speciation and Release Kinetics of Zinc in Contaminated Paddy Soils Saengdao Khaokaew,*, Gautier of Plant and Soil Sciences, 152 Townsend Hall, Newark, Delaware 19716, United States U.S. Department of Zn is controlled by many factors, especially soil pH and Eh, which can vary in lowland rice culture

Sparks, Donald L.

346

A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion  

SciTech Connect

We report the development and on-vehicle testing of an engineering prototype zinc/air battery. The battery is refueled by periodic exchange of spent electrolyte for zinc particles entrained in fresh electrolyte. The technology is intended to provide a capability for nearly continuous vehicle operation, using the fleet s home base for 10 minute refuelings and zinc recycling instead of commercial infrastructure. In the battery, the zinc fuel particles are stored in hoppers, from which they are gravity fed into individual cells and completely consumed during discharge. A six-celled (7V) engineering prototype battery was combined with a 6 V lead/acid battery to form a parallel hybrid unit, which was tested in series with the 216 V battery of an electric shuttle bus over a 75 mile circuit. The battery has an energy density of 140 Wh/kg and a mass density of 1.5 kg/L. Cost, energy efficiency, and alternative hybrid configurations are discussed.

Cooper, J.F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.

1995-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Method and apparatus for maintaining the pH in zinc-bromine battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for maintaining the pH level in a zinc-bromine battery features reacting decomposition hydrogen with bromine in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst encourages the formation of hydrogen and bromine ions. The decomposition hydrogen is therefore consumed, alloying the pH of the system to remain substantially at a given value.

Grimes, Patrick G. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

348

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing promoted zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc, titanium and rhenium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

349

Catalytic reforming and hydrocracking of organic compounds employing zinc titanate as the catalytic agent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound or the hydrocracking of a feedstock which contains at least one hydrocrackable organic compound is carried out in the presence of a catalyst composition comprising zinc and titanium.

Drehman, L.E.; Farha, F.E.; Walker, D.W.

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

350

Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

351

Analysis of Lipid Oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of Lipid Oxidation is essential for further developments in analytical methodology and hyphenated techniques, with which more understanding of the reaction kinetics, mechanism, and implications will take place. ...

352

Cathodoluminescence of uranium oxides  

SciTech Connect

The cathodoluminescence of uranium oxide surfaces prepared in-situ from clean uranium exposed to dry oxygen was studied. The broad asymmetric peak observed at 470 nm is attributed to F-center excitation.

Winer, K.; Colmenares, C.; Wooten, F.

1984-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

353

Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G. (U. South Australia); (EPA); (Monash)

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

354

Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fixed-bed regenerable desulfurization sorbent, identified as RVS-land developed by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, was awarded the R&D 100 award in 2000 and is currently offered as a commercial product by Sued-Chemie Inc. An extensive testing program for this sorbent was undertaken which included tests at a wide range of temperatures, pressures and gas compositions both simulated and generated in an actual gasifier for sulfidation and regeneration. This testing has demonstrated that during these desulfurization tests, the RVS-1 sorbent maintained an effluent H2S concentration of <5 ppmv at temperatures from 260 to 600 C (500-1100 F) and pressures of 203-2026 kPa(2 to 20 atm) with a feed containing 1.2 vol% H{sub 2}S. The types of syngas tested ranged from an oxygen-blown Texaco gasifier to biomass-generated syngas. The RVS-1 sorbent has high crush strength and attrition resistance, which, unlike past sorbent formulations, does not decrease with extended testing at actual at operating conditions. The sulfur capacity of the sorbent is roughly 17 to 20 wt.% and also remains constant during extended testing (>25 cycles). In addition to H{sub 2}S, the RVS-1 sorbent has also demonstrated the ability to remove dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from syngas. During regeneration, the RVS-1 sorbent has been regenerated with dilute oxygen streams (1 to 7 vol% O{sub 2}) at temperatures as low as 370 C (700 F) and pressures of 304-709 kPa(3 to 7 atm). Although regeneration can be initiated at 370 C (700 F), regeneration temperatures in excess of 538 C (1000 F) were found to be optimal. The presence of steam, carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide (up to 6 vol%) did not have any visible effect on regeneration or sorbent performance during either sulfidation or regeneration. A number of commercial tests involving RVS-1 have been either conducted or are planned in the near future. The RVS-1 sorbent has been tested by Epyx, Aspen Systems and McDermott Technology (MTI), Inc for desulfurization of syngas produced by reforming of hydrocarbon liquid feedstocks for fuel cell applications. The RVS-1 sorbent was selected by MTI over other candidate sorbents for demonstration testing in their 500-kW ship service fuel cell program. It was also possible to obtain sulfur levels in the ppbv range with the modified RVS-1 sorbent.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Cicero, Daniel C. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown); Stiegel, Gary J.; Gupta, Raghubir P. (U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh); Turk, Brian S. (Research Triangle Institute)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

355

A comparative study of ultraviolet photoconductivity relaxation in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by different techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin films deposited by three different techniques namely rf diode sputtering, rf magnetron sputtering, and electrophoretic deposition has been investigated in the metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) configuration. A significant variation in the crystallinity, surface morphology, and photoresponse characteristics of ZnO thin film with change in growth kinetics suggest that the presence of defect centers and their density govern the photodetector relaxation properties. A relatively low density of traps compared to the true quantum yield is found very crucial for the realization of practical ZnO thin film based ultraviolet (UV) photodetector.

Yadav, Harish Kumar; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

358

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Upper Marlboro, Maryland: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Marlboro, Maryland: Energy Resources Marlboro, Maryland: Energy Resources (Redirected from Upper Marlboro, MD) Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 38.8159473°, -76.7496909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.8159473,"lon":-76.7496909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

360

Upper crustal structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central Coso  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central Coso structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central Coso Range, eastern California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Upper crustal structure of an obliquely extending orogen, central Coso Range, eastern California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Coso Range is an extensional domain in a releasing stepover between major dextral strike-slip faults along the southeastern margin of the Sierra Nevada Microplate. New multifold seismic reflection data from the Coso geothermal field in the central Coso Range image reflectors that resemble suites of structural and magmatic features exposed in many exhumed metamorphic core complexes (MCC). The Coso Wash Fault, a Holocene-active normal fault that is a locus of surface geothermal activity, is imaged as a

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

Jun Yin

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Upper crustal faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural control  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural control faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural control on permeability and production in the Coso Geothermal Field, eastern California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Upper crustal faulting in an obliquely extending orogen, structural control on permeability and production in the Coso Geothermal Field, eastern California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: New multifold seismic reflection data from the Coso geothermal field in the central Coso Range, eastern California, image brittle faults and other structures in a zone of localized crustal extension between two major strike-slip faults. The Coso Wash fault, a Quaternary-active normal fault that is a locus of surface geothermal activity, is well-imaged as a

363

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

364

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

365

Tribology and Tool Wear of Hot Dip Galvanized Zinc Magnesium Alloys on Cold Rolled Steel Sheets  

SciTech Connect

Recently zinc based coatings on cold rolled steel with improved functionality in terms of forming and/or corrosion behaviour have been intensively investigated in the steel industry. One of the most promising products are zinc magnesium alloys produced in hot dip galvanizing process. These coatings were already introduced in construction industry a few years ago. With some modifications the improved properties of the coating are also interesting for automotive industry. In the present work the tribological potential of hot dip galvanized zinc magnesium coatings (HDG/ZM) produced at an industrial line under regular production, was studied in terms of sliding properties, adhesive and abrasive tool wear.First a short introduction into surface morphology of HDG/ZM will be given. For the tribological characterization of the material, which is the main topic of the contribution, different tests were performed on hot dip galvanised zinc magnesium material and results were compared with classic hot dip galvanized zinc coating (HDG/Z). The investigations are mainly based on the strip draw test which allows the determination of the friction coefficient directly by using a constant contact pressure. Deep drawing property was tested by forming model cups. The abrasive tool wear was tested using a standard test for material used in automotive industry. The adhesive tool wear was investigated by characterizing the coating material transferred to the tool in the strip draw test.All performed tests show an improved drawability of HDG/ZM compared to classical HDG/Z reference material. However the most promising difference between HDG/ZM and HDG/Z is that galling was found to be less for HDG/ZM than for HDG/Z. Therefore HDG/ZM is an interesting system not only with respect to corrosion protection but also in terms of tribology and provides clear advantages in formability.

Raab, A. E.; Berger, E.; Freudenthaler, J.; Leomann, F.; Walch, C. [Research and Development, Forming Technology voestalpine Stahl GmbH, Voest-Alpine Strasse 3, 4031 Linz (Austria)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

366

Trace metals in fucoid algae and purple sea urchins near a high arctic lead/zinc ore deposit  

SciTech Connect

Trace metal concentrations in fucoid algae and in purple sea urchins from the vicinity of a metal mining district on North Baffin Island were determined. Higher concentrations of iron and zinc were present in algae and urchins collected nearer the mining area than in those collected further away. Concentrations of copper, iron, and zinc in algae increased with tissue age; arsenic and cadmium were lowest in intermediate-age algae tissues. Tissue distributions of iron and zinc in urchins and algae illustrate the food chain relationship between these species. 7 references, 2 tables.

Bohn, A.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

THE EFFECT OF SULFUR ON METHANE PARTIAL OXIDATION AND REFORMING PROCESSES FOR LEAN NOX TRAP CATALYSIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping after NOx purge. Creating the rich exhaust conditions for regeneration can be accomplished by catalytic partial oxidation of methane in the exhaust system. Furthermore, catalytic reforming of partial oxidation exhaust can enable increased quantities of H2 which is an excellent reductant for lean NOx trap regeneration. It is critical to maintain clean and efficient partial oxidation and reforming processes to keep the lean NOx trap functioning properly and to reduce extra fuel consumption from the regeneration process. Although most exhaust constituents do not impede partial oxidation and reforming, some exhaust constituents may negatively affect the catalysts and result in loss of catalytic efficiency. Of particular concern are common catalyst poisons sulfur, zinc, and phosphorous. These poisons form in the exhaust through combustion of fuel and oil, and although they are present at low concentrations, they can accumulate to significant levels over the life of an engine system. In the work presented here, the effects of sulfur on the partial oxidation and reforming catalytic processes were studied to determine any durability limitations on the production of reductants for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Possible Upper limits on Lorentz Factors in High Energy Astrophysical Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe. The relativistic effect on the blast wave associated with the GRB introduces the gamma factor. Here we put an upper limit on the gamma factor via constraints on maximal power allowed by general relativity and hence set upper limits on other observable quantities such as deceleration distance. Also upper limits are set on the high energy particle radiation due to constraints set by cosmic microwave background radiation.

C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian stratigraphy of Northwestern Montana: a petroleum system approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian stratigraphy in the Antler foreland basin of northwestern Montana is the current focus of exploration for several petroleum companies.… (more)

Schietinger, Paul S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

An early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

early history of pure shear in the upper plate of the raft river metamorphic core complex- black pine mountains, southern Idaho Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

371

Upper bound on the efficiency of certain nonimaging concentrators in the physical-optics model  

SciTech Connect

A simple treatment by scalar-wave theory yields upper bounds to the efficiency of nonimaging concentrators that are lower than those given by geometrical optics.

Welford, W.T.; Winston, R.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

T ti E St S tTetiaroa Energy Storage System Estimated ZBB Zinc Bromide Battery Performance and Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T ti E St S tTetiaroa Energy Storage System Estimated ZBB Zinc Bromide Battery Performance and Costs Prull / KammenPrull / Kammen Renewable and Appropriate Energy Lab, UC Berkeley 7/26/2010 http

Kammen, Daniel M.

373

Thermally Oxidized Silicon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the lattice. The outline of four silicon unit cells is shown in black, whereas the outline of four expanded lattice cells in the oxide is shown in blue One of the most studied devices of modern technology is the field-effect transistor, which is the basis for most integrated circuits. At its heart

374

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

375

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

Molecular water oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

379

Upper Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermal Resource Area: Upper Division Hot Spring Geothermal Area Contents 1 Area Overview 2 History and Infrastructure 3 Regulatory and Environmental Issues 4 Exploration History 5 Well Field Description 6 Geology of the Area 7 Geofluid Geochemistry 8 NEPA-Related Analyses (0) 9 Exploration Activities (0) 10 References Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"TERRAIN","zoom":6,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"500px","height":"300px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":66.35744679,"lon":-156.7663995,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

New petrofacies in upper Cretaceous section of southern California  

SciTech Connect

A distinctive sandstone-conglomerate petrofacies is recognized throughout the Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian-late Campanian) Chatsworth Formation in the Simi Hills. It is named the Woolsey Canyon petrofacies after the district where it was first recognized. The petrofacies is also recognized in the Late Cretaceous (late Campanian and possibly early Maestrichtian) Tuna Canyon Formation of the central Santa Monica Mountains. The conglomerates in the petrofacies are composed predominantly of angular pebble-size clasts of argillite, quartz-rich rocks (orthoquartzarenite, metaorthoquartzarenite, mice quartz schist) and leucocratic plutoniate (granite-granodiorite). The conglomerate texture and composition are mirrored in the sandstone. The uniformly angular character of the conglomerate clasts and the survival of argillite clasts indicate that the detritus underwent no more than 5 mi of subaerial transport before it entered the deep marine realm. Foraminifers collected from mudstones interbedded with the conglomerates indicate upper bathyal water depth at the site of deposition. A source terrane of low to moderate relief is indicated by the absence of cobbles and boulders. Bed forms, sedimentary structures, and textural features indicate the detritus moved north from its source terrane to be deposited by turbidity currents, debris flows, and grain flows on the Chatsworth Submarine Fan. The detritus of the Woolsey Canyon petrofacies was derived from basement rocks, now largely buried beneath the Los Angeles basin, that were being eroded during the formation of the Cretaceous Los Angeles erosion surface. The detritus came from the Los Angeles arch of that surface.

Colburn, I.P.; Oliver, D.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Upper hybrid solitons and oscillating-two-steam instabilities  

SciTech Connect

A warm two-fluid theory of soliton formation near the upper-hybrid frequency is developed. Several forms of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation are obtained, depending on whether the electric field is completely perpendicular to the dc magnetic field or whether it has an additional small component parallel to the magnetic field. For the perpendicular case, the character of the soliton depends on its scale length, L, and on $beta$. For low $beta$, when L is less than c/$omega$/sub pe/, one finds stationary envelope and hole solitons, whereas when L is greater than c/$omega$/sub pi/ we obtain the super-Alfvenic solitons described by Kaufman and Stenflow by MHD theory. However, the case E/sub parallel/ not equal to 0 may be of more interest, since it couples the pump to the excited waves more efficiently. In the limit of linearization about an infinite wavelength pump, the nonlinear Schroedinger equations yield purely growing (oscillating-two-stream) instabilities in both cases. (auth)

Porkolab, M.; Goldman, M.V.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Discovery of carbon monoxide in the upper atmosphere of Pluto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pluto's icy surface has changed colour and its atmosphere has swelled since its last closest approach to the Sun in 1989. The thin atmosphere is produced by evaporating ices, and so can also change rapidly, and in particular carbon monoxide should be present as an active thermostat. Here we report the discovery of gaseous CO via the 1.3mm wavelength J=2-1 rotational transition, and find that the line-centre signal is more than twice as bright as a tentative result obtained by Bockelee-Morvan et al. in 2000. Greater surface-ice evaporation over the last decade could explain this, or increased pressure could have caused the atmosphere to expand. The gas must be cold, with a narrow line-width consistent with temperatures around 50 K, as predicted for the very high atmosphere, and the line brightness implies that CO molecules extend up to approximately 3 Pluto radii above the surface. The upper atmosphere must have changed markedly over only a decade since the prior search, and more alterations could occur by the...

Greaves, J S; Friberg, P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Nickel-zinc batteries for RPV applications. Final technical report 15 Nov 79-15 Aug 81  

SciTech Connect

Final technical results are presented for a program dealing with the placement of nickel-zinc batteries in specific military applications, namely the BQM-34A and the PQM-102 Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV's). The nickel-zinc system was selected for these applications because RPV's demand a high quality secondary battery that offers a compromise between long life (calendar and cycle) and low weight and volume.

Dappert, D.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Spectroscopic investigations of small-molecule interactions on metal oxide surfaces. Final report, September 1, 1978-December 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Angle integrated and angle resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS and ARPES) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) have been performed on the low index single crystal surfaces of zinc oxide. Study of CO/ZnO shows that the mode of binding is dominated by 5sigma donation from the carbon end of the molecule to the unsaturated surface zinc ion with little ..pi.. backbonding to the CO2..pi..* orbital. This electronic structure is verified by a HREELS study. The geometry of CO binding is consistent with LEED studies where no symmetry changing reconstructions are observed to occur, and where the CO molecule forms an approximately linear Zn-C-O surface complex along the coordinatively unsaturated directions of the surface zinc ions. Implications of these studies to the mechanism of methanol synthesis is described. These UPS studies have also provided insight into the bonding interaction between small molecules such as NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ (as well as H/sub 2/O, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, CH/sub 3/OH, H/sub 2/S and CH/sub 3/SH) and the ZnO single crystal surfaces.

Solomon, E. I.; McFeely, F. R.

1982-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

Inert gas rejection device for zinc-halogen battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell for separating chlorine gas from other (foreign) gases, having an anode, a cathode assembly, an aqueous electrolyte, a housing, and a constant voltage power supply. The cathode assembly is generally comprised of a dense graphite electrode having a winding channel formed in the face opposing the anode, a gas impermeable (but liquid permeable) membrane sealed into the side of the cathode electrode over the channel, and a packing of graphite particles contained in the channel of the cathode electrode. The housing separates and parallelly aligns the anode and cathode assembly, and provides a hermetic seal for the cell. In operation, a stream of chlorine and foreign gases enters the cell at the beginning of the cathode electrode channel. The chlorine gas is dissolved into the electrolyte and electrochemically reduced into chloride ions. The chloride ions disfuse through the gas impermeable membrane, and are electrochemically oxidized at the anode into purified chlorine gas. The foreign gases do not participate in the above electrochemical reactions, and are vented from the cell at the end of the cathode electrode channel.

Hammond, Michael J. (Sterling Heights, MI); Arendell, Mark W. (Warren, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cadmium ban spurs interest in zinc-nickel coating for corrosive aerospace environments  

SciTech Connect

OSHA recently reduced the permissible exposure level for cadmium. The new standard virtually outlaws cadmium production and use, except in the most cost-insensitive applications. Aerospace manufacturers, which use cadmium extensively in coatings applications because of the material's corrosion resistance, are searching for substitutes. The most promising alternative found to date is a zinc-nickel alloy. Tests show that the alloy outperforms cadmium without generating associated toxicity issues. As a result, several major manufacturing and standards organizations have adopted the zinc-nickel compound as a standard cadmium replacement. The basis for revising the cadmium PEL -- which applies to occupational exposure in industrial, agricultural and maritime occupations -- is an official OSHA determination that employees exposed to cadmium under the existing PEL face significant health risks from lung cancer and kidney damage. In one of its principal uses, cadmium is electroplated to steel, where it acts as an anticorrosive agent.

Bates, J. (Pure Coatings Inc., West Palm Beach, FL (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Evaluation of a new type stable nickel-zinc battery for electric vehicle application. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes discharge-recharge cycle testing of 14 nickel-zinc storage battery cells of a proprietary design. This testing was to obtain performance data on new types of stabilized nickel-zinc battery cells for possible electric vehicle applications. The test sample cells were manufactured by Electrochimica Corporation (ELCA) in two sizes (15 ampere-hours and 225 ampere-hours) with a total of seven different internal combinations. The cells completed up to 470 cycles when testing was halted due to funding limitations. Near the end of testing, the cells were providing 40% of nominal capacity when discharged to 1.2 volts and 58 to 73% when discharged in two steps to 1.0 volt.

Not Available

1985-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

388

Reaction Diffusion in the Silver-Zinc and Silver-Aluminum Systems  

SciTech Connect

Multiphase diffusion was investigated in the silver-zinc and silver-aluminum binary systems using metallographic and electron microprobe techniques. Diffusion couples in the silver-zinc system were prepared by electroplating silver onto coupons of a AgZn alloy (62.2% Ag), and diffusion behavior was studied at 600 and 650 degrees C. Couples in the silver-aluminum system were prepared by electroplating silver onto coupons of a AgAl alloy (87.7% Ag) and diffusion measurements were made between 400-600 degrees C. Significant deviations from equilibrium compositions were observed at the moving interphase boundary in each couple. The nucleation of a non-equilibrium silver-rich phase was observed at the location of the initial interface in many of the couples.

Braun, Japnell D.; Powell, Gordon W.

1971-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known synthesis in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Highly oxidized superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Hydrous oxide activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for preparing of an ion exchanger, comprising: treating an ionically inert activated charcoal porous support with an aqueous solution of metal oxychloride selected from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides so as to impregnate the pores of the support with the solution; separating the treated support from excess metal oxychloride solution; converting the metal oxychloride to a hydrous metal oxide precipitate in the pores of the support at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal support have opposite zeta potentials and sufficient to hydrolyze the metal oxychloride. It also describes a process for preparing an ion exchanger comprising: treating granulated activated charcoal with a concentrated solution of a metal oxychloride from the group consisting of zirconium and titanium oxychlorides, degassing the mixture; and treating the resultant mixture with a base selected from the group consisting of ammonium hydroxide and alkali metal hydroxides so as to precipitate the oxychloride within the pores of the activated carbon granules as hydrous metal oxide at a pH above 8 and above the pH whereat the hydrous metal oxide and activated charcoal have opposite zeta potentials.

Weller, J.P.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

392

Develop nickel--zinc battery suitable for electric vehicle propulsion. Task A: design and cost study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-month design and cost study for the use of nickel--zinc batteries in electric vehicles is presented. Battery configuration is analyzed, and expected performance is set forth. Current development problems concern component materials and capacity decline on cycling, electrolyte maintenance, and thermal characteristics. The manufacturing process is outlined, and estimates are made for cost, materials requirements, capital needs, etc. 61 figures, 24 tables. (RWR)

None

1977-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan distribution in free-living microorganisms? ABSTRACT distance apart) is used to try and answer the question `What is the upper size limit for cosmopolitan to 230 lm while the largest cosmopolitan species was 135 lm in size. Comparison of the testate

Brown, Richard

394

Variability in the Upper-Ocean Internal Wave Field at a Sargasso Sea Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two 3.5 month time series records of upper-ocean current and density profiles collected in opposite seasons as part of the LOTUS (Long-Term Upper-Ocean Study) project at 34°N, 70°W indicate substantial variation in the shape of horizontal current ...

Charles C. Eriksen

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Upper-Level Frontogenesis: Two Case Studies from the FRONTS 87 Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study describes the structure of two cold fronts observed during the European experiment FRONTS 87. The selection of these two particular cases is based on the existence of well-marked upper-level features, such as strong jet streams, upper-...

Konstantinos Lagouvardos; Vassiliki Kotroni

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of new, high efficiency and cleaner burning engines is strongly coupled with the removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from fuels. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein these dibenzothiophene derivatives are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones is an approach that has gained significant attention. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) convert in a catalytic process dibenzothiophene and its derivatives to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones rapidly at moderate temperatures (60 C) and ambient pressure. The reaction can be performed in both an aqueous system containing an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol) to solubilize the DBT and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system where the alcohol is present in both phases and facilitates the oxidation. Under a consistent set of conditions using the FeBF{sub 2} TAML activator, the degree of conversion was found to be t-butanol > methanol > ethanol. In the cases of methanol and ethanol, both the sulfoxide and sulfone were observed while for t-butanol only the sulfone was detected. In the two-phase system, the alcohol may function as an inverse phase transfer agent. The oxidation was carried out using two different TAML activators. In homogeneous solution, approximately 90% oxidation of the DBT could be achieved using the prototype TAML activator, FeB*, by sonicating the solution at near room temperature. In bi-phasic systems conversions as high as 50% were achieved using the FeB* TAML activator and hydrogen peroxide at 100 C. The sonication method yielded only {approx}6% conversion but this may have been due to mixing.

Colin P. Horwitz; Terrence J. Collins

2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

397

Intercomparison tests of moored current measurements in the upper ocean  

SciTech Connect

During the August-September 1977 Mixed Layer Experiment (Mile) and the July-September 1978 Joint Air-Sea (Jasin) project, moored current measurements were made in the upper ocean with Savonius rotor and vane vector-averaging current meters (VACM), dual orthogonal propeller vector-measuring current meters (VMCM), and dual orthogonal acoustic travel-time vector-averaging current meters (ACM). Wind speeds and significant wave heights reached 20 m s/sup -1/ and 5m. The influence of mooring motion upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM measurements are described. In the mixed layer above about 30 m depth where mean currents are relatively large, the effect of a surface-following buoy upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM velocity fluctuations at frequencies less than 0.3 cph was negligible; at frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM data contained the largest amount of mooring induced contamination. Below the mixed layer at depths greater than about 75 m, a subsurface mooring should be used; however, when a surface-following buoy was used, then VMCM data better approximated the spectrum of the fluctuations than VACM data. A spar-buoy should not be used to measure currents at depths as deep as 80 m. The frequency-dependent differences between VACM and VMCM and between VACM and ACM measurements are described. At frequencies less than 0.3 cph, the differences between the VACM and ACM or the VMCM records were not significant with 95% confidence limits, were always positive, and above 80 m depth were less than 20%. At frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM-VMCM differences were about 5 times larger than the VACM-ACM differences.

Halpern, D.; Weller, R.A.; Briscoe, M.G.; Davis, R.E.; McCullough, J.R.

1981-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book complements Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 1. Lipid Oxidation Pathways, Volume 2 Health acid analysis aocs april articles chloropropanediol contaminants detergents dietary fats division divisions esters fats fatty food foods glycidol Health h

399

Cholesterol and Phytosterol Oxidation Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book comprehensively reviews several aspects of cholesterol oxidation products: cholesterol oxidation mechanisms, analytical determination, origin and content of these compounds in foods and biological samples, and their biological effects, with an em

400

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Acid buffering a high pH soil for zinc diffusion  

SciTech Connect

The effective use of an aqueous buffer solution of acetic acid and sodium acetate (1.0 M HOAc/1.4 M NaOAc, pH = 4.8) to lower the pH of a sand-attapulgite clay mixture from 9.4 to 4.8 is demonstrated. Soil buffering is necessary to prevent precipitation of Zn{sup 2+} as Zn(OH){sub 2(s)} during zinc diffusion tests. The choice of the acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer solution is based on results of batch-type tests and permeation tests performed to evaluate the soil-mixture pH lowering and buffering capacity of dilute solutions of HNO{sub 3} (a strong acid), 0.057 M HOAc (a weak acid), potassium hydrogen phthalate (a pH {approximately} 4 buffer), and the 1.0 M HOAc/1.4 MNaOAc buffer solution. Measured values of effective diffusion coefficients D* for zinc on unconfined, compacted test specimens of the buffered soil mixture ranged from 0.54 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s to 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. This range of D*-values is within the range of D*-values reported for most reactive inorganic solutes in saturated clay soils and at the lower end of the range of D*-values for zinc in saturated clay soils.

Shackelford, C.D.; Cotten, T.E.; Rohal, K.M.; Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Low-energy Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich zinc isotopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At the radioactive ion beam facility REX-ISOLDE, neutron-rich zinc isotopes were investigated using low-energy Coulomb excitation. These experiments have resulted in B(E2,20) values in 74-80Zn, B(E2,42) values in 74,76Zn and the determination of the energy of the first excited 2 states in 78,80Zn. The zinc isotopes were produced by high-energy proton- (A=74,76,80) and neutron- (A=78) induced fission of 238U, combined with selective laser ionization and mass separation. The isobaric beam was postaccelerated by the REX linear accelerator and Coulomb excitation was induced on a thin secondary target, which was surrounded by the MINIBALL germanium detector array. In this work, it is shown how the selective laser ionization can be used to deal with the considerable isobaric beam contamination and how a reliable normalization of the experiment can be achieved. The results for zinc isotopes and the N=50 isotones are compared to collective model predictions and state-of-the-art large-scale shell-model calculations, i...

Van de Walle, J; Behrens, T; Bildstein, V; Blazhev, A; Cederkäll, J; Clément, E; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; Delahaye, P; Eberth, J; Ekström, A; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseev, V; Fraile, L M; Franchoo, S; Gernhäuser, R; Georgiev, G; Habs, D; Heyde, K; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Ibrahim, F; Ivanov, O; Iwanicki, J; Jolie, J; Kester, O; Köster, U; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Lauer, M; Lisetskiy, A F; Lutter, R; Marsh, B A; Mayet, P; Niedermaier, O; Pantea, M; Raabe, R; Reiter, P; Sawicka, M; Scheit, H; Schrieder, G; Schwalm, D; Seliverstov, M D; Sieber, T; Sletten, G; Smirnova, N; Stanoiu, M; Stefanescu, I; Thomas, J C; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Van Duppen, P; Verney, D; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Weisshaar, D; Wenander, F; Wolf, B H; Zielinska, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Bioavailability of Iron, Zinc, Phytate and Phytase Activity during Soaking and Germination of White Sorghum Varieties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The changes in phytate, phytase activity and in vitro bioavailability of iron and zinc during soaking and germination of three white sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), named Dorado, Shandweel-6, and Giza-15 were investigated. Sorghum varieties were soaked for 20 h and germinated for 72 h after soaking for 20 h to reduce phytate content and increase iron and zinc in vitro bioavailability. The results revealed that iron and zinc content was significantly reduced from 28.16 to 32.16 % and 13.78 to 26.69 % for soaking treatment and 38.43 to 39.18 % and 21.80 to 31.27 % for germination treatments, respectively. Phytate content was significantly reduced from 23.59 to 32.40 % for soaking treatment and 24.92 to 35.27 % for germination treatments, respectively. Phytase enzymes will be activated during drying in equal form in all varieties. The results proved that the main distinct point is the change of phytase activity as well as specific activity during different treatment which showed no significant differences between the varieties used. The in vitro bioavailability of iron

Abd El-moneim M. R. Afify; Hossam S. El-beltagi; Samiha M. Abd El-salam; Azza A. Omran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

EIS-0408: Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS 8: Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS EIS-0408: Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS Summary This EIS, being prepared jointly by DOE's Western Area Power Administration and the Department of the Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service, will evaluate the environmental impacts of wind energy development in Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota - Western's Upper Great Plains customer service region. Western will use the EIS to implement a comprehensive regional program to manage interconnection requests for wind energy projects. Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download March 22, 2013 EIS-0408: Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Upper Great Plains Programmatic Wind EIS

405

Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermometry At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Geothermometry Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all three thermometers closely agree gives the predictions added credibility. References Dick Benoit, David Blackwell (2006) Exploration Of The Upper Hot

406

Low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films using disilane and nitrous oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, low temperature, nitrous oxide, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, silicon oxide

Juho Song; G. S. Lee; P. K. Ajmera

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE  

SciTech Connect

A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

Korinko, P.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

409

Multifunctional Oxide - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Toshihiko Tani, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America, Inc. Scope, Multifunctional oxide ceramics and thin films exhibit fascinating ...

410

Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1989  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop approaches to direct catalytic oxidation of methane over oxides that are doubly doped with transition metal ions. The desired process aims at employing a double redox mechanism, where one redox couple is utilized for activation of oxygen and another for the trapping of CH{sub 3} radicals. The methyl radicals can either recombine, giving C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, or be converted, via electron transfer reaction, to carbocations. The latter species can react with surface OH{sup {minus}} groups to form methanol or formaldehyde. To choose from several possible catalytic systems, this research initially involved the characterization of the micromorphology and crystalline dimensions of zinc oxide catalysts doped with Cu, Fe, and Sn by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the determination of surface composition and oxidation states by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was carried out. A newly constructed high temperature catalytic testing system has been calibrated (flow meters and temperature controllers), tested for possible gas leaks and integrated with a gas chromatographic analytical unit. A preliminary catalytic test study over a Cu/Fe/ZnO sample was performed. The following products of the methane coupling reaction was found: C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O together with CO{sub 2}. The maximum space time yield of 14 mmol C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/g cat/h was obtained at 848{degrees}C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

Ramanathan, Kannan V. (Lakewood, CA); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CA); Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CA); Keane, James (Lakewood, CA); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Principal accomplishments have been achieved in all three areas of selective catalytic oxidation of methane that have been pursued in this research project. These accomplishments are centered on the development of catalyst systems that produce high space time yields of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon products, formaldehyde, and methanol from methane/air mixtures at moderate temperatures and at ambient pressure. The accomplishments can be summarized as the following: the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed here has been further optimized to produce 2 kg of C{sub 2} hydrocarbons/kg catalyst/hr at 550C; V{sub 2}O{sub 5}SiO{sub 2} catalysts have been prepared that produce up to 1.5 kg formaldehyde/kg catalyst/hr at 630C with CO{sub 2} selectivities; and a novel dual bed catalyst system has been designed and tested that produces over 100 g methanol/kg catalyst/hr at 600C.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Oxides for Spintronics - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Oxides for Spintronics. Author(s) ...

414

MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE MICROSPHERE ELECTRODE COMPOSITIONS AND ...  

Compositions and methods of making are provided for mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The mesoporous metal oxide microsphere ...

415

Controlled CO preferential oxidation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

Meltser, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); Hoch, Martin M. (Webster, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Chemical oxidizers treat wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Based on the inherent benefits of these original oxidation systems, a second generation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has emerged. These processes combine key features of the first generation technologies with more sophisticated advances in UV technology, such as the new pulsed plasma xenon flash lamp that emits high-energy, high-intensity UV light. Second generation systems can be equipped with a transmittance controller to prevent lamp fouling or scaling. The coupling of the first generation's technology with the new UV sources provides the rapid destruction of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons and humic acids from contaminated water. It also is effective in the treatment of organic laden gases from soil vapor extraction systems. AOPs may promote the oxidation (and subsequent removal) of heavy metals in water, though few data are available to verify the claim. The success of AOPs, including ozonation with UV light, hydrogen peroxide with UV light and advanced photolysis, is linked with their creation of hydroxyl-free radicals (OH[center dot]) that are effective in eliminating contaminants such as formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. Hydroxyl free-radicals are consumed in microsecond reactions and exhibit little substrate selectivity with the exception of halogenated alkanes such as chloroform. They can act as chain carriers. Given their power, hydroxyl free-radicals react with virtually all organic solutes more quickly (especially in water) than any other oxidants, except fluorine. There are projects that have found the combination of some AOPs to be the most efficient organic destruction techniques for the job. For example, one project successfully remediated groundwater contaminated with gasoline and Number 2 diesel through successive treatments of ozone and hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet light, followed by granular activated carbon. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Stephenson, F.A. (Dames Moore, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Applications of Oxide Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The discovery of the new family of copper-oxide superconductors has opened an area of exciting new materials science with enormous potential for practical developments in technology and engineering. Research was conducted to understand the basic physical properties and the materials characteristics of the high temperature superconductors that control their electrical and mechanical properties, and determine their potential usefulness. Material properties and current carrying capabilites of the new Bismut...

1993-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, which offers many advantages over traditional energy conversion systems including low emission and high efficiency, has become increasingly attractive to the utility, automotive, and defense industries (as shown in Figure 1). As an all solid-state energy conversion device, the SOFC operates at high temperatures (700-1,000 C) and produces electricity by electrochemically combining the fuel and oxidant gases across an ionically conducting oxide membrane. To build up a useful voltage, a number of cells or PENs (Positive cathode-Electrolyte-Negative anode) are electrically connected in series in a stack through bi-polar plates, also known as interconnects. Shown in Figure 2 (a) is a schematic of the repeat unit for a planar stack, which is expected to be a mechanically robust, high power-density and cost-effective design. In the stack (refer to Figure 2 (b)), the interconnect is simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing (fuels such as hydrogen or natural gas) environment on the anode side for thousands of hours at elevated temperatures (700-1,000 C). Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain sulfide impurities. Also, the interconnect must be stable towards any sealing materials with which it is in contact, under numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, the interconnect must also be stable towards electrical contact materials that are employed to minimize interfacial contact resistance, and/or the electrode materials. Considering these service environments, the interconnect materials should possess the following properties: (1) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation and corrosion) in both cathodic (oxidizing) and anodic (reducing) atmospheres. (2) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN and other adjacent components, all of which typically have a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the range of 10.5-12.0 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1}. (3) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales. (4) Satisfactory bulk and interfacial mechanical/thermomechanical reliability and durability at the SOFC operating temperatures. (5) Good compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials. Until recently, the leading candidate material for the interconnect was doped lanthanum chromite (LaCrO3), which is a ceramic material which can easily withstand the traditional 1000 C operating temperature. However, the high cost of raw materials and fabrication, difficulties in obtaining high-density chromite parts at reasonable sintering temperatures, and the tendency of the chromite interconnect to partially reduce at the fuel gas/interconnect interface, causing the component to warp and the peripheral seal to break, have plagued the commercialization of planar SOFCs for years. The recent trend in developing lower temperature, more cost-effective cells which utilize anode-supported, several micron-thin electrolytes and/or new electrolytes with improved conductivity make it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2003-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Method of using in situ porosity measurements to place an upper bound on geothermal reservoir compaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Placing an upper bound on reservoir compaction requires placing a lower bound on the reservoir effective compaction modulus. Porosity-depth data can be used to find that lower-bound modulus in a young sedimentary basin. Well-log and sample porosity data from a geothermal field in the Imperial Valley, CA, give a lower-bound modulus of 7.7 x 10{sup 3} psi. This modulus is used with pressure drops calculated for a reservoir to determine an upper bound on reservoir compaction. The effects of partial reinjection and aquifer leakage on upper-bound subsidence estimated from the compaction are illustrated for a hypothetical reservoir and well array.

Schatz, J.F.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Cheney, J.A.

1979-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

420

Upper Higgs boson mass bounds from a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish the cutoff-dependent upper Higgs boson mass bound by means of direct lattice computations in the framework of a chirally invariant lattice Higgs-Yukawa model emulating the same chiral Yukawa coupling structure as in the Higgs-fermion sector of the Standard Model. As expected from the triviality picture of the Higgs sector, we observe the upper mass bound to decrease with rising cutoff parameter $\\Lambda$. Moreover, the strength of the fermionic contribution to the upper mass bound is explored by comparing to the corresponding analysis in the pure $\\Phi^4$-theory.

P. Gerhold; K. Jansen

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Thin film cadmium telluride, zinc telluride, and mercury zinc telluride solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 July 1988--31 December 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research to demonstrate (1) thin film cadmium telluride solar cells with a quantum efficiency of 75% or higher at 0. 44 {mu}m and a photovoltaic efficiency of 11.5% or greater, and (2) thin film zinc telluride and mercury zinc telluride solar cells with a transparency to sub-band-gap radiation of 65% and a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 5% and 8%, respectively. Work was directed at (1) depositing transparent conducting semiconductor films by solution growth and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, (2) depositing CdTe films by close-spaced sublimation (CSS) and MOCVD techniques, (3) preparing and evaluating thin film CdTe solar cells, and (4) preparing and characterizing thin film ZnTe, CD{sub 1-x}Zn{sub 1-x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te solar cells. The deposition of CdS films from aqueous solutions was investigated in detail, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. CdTe films were deposited from DMCd and DIPTe at 400{degrees}C using TEGa and AsH{sub 3} as dopants. CdTe films deposited by CSS had significantly better microstructures than those deposited by MOCVD. Deep energy states in CdTe films deposited by CSS and MOCVD were investigated. Thin films of ZnTe, Cd{sub 1- x}Zn{sub x}Te, and Hg{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te were deposited by MOCVD, and their crystallographic, optical, and electrical properties were characterized. 67 refs.

Chu, T.L. [University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

P-3: As(III) Oxidation with Bacteria and AP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biosorption Characteristics of Pb(II) from Aqueous Solution onto Poplar Cotton · Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc Electrowinning.

423

Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

424

Selective Oxidation of Organic Substrates to Partially Oxidized Products  

controlled rate of catalysis, utilizing ozone for oxidation of alcohols to ketones or aldehydes, is made possible with this environmentally friendly and versatile technology.

425

Schlumberger soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys, soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys, Idaho and Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Schlumberger soundings in the Upper Raft River and Raft River Valleys, Idaho and Utah Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: In 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey made seventy Schlumberger resistivity soundings in the Upper Raft River Valley and in parts of the Raft River Valley. These soundings complement the seventy-nine soundings made previously in the Raft River Valley (Zohdy and others, 1975) and bring the total number of soundings to 149. This work was done as part of a hydrogeologic study of the area. The location, number, and azimuth of all 149 Schlumberger sounding stations are presented. The location of the new

426

A Radiative Upper Boundary Condition Adapted for f-Plane Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the assumption of weak background rotational and wind shear effects, an attractive computational upper boundary condition capable of transmitting gravity waves is generalized for use in a variety of f-plane models. Issues relating to ...

Stephen T. Garner

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Effects of the Upper Flow Asymmetry on the Future Direction of Motion of Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of 200-mb streamlines indicate the existence of a confluence between a tropical cyclone’s main anticyclonic outflow channel aloft and the large-wale environmental upper flow. The confluence produces in the poleward semicircle a ...

F. A. Lajoie

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Evaluation of SSMIS Upper Atmosphere Sounding Channels for High-Altitude Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper atmosphere sounding (UAS) channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) were assimilated using a high-altitude version of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) in order to investigate their potential for operational ...

Karl W. Hoppel; Stephen D. Eckermann; Lawrence Coy; Gerald E. Nedoluha; Douglas R. Allen; Steven D. Swadley; Nancy L. Baker

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Cloud Layer Thicknesses from a Combination of Surface and Upper-Air Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975–1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of ...

Kirk D. Poore; Junhong Wang; William B. Rossow

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Review of the Structure and Dynamics of Upper-Level Frontal Zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a review of upper-level fronts with the intent of synthesizing observational and modeling studies into a conceptual and dynamical description of these fronts and their evolution relative to the life cycle of midlatitude ...

Daniel Keyser; M. A. Shapiro

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Remote Sensing of Flooding in the U.S. Upper Midwest during the Summer of 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. upper Midwest was subjected to severe flooding during the summer of 1993. Heavy rainfall in the Mississippi River basin from April through July caused flooding of many Midwest rivers, including the Mississippi, Illinois, Missouri, and ...

Liam E. Gumley; Michael D. King

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Exploration Of The Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some

433

Microsoft Word - Upper Jocko River Final Draft CX 7-15-2013.docx  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Upper Jocko River Property funding Upper Jocko River Property funding Fish and Wildlife Project No. and Contract No.: 2002-003-00, BPA-007168 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.25 Real property transfers for cultural resources protection, habitat preservation, and wildlife management Location: Township 16 North, Range 19 West, Section 10, Lake County, MT Proposed by: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Description of the Proposed Action: BPA proposes to fund the Salish and Kootenai Tribes for the purchase of 5 acres of property, referred to as the Upper Jocko River Land Acqusition in Lake County, MT. The Salish and Kootenai Tribes will own and manage the Upper Jocko River property for fish and wildlife conservation purposes and BPA will receive a conservation

434

A New Method for the Measurement of the Optical Volume Scattering Function in the Upper Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method to measure the optical volume scattering function (VSF) of seawater is presented. The VSF is a fundamental property used in the calculation of radiative transfer for applications as diverse as upper-ocean heating by solar radiation ...

Michael E. Lee; Marlon R. Lewis

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Sensitivity of the Upper Mesosphere to the Lorenz Energy Cycle of the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The concept of a mechanistic general circulation model that explicitly simulates the gravity wave drag in the extratropical upper mesosphere in a self-consistent fashion is proposed. The methodology consists of 1) a standard spectral dynamical ...

Erich Becker

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An Integrated Approach to Mid- and Upper-Level Turbulence Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated procedure for forecasting mid- and upper-level turbulence that affects aircraft is described. This procedure, termed the Graphical Turbulence Guidance system, uses output from numerical weather prediction model forecasts to derive ...

R. Sharman; C. Tebaldi; G. Wiener; J. Wolff

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Satellite Observations of Variations in Tropical Cyclone Convection Caused by Upper-Tropospheric Troughs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mutual adjustment between upper-tropospheric troughs and the structure of western Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Florence (1988) and Irene (1981) are analyzed using satellite and in situ data. Satellite-observed tracers (e.g., cirrus clouds, ...

Edward B. Rodgers; Simon W. Chang; John Stout; Joseph Steranka; Jainn-Jong Shi

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Geochemical and rheological constraints on the dynamics of the oceanic upper mantle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I provide constraints on mantle convection through observations of the rheology and composition of the oceanic upper mantle. Convection cannot be directly observed, yet is a fundamental part of the plate tectonic cycle. ...

Warren, Jessica Mendelsohn

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Non-Reflective Upper Boundary Condition for Limited-Height Hydrostatic Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple upper boundary condition for hydrostatic, Boussinesq models is derived from a linear internal wave theory, assuming a uniform stratification and no Coriolis effects. This condition is applied in a two-dimentional nonlinear model of the ...

Philippe Bougeault

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Heavy Precipitation Events in New Jersey: Attendant Upper-Air Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first of an anticipated multipart study of atmospheric conditions occurring before and during heavy precipitation events in New Jersey, representative of the mid-Atlantic region, is presented. Upper-air data parameters were analyzed for 81 ...

Robert P. Harnack; Kirk Apffel; Joseph R. Cermak III

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A Nonreflecting Upper Boundary Condition for Anelastic Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Gravity-Wave Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sponge layer is formulated to prevent spurious reflection of vertically propagating quasi-stationary gravity waves at the upper boundary of a two-dimensional numerical anelastic nonhydrostatic model. The sponge layer includes damping of both ...

Young-Joon Kim; Sajal K. Kar; Akio Arakawa

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effects of Precipitation on the Upper-Ocean Response to a Hurricane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of precipitation on the upper-ocean response during a tropical cyclone passage is investigated using a numerical model in this paper. For realistic wind forcing and empirical rain rates based on satellite climatology, numerical ...

S. Daniel Jacob; Chester J. Koblinsky

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

A Diagnostic Study of Upper Tropospheric Cold Lows Over the Western North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four summers (1967, 1969, 1970, 1971) of rawinsonde data from four western North Pacific island stations (Guam, Midway, Johnston and Wake) were used to form a three-dimensional composite of the subtropical upper-tropospheric cold-core lows ...

Walker E. Kelly Jr.; Donald R. Mock

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

A Global Isopycnal OGCM: Validations Using Observed Upper-Ocean Variabilities during 1992–93  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a global isopycnal ocean model (GIM) is described and used for a simulation of variabilities of the global upper ocean during 1992–93. The GIM simulations are compared and validated with both the available observations and ...

Dingming Hu; Yi Chao

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A Composite Study of the Interactions between Tropical Cyclones and Upper-Tropospheric Troughs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to understand how interactions with upper-tropospheric troughs affect the intensity of tropical cyclones. The study includes all named Atlantic tropical cyclones between 1985 and 1996. To minimize other factors ...

Deborah Hanley; John Molinari; Daniel Keyser

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Review of the Unusual Winter of 1982–83 In the Upper Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatologists from the climate centers of 12 states of the upper Midwest contributed temperature, precipitation, and related data for December 1982, January and February 1983. Analyses present the month-to-month spatial anomaly patterns of these ...

W. M. Wendland; L. D. Bark; D. R. Clark; R. B. Curry; J. W. Enz; K. G. Hubbard; V. Jones; E. L. Kuehnast; W. Lytle; J. Newman; F. V. Nurnberger; P. Waite

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Tropical Cyclone–Induced Upper-Ocean Mixing and Climate: Application to Equable Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropical cyclones instigate an isolated blast of vigorous mixing in the upper tropical oceans, stirring warm surface water with cooler water in the thermocline. Previous work suggests that the frequency, intensity, and lifetime of these storms ...

Robert L. Korty; Kerry A. Emanuel; Jeffery R. Scott

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

A Comparison of in Situ, Reanalysis, and Satellite Water Budgets over the Upper Colorado River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using in situ, reanalysis, and satellite-derived datasets, surface and atmospheric water budgets of the Upper Colorado River basin are analyzed. All datasets capture the seasonal cycle for each water budget component. For precipitation, all ...

Rebecca A. Smith; Christian D. Kummerow

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Horizontal Wavenumber Spectra of Vertical Vorticity and Horizontal Divergence in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The author shows that the horizontal two-point correlations of vertical vorticity and the associated vorticity wavenumber spectrum can be constructed from previously measured velocity structure functions in the upper troposphere and lower ...

Erik Lindborg

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Piecewise Tendency Diagnosis of Dynamical Processes Governing the Development of an Upper-Tropospheric Mobile Trough  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensification and evolution of midlatitude upper-tropospheric mobile troughs may be viewed in terms of the isentropic advection and deformation of the tropopause potential vorticity gradient. The potential vorticity viewpoint allows one to ...

John W. Nielsen-Gammon; Randy J. Lefevre

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Potential Vorticity Diagnostic Approach to Upper-Level Frontogenesis within a Developing Baroclinic Wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The process of tropopause folding is studied in the context of the life cycle of baroclinic waves. Previous studies of upper-level frontogenesis have emphasized the role of the vertical circulation in driving stratospheric air down into the ...

Matthew S. Wandishin; John W. Nielsen-Gammon; Daniel Keyser

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Interannual Variability of the Upper Ocean in the Southeast Pacific Stratus Cloud Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Persistent stratus/stratocumulus cloud decks in the southeast Pacific near the coasts of Peru and northern Chile play an important role in regional and global climate variability. Interannual variability of the upper ocean under stratus cloud ...

Toshiaki Shinoda; Jialin Lin

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

A Synoptic Climatology of the Bimodal Precipitation Distribution in the Upper Midwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an investigation of the synoptic climatology of the precipitation regime in the Upper Midwest. The annual march of precipitation is characterized by a bimodal distribution, with maxima occurring during the months of June and ...

Michael J. Keables

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Is the Upper Ocean Warming? Comparisons of 50-Year Trends from Different Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is great interest in World Ocean temperature trends, yet the historical global ocean database has very uneven coverage in space and time. Previous work on 50-yr upper ocean temperature trends from the NOAA ocean data archive is extended ...

Mark Carson; D. E. Harrison

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The upper crustal P-wave velocity structure of Newberry volcano, Central Oregon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The upper-crustal seismic-velocity structure of Newberry volcano, central Oregon, is imaged using P-wave travel time tomography. The inversion combines a densely-spaced seismic line collected… (more)

Beachly, Matthew William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Upper Crustal P-wave Velocity Structure of Newberry Volcano, Central Oregon.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The upper-crustal seismic-velocity structure of Newberry volcano, central Oregon, is imaged using P-wave travel time tomography. The inversion combines a densely-spaced seismic line collected in… (more)

Beachly, Matthew William, 1986-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Multimodel Analysis of the Water Vapor Feedback in the Tropical Upper Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between the mean humidity in the tropical upper troposphere and tropical sea surface temperatures in 17 coupled ocean–atmosphere global climate models were investigated. This analysis builds on a prior study of humidity and surface ...

Ken Minschwaner; Andrew E. Dessler; Parnchai Sawaengphokhai

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Validation of the Upper Tropospheric Relative Humidity Determined from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this note is to “validate” the upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) operationally extracted from the 6.3 ?m channel data of METEOSAT. The validation is carded out by comparing the satellite data with observed humidifies from the ...

Olli M. Turpeinen; Johannes Schmetz

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

A Combined Barotropic-Baroclinic Instability Study of the Upper Tropospheric Tropical Easterly Jet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combined barotropic-baroclinic stability analysis is performed for an upper tropospheric tropical easterly jet representing the observed mean monsoon zonal flow during summer. Numerical solutions are obtained by time integration of a 20-layer ...

S. K. Mishra; M. Y. Tandon

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Upper-Ocean Temperature Response to Hurricane Felix as Measured by the Bermuda Testbed Mooring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hurricane Felix passed over the Bermuda testbed mooring on 15 August 1995, providing a unique opportunity to observe the response of the upper ocean to a hurricane. In the vicinity of Bermuda, Felix was a particularly large hurricane with ...

Tommy Dickey; Dan Frye; Joe McNeil; Derek Manov; Norm Nelson; David Sigurdson; Hans Jannasch; David Siegel; Tony Michaels; Rod Johnson

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zinc oxide upper" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Observations of 20-Day Period Meridional Current Oscillations in the Upper Ocean along the Pacific Equator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prominent oscillations of the meridional current, with a mean period of approximately 20 days, have been observed in the upper ocean over several years from May 1979 to October 1985 using moored current measurements along the Pacific equator at ...

David Halpern; Robert A. Knox; Douglas S. Luther

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

An Upper Boundary Condition Permitting Internal Gravity Wave Radiation in Numerical Mesoscale Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radiative upper boundary condition is proposed for numerical mesoscale models which allows vertically propagating internal gravity waves to pass out of the computational domain with minimal reflection. In this formulation, the pressure along ...

Joseph B. Klemp; Dale R. Durran

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Near-N Oscillations and Deep-Cycle Turbulence in an Upper-Equatorial Undercurrent Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to investigate the role of shear instabilities in turbulent mixing in a model of the upper Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC). The background flow consists of a westward-moving surface mixed layer above a ...

Hieu T. Pham; Sutanu Sarkar; Kraig B. Winters

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

In Situ Measurements of OH and H02 in the Upper Troposphere and Stratosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent aircraft and balloon borne measurements of OH and H02 are reviewed. The authors demonstrate the ability of the laser-induced fluorescence technique to provide accurate, high signal to noise ratio measurements of OH throughout the upper ...

P. O. Wennberg; T. F. Hanisco; R. C. Cohen; R. M. Stimpfle; L. B. Lapson; J. G. Anderson

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

The Objective Use of Upper Air Soundings to Specify Precipitation Type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Linear screening regression is used to derive relationships between parameters computed from observed upper air soundings (RAOBS) and concurrent observations of precipitation type. Precipitation type is defined as three categories: liquid (rain ...

Joseph R. Bocchieri

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Resolution Dependence of the Tropopause Inversion Layer in an Idealized Model for Upper-Tropospheric Anticyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note investigates the dependence of the extratropical tropopause inversion layer (TIL) on numerical resolution in an idealized modeling framework. Axisymmetric upper-tropospheric anticyclones are constructed by specifying potential vorticity ...

Andreas Müller; Volkmar Wirth

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Intraseasonal Variability of the Upper-Ocean Thermal Structure Observed at 0° and 165°E  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to perturbations in surface wind and energy fluxes associated with the atmospheric Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), the thermal structure of the upper ocean (surface to 300 m) in the equatorial western Pacific exhibits prominent and ...

Chidong Zhang

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Subsidence and Upper-Tropospheric Drying along Trajectories in a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A trajectory analysis of the Community Climate Model version 3 (CCM3) moisture simulation is used to show that the model simulates upper-tropospheric moisture observations better than would be inferred from a traditional geographical comparison. ...

Eric P. Salathé Jr.; Dennis L. Hartmann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Asymmetry of Western Boundary Currents in the Upper Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of upper-ocean western boundary current (WBC) transports reveal asymmetries between the Northern and the Southern Hemispheres of the Atlantic Ocean. To find out what mechanism might cause these asymmetries the linearized steady-state ...

Reiner Onken

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Depiction of Upper/Lower Vortex Interaction Associated with Extratropical Cyclogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using observed data and model simulations, an attempt is made to verify that baroclinic instability can be viewed as an interaction and mutual amplification of a pair of upper- and lower-tropospheric potential vorticity (PV) perturbations. This ...

Rainer Bleck

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

A Satellite-Based Assessment of Upper-Tropospheric Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consistency of upper-tropospheric water vapor measurements from a variety of state-of-the-art instruments was assessed using collocated Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 (GOES-8) 6.7-?m brightness temperatures as a common ...

Eui-Seok Chung; Brian J. Soden

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Dynamical and Physical Processes Leading to Tropical Cyclone Intensification under Upper-Level Trough Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid intensification of Tropical Cyclone (TC) Dora (2007, southwest Indian Ocean) under upper-level trough forcing is investigated. TC–trough interaction is simulated using a limited-area operational numerical weather prediction model. The ...

Marie-Dominique Leroux; Matthieu Plu; David Barbary; Frank Roux; Philippe Arbogast

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Upper-Tropospheric Winds Derived from Geostationary Satellite Water Vapor Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coverage and quality of remotely sensed upper-tropospheric moisture parameters have improved considerably with the deployment of a new generation of operational geostationary meteorological satellites: GOES-8/9 and GMS-5. The GOES-8/9 water ...

Christopher S. Velden; Christopher M. Hayden; Steven J. Nieman; W. Paul Menzel; Steven Wanzong; James S. Goerss

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Restratification of the Upper Ocean after the Passage of a Tropical Cyclone: A Numerical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of baroclinic instability in the restratification of the upper ocean after the passage of a tropical cyclone (TC) is determined by means of numerical simulations. Using a regional ocean model, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a ...

Wei Mei; Claudia Pasquero

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Initial Ice Microparticle Sublimation Measurements from the Levitating Upper-Tropospheric Environmental Simulator (LUTES)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial ice particle sublimation data are presented from the new Levitating Upper-Tropospheric Environmental Simulator (LUTES) at The College of New Jersey. This experimental system mimics the conditions of a typical cirrus cloud in order to ...

Nathan Magee; Kayla Spector; Yi-Hsuan Lin; Corey Tong; John Beatty

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Deep-Water Renewal in the Upper Basin of Loch Sunart, a Scottish Fjord  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recording current meters were deployed near the surface and bottom in the upper basin of Loch Sunart during the summers of 1987, 1989, and 1990. The measurements revealed frequent, though irregular, deep-water renewal events when the basin water ...

Philip A. Gillibrand; William R. Turrell; Alan J. Elliott

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

The Global Distribution of Supersaturation in the Upper Troposphere from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is analyzed to examine regions of the upper troposphere that are supersaturated: where the relative humidity (RH) is greater than 100%. AIRS data compare well to other in situ and ...

Andrew Gettelman; Eric J. Fetzer; Annmarie Eldering; Fredrick W. Irion

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Mechanisms Governing Interannual Variability of Upper-Ocean Temperature in a Global Ocean Hindcast Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability in upper-ocean (0–400 m) temperature and governing mechanisms for the period 1968–97 are quantified from a global ocean hindcast simulation driven by atmospheric reanalysis and satellite data products. The ...

Scott C. Doney; Steve Yeager; Gokhan Danabasoglu; William G. Large; James C. McWilliams

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Seasonal Variations of Upper Ocean Transport from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean via Indonesian Straits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seasonal variations of upper-ocean mass transport between the Pacific and Indian Oceans via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) are examined using numerical experiments with a 1½-layer, reduced-gravity model forced with specific climatological ...

James T. Potemra

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z