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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids. Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using Shear-Thinning Fluids....

2

Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation. Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical...

3

Zero-valent iron nanoparticles preparation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. Highlights: ? Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}]. ? The conditions of reaction were at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. ? The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical and had diameters less than 5 nm. -- Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrogenating [Fe[N(Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}] at room temperature and a pressure of 3 atm. To monitor the reaction, a stainless steel pressure reactor lined with PTFE and mechanically stirred was designed. This design allowed the extraction of samples at different times, minimizing the perturbation in the system. In this way, the shape and the diameter of the nanoparticles produced during the reaction were also monitored. The results showed the production of zero-valent iron nanoparticles that were approximately 5 nm in diameter arranged in agglomerates. The agglomerates grew to 900 nm when the reaction time increased up to 12 h; however, the diameter of the individual nanoparticles remained almost the same. During the reaction, some byproducts constituted by amino species acted as surfactants; therefore, no other surfactants were necessary.

Oropeza, S. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Corea, M., E-mail: mcoreat@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez-Yáñez, C. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)] [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico); Cruz-Rivera, J.J. [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Metalurgia, Sierra Leona 550, San Luis Potosí, C.P. 78210 (Mexico)] [Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Instituto de Metalurgia, Sierra Leona 550, San Luis Potosí, C.P. 78210 (Mexico); Navarro-Clemente, M.E., E-mail: mnavarroc@ipn.mx [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIQIE, UPALM, Edificio Z-6, Primer Piso, C.P. 07738, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, México D.F. (Mexico)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

5

Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence

Li, Zhaohui

6

Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater Remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater chemicals (Zhang, 2003). Nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI) can be injected into the soil to degrade centrifugation. UV spectrophotometer: The polymers could be quantified when dissolved in pure water or in mineral

Barthelat, Francois

7

Chemical Reduction of PCE by Zero Valent Iron Colloids Batch and Column Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Reduction of PCE by Zero Valent Iron Colloids ­ Batch and Column Experiments Motivation nm NAPASAN Particle - nZVI / PCE-Solution 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24H[-] PCE - Inflow PCE - Outflow TCE - Inflow TCE - Outflow Chloride - Outflow Blank Value Chloride pH Value

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

8

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform...

9

Sulfur-Modified Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation Applications at DOE Sites - 13600  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many DOE remediation sites have chemicals of concern that are compounds in higher oxidation states, which make them both more mobile and more toxic. The chemical reduction of these compounds both prevents the migration of these chemicals and in some cases reduces the toxicity. It has also been shown that zero-valent iron is a very effective substance to use in reducing oxygenated compounds in various treatment processes. These have included the treatment of halogenated hydrocarbons in the form volatile organic compounds used as solvents and pesticides. Zero-valent iron has also been used to reduce various oxidized metals such as chromium, arsenic, and mercury in order to immobilize them, decrease their toxicity, and prevent further transport. In addition, it has been used to immobilize or break down other non-metallic species such as selenium compounds and nitrates. Of particular interest at several DOE remediation sites is the fact that zero-valent iron is very effective in immobilizing several radioactive metals which are mobile in their oxidized states. These include both technetium and uranium. The main difficulty in using zero-valent iron has been its tendency to become inactive after relatively short periods of time. While it is advantageous to have the zero-valent iron particles as porous as possible in order to provide maximum surface area for reactions to take place, these pores can become clogged when the iron is oxidized. This is due to the fact that ferric oxide has a greater volume for a given mass than metallic iron. When the surfaces of the iron particles oxidize to ferric oxide, the pores become narrower and will eventually shut. In order to minimize the degradation of the chemical activity of the iron due to this process, a modification of zero-valent iron has been developed which prevents or slows this process, which decreases its effectiveness. It is called sulfur-modified iron, and it has been produced in high purity for applications in municipal water treatment applications. Sulfur-modified iron has been found to not only be an extremely economical treatment technology for municipal water supplies, where very large quantities of water must be treated economically, but it has also been demonstrated to immobilize technetium. It has the added benefit of eliminating several other harmful chemicals in water supplies. These include arsenic and selenium. In one large-scale evaluation study an integrated system implemented chemical reduction of nitrate with sulfur-modified iron followed by filtration for arsenic removal. The sulfur-modified iron that was used was an iron-based granular medium that has been commercially developed for the removal of nitrate, co-contaminants including uranium, vanadium and chromium, and other compounds from water. The independent study concluded that 'It is foreseen that the greatest benefit of this technology (sulfur-modified iron) is that it does not produce a costly brine stream as do the currently accepted nitrate removal technologies of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. This investigation confirmed that nitrate reduction via sulfur-modified iron is independent of the hydraulic loading rate. Future sulfur-modified iron treatment systems can be designed without restriction of the reactor vessel dimensions. Future vessels can be adapted to existing site constraints without being limited to height-to-width ratios that would exist if nitrate reduction were to depend on hydraulic loading rate'. Sulfur-modified iron was studied by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for its effectiveness in the reduction and permanent sequestration of technetium. The testing was done using Hanford Site groundwater together with sediment. The report stated, 'Under reducing conditions, TcO{sub 4} is readily reduced to TcIV, which forms highly insoluble oxides such at TcO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O. However, (re)oxidation of TcIV oxides can lead to remobilization. Under sulfidogenic conditions, most TcIV will be reduced and immobilized as Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7}, which is less readily re-mobilized, ev

Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States)] [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Santina, Pete [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)] [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Deployment of an innovative thermally enhanced soil mixing process augmented with zero-valent iron.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An innovative in-situ soil treatment process, referred to as soil mixing/thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction (SM/TESVE), was used to remediate the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (i.e., Argonne), which is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Following the initial soil treatment, polishing was required to reduce residual concentrations of contaminants. A study of polishing methods was conducted. It determined that injecting metallic iron particles into the soil, in conjunction with soil mixing, would reduce residual VOC concentrations more effectively than the original conventional soil ventilation approach. After the effectiveness of iron injection was verified, it replaced the soil ventilation step. The modified process involved mixing the soil while hot air and steam were injected into it. Off-gases were captured in a hood over the treatment area. During this process, an iron slurry, consisting of up to 50% iron particles in water with guar gum added as a thickening agent, was injected and mixed into the soil by the mixing equipment. Approximately 6,246 m{sup 3} (8, 170 yd{sup 3}) of soil was treated during this project. Confirmatory samples were then collected. In these samples, VOC concentrations were usually reduced by more than 80%.

Lynch, P. L.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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14

Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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15

Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

Jory A. Yarmoff; Christopher Amrhein

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/Feo. The only product observed in the reduction of 2,4-DNT was 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT). The 2,4-DAT produced accounted for 83-100% and only 42-54% of the initial mass of 2@4.DNT under anaerobic and aerobic conditions respectively. Since no degradation of 2...

Malla, Deepak Babu

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.............................................. 22 3 Analysis of green rust for content of Fe(II) and Fe(III) after extraction by 0.12 N HCl or Endox ................................................................................................................ 25 4... immersed in seawater and on the hulls of large ships (3). Green rusts are compounds with double-layers of mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides surrounding a layer of anions (A -n ). This structure can be represented by the general formula (Fe II ) 6-x (Fe...

Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

18

Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData Files Data FilesFeFe-HydrogenaseDemandEnergyandHeating for

19

Injection of Zero Valent Iron into an Unconfined Aquifer Using  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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20

Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effective technologies, especially chemical treatments, to completely destroy trace levels of perchlorate present in drinking and groundwater. The research on perchlorate reduction by zero-valent titanium (Ti(0)) showed that perchlorate was effectively...

Lee, Chun Woo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket | Department of Energy Reviews thePerformance

23

Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the electrical signatures from magnetite/fougerite vs.electrical properties of the different mineralogies: i.e. conductive and polarizable magnetite/fougerite vs.

Wu, Yuxin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Aminoclay-templated nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis for efficient harvesting of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1 Young-Chul Lee,ae Kyubock Lee,b Yuhoon Hwang,c Henrik Rasmus ). On the basis of these characteristics, oleaginous Chlorella sp. KR-1 was harvested within 3 min at a > 20 g LÃ?1

Mosegaard, Klaus

25

Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as pH (8, 9, and 10), ZVI pretreatment, and preparation method of the mixtures (GR[S]?? synthesized in the presence of ZVI; GR[S]?? and ZVI mixed after preparation). For all the experimental conditions evaluated, the activities of these reductants...

Marchal, Fabienne

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah,  

Energy Savers [EERE]

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27

Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on Subsequent  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste andAnniversary, part 2Zenoss, Version 2.1.3

28

Conversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The currently pursued modes of hydrogen generation include autothermal and/ or steam reforming of fossil fuels

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

29

Field Projects: Monticello, Utah  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero-valent iron is helping to clean up groundwater at a former uranium and vanadium ore processing mill at Monticello, Utah. LM managed remediation of...

30

Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effect of Temperature and Solution Composition on the Permeability of St. Peters Sandstone: Role of Iron (III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate effects of temperature and fluid composition on the permeability of quartz sandstones. We have concentrated our initial efforts on the time and flow dependence at 2 elevated temperatures (100°C, 200°C).

Potter, J.M.; Nur, A.; Dibble, W.E. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

33

Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the first part of a comprehensive summary of the literature on hydrogen isotope permeability through materials that do not readily form hydrides. While we mainly focus on pure metals with low permeabilities because of their importance to tritium containment, we also give data on higher-permeability materials such as iron, nickel, steels, and glasses.

Steward, S.A.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

Moos, L. P.

1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid permeability in the dendritic regions is one of the factors that determine porosity formation and macro segregation in castings. Permeability in the dendritic structure of Ni-Hard white iron was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of microstructural coarsening on the permeability was also investigated. Permeability increased with coarsening dendritic structure in Ni-Hard white iron.

Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Dogan, Omer N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Field Projects: Cañon City, Colorado  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In June 2000, Cotter Corporation installed a PRB at its uranium ore processing millsite in Cañon City, Colorado. The PRB contains zero-valent iron (ZVI) that treated molybdenum and uranium...

37

Gas permeability of carbon aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

Mark D. Habana

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

39

Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

Joe Beall; Mark Walters

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effect of oxide films on hydrogen permeability of candidate Stirling heater head tube alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High pressure hydrogen has been selected as the working fluid for the developmental automotive Stirling engine. Containment of the working fluid during operation of the engine at high temperatures and at high hydrogen gas pressures is essential for the acceptance of the Stirling engine as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. Most commercial alloys are extremely permeable to pure hydrogen at high temperatures. A program was undertaken at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to reduce hydrogen permeability in the Stirling engine heater head tubes by doping the hydrogen working fluid with CO or CO/sub 2/. Small additions of these gases were shown to form an oxide on the inside tube wall and thus reduce hydrogen permeability. A study of the effects of dopant concentration, alloy composition, and effects of surface oxides on hydrogen permeability in candidate heater head tube alloys is summarized. Results showed that hydrogen permeability was similar for iron-base alloys (N-155, A286, IN800, 19-9DL, and Nitronic 40), cobalt-base alloys (HS-188) and nickel-base alloys (IN718). In general, the permeability of the alloys decreased with increasing concentration of CO or CO/sub 2/ dopant, with increasing oxide thickness, and decreasing oxide porosity. At high levels of dopants, highly permeable liquid oxides formed on those alloys with greater than 50% Fe content. Furthermore, highly reactive minor alloying elements (Ti, Al, Nb, and La) had a strong influence on reducing hydrogen permeability.

Schuon, S R; Misencik, J A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Factors affecting initial permeability of Co-substituted Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron deficient compositions of (Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.6}){sub 1.02{minus}x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.05) were prepared to investigate their initial permeability dependence on cobalt contents. Extrinsic factors such as grain size and sintered density change little in samples sintered at 900 C, so their effects on permeability can be neglected. Intrinsic factors such as saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub 1}) and magnetoelastic anisotropy (K{sub {sigma}}) can not account for the variation of initial permeability with Co content. Measurement of thermoelectric power shows that the concentration of cation vacancies increases with Co content. Therefore, the local induced anisotropy increases by the ordering of Co ions cia increased cation vacancy concentration. This increase in induced anisotropy results in the decrease of initial permeability.

Byun, T.Y.; Byeon, S.C.; Hong, K.S.; Kim, C.K.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Colloidosomes: Selectively Permeable Capsules Composed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structures, which we call "col- loidosomes," are hollow, elastic shells whose permeability and elasticity can at the surface of water drops can be used to fabricate nano- or microporous capsules (1­5, 9); other fluid a flexible approach to the prep- aration of hollow, elastic capsules, with sizes ranging from micrometers

Weeks, Eric R.

43

Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and by the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford University Stanford Geothermal Program Interdisciplinary Research in Engineering and Earth Sciences STANFORD UNIVERSITY Stanford, California #12;#12;v Abstract fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study

Stanford University

44

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

Stanford University

46

Fracture permeability and seismic wave scattering ŒPoroelastic ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 18, 2010 ... The new model contains fracture permeability in the plan-parallel direction. ... Division of Chemical Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy ...

Seiji Nakagawa

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

47

Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

48

Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

49

Iron and Prochlorococcus/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

Thompson, Anne Williford

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Investigating Iron Ions | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigating Iron Ions Investigating Iron Ions Computer code provides detailed predictions of highly charged ions in water Using resources at EMSL, scientists obtained...

51

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

52

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

53

Environmental Aspects of Two Volatile Organic Compound Groundwater Treatment Designs at the Rocky Flats Site - 13135  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado is a former nuclear weapons production facility that began operations in the early 1950's. Because of releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the federally owned property and adjacent offsite areas were placed on the CERCLA National Priorities List in 1989. The final remedy was selected in 2006. Engineered components of the remedy include four groundwater treatment systems that were installed before closure as CERCLA-accelerated actions. Two of the systems, the Mound Site Plume Treatment System and the East Trenches Plume Treatment System, remove low levels of volatile organic compounds using zero-valent iron media, thereby reducing the loading of volatile organic compounds in surface water resulting from the groundwater pathway. However, the zero-valent iron treatment does not reliably reduce all volatile organic compounds to consistently meet water quality goals. While adding additional zero-valent iron media capacity could improve volatile organic compound removal capability, installation of a solar powered air-stripper has proven an effective treatment optimization in further reducing volatile organic compound concentrations. A comparison of the air stripper to the alternative of adding additional zero-valent iron capacity to improve Mound Site Plume Treatment System and East Trenches Plume Treatment System treatment based on several key sustainable remediation aspects indicates the air stripper is also more 'environmentally friendly'. These key aspects include air pollutant emissions, water quality, waste management, transportation, and costs. (authors)

Michalski, Casey C.; DiSalvo, Rick; Boylan, John [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)] [Stoller LMS Team, 11025 Dover Street, Suite 1000, Westminster, CO 80021 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Acetylene Inhibition of Trichloroethene and Vinyl Chloride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and enhanced anaerobic remediation of chloroethenes at contaminated sites. The results also suggest that acetylene produced abiotically by reactions of chlorinated ethenes with zero-valent iron could inhibit water standard (2 µg/L) (3). A variety of biochemical tools have been used to probe the complexity

Semprini, Lewis

55

Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(IV) (UO2[s], uraninite) Anthropogenic · Release of mill tailings during uranium mining - MobilizationBioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from

Fay, Noah

56

Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Sites Technologies to Address Excavated VOC Contaminated Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and available solar heat. This report focuses on design features and recommendations for implementing disposal, passive soil venting, enhanced soil venting, zero-valent iron, anaerobic bioremediation, aerobic and functional design requirements (equipment, flow rates, options, issues, cautions, etc.).The design

Hazen, Terry

57

Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

58

Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Z. Feng*, L.M. Anovitz*, J and industry expectations · DOE Pipeline Working Group and Tech Team activities - FRP Hydrogen Pipelines - Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines - Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Use #12;3 OAK

60

WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POROUS ASPHALT, PERVIOUS CONCRETE, AND CONVENTIONAL ASPHALT IN A NORTHERN CLIMATE BY KRISTOPHER M. HOULE BS, Worcester the University of New Hampshire, the Northern New England Concrete Promotion Association (NNECPA), the Northeast

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and water harvesting through them, such as asphalt and con- systems or cisterns. This new fact sheet crete and improve the water quality of runoff from new residential and commercial developments by using stormwater including the use of permeable pave- (sufaces that do not allow water to filter ments, green roofs

Hunt, William F.

62

Prevention of Porosity Formation and Other Effects of Gaseous Elements in Iron Castings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron foundries have observed porosity primarily as interdendritic porosity in large freezing range alloys such as Ni-Hard I and hypoeutectic high Cr alloys or pinholes and fissure defects in gray and ductile irons. For most iron foundries, porosity problems occur sporadically, but even occasional outbreaks can be costly since even a very small amount of porosity can significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the castings. As a result when porosity is detected, the castings are scrapped and remelted, or when the porosity is undetected, defective parts are shipped to the consumer. Neither case is desirable. This project was designed to examine various factors contributing to the porosity formation in iron castings. Factors such as solubility of gases in liquid and solid iron alloys, surface tension of liquid iron alloys, and permeability of dendritic structures were investigated in terms of their effect on the porosity formation. A method was developed to predict how much nitrogen the molten alloy picks up from air after a given amount of holding time for a given melting practice. It was shown that small batches of iron melts in an induction furnace can end up with very high concentration of nitrogen (near solubility limit). Surface tension of liquid iron alloys was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of minor additions of S, Ti, and Al on the surface tension of liquid iron alloys was investigated. Up to 18% change in surface tension was detected by minor element additions. This translates to the same amount of change in gas pressure required in a bubble of a given size to keep the bubble stable. A new method was developed to measure the permeability of dendritic structures in situ. The innovative aspect of these experiments, with respect to previous interdendritic permeability measurements, was the fact that the dendritic structure was allowed to form in situ and was not cooled and re-heated for permeability tests. A permeability model was developed and tested using the results of the permeability experiments. The permeability model for flow parallel to the columnar dendrites predicted the experimental permeability results closely when the liquid volume fraction data from equilibrium calculations were used. The permeability gradient model was constructed in order to test the impact of interdendritic channel constriction on the flow of liquid through the mushy zone of a casting. The model examines two different regimes: (i) Dendritic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in liquid volume fraction and dendrite arm spacing, and (ii) Eutectic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in viscosity of eutectic mixture. It is assumed that the eutectic mixture behaves like a slurry whose viscosity increases with increasing solid fraction. It is envisioned that this model can be developed into a tool that can be very useful for metal casters.

Albany Research Center

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Permeability anisotropy and resistivity anisotropy of mechanically compressed mudrocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeability anisotropy (the ratio of the horizontal to vertical permeability) is an important parameter used in sedimentary basin models and geotechnical design to model fluid flow, locate hydrocarbon reserves and estimate ...

Adams, Amy Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

Not Available

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

The measurement of gas relative permeability for low permeability cores using a pressure transient method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of oil and gas from a. typical reservoir. However, determining relative permeability ac- curately, especially for tight formations, has been a, challenging problem to petroleum engineers for many years. Commonly used laboratory methods of measuring.... Generally, there exist three kinds of fluids in petroleum reservoirs, oil, gas and water. In petroleum engineering, relative permeability of formation is one of the most important parameters one must use to estimate the fluid flow rates and recoveries...

Ning, Xiuxu

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

66

Permeability Evaluation in Heterogcmecw Formations Eiocldy of Petroleum Engineers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ SPE 26060 Permeability Evaluation in Heterogcmecw Formations Eiocldy of Petroleum Engineers Lking for reservoir characterization. The permeability of the formation is usually evaluated from the cores and of permeability from well log data represents a significant technical as weli as economic advantage

Mohaghegh, Shahab

67

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS A REPORT SUBMITTED;Abstract A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous ow of steam and water in porous media with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeability for steam phase

Stanford University

68

Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water (/sup 3/HHO) and /sup 14/C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for /sup 3/HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D/sub 2/), and the extracellular material (D/sub 1/) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for /sup 3/HHO was higher than that for AP and for both /sup 3/HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes.

Garrick, R.A.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open afterwards even if injection subsequently ceases. The principal barrier to EGS utilization for electricity generation is project economics. Costs for geothermal electricity obtained from conventional hydrothermal systems are just marginally competitive. Unless and until the costs of routinely and reliably creating and exploiting artificial subterranean fracture networks that can deliver useful quantities of hot fluid to production wells for long periods of time (years) are reduced to levels comparable to those of a conventional geothermal development project, EGS will be of little interest to the electrical power industry. A significant obstacle to progress in projects of this general type is the difficulty of appraising the properties (geometry, fluid transmissivity, etc.) of the fracture(s) created/re-opened by injection. Sustainability of power production is critically dependent upon reservoir thermal sweep efficiency, which depends in turn on the geometry of the fracture network and its interconnections with the various production and injection wells used to circulate fluid underground. If no permeable connections are created between the wells, fluid flow will be too slow for practical utility. If the connections are too good, however (such as a production/injection well pair connected by a single very permeable fracture), production wellhead temperatures will decline rapidly. Unless the permeable fractures created by hydrofracturing can be accurately mapped, the cost of subsequent trial-and-error drilling to try to establish a suitable fluid circulation system is likely to dominate project economics and render EGS impractical.

John W. Pritchett

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Grow Iron, Slow Pollution | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Scientists connect previous studies on electron transport in hematite Making a Deposit: Scanning electron micrographs of...

71

Determination of the effective stress law for permeability and deformation in low-permeability rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that laboratory experiments were performed to determine the effective stress law of tight sandstones and chalk for permeability and deformation. Permeability and volumetric strain data were taken at various stresses and pore pressures and were analyzed with a statistical model-building approach. Results show that the effective stress laws for both processes are variable with stress and pressure, depend on the material, and do not agree well with present theories. This may be applied for a greater understanding of oil reservoir formations.

Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W. (Sandia National Lab. (US))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Wood smoke inhalation increases pulmonary microvascular permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of wood smoke inhalation (SI) on pulmonary vascular permeability was studied in open-chested, anesthetized dogs. Animals were divided into two groups. A prenodal lymphatic vessel was cannulated in group I (n = 7), and baseline (BL) lung lymph flow (QL) and lymph (CL) and plasma (CP) protein concentrations were measured. The animals' lungs were then ventilated with wood smoke for 5 minutes. Left atrial pressure (Pla) was increased above baseline (mean 16.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg), and the ratio of CL to CP was used to assess endothelial permeability at high lymph flows. There was little change in either QL (BL: 27 +/- 9; SI: 27 +/- 5 microliters/min) or CL/CP (BL: 0.76 +/- 0.03; SI: 0.74 +/- 0.02) after SI at normal Pla. Elevation of Pla caused a significant increase in QL (136 +/- 15 microliters/min), but CL/CP (0.67 +/- 0.02) failed to decrease significantly at high lymph flows. In group II (n = 15) total protein concentration of airway fluid was compared with that of plasma after smoke inhalation, intravenous alloxan, and increased Pla. The ratio of protein concentration in airway fluid to plasma after SI (0.70 +/- 0.07) was greater than that obtained with increased Pla (0.64 +/- 0.07) but less than that after alloxan (0.85 +/- 0.04). These data indicate that SI in the dog results in a moderate increase in pulmonary vascular permeability that is less severe than that induced by alloxan.

Nieman, G.F.; Clark, W.R. Jr.; Goyette, D.; Hart, A.K.; Bredenberg, C.E.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the ``body-filled panel.`` Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials. 4 figs.

Ludtka, G.M.; Kollie, T.G.; Watkin, D.C.; Walton, D.G.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

74

Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the "body-filled panel". Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials.

Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Watkin, David C. (Clinton, TN); Walton, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Towards a characteristic equation for permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on a fractal-based derivation of permeability from porosity. The Pape et al. result is presented as an additive power law relation, typically of the form: k = a? + b? 2 + c? 10 . We do not believe that the Pape et al. model will find significant... utility in the petroleum industry, apart from unconsolidated materials and rocks of very uniform grain sizes. We do not wish to diminish the work of Pape et al. rather we just do not see the same behavior in our rock sample data (i.e., extremely well...

Siddiqui, Adil Ahmed

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

76

Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Townsend, Carl W. (Los Angeles, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Highly porous aerogels of very low permeability *  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we firstly investigate the way the pores are created in silica gel during gelation. Then we show that the solid particle arrangement acts on the geometrical pore characteristics (pore volume and pore size distribution). According to the pore size value, the permeability of gels is quite low even if the value of the gel porosity exceeds 95%. Analogous properties can be extended to silica aerogels for which now the solvent is replaced by air. Consequently, and according to their low permeability, light weight aerogels exhibit very striking response to mechanical stresses. Here we report unusual experiments allowing us to estimate the mechanical properties of aerogels thanks to their low value of the average pore size. Moreover, one demonstrates that aerogels may be densified at room temperature using an external isostatic pressure. In that case, the pore size may be tailored with respect to the nature and the characteristics of the starting aerogel. The evolution of the textural properties such as the mean pore size and the specific surface area of these tailored aerogels is investigated as a function of isostatic pressure. 1.

J. Phalippou; T. Woignier; R. Sempéré; P. Dieudonné

78

Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In case of porous fluid-saturated medium the Biot's poroelasticity theory predicts a movement of the pore fluid relative to the skeleton on seismic wave propagation through the medium. This phenomenon opens an opportunity for investigation of the flow properties of the hydrocarbon-saturated reservoirs. It is well known that relative fluid movement becomes negligible at seismic frequencies if porous material is homogeneous and well cemented. In this case the theory predicts an underestimated seismic wave velocity dispersion and attenuation. Based on Biot's theory, Helle et al. (2003) have numerically demonstrated the substantial effects on both velocity and attenuation by heterogeneous permeability and saturation in the rocks. Besides fluid flow effect, the effects of scattering (Gurevich, et al., 1997) play very important role in case of finely layered porous rocks and heterogeneous fluid saturation. We have used both fluid flow and scattering effects to derive a frequency-dependent seismic attribute which is proportional to fluid mobility and applied it for analysis of reservoir permeability.

Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, G.; Silin, D.; Vingalov, V.; Takkand, G.; Latfullin, M.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Stress-dependent permeability on tight gas reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??People in the oil and gas industry sometimes do not consider pressure-dependent permeability in reservoir performance calculations. It basically happens due to lack of lab… (more)

Rodriguez, Cesar Alexander

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

astrocyte water permeability: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

19 Predicting relative permeability from water retention: A direct approach based on fractal geometry Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: curves (e.g.,...

83

Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

84

Fluid permeability measurement system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

85

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Permeability of Connexin Channels Andrew L. Harris and Darren Locke  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 7 Permeability of Connexin Channels Andrew L. Harris and Darren Locke Abstract Because Molecular permeability Á Second messengers A.L. Harris (*) Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, New, Newark, NJ 07103, United States e-mail: aharris@umdnj.edu A. Harris, D. Locke (eds.), Connexins: A Guide

Harris, Andrew L.

88

Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Tailoring The Microwave Permittivity And Permeability Of Composite Materials Kenneth M. Bober/Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854 ABSTRACT The microwave permittivity( r ) and permeability( r ) of composite materials. Polynomials are also used for the ferrite composites because it was determined that the MG theory was unable

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

89

Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV); Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT calculations. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954

Stanford University

92

Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - altered permeability states Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Geosciences 34 Direct Prediction of the Absolute Permeability of Unconsolidated and Consolidated Reservoir Rock Summary: is to calculate the absolute permeability...

96

The determination of permeability using a pulse decay technique  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressures from 0 to 15, 000 psi and a maximum pore pressure of 16 psi. The core samples studied had permeabilities rang1ng from 40 to 319 md. They concluded that permeability of sandstone decreases with increase in overburden pressure. The major reduct1...on occurred over the range of 0 to 3000 psi overburden pressure. At 3000 psi overburden pressure, permeabilities ranged from 59 to 89 per cent of their orig1nal unstressed cond1tions, as illustrated in F1g. l. In 1969, Ritch and Kozik4 reported...

Rowe, William Charlton

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

Grabowiecki, Piotr

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

IMPROVING MIX DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PERMEABLE FRICTION COURSE MIXTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeable friction course (PFC), or new generation open-graded friction course (OGFC) mixtures, are hot mix asphalt (HMA) characterized by high total air voids (AV) content (minimum 18 %) as compared to the most commonly used dense-graded HMA...

Alvarez Lugo, Allex Eduardo

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

100

Stress-dependent permeability on tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

test analysis of tight gas reservoirs. Estimation of these parameters depends on draw down in the reservoir. The great impact of permeability, skin factor and OGIP calculations are useful in business decisions and profitability for the oil company...

Rodriguez, Cesar Alexander

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experimental Study on Rock Deformation and Permeability Variation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of a petroleum reservoir would inevitably induce a rearrangement of the in-situ stress field. The rearrangement of the stress field would then bring about a deformation of the reservoir rock and a change of the permeability...

Ding, Jihui

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Permeability, Resistivity and Strength of Fouled Railroad Ballast  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particles between the ballast particles; therefore, permeability and resistivity were also correlated. The strength properties of clean and fouled ballast were also evaluated using large direct shear box and modified direct shear box (extension in height...

Rahman, A. J.

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Water permeability and microstructure of three old concretes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement of the permeability of concrete to water is complicated by the self-sealing phenomenon, the progressive reduction of flow during the test. Many researchers have attributed self sealing to the hydration of previously unreacted cement on exposure to water. This paper describes permeability tests on concretes continuously hydrated for 26 years. Backscattered electron images show that virtually no unhydrated cement remains in these specimens, yet they exhibit self-sealing behavior.

Hearn, N.; Detwiler, R.J.; Sframeli, C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Determining coal permeabilities through constant pressure production interference testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINING COAL PERMEABILITIES THROUGH CONSTANT PRESSURE PRODUCTION INTERFERENCE TESTING A Thesis by STEPHEN KURT SCHUBARTH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University fn Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DETERMINING COAL PERMEABILITIES THROUGH CONSTANT PRESSURE PRODUCTION INTERFERENCE TESTING A Thesis by STEPHEN KURT SCHUBARTH Approved as to style and content by: tephen A. Hold...

Schubarth, Stephen Kurt

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

The effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND A Thesis By SIMON YSRAEL Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A%M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE.... Summary of Water Flood at 150 F VII. Summary of Water Flood at 293 F 48 49 50 ABSTRACT The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of temperature on relative permeability of unconsolidated sand. The present work was performed...

Ysrael, Simon

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

106

Investigation of the rate sensitivity of pseudo relative permeabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hypothetical reservoir stratifications were considered. Cross-sectional simulation runs were made using each stratification case for a range of waterflood injection rates and endpoint mobility ratios. Dynamic pseudo relative permeabilities were calculated... , These dynamic pseudo relative permeabilities were developed for those reservoirs that do not satisfy the assumptions of the vertical equilibrium or viscous-dominated pKr models. For waterflooding a stratified oil reservoir, fluid flow rate (velocity...

Brittain, Charles Finney

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Permeability decrease in argillaceous sandstone; experiments and modelling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Core flooding experiments on argillaceous sandstone are carried out showing that for high injection flow rates permeability reduction occurs. The decrease of permeability is a consequence of the migration of insitu particles. Two models are used to simulate the observed phenomena. The so-called network model is able to give insight in the physics behind the particle migration. The other model based on mass balance and constitutive laws is used for quantitative and qualitative comparison with the experiments.

Egberts, Paul; van Soest, Lennard; Vernoux, Jean-Francois

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

108

Iron pages of HTSC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data are presented on the superconducting and electronic properties of iron-based high-temperature superconductors in the normal and superconducting states. The following topics are discussed: lattice structure; structure of magnetic vortices; magnetic penetration depth; Fermi surface; isotope effect; and critical magnetic fields both in oxide compounds of 1111 type and oxide-free compounds of 122, 111, and 011 types as a function of the doping level, temperature, and external pressure.

Gasparov, V. A., E-mail: vgasparo@issp.ac.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Microbial reduction of iron ore  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

111

Iron efficiency in sorghum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) James Craig Esty, B, S. , Panhandle State College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Arthur B. Onken Dr. Lloyd R. Hossner R tt *ht ' d f * ' g * gh L~Sh bicolor (L. ) Moenchj parental lines and Fl hybrids indicate varying degrees of iron (Fe...) utilization. Visual ratings after seven days of Fe stress indicated only one hybrid, ATx 378 x RTx 2536, to be green or Fe efficient. Hybrids or parental lines rated partially chlorotic were: ATx 378 x RTx 415 and RTx 2536. Those sorghums rated chlorotic...

Esty, James Craig

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

113

Upscaling verticle permeability within a fluvio-aeolian reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vertical permeability (k{sub v}) is a crucial factor in many reservoir engineering issues. To date there has been little work undertaken to understand the wide variation of k{sub v} values measured at different scales in the reservoir. This paper presents the results of a study in which we have modelled the results of a downhole well tester using a statistical model and high resolution permeability data. The work has demonstrates and quantifies a wide variation in k{sub v} at smaller, near wellbore scales and has implications for k{sub v} modelling at larger scales.

Thomas, S.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Correlation in Iron-Based Superconductors Print In 2008, the discovery of iron-based superconductors stimulated a worldwide burst of activity, leading to about two...

115

Eosinophilic fasciitis secondary to intravenous iron infusions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

secondary to intravenous iron infusions Bahar F Firoz MD MPHfour weeks after receiving intravenous iron infusions atmultiple infusion sites along the right proximal forearm.

Firoz, Bahar F; Goldberg, Leonard H; Landau, Jennifer; Kaye, Valda; Berman, Louis

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Transcriptional and translational regulatory responses to iron...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique cultures to iron limitation in natural seawater media supplemented with a siderophore to chelate iron. MethodologyPrincipal Findings:...

117

Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

119

Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Heavy metals are leached as ground water reaches the exposed ores. Arizona has a rich historyPermeable Reactive Biobarriers for the Containment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Acid Mine) is defined as the presence heavy metals, increased acidity, and sulfate as a direct result of mining

Fay, Noah

120

An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sediment permeability, distribution, and influence on fluxes in oceanic basement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6 Sediment permeability, distribution, and influence on fluxes in oceanic basement Glenn A. Spinelli, Emily R. Giambalvo, and Andrew T. Fisher 6.1 Introduction Sediments blanketing oceanic igneous basement rocks control the communication between fluid within the crust and the oceans. Seafloor sediments

Fisher, Andrew

122

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Team: Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Z Pressure Permeation Testing) Hydrogen Pipeline R&D, Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory direction and review) #12;Outline of the presentation Background Hydrogen delivery through steel pipelines

123

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement (PICP) for Stormwater Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement (PICP) for Stormwater Management Benefits and Uses Traditional Concrete · Long-term Maintenance Required by Routine Vacuum Sweeping · Sweeping Cost May Be Off-set by Possible Reduction in Deicing Costs · Repairs Can be Made in Freezing Temperatures with Reinstated Concrete

124

On Damage Propagation in a Soft Low-Permeability Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this presentation, we develop a mathematical model of fluid flow with changing formation properties. The modification of formation permeability is caused by development of a connected system of fractures. As the fluids are injected or withdrawn from the reservoir, the balance between the pore pressure and the geostatic formation stresses is destroyed. If the strength of the rock is not sufficient to accommodate such an imbalance, the cementing bonds between the rock grains become broken. Such a process is called damage propagation. The micromechanics and the basic mathematical model of damage propagation have been studied in [7]. The theory was further developed in [3], where new nonlocal damage propagation model has been studied. In [2] this theory has been enhanced by incorporation of the coupling between damage propagation and fluid flow. As it has been described above, the forced fluid flow causes changes in the rock properties including formation permeability. At the same time, changing permeability facilitates fluid flow and, therefore, enhances damage propagation. One of the principle concepts introduced in [3] and [2] is the characterization of damage by a dimensionless ratio of the number of broken bonds to the number of bonds in pristine rock per unit volume. It turns out, that the resulting mathematical model consist of a system of two nonlinear parabolic equations. As it has been shown in [6] using modeling of micromechanical properties of sedimentary rocks, at increasing stress the broken bonds coalesce into a system of cracks surrounding practically intact matrix blocks. These blocks have some characteristic size and a regular geometry. The initial microcracks expand, interact with each other, coalesce and form bigger fractures, etc. Therefore, as the damage is accumulated, the growing system of connected fractures determines the permeability of the reservoir rock. Significant oil deposits are stored in low-permeability soft rock reservoirs such as shales, chalks and diatomites [9, 10]. The permeability of the pristine formation matrix in such reservoirs is so low that oil production was impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. For development of correct production policy, it is very significant to adequately understand and predict how fast and to what extend the initial damage induced by drilling and hydrofracturing will propagate into the reservoir. The importance of fractures for rock flow properties is a well-established and recognized fact [4, 9, 5]. Different conceptual models have been developed [8]. In this study, we propose a damage propagation model based on a combination of the model of double-porosity and double-permeability medium [4] and a modification of the model of damage propagation developed in [2].

Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Barenblatt, G.I.

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

125

Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THE STRIPA MINE AND,PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE ANDPERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND

Lundstrom, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Permeability Estimation from Fracture Calibration Test Analysis in Shale and Tight Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

closure can be used to estimate the reservoir permeability. However, for very low permeability, the time to reach radial flow can exceed any practical duration. This study shows how to use the reservoir pressure to estimate the maximum reservoir...

Xue, Han 1988-

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

129

Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterioso permeable con Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of illite-rich shale... and permeabilities depend on fluid composition. Permeabilities to flow of 1 M CaCl2 are 3-5 times ... Source: Herbert, Bruce - Department of Geology and...

131

Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

Sarma, Balu (Airmont, NY); Downing, Kenneth B. (Greenville, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

133

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

Welbon, W.W.

1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

134

Process for the synthesis of iron powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

Not Available

1982-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

135

Iron and Steel Energy Intensities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use...

136

Explorations of iron-iron hydrogenase active site models by experiment and theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation describes computational and experimental studies of synthetic complexes that model the active site of the iron-iron hydrogenase [FeFe]H2ase enzyme. Simple dinuclear iron dithiolate complexes act as functional models of the ironiron...

Tye, Jesse Wayne

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Spontaneous Imbibition in Low Permeability Medium, SUPRI TR-114  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic experimental investigation of capillary pressure characteristics and fluid flow in diatomite was begun. Using an X-ray CT scanner and a specially constructed imbibition cell, we study spontaneous water imbibition processes in diatomite and, for reference, Berea sandstone and chalk. The mass of water imbibed as a function of time is also measured. Imbibition is restricted to concurrent flow. Despite a marked difference in rock properties such as permeability and porosity, we find similar trends in saturation profiles and weight gain versus time functions. Imbibition in diatomote is relatively rapid when initial water saturation is low due to large capillary forces. Using a non-linear regression analysis together with the experimental data, the capillary pressure and water relative permeability curves are determined for the diatomite in the water-air system. The results given for displacement profiles by numerical simulation match the experimental results.

Kovscek, Anthony R.; Schembre, Josephina

1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Tubular hydrogen permeable metal foil membrane and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tubular hydrogen permeable metal membrane and fabrication process comprises obtaining a metal alloy foil having two surfaces, coating the surfaces with a metal or metal alloy catalytic layer to produce a hydrogen permeable metal membrane, sizing the membrane into a sheet with two long edges, wrapping the membrane around an elongated expandable rod with the two long edges aligned and overlapping to facilitate welding of the two together, placing the foil wrapped rod into a surrounding fixture housing with the two aligned and overlapping foil edges accessible through an elongated aperture in the surrounding fixture housing, expanding the elongated expandable rod within the surrounding fixture housing to tighten the foil about the expanded rod, welding the two long overlapping foil edges to one another generating a tubular membrane, and removing the tubular membrane from within the surrounding fixture housing and the expandable rod from with the tubular membrane.

Paglieri, Stephen N.; Birdsell, Stephen A.; Barbero, Robert S.; Snow, Ronny C.; Smith, Frank M.

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Semi-analytical estimates of permeability obtained from capillary pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

..............................................................................................................................................(2.7) Where ? is the pore size distribution index. This model is commonly used for consolidated porous media. In 1980, Van Genuchten26 adopted a capillary pressure model to predict the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Van... on permeability and its prediction ? the first part of the derivation follows the work of Wyllie and Gardner.3 Their model describes the porous media as a bundle of capillary tubes featuring a random connection of pore spaces. Some of the assumptions made are...

Huet, Caroline Cecile

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

140

Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extending up to three thousand feet from the producing well. Also, a model simulating a nuclear cavity was designed. This model simulated a well containing an eighty foot radius cavity with a fractured zone of one hundred times the reservoir permeability... of each system was prepared. The results of this study showed that all fractures of greater than one thousand foot radius had greater productivity and greater cumu- lative gas produced than did the nuclear cavity. It appears that large hydraulic...

Holditch, Stephen A

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The effects of viscous forces on three-phase relative permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Project (BE9) is to develop guidelines for improving the accuracy of three-phase relative permeability determinations. This report summarizes previous studies and explains the progress made at NIPER on studying the effect of variations in viscous forces on three-phase relative permeabilities by changing the viscosity of both wetting and nonwetting phases. Significant changes were observed due to viscosity variations. An increase in oil viscosity reduced the relative permeability to gas; an increase in brine/(wetting-phase) viscosity reduced the relative permeability to brine. A slight increase in gas relative permeability was also observed. These observations suggest that the viscosities of both oil and water influence three-phase permeability data. During this study, data scatter was sometimes encountered which was comparable to that of published results. The causes of this scatter are outlined in this report and remedial attempts are discussed. 20 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Maloney, D.R.; Mahmood, S.M.; Honarpour, M.M.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Absorption of Iron from Ferritin Is Independent of Heme Iron and Ferrous Salts in Women and Rat Intestinal Segments .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Ferritin iron from food is readily bioavailable to humans and has the potential for treating iron deficiency. Whether ferritin iron absorption is mechanistically different from… (more)

Theil, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Grain Sorghum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Until grain sorghum develops an extensive root system, young plants may be unable to obtain enough ferrous iron to maintain normal growth. This publication offers strategies for avoiding, identifying and correcting iron deficiencies....

Livingston, Stephen; Coffman, Cloyce G.; Unruh, L. G.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Validity and limitations of gas-drive relative permeability measurement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It was found that the K /K g 0 calculated from the gas-drive data, neglecting capillary pressure gradients, could be in error by more than 100 percent of the true values if the flow rates were not high enough to minimize the effect iv of capillary.... g 0 Ie In the literature of petroleum technology, Wyckoff, et al. , were among the first to develop the relative permeability concept and to show experimentally that oil, gas, and water can flow simultaneously through a porous medium in a precise...

Gupta, Anand Kumar

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Liquid Spills on Permeable Soil Surfaces: Experimental Confirmations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Predictive tools for assessing the quantity of a spill on a soil from the observed spreading area could contribute to improving remediation when it is necessary. On a permeable soil, the visible spill area only hints about the amount of liquid that might reside below the surface. An understanding of the physical phenomena involved with spill propagation on a soil surface is key to assessing the liquid amount possibly present beneath the surface. The objective of this study is an improved prediction capability for spill behavior.

Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

148

Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

Casey, Charles P. (Madison, WI); Guan, Hairong (Cincinnati, OH)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

149

Permeability of CoNbZr amorphous thin films over a wide frequency range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoNbZr amorphous films have attracted the attention of many researchers because of their high saturation magnetization, high permeability, low coercivity, and nearly zero magnetostriction. For these films to be used, one of the important magnetic properties is the behavior of the permeability over a wide frequency range. We have measured the permeability of a square-shaped magnetic film (13 mm x 55 mm) sputtered on a glass substrate from 1 MHz to 400 MHz using a stripline. Over 400 MHz, the permeability of the magnetic film was measured using a ring-shaped sample mounted in a coaxial fixture. The wall motion permeability of CoNbZr amorphous films decreases from 1 kHz to nearly zero at 1 MHz. The rotation permeability is constant to 100 MHz and ferromagnetic resonance is observed near 1 GHz.

Koyama, H.; Tsujimoto, H.; Shirae, K.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - activation modulates permeability Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

active agonists and cAMP. J. Appl. Physiol. 67... Permeability Gavrielle M. Price and Joe Tien Abstract This chapter describes a protocol for forming open... or repeated...

151

Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

The role of geology in the behavior and choice of permeability predictors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For effective flow-simulation models, it may be important to estimate permeability accurately over several scales of geological heterogeneity. Critical to the data analysis and permeability prediction are the volume of investigation and sampling interval of each petrophysical tool and how each relates to these geological scales. The authors examine these issues in the context of the As Sarah Field, Sirte Basin, Libya. A geological study of this braided fluvial reservoir has revealed heterogeneity at a series of scales. This geological hierarchy in turn possessed a corresponding hierarchy of permeability variation.The link between the geology and permeability was found to be very important in understanding well logs and core data and subsequent permeability upscaling. They found that the small scale (cm) permeability variability was better predicted using a flushed-zone resistivity, R{sub xo}, tool, rather than a wireline porosity measurement. The perm-resistivity correlation was strongest when the probe permeabilities were averaged to best match the window size of the wireline R{sub xo}. This behavior was explained by the geological variation present at this scale. For the larger scale geological heterogeneity, the production flowmeter highlighted discrepancies between flow data and averaged permeability. This yielded a layered sedimentological model interpretation and a change in averaging for permeability prediction at the bedset scale (ms-10 x ms).

Ball, L.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Impact of relative permeability on type curves for coalbed methane reservoirs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coalbed methane (CBM) is considered an unconventional gas resource produced from coal seams usually with low permeability at shallow depths. Analyzing the production performance in… (more)

Lakshminarayanan, Sunil.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - arterioso permeable por Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

difference... of two media, matrix and fractures. The matrix system is relatively tight with insignificant permeability Source: Schechter, David S. - Department of Petroleum...

155

Techniques to Handle Limitations in Dynamic Relative Permeability Measurements, SUPRI TR-128  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to understand the limitations of the conventional methods of calculating relative permeabilities from data obtained from displacement experiments.

Qadeer, Suhail; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - air permeability coefficient Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Renewable Energy 74 Direct Prediction of the Absolute Permeability of Unconsolidated and Consolidated Reservoir Rock Summary: SPE 90084 Direct Prediction of the...

157

Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale...

158

A New Coal-Permeability Model: Internal Swelling Stress and Fracture–Matrix Interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L. : Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress:acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys. Res. (fracturing on permeability of coal. Min. Sci. Technol. 3,

Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Iron production maintenance effectiveness system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

160

System and method for measuring permeability of materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

162

Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Permeability Model for Coal and Other Fractured, Sorptive-Elastic Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the derivation of a new equation that can be used to model the permeability behavior of a fractured, sorptive-elastic media, such as coal, under variable stress conditions commonly used during measurement of permeability data in the laboratory. The model is derived for cubic geometry under biaxial or hydrostatic confining pressures. The model is also designed to handle changes in permeability caused by adsorption and desorption of gases from the matrix blocks. The model equations can be used to calculate permeability changes caused by the production of methane from coal as well as the injection of gases, such as carbon dioxide, for sequestration in coal. Sensitivity analysis of the model found that each of the input variables can have a significant impact on the outcome of the permeability forecast as a function of changing pore pressure; thus, accurate input data are essential. The permeability model can also be used as a tool to determine input parameters for field simulations by curve-fitting laboratory-generated permeability data. The new model is compared to two other widely used coal permeability models using a hypothetical coal with average properties.

Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Permeability characterization of shear zones in the Hickory sandstone member, Riley Formation, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The main objectives of this work are to (1) characterize the geometry and permeability of deformation elements within shear zones; (2) determine permeability anisotropy in shear zones according to fault characteristics and host lithology; and (3) develop... I INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................1 II HICKORY SHEAR ZONES AND DEFORMATION ELEMENTS..............11 2.1 Shear Zones in Hickory Sandstone Member...

Nieto Camargo, Jorge Enrique

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

165

Laboratory measurement of water imbibition into low-permeability welded tuff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

repository. As water infiltrates down from the ground surface through the fracture network, some water mayLaboratory measurement of water imbibition into low-permeability welded tuff M.Q. Hu*, P. Persoff accurately water imbibi- tion and vapor condensation into welded tuff of low permeability. Automatically

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

166

An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A Permeability Model for Coal and Other Fractured, Sorptive-Elastic Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the derivation of a new equation that can be used to model the permeability behavior of a fractured, sorptive-elastic medium, such as coal, under variable stress conditions. The equation is applicable to confinement pressure schemes commonly used during the collection of permeability data in the laboratory. The model is derived for cubic geometry under biaxial or hydrostatic confining pressures. The model is designed to handle changes in permeability caused by adsorption and desorption of gases onto and from the matrix blocks in fractured media. The model equations can be used to calculate permeability changes caused by the production of methane (CH4) from coal as well as the injection of gases, such as carbon dioxide, for sequestration in coal. Sensitivity analysis of the model found that each of the input variables can have a significant impact on the outcome of the permeability forecast as a function of changing pore pressure; thus, accurate input data are essential. The permeability model also can be used as a tool to determine input parameters for field simulations by curve fitting laboratory-generated permeability data. The new model is compared to two other widely used coal-permeability models using a hypothetical coal with average properties.

Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A phenomenological model to describe turbulent friction in permeable-wall flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A phenomenological model to describe turbulent friction in permeable-wall flows C. Manes,1 L impermeable rough boundaries. A novel phenomenological model that describes such anomalous behavior), A phenomenological model to describe tur- bulent friction in permeable-wall flows, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14403

Katul, Gabriel

169

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading-rich shale recovered from the Wilcox formation and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution varies from 3 Ã? 10Ã?22 transport; KEYWORDS: permeability, shale, connected pore space Citation: Kwon, O., A. K. Kronenberg, A. F

Herbert, Bruce

170

CALCULATION AND USE OF STEAM/WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

c c c i i c I CALCULATION AND USE OF STEAM/WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS to calculate the steam/water relative permeabilities in geothermal reservoirs was developed and applied curves as a basis for analysis of future well tests for geothermal reservoirs. c ii #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS

Stanford University

171

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

Luquot, Linda

172

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural permeability controls on fluid flow in oil and gas reservoirs. Fault zones are composed of many deformation elements will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks

Henderson, Gideon

173

Iron speciation and its biological availability in seawater: A workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop brought together marine chemists with expertise in iron chemistry and biologists with expertise in the role of iron in phytoplankton production to discuss controversies regarding the role of iron in oceanic primary productivity and global climatic change. A new paradigm for marine iron biogeochemistry was generated. The five major new items within this paradigm included (1) the nature of iron inputs to the sea, (2) chemical speciation of iron in seawater, (3) relationships between iron chemistry and marine microbial community dynamics, (4) adaptations of marine microbes to iron input, and (5) ecological and biogeochemical implications of changes in iron supply to the sea.

Wells, M.L.; Bruland, K.W.

1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

174

Reservoir condition special core analyses and relative permeability measurements on Almond formation and Fontainebleu sandstone rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results from special core analyses and relative permeability measurements conducted on Almond formation and Fontainebleu sandstone plugs. Almond formation plug tests were performed to evaluate multiphase, steady-state,reservoir-condition relative permeability measurement techniques and to examine the effect of temperature on relative permeability characteristics. Some conclusions from this project are as follows: An increase in temperature appeared to cause an increase in brine relative permeability results for an Almond formation plug compared to room temperature results. The plug was tested using steady-state oil/brine methods. The oil was a low-viscosity, isoparaffinic refined oil. Fontainebleu sandstone rock and fluid flow characteristics were measured and are reported. Most of the relative permeability versus saturation results could be represented by one of two trends -- either a k{sub rx} versus S{sub x} or k{sub rx} versus Sy trend where x and y are fluid phases (gas, oil, or brine). An oil/surfactant-brine steady-state relative permeability test was performed to examine changes in oil/brine relative permeability characteristics from changes in fluid IFTS. It appeared that, while low interfacial tension increased the aqueous phase relative permeability, it had no effect on the oil relative permeability. The BOAST simulator was modified for coreflood simulation. The simulator was useful for examining effects of variations in relative permeability and capillary pressure functions. Coreflood production monitoring and separator interface level measurement techniques were developed using X-ray absorption, weight methods, and RF admittance technologies. The three types of separators should be useful for routine and specialized core analysis applications.

Maloney, D.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Energy Dissipation Properties of Cementitious Materials: Applications in Mechanical Damping and Characterization of Permeability and Moisture State  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variety of frequency ranges. Composite model prediction indicated that permeability of saturated cementitious materials studied in this research is likely dependent on the amount of free water in the pores. Permeability can be inferred from the pore...

Leung, Chin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

176

Three Dimensional Controlled-source Electromagnetic Edge-based Finite Element Modeling of Conductive and Permeable Heterogeneities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ordnance, is often highly conductive and magnetically permeable. Interpretation of the CSEM response in the presence of cultural noise requires an understanding of electromagnetic field diffusion and the effects of anomalous highly conductive and permeable...

Mukherjee, Souvik

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

178

ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY OF THE ULTRASOUND-INDUCED BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER OPENING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY cavitation can be potentially used to assess the reversibility and permeability of the induced BBB opening. Method: This study links the microbubble dynamics, represented by the cavitation dose, as monitored

Konofagou, Elisa E.

179

Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science & Technology,Keywords: Lithium batteries, iron vanadates, insertionelectrode materials for lithium batteries, (mostly layered

Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method for producing iron-based catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and...

183

Characterization and Reactivity of Iron Nanoparticles Prepared...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as solute within the iron core of the HRCO particles. Kinetic batch experiments of carbon tetrachloride (CT) degradation were performed to quantitatively compare the redox...

184

Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

186

Electrodynamics in Iron and Steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to calculate the reflected EM fields at low amplitudes in iron and steel, more must be understood about the nature of long wavelength excitations in these metals. A bulk piece of iron is a very complex material with microstructure, a split band structure, magnetic domains and crystallographic textures that affect domain orientation. Probing iron and other bulk ferromagnetic materials with weak reflected and transmitted inductive low frequency fields is an easy operation to perform but the responses are difficult to interpret because of the complexity and variety of the structures affected by the fields. First starting with a simple single coil induction measurement and classical EM calculation to show the error is grossly under estimating the measured response. Extending this experiment to measuring the transmission of the induced fields allows the extraction of three dispersion curves which define these internal fields. One dispersion curve yielded an exceedingly small effective mass of 1.8 10^{-39}kg (1.3 10^{-9} m_e) for those spin waves. There is a second distinct dispersion curve more representative of the density function of a zero momentum bound state rather than a propagating wave. The third dispersion curve describes a magneto-elastic coupling to a very long wave length propagating mode. These experiments taken together display the characteristics of a high temperature Bose-Einstein like condensation that can be initiated by pumping two different states. A weak time dependent field drives the formation of coupled J=0 spin wave pairs with the reduced effective mass reflecting the increased size of the coherent state. These field can dominate induction measurements well past the Curie temperature.

John Paul Wallace

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

187

Oceanographic and ecological consequences of iron localization in phytoplankton photosystems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y. Zhang, and K.W. Bruland. 1998. An iron limitation mosaicRue, J. Conn, and K.W. Bruland. 2002. Phytoplankton ironY. Zhang, and K.W. Bruland. 1998. An iron limitation mosaic

Hopkinson, Brian Matthew

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

The production of iron carbide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J. [Nucor Iron Carbide, Inc., Point Lisas (Trinidad and Tobago)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Vertical interference pressure testing across a low-permeability zone with unsteady crossflow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Existing analytical models for interpreting vertical interference pressure tests across the low permeability zone in a three-layered reservoir usually assume transient radial flow in the high permeability layers and pseudo-steady vertical crossflow in the intervening tight zone. The neglect of vertical flow in the high permeability layers, and the neglect of radial flow in the tight layer, requires the permeability contrast between these layers to be large. However, when this assumption is satisfied, it is also very likely that the pressure diffusivity in the tight layer is much smaller than that in the high permeability layers. Thus, to be consistent, the flow across the tight layer must be treated as an unsteady diffusive process driven by the transient pressure changes occurring in the high permeability layers. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis by replacing their pseudo-steady crossflow assumption with unsteady crossflow and interpret the crossflow response in terms of near- and far-boundary flow response functions for the tight zone. The inclusion of unsteady crossflow requires one additional dimensionless parameter and results in a set of governing equations that are different from, but are similar to, the equations of the dual-porosity dual-permeability model with unsteady interporosity flow.

Wijesinghe, A.M.; Kececioglu, I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Permeability of consolidated incinerator facility wastes stabilized with portland cement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as a method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and offgas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as wastewater. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete, and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solutions that do not meet the ETF Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The disposal plan for Ashcrete and special case blowcrete is to bury these containerized waste forms in shallow unlined trenches in E-Area. The WAC for intimately mixed, cement-based wasteforms intended for direct disposal specifies limits on compressive strength and permeability. Simulated waste and actual CIF ash and scrubber solution were mixed in the laboratory and cast into wasteforms for testing. Test results and related waste disposal consequences are given in this report.

Walker, B.W.

2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

191

Characterization of tungsten films and their hydrogen permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prediction of tritium migration and its retention within fusion reactors is uncertain due to a significant role of the structural disorder that is formed on the surface layer after plasma exposure. Tungsten films deposited by any of the suitable methods are always disordered and contain a high density of hydrogen traps. Experiments on such films with hydrogen isotopes present a suitable complementary method, which improves the picture of the hydrogen interaction with fusion relevant materials. The authors report on the morphology, composition, and structure of tungsten films deposited by the thermionic vacuum arc method on highly permeable Eurofer substrates. Subsequently, hydrogen permeation studies through these films were carried out in a wide pressure range from 20 to 1000 mbars at 400?°C. The final value of the permeation coefficient for four samples after 24?h at 400?°C was between P?=?3.2?×?10{sup ?14}?mol?H{sub 2}/(m?s?Pa{sup 0.5}) and P?=?1.1?×?10{sup ?15}?mol H{sub 2}/(m s Pa{sup 0.5}). From the time evolution of the permeation flux, it was shown that diffusivity was responsible for the difference in the steady fluxes, as solubility was roughly the same. This is confirmed by XRD data taken on these samples.

Nemani?, Vincenc, E-mail: vincenc.nemanic@ijs.si; Kova?, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lungu, Cristian; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, NILPRP, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Zajec, Bojan [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Velocity and gravity effects in relative permeability measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There have been several studies on the effects of gravity and flowrate on laboratory relative permeability measurements. Most of these studies have concentrated on the effect of these parameters on the flooding front. Miller's (1983) data showed that the influence of these and other variables are not understood. The study found that the calculated recovery at breakthrough was different than the observed recovery at breakthrough. The calculated recovery at breakthrough was based on theory derived from Buckley-Leverett piston-like displacement. This study attempted to determine how gravity or core positioning and flowrate of the displacing fluid might be used to achieve a stable flooding front. A relative permeameter with unsteady-state flow was used for the apparatus. The core material was an unconsolidated silica sand. The core was 2 in. in diameter and 20 in. long. The fluids were refined white mineral oil and salt water. All measurements were done at room temperature. This study found that gravity had no significant effect on the difference between calculated and observed recovery at breakthrough. It also observed that an increase in flowrate would increase the flooding front instabilities. Therefore as flowrate decreased the calculated and observed breakthrough approach a single value. 23 refs., 56 figs., 25 tabs.

Beal, B.A.; Nunes, C.S.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

Laure, P. [Laboratoire J.-A. Dieudonne, CNRS UMR 6621, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M. [MINES ParisTech, CEMEF-Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, CNRS UMR 7635, BP 207 1 rue Claude, Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effect of permeability on cooling of magmatic intrusion in a goethermal reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transient cooling of magmatic intrusion in a geothermal reservoir due to conduction and convection is studied. The effects of overlying cap rock and different horizontal and vertical permeability of the reservoir are considered. Results are compared to the data from Salton Sea Geothermal Field. It is also observed that multiple layers of convection cells exist when horizontal permeability is much larger than the vertical permeability. The sharp dropoff of surface heat flow observed at Salton Sea Geothermal Field is confirmed by numerical results. Based on these numerical results, it is possible to speculate that the age of the intrusive body is about 8000 to 12,000 years.

Lau, K.H.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Stress- and Chemistry-Mediated Permeability Enhancement/Degradation in Stimulated Critically-Stressed Fractures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work has investigated the interactions between stress and chemistry in controlling the evolution of permeability in stimulated fractured reservoirs through an integrated program of experimentation and modeling. Flow-through experiments on natural and artificial fractures in Coso diorite have examined the evolution of permeability under paths of mean and deviatoric stresses, including the role of dissolution and precipitation. Models accommodating these behaviors have examined the importance of incorporating the complex couplings between stress and chemistry in examining the evolution of permeability in EGS reservoirs. This document reports the findings of experiment [1,2] and analysis [3,4], in four sequential chapters.

Derek Elsworth; Abraham S. Grader; Chris Marone; Phillip Halleck; Peter Rose; Igor Faoro; Joshua Taron; André Niemeijer; Hideaki Yasuhara

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Longitudinal permeability of collisional plasmas under arbitrary degree of degeneration of electron gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric conductivity and dielectric permeability of the non-degenerate electronic gas for the collisional plasmas under arbitrary degree of degeneration of electron gas is found. The kinetic equation of Wigner - Vlasov - Boltzmann with collision integral in relaxation form BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) in coordinate space is used. Dielectric permeability with using of the relaxation equation in the momentum space has been received by Mermin. Comparison with Mermin's formula has been realized. It is shown, that in the limit when Planck's constant tends to zero expression for dielectric permeability passes in the classical.

A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

197

Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common...

198

Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and...

200

Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Atomistic Simulations of Uranium Incorporation into Iron (Hydr...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Uranium Incorporation into Iron (Hydr)Oxides. Atomistic Simulations of Uranium Incorporation into Iron (Hydr)Oxides. Abstract: Atomistic simulations were carried out to...

202

Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions:...

203

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

204

Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium...

205

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)...

206

Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Abstract:...

207

Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Production of iron from metallurgical waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

led to immediate localized phytoplankton blooms. They also have stimulated con- siderable speculation processes motivated three field programs in 2004­ 2006. The United Kingdom led the "CROZet natural iron into surface waters, recycling of nutrients, reactivity of iron, and phytoplankton physiology. This special

210

Determination of the Controls on Permeability and Transport in Shale by Use of Percolation Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of pore scale connectivity simulations on lattice and in the continuum allow for understanding relationships between pore topology, system porosity and system permeability. Additionally, questions regarding the role of Total Organic Carbon as well...

Chapman, Ian

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

Transport and seismoelectric properties of porous permeable rock : numerical modeling and laboratory measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this thesis is to better understand the transport and seismoelectric (SE) properties of porous permeable rock. Accurate information of rock transport properties, together with pore geometry, can aid us to ...

Zhan, Xin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No.2 LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THEMINE AND, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST Lars Lundstrom and HakanSUMMARY REPORT Background TEST SITE Layout of test places

Lundstrom, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Evaluating permeability anisotropy in the early Jurassic Tilje formation, offshore mid-Norway  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of evaluating permeability anisotropy in the Tilje Formation, Heidrum field, offshore mid-Norway, has been investigated by the Statoil Research Centre by a detailed combination of the geological and petrophysical data. The large...

Aliyev, Kanan

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Permeability characterization and spatial modeling in complex reservoirs: use of tree classifiers and Markov Random Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research presents two approaches for working with reservoir properties. The first is the application of decision tree classifiers for predicting partitioning or classifications based on well logs for improving the permeability estimations...

Perez Vega, Hector H

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

How Permeability Depends on Stress and Pore Pressure in Coalbeds: A New Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- pression. However, in coalbeds, drawdown leads to desorption of methane, and this is accompanied by matrixHow Permeability Depends on Stress and Pore Pressure in Coalbeds: A New Model Ian Palmer, SPE

216

Lattice Boltzmann simulations of the permeability and capillary adsorption of cement model microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lattice Boltzmann method is used to investigate the permeability of microstructures of cement pastes generated using the numerical models CEMHYD3D (Bentz, 1997) and {mu}IC (Bishnoi and Scrivener, 2009). Results are reported as a function of paste water-to-cement ratio and degree of hydration. The permeability decreases with increasing hydration and decreasing water-to-cement ratio in agreement with experiment. However the permeability is larger than the experimental data recorded using beam bending methods (Vichit-Vadakan and Scherer, 2002). Notwithstanding, the lattice Boltzmann results compare favourably with alternate numerical methods of permeability calculation for cement model microstructures. In addition, we show early results for the liquid/vapour capillary adsorption and desorption isotherms in the same model {mu}IC structures. The broad features of the experimental capillary porosity isotherm are reproduced, although further work is required to adequately parameterise the model.

Zalzale, M. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McDonald, P.J., E-mail: p.mcdonald@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

Bioclogging and Permeability Alteration by L. mesenteroides in a Sandstone Reservoir: A Reactive Transport Modeling Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Enhanced- Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR).2 During water flooding in secondary recovery, hydrocarbons in highly permeable systems to favorable performance conditions. Applications may include microbial-enhanced-hydrocarbon-recovery

Hubbard, Susan

218

Water permeability of nanoporous graphene at realistic pressures for reverse osmosis desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoporous graphene (NPG) shows tremendous promise as an ultra-permeable membrane for water desalination thanks to its atomic thickness and precise sieving properties. However, a significant gap exists in the literature ...

Cohen-Tanugi, David

219

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqp1 water permeability Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aqp1 water permeability Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The Structure of the Aquaporin-1 Water...

220

Direct Prediction of the Absolute Permeability of Unconsolidated and Consolidated Reservoir Rock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE 90084 Direct Prediction of the Absolute Permeability of Unconsolidated and Consolidated unconsolidated rocks whose micro-tomographic images cannot be obtained. The lattice-Boltzmann method is used

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The evaluation of waterfrac technology in low-permeability gas sands in the East Texas basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The petroleum engineering literature clearly shows that large proppant volumes and concentrations are required to effectively stimulate low-permeability gas sands. To pump large proppant concentrations, one must use a viscous fluid. However, many...

Tschirhart, Nicholas Ray

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Improving Permeability and Salt Leaching in Irrigated Sports Fields: Exploratory Testing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of most turf grass species. The study reported here was preformed for evaluating various mechanical means of improving soil permeability for enhancing salt leaching. Observation included two municipal parks consisting of sandy alluvial soils, five sports...

Miyamoto, S; Martinez, Ignacio; Luna, Francisco; Tirre, David

223

Hollow cylinder dynamic pressurization and radial flow through permeability tests for cementitous materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pressurization test is a potential solution for measuring concrete permeability. The hollow cylinder dynamic pressurization (HDP) test is compared with the radial flow through (RFT) test and the solid cylinder dynamic pressurization (SDP) test to assess...

Jones, Christopher Andrew

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Permeability-thickness determination from transient production response at the southeast geysers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fetkovich production decline curve analysis method was extended for application to vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs for the purpose of estimating the permeability-thickness product (kh) from the transient production response. The analytic dimensionless terms for pressure, production rate, decline rate, and decline time were derived for saturated steam using the real gas potential and customary geothermal production units of pounds-mass per hour. The derived terms were numerically validating using ``Geysers-line`` reservoir properties at initial water saturation of 0 and at permeabilities of 1, 10, and 100 mD. The production data for 48 wells in the Southeast Geysers were analyzed and the permeability-thickness products determined from the transient production response using the Fetkovich production decline type curve. The kh results were in very good agreement with the published range at the Southeast Geysers and show regions of high permeability-thickness.

Faulder, D.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Data report: Permeability measurements under confining pressure, Legs 315 and 316, Nankai Thierry REUSCHLE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Data report: Permeability measurements under confining pressure, Legs 315 and 316, Nankai Trough level two cylindrical specimens (20 mm in diameter and 15 - 20 mm in length) were drilled out

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Tetrazole compounds: The effect of structure and pH on Caco-2 cell permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A tetrazole ring is often used in drug discovery as a replacement for the carboxylic acid group. Previous work indicates that compounds containing a tetrazole moiety show asymmetric permeability in Caco-2 cells characteristic ...

Young, Amber M.; Audus, Kenneth L.; Proudfoot, John; Yazdanian, Mehran

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

Hanson, J.M.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 2. Influence of fluid chemistry on flow and functionally  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Wilcox formation has been investigated using distilled water and 1 M solutions of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 and permeabilities depend on fluid composition. Permeabilities to flow of 1 M CaCl2 are 3­5 times greater than values is greater for transport of 1 M CaCl2 than that for transport of the other pore fluids. Assuming that fluid

Herbert, Bruce

229

Investigation of the rate sensitivity of pseudo relative permeabilities for gas-oil systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Master of Science May 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Approved as to style and content by: R. A, Wattenbarger...

Smith, Carl Kevin

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Permeability and wet-out characterization of SRIM automotive bumper beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Morse, Christopher Todd

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

Eric P. Robertson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

2iron-based superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measured the static uniform spin susceptibility of Ba(Fe1?xRhx)2As2 iron-based superconductors, over a broad range of doping (0.041x0.094) and magnetic fields. At small fields (H1kOe) we observed, above the transition temperature Tc, the occurrence of precursor diamagnetism, which is not ascribable to the Ginzburg–Landau theory. On the contrary, our data agree with a phase fluctuation model, which has been used to interpret a similar phenomenology occurring in the high- Tc cuprate superconductors. Additionally, in the presence of strong fields, the unconventional fluctuating diamagnetism is suppressed, whereas Ginzburg–Landau fluctuations are found, in agreement with literature.

Bossoni, L [University of Pavia-CNISM; Romano, L [University of Parma, Parco Area dell Scienze; Canfield, Paul C [Ames Laboratory; Lascialfari, A [Universita degli Studi di Milano

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

In-situ permeability measurements with the Cone Permeameter{trademark} measurement system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The permeability of soil to fluid flow defines the magnitude of soil gas and groundwater flow under imposed pressure gradients. Pressure gradients exist due to natural effects such as hydraulic gradients (in the case of groundwater) and barometrically imposed gradients (in the case of soil gas). Unnatural gradients are imposed by soil vapor extraction air sparging, active venting, pump-and-treat, and other remediation processes requiring the active movement of fluids through the soil. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the flow characteristics of the soil. The most variable of the soil's flow characteristics is its permeability, which can vary by several orders of magnitude in a given geologic and hydrologic setting. Knowledge of soil gas permeability is needed to design soil vapor extraction systems and predict the general movement of gas in soil. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, or the soil's permeability to liquid flow, is required to predict movement of groundwater in saturated soils. The variability of permeability is illustrated by the range of values for different media in a table. It is not uncommon for permeabilities to vary by several orders of magnitude at a given site.

NONE

1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Iron-air battery development program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The progress and status of the research and development program on the iron-air advanced technology battery system at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation during the period June 1978-December 1979 are described. This advanced battery system is being developed for electric vehicle propulsion applications. Testing and evaluation of 100 cm/sup 2/ size cells was undertaken while individual iron and air electrode programs continued. Progress is reported in a number of these study areas. Results of the improvements made in the utilization of the iron electrode active material coupled with manufacturing and processing studies related to improved air electrodes continue to indicate that a fully developed iron-air battery system will be capable of fulfilling the performance requirements for commuter electric vehicles.

Buzzelli, E.S.; Liu, C.T.; Bryant, W.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

236

Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Iron and the ecology of marine microbes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron is a cofactor of a number biochemical reactions that are essential for life. In the marine environment, this micronutrient is a scarce resource that limits processes of global importance such as photosynthesis and ...

Ventouras, Laure-Anne

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Elastic moduli of nickel and iron aluminides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELASTIC MODULI OF NICKEL AND IRON ALUMINIDES A Thesis by SREEDHAR MAN JIGANI Submitted to the Oifice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1993... Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ELASTIC MODULI OF NICKEL AND IRON ALUMINIDES A Thesis by SREEDHAR MAN JIGANI Submitted to Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

Manjigani, Sreedhar

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

IMPACT OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON THE SATURATED LIQUID PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report focuses on the impact of curing temperature on the performance properties of simulated Saltstone mixes. The key performance property of interest is saturated liquid permeability (measured as hydraulic conductivity), an input to the Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Therefore, the current study was performed to measure the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity on curing temperature of Saltstone mixes, to correlate these results with measurements of Young's moduli on the same samples and to compare the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the microstructure at each curing temperature in an effort to associate this significant changes in permeability with changes in microstructure. This work demonstrated that the saturated liquid permeability of Saltstone mixes depends significantly on the curing temperature. As the curing temperature increases, the hydraulic conductivity can increase over three orders of magnitude from roughly 10{sup -9} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec over the temperature range of 20 C to 80 C. Although an increased aluminate concentration (at 0.22 M) in the ARP/MCU waste stream improves (decreases) saturated permeability for samples cured at lower temperatures, the permeabilities for samples cured at 60 C to 80 C are the same as the permeabilities measured for an equivalent mix but with lower aluminate concentration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the unsaturated flow apparatus (UFA) system can be used to measure hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples. The permeability results obtained using the UFA centrifuge system were equivalent within experimental error to the conventional permeameter results (the falling head method) obtained at MACTEC. In particular the UFA technique is best suited for the range of hydraulic conductivities between 10{sup -10} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec. Measurements of dynamic Young's moduli (E) for these mixes revealed a correlation between E and hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, it is possible to use E values to estimate the values of hydraulic conductivity. Measurement of Young's modulus is much easier than the measurement of permeability of Saltstone mixes and facilitates the measurement of the time dependence hydraulic conductivity. The results presented in this report show that changes in permeability as a function of curing temperature appear to be related to microstructural changes in the cured Saltstone mixes. Backscattered electron microscopy images revealed significant differences between the samples cured at different temperatures.

Williams, F.; Harbour, J.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a new coal-permeability model for uniaxial strain and constant confining stress conditions. The model is unique in that it explicitly considers fracture-matrix interaction during coal deformation processes and is based on a newly proposed internal-swelling stress concept. This concept is used to account for the impact of matrix swelling (or shrinkage) on fracture-aperture changes resulting from partial separation of matrix blocks by fractures that do not completely cut through the whole matrix. The proposed permeability model is evaluated with data from three Valencia Canyon coalbed wells in the San Juan Basin, where increased permeability has been observed during CH{sub 4} gas production, as well as with published data from laboratory tests. Model results are generally in good agreement with observed permeability changes. The importance of fracture-matrix interaction in determining coal permeability, demonstrated in this work using relatively simple stress conditions, underscores the need for a dual-continuum (fracture and matrix) mechanical approach to rigorously capture coal-deformation processes under complex stress conditions, as well as the coupled flow and transport processes in coal seams.

Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A model for changes in coalbed permeability during primary and enhanced methane, recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The natural fracture network of a dual-porosity coalbed reservoir is made up of two sets of orthogonal, and usually subvertically oriented, cleats. Coalbed permeability has been shown to vary exponentially with changes in the effective horizontal stress acting across the cleats through the cleat-volume compressibility, which is analogous to pore compressibility in porous rocks. A formulation for changes in the effective horizontal stress of coalbeds during primary methane recovery, which includes a Langmuir type curve shrinkage term, has been proposed previously. This paper presents a new version of the stress formulation by making a direct link between the volumetric matrix strain and the amount of gas desorbed. The resulting permeability model can be extended readily to account for adsorption-induced matrix swelling as well as matrix shrinkage during enhanced methane recovery involving the injection of an inert gas or gas mixture into the seams. The permeability model is validated against a recently published pressure-dependent permeability multiplier curve representative of the San Juan basin coalbeds at post-dewatering production stages. The extended permeability model is then applied successfully to history matching a micropilot test involving the injection of flue gas (consisting mainly of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}) at the Fenn Big Valley, Alberta, Canada.

Shi, J.Q.; Durucan, S. [University of London Imperial College of Science Technology & Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental Science & Technology

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Characterizing two-phase flow relative permeabilities in chemicalflooding using a pore-scale network model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamic pore-scale network model is presented for investigating the effects of interfacial tension and oil-water viscosity on relative permeability during chemical flooding. This model takes into account both viscous and capillary forces in analyzing the impact of chemical properties on flow behavior or displacement configuration, as opposed to the conventional or invasion percolation algorithm which incorporates capillary pressure only. The study results indicate that both water and oil relative-permeability curves are dependent strongly on interfacial tension as well as an oil-water viscosity ratio. In particular, water and oil relative-permeability curves are both found to shift upward as interfacial tension is reduced, and they both tend to become linear versus saturation once interfacial tension is at low values. In addition, the oil-water viscosity ratio appears to have only a small effect under conditions of high interfacial tension. When the interfacial tension is low, however, water relative permeability decreases more rapidly (with the increase in the aqueous-phase viscosity) than oil relative permeability. The breakthrough saturation of the aqueous phase during chemical flooding tends to decrease with the reduction of interfacial tension and may also be affected by the oil-water viscosity ratio.

Liu, Qingjie; Shen, Pingping; Wu, Yu-Shu

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Experimental determination of the relationship between permeability and microfracture-induced damage in bedded salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of deep underground structures (e.g., shafts, mines, storage and disposal caverns) significantly alters the stress state in the rock near the structure or opening. The effect of such an opening is to concentrate the far-field stress near the free surface. For soft rock such as salt, the concentrating effect of the opening induces deviatoric stresses in the salt that may be large enough to initiate microcracks which then propagate with time. The volume of rock susceptible to damage by microfracturing is often referred to as the disturbed rock zone and, by its nature, is expected to exhibit high permeability relative to that of the native, far-field rock. This paper presents laboratory data that characterize microfracture-induced damage and the effect this damage has on permeability for bedded salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in southeastern New Mexico. Damage is induced in the salt through a series of tertiary creep experiments and quantified in terms of dilatant volumetric strain. The permeability of damaged specimens is then measured using nitrogen gas as the permeant. The range in damage investigated included dilatant volumetric strains from less than 0.03 percent to nearly 4.0 percent. Permeability values corresponding to these damage levels ranged from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} to 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m{sup 2}. Two simple models were fitted to the data for use in predicting permeability from dilatant volumetric strain.

Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensityof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China andof Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - assembly cellular iron Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: , iron storage function and cellular regulation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Bioenerg. 1275: 161-203. HOFMANN... Availability of iron from iron-storage proteins to marine...

250

Effect of different intravenous iron preparations on lymphocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subpopulation survival.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IV iron compounds induced greater intracellular ROS generation,IV iron preparations on intracellular reactive oxygen species generationIV iron preparations on intracellular immune cell ROS generation

Gupta, Ajay; Zhuo, Jiaying; Zha, Junli; Reddy, Srinivasa; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Dynamic fluid loss in hydraulic fracturing under realistic shear conditions in high-permeability rocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the dynamic fluid loss of hydraulic fracturing fluids under realistic shear conditions is presented. During a hydraulic fracturing treatment, a polymeric solution is pumped under pressure down the well to create and propagate a fracture. Part of the fluid leaks into the rock formation, leaving a skin layer of polymer or polymer filter cake, at the rock surface or in the pore space. This study focuses on the effects of shear rate and permeability on dynamic fluid-loss behavior of crosslinked and linear fracturing gels. Previous studies of dynamic fluid loss have mainly been with low-permeability cores and constant shear rates. Here, the effect of shear history and fluid-loss additive on the dynamic leakoff of high-permeability cores is examined.

Navarrete, R.C.; Cawiezel, K.E.; Constien, V.G. [Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Topical report, June 10, 1996--April 10, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program is focused on five areas: gel treatment in fractured systems; gel treatment in carbonate rocks; in-depth placement of gels; gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed at improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the first 10 months of a 28 month program is described in the following sections.

Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, April 11, 1997--April 10, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program focused on five areas: Gel treatment in fractured systems; Gel treatment in carbonate rocks; In-depth placement of gels; Gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and Gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed toward improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the second 12 month period of a 28 month program is described.

Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.J.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Permeability-dependent propagation of polyacrylamides under near-wellbore flow conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new type of polyacrylamide flow-induced retention has been observed in core experiments simulating near-wellbore flow conditions. The retention is due to the bridging of pore throats by adsorbed macromolecules previously stretched under elongational flow. It occurs in low-to-medium permeability granular packs (up to k = 1,000 mD in the test conditions) and leads to progressive but severe plugging. The present paper shows that polymer placement in the reservoir surrounding the wellbore can be very different from what is predicted from stable values of polymer mobility. In heterogeneous reservoirs, polymer penetration in low-permeability layers is expected to be strongly reduced, thus allowing a deeper penetration into higher permeability zones. The polymer can thus improve reservoir conformance around the wellbore when injected directly through the entire opened interval. Near-wellbore polymer or gel treatments may thus not require zone isolation to be efficient.

Zitha, P.; Chauveteau, G.; Zaitoun, A. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fracture permeability and seismic wave scattering--Poroelastic linear-slip interface model for heterogeneous fractures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Schoenberg's Linear-slip Interface (LSI) model for single, compliant, viscoelastic fractures has been extended to poroelastic fractures for predicting seismic wave scattering. However, this extended model results in no impact of the in-plane fracture permeability on the scattering. Recently, we proposed a variant of the LSI model considering the heterogeneity in the in-plane fracture properties. This modified model considers wave-induced, fracture-parallel fluid flow induced by passing seismic waves. The research discussed in this paper applies this new LSI model to heterogeneous fractures to examine when and how the permeability of a fracture is reflected in the scattering of seismic waves. From numerical simulations, we conclude that the heterogeneity in the fracture properties is essential for the scattering of seismic waves to be sensitive to the permeability of a fracture.

Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Training Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System to Infer Permeability in Wells on Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The high accuracy on inferrring of rocks properties, such as permeability ($k$), is a very useful study in the analysis of wells. This has led to development and use of empirical equations like Tixier, Timur, among others. In order to improve the inference of permeability we used a hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy System (NFS). The NFS allowed us to infer permeability of well, from data of porosity ($\\phi$) and water saturation ($Sw$). The work was performed with data from wells VCL-1021 (P21) and VCL-950 (P50), Block III, Maracaibo Lake, Venezuela. We evaluated the NFS equations ($k_{P50,i}(\\phi_i,Sw_i)$) with neighboring well data ($P21$), in order to verify the validity of the equations in the area. We have used ANFIS in MatLab.

Hurtado, Nuri; Torres, Julio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Iron speciation in urban dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {mu}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity. Keywords - Urban dust; Iron; Speciation; Micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Elzinga, E.J.; Fitts, J.; Gao, Y.; Tappero, R.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Secondary porosity and permeability of coal vs. gas composition and pressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been investigating the sequestration of atmospheric pollutants by injection into coal seams while at the same time enhancing hydrocarbon productivity by displacement of methane with pollutants. We found that changing the composition of the gas sorbed into the coal changes the porosity and permeability of the coal natural-fracture system owing to gas-content changes, which cause matrix swelling or shrinkage due to relative adsorption of different gases. We collected sufficient information to develop a method for predicting the permeability and porosity of a coalbed as a function of the secondary porosity system (SPS) pressure and the gas content and composition of the primary porosity system (PPS). The method uses data from injection/falloff tests with water and/or a weaker adsorbing gas (WAG) than CH{sub 4} and a stronger adsorbing gas (SAG) than CH{sub 4}. Estimates of effective permeability to gas and water obtained from these tests are used with an iterative computation procedure subject to constraints to solve for equivalent SPS porosity and absolute permeability at atmospheric pressure. Once calibrated, the model can be used to predict a coalbed's permeability and porosity as a function of injection pressure and injected-fluid composition, which in turn are used to predict injection performance. The model is applicable to production forecasts to account for SPS permeability and porosity changes as reservoir pressure declines with changes in gas composition. This paper describes the new model and discusses well-test procedures to obtain the data required for model calibration. Also included are coal property estimates resulting from Alberta Medicine River (Manville) coal core and test data and an example model calibration.

Mavor, M.J,; Gunter, W.D. [Tesseract Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Characterization of facies and permeability patterns in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research is to develop methods for better describing the three-dimensional geometry of carbonate reservoir flow units as related to conventional or enhanced recovery of oil. San Andres and Grayburg reservoirs were selected for study because of the 13 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil and 17 Bbbl of residual oil in these reservoirs. The key data base is provided by detailed characterization of geologic facies and rock permeability in reservior-scale outcrops of the Permian San Andres Formation in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Emphasis is placed on developing an outcrop analog for San Andres strata that can be used as (1) a guide to interpreting the regional and local geologic framework of the subsurface reservoirs (2) a data source illustrating the scales and patterns of variability of rock-fabric facies and petrophysical properties, particularly in lateral dimension, and on scales that cannot be studied during subsurface reservoir characterization. The research approach taken to achieve these objectives utilizes the integration of geologic description, geostatistical techniques, and reservoir flow simulation experiments. Results from this research show that the spatial distribution of facies relative to the waterflood direction can significantly affect how the reservoir produces. Bypassing of unswept oil occurs due to cross flow of injected water from high permeability zones into lower permeability zones were high permeability zones terminate. An area of unswept oil develops because of the slower advance of the water-injection front in the lower permeability zones. When the injection pattern is reversed, the cross-flow effect changes due to the different arrangements of rock-fabric flow units relative to the flow of injected water, and the sweep efficiency is significantly different. Flow across low-permeability mudstones occurs showing that these layers do not necessarily represent flow barriers.

Kerans, C.; Lucia, F.J.; Senger, R.K.; Fogg, G.E.; Nance, H.S.; Hovorka, S.D.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

Shen, M.; Yang, R.T.

1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

L-FVM for Unsteady Seepage Flow in Low Permeability Coalbed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The significant feature of coalbed in China is the low permeability. A new unsteady seepage flow model isdeveloped for the low permeability coalbed by considering the startup pressure gradient and methane desorption effect.Since the complexity of the problem, a new method which we call it ''L-FVM'' is developed, based on comparing the normal numerical calculation methods and comprehension research on FVM. The results show that L-FVM has the same precission but higher calculating velocity than normal FVM. This result is very important for monitoring the area pressure drawdown in coalbed methane engineering

Liu, Y. W.; Su, Z. L. [Key Laboratory of Environment Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Niu, C. C.; Cai, Q.; Li, H. S. [Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing 100048 (China); Zhao, P. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Lu, Q. [Coalbed Methane Ltd. Company, Petrochina, Beijing 100028 (China)

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Iron-based Superconductor Simulations Spin Out New Possibilities...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in 15 iron-based materials, including iron compounds that are high-temperature superconductors (images d-h). The x axis shows the momentum of the spin excitation in selected...

264

Candidate anode materials for iron production by molten oxide electrolysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) has been identified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) as one of four possible breakthrough technologies to alleviate the environmental impact of iron and steel production. This ...

Paramore, James D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Iron oxide nanoparticles as a contrast agent for thermoacoustic tomography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiation. The addition of an exogenous contrast agent improves image quality by more effectively converting microwave energy to heat. The use of iron oxide nanoparticles in MRI applications has been explored but super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles...

Keho, Aaron Lopez

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

1985-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

arabian iron age: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron deficiency should be the goal of nutritional intervention programs. In the United States, approximately 5 % of children from 1-5 years of age suffer from iron deficiency...

269

Iron and Manganese in Potable Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

none 22. Hays 469.0 1.0 none 23. Hays .55 24. Peabody 830.0 .5 trace 25. Caldwell 458.0 2.0 trace 26. Lyons 456.0 .1 trace 27. Osborne 377.0 .3 none 28. Herington 608,0 .1 trace 29. Sterling - - _ .1 .036 30. Waverly 546,0 .2 none 31. Clifton 350.... The occurence of a black peaty layer overlying white sand containing iron, the white sand in turn overlying red sand containing 10. oxidize^ iron, is a familiar sight to all engineers who have made excavations. Here the carbon dioxide produced...

Young, Clifford Caudy

1911-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for andFuel-Efficient Engines | ornl.govIronIron

272

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,Octoberdeep |IronIron

273

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,OctoberdeepIronIron

274

Coupled Analysis of Change in Fracture Permeability during the Cooling Phase of the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results from a coupled thermal, hydrological and mechanical analysis of thermally-induced permeability changes during heating and cooling of fractured volcanic rock at the Drift Scale Test at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis extends the previous analysis of the four-year heating phase to include newly available data from the subsequent four year cooling phase. The new analysis of the cooling phase shows that the measured changes in fracture permeability follows that of a thermo-hydro-elastic model on average, but at several locations the measured permeability indicates (inelastic) irreversible behavior. At the end of the cooling phase, the air-permeability had decreased at some locations (to as low as 0.2 of initial), whereas it had increased at other locations (to as high as 1.8 of initial). Our analysis shows that such irreversible changes in fracture permeability are consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). These data are important for bounding model predictions of potential thermally-induced changes in rock-mass permeability at a future repository at Yucca Mountain.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Tsang, Y.W.; Min, K.B.; Elsworth, D.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Use of X-Ray Computed Microtomography to Understand Why Gels Reduce Permeability to Water More Than That to Oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was used to investigate why gels reduce permeability to water more than that to oil in strongly waterUse of X-Ray Computed Microtomography to Understand Why Gels Reduce Permeability to Water More Than That to Oil R. S. Seright * , New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center J. Liang, Idaho National

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

276

Modeling Mud-Filtrate Invasion Effects on Resistivity Logs to Estimate Permeability of Vuggy and Fractured Carbonate Formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE 121136 Modeling Mud-Filtrate Invasion Effects on Resistivity Logs to Estimate Permeability to diagnose and estimate secondary porosity and absolute permeability of fractured and vuggy carbonate-connected) and fractured porosity, all embedded in a tight matrix. Rock-core data and wellbore resistivity images indicate

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

277

2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of permeability will result from images between 2 and 4 lm resolution. To reduce permeability underestimation from analyses of high-resolu- tion images, a resolution threshold between 3 and 15 lm was found to be effective, but it is not known whether this range is applicable beyond the samples studied here.

Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

278

Minnesota Jobs to Come with Efficient Iron Plant  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New energy-efficient iron plant offers a ray of hope for workers after local mining company shuts down.

279

Technique for Real-Time Measurements of Endothelial Permeability in a Microfluidic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technique for Real-Time Measurements of Endothelial Permeability in a Microfluidic Membrane Chip microfluidic platform to measure real-time perme- ability of endothelial cell monolayers on porous mem- branes of cell-free and cell-bound mem- brane layers. This technique is a highly sensitive, novel microfluidic

Simmons, Craig A.

280

Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SPE 28237 Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation and measuring their oldest practices for estimating the formation permeability. Coring every well in a large, especially in fields with hundreds of wells, requires a large amount of capital. In a heterogeneous field

Mohaghegh, Shahab

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension at permeable interfaces such as the inner core boundary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension at permeable interfaces such as the inner core boundary as the density and viscosity changes. Independently of any intrinsic surface tension, a dynamic surface tension, a possibly anisotropic surface tension and terms including an interface mass density. In pratice

282

Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth Tom Gleeson,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

picture of near surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and Manga, 2010], the formation of metallic mineral deposits and oil resources [Garven, 1995; Person et al globally and over North America. The distribu- tion of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent

Jellinek, Mark

283

3.3 NUMERICAL MODELING OF SOLID DEFORMATION AND STRESS-DEPENDENT PERMEABILITY IN NATURALLY FRACTURED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

permeability. When the pore pressure depletes due to oil/gas production rates in highly stress FRACTURED RESERVOIRS During the first year of this project, we analyzed the productivity behavior was demonstrated. 3.3.1 Introduction Fractures are the main fluid flow paths in naturally fractured reservoirs

Schechter, David S.

284

Estimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to quantify the spatial resolution and reliability of in situ permanent pressure data to detecting hydrocarbonEstimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with in situ permanent sensors Faruk O. Alpak*, Carlos Torres-Verdi´n, Kamy Sepehrnoori

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

285

Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Jiu Jimmy Jiao1 October 2009. [1] Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

286

A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Gasliquid two-phase flow patterns in a miniature square channel with a gas permeable sidewall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a mono small-gas-bubble layer existing adjacent to the surface of the permeable sidewall and industries. Exam- ples include heat transfer systems, distillation processes, steam generators, and numerous of the underlying mechanisms of boiling and condensation heat transfer in channels. Early studies of gas­liquid two

Zhao, Tianshou

288

Intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation following small bowel transplantation in the rat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In addition to its role in absorbing nutrients, the intestinal mucosa provides an important barrier against toxins and bacteria in the bowel lumen. The present study evaluated gut barrier function following orthotopic (in continuity) intestinal grafting in rats. Graft histology, intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation to the grafted mesenteric lymph nodes, the host's liver, and the host's spleen were assessed on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th postoperative days. The study group received no immunosuppression after allotransplantation. The two control groups included rats with isografts and rats with cyclosporine-treated allografts. On the 7th POD, the study animals had moderate transmural inflammation due to rejection, with normal histology in the isografts and CsA-treated allografts; increased intestinal permeability, measured by urinary excretion of oral 51Cr-EDTA (P less than 0.01); and increased number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen (P less than 0.05). The number of bacteria in the MLN and spleen of the study group positively correlated with the changes in intestinal permeability (P less than 0.05). Rejection of the orthotopic intestinal graft leads to increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation from the lumen of the graft to the host's reticuloendothelial system. Measures to improve gut barrier function and antibiotic therapy during rejection episodes may help reduce the incidence of septic complications after intestinal grafting.

Grant, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Zhong, R.; Wang, P.Z.; Chen, H.F.; Garcia, B.; Behme, R.; Stiller, C.; Duff, J. (University of Western Ontario (Canada))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Permeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal circulation at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hydrothermal processes at ridge crests have been extensively studied during the last two decades. NeverthelessPermeability changes due to mineral diagenesis in fractured crust: implications for hydrothermal, the reasons why hydrothermal fields are only occasionally found along some ridge segments remain a matter

Manga, Michael

290

Predicting the Permeability of Pervious Concretes from Planar Images M.S. Sumanasooriya1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimensional material structures. Introduction Pervious concrete (also called Enhanced Porosity Concrete, or porous1 Predicting the Permeability of Pervious Concretes from Planar Images M.S. Sumanasooriya1 , D-dimensional material structures of pervious concretes using two-dimensional digital images obtained from actual

Bentz, Dale P.

291

Numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture problem in permeable medium using cohesive zone model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture problem in permeable medium using cohesive zone model-off dominated. We demonstrate the ability of our cohesive zone model in simulating the hydraulic fracture in all these propagation regimes. Keywords: Hydraulic fracture, Cohesive zone model, Finite element analysis, Hydro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

Modeling overpressures in sedimentary basins: Consequences for permeability and rheology of shales, and petroleum expulsion efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prediction of overpressures using Institut Francais du Petrole's 2-D numerical model TEMISPACK is applied to several provinces of the world. In the Paris basin, France, normally pressured Liassic shales are shown to have permeabilities around a microdarcy, independently confirmed by laboratory measurements. In contrast, in the Norway section of the North Sea, Williston Basin, Canada, Gulf Coast, and in the Mahakam delta, observed overpressures of 10-50 MPa are consistently modeled with shale permeabilities around 1-10 nanodarcys. This theoretical value fits well with the lowest permeability measured in compacted shales. For these basins, compaction disequilibrium was found to explain most (>85%) of the overpressures. The only exception was the Williston basin in which overpressures observed in the organic-rich Bakken shales are entirely due to hydrocarbon generation. In Mahakam delta, the rheology of shales is nonlinear, i.e., the strength of shales increases rapidly with death. Consequently, shale compaction cannot be described by the linear behavior often assumed in hydrology. In the absence of fault barriers, numerical simulations and geological evidence suggest that overpressured source rocks have low or very low expulsion efficiency, irrespective of their organic content. However, shales with a permeability on the order of a microdarcy do not hinder petroleum migration.

Burrus, J.; Schneider, F.; Wolf, S. (Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Cell-Permeable Near-Infrared Fluorogenic Substrates for Imaging -Lactamase Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cell-Permeable Near-Infrared Fluorogenic Substrates for Imaging -Lactamase Activity Bengang Xing,11 Several fluorogenic substrates for Bla have been reported,4,12 but none work for infrared or near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Infrared/near-infrared light is preferred in molecular imaging studies of living subjects

Xing, Bengang

294

A study on the air permeability as affected by compression of three French soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by changing the soil structure and the physical properties of soils. It changes the mechanical strength, water of the changes in soil mechanical strength, aeration and hydraulic properties (Horn et al., 1995; Kozlowski, 19991 A study on the air permeability as affected by compression of three French soils Anh Minh Tang 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Three-Phase Displacement Theory: An Improved Description of Relative Permeabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bubble point and with movable water; in waterfloods, man-made and natural; immiscible CO2 floods; steam floods; in some gas condensate reservoirs; in gravity drainage of gas caps with oil and water; WAG permeabilities to water, oil and gas are perhaps the most important rock-fluid descriptors in reservoir en

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

296

Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in deep saline aquifers is considered one of the most effective methods for carbon sequestration., 48, W09539, doi:10.1029/2012WR011939.* 1. Introduction [2] Carbon sequestration in deep salineEffect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

Firoozabadi, Abbas

297

Direct porelevel observation of permeability increase in twophase flow by shaking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems or enhancing production from oil reservoirs. The explanation of the dynamically increased mobility wetting fluid, usually water. In petroleum reservoirs, the nonwetting phase is oil, existing in the form September 2011; published 18 October 2011. [1] Increases in permeability of natural reservoirs and aqui

Beresnev, Igor

298

Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydride from the Salado Formation: Sensitivity analysis and data reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents, demonstrates, evaluates, and provides theoretical justification for methods used to convert experimental data into relative permeability relationships. The report facilities accurate determination of relative permeabilities of anhydride rock samples from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Relative permeability characteristic curves are necessary for WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) predictions of the potential for flow of waste-generated gas from the repository and brine flow into repository. This report follows Christiansen and Howarth (1995), a comprehensive literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability. It focuses on unsteady-state experiments and describes five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments. Unsteady-state experimental methods were recommended for relative permeability measurements of low-permeability anhydrite rock samples form the Salado Formation because these tests produce accurate relative permeability information and take significantly less time to complete than steady-state tests. Five methods for obtaining relative permeability relationships from unsteady-state experiments are described: the Welge method, the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann method, the Jones-Roszelle method, the Ramakrishnan-Cappiello method, and the Hagoort method. A summary, an example of the calculations, and a theoretical justification are provided for each of the five methods. Displacements in porous media are numerically simulated for the calculation examples. The simulated product data were processed using the methods, and the relative permeabilities obtained were compared with those input to the numerical model. A variety of operating conditions were simulated to show sensitivity of production behavior to rock-fluid properties.

Christiansen, R.L.; Kalbus, J.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Iron distribution and phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

layer density (sigma-theta) are shown for six CalCOFI surveysolution (Sigma-Aldrich) in 0.016 M ultrapure HCl every sixsigma-theta. Macronutrients, dissolved iron, and chl were elevated during all six

King, Andrew Luke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Iron Air collision with high density QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The color glass condensate approach describes successfully heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We investigate Iron-air collisions within this approach and compare results to event generators commonly used in air shower simulations. We estimate uncertainties in the extrapolation to GZK energies and discuss implications for air shower simulations.

Hans-Joachim Drescher

2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The chemical must be in the water for at least 20 minutes for oxi- dation to take place, longer if the water contains colloidal iron/manganese. After solid particles have formed they are filtered, often with a sand filter. Adding aluminum sulfate (alum...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

302

Superconductivity in iron compounds G. R. Stewart  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the superconductivity in this new class of compounds. These iron pnictide and chalcogenide (FePn/Ch) superconductors-phonon coupled ``conventional'' superconductors. Clearly, superconductivity and magnetism or magnetic of magnetism and superconductivity in FePn/Ch superconductors 1606 D. Tc and TS=TSDW versus pressure 1607 1

Wu, Zhigang

303

Ligand effects on bioinspired iron complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- phosphaadamantane, PTA, coordinates to the Fe centers forming the disubstituted complex (m-pdt)[Fe(CO)2PTA]2, which presents one PTA in each iron in a transoid arrangement. Substitution of one CO ligand in the (m-pdt)[Fe(CO)3]2 parent complex forms the asymmetric (m-pdt)[Fe...

Mejia Rodriguez, Ma. del Rosario

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Quantifying the Permeability Heterogeneity of Sandstone Reservoirs in Boonsville Field, Texas by Integrating Core, Well Log and 3D Seismic Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the permeability heterogeneity of the target reservoir by integrating core, well log and 3D seismic data. A set of permeability coefficients, variation coefficient, dart coefficient, and contrast coefficient, was defined in this study to quantitatively identify...

Song, Qian

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

306

Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

307

PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a 98% probability that the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E saltstone is greater than that of the baseline simulant mix.

Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Core analysis in a low permeability sandstone reservoir: Results from the Multiwell Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over 4100 ft (1100 ft oriented) of Mesaverde core was taken during the drilling of the three Multiwell Experiment (MWX) wells, for study in a comprehensive core analysis program. This core traversed five separate depositional environments (shoreline/marine, coastal, paludal, fluvial, and paralic), and almost every major sand in the Mesaverde at the site was sampled. This paper summarizes MWX core analysis and describes the petrophysical properties at the MWX site; reservoir parameters, including permeabilities of naturally fractured core; and mechanical rock properties including stress-related measurements. Some correlations are made between reservoir properties and mineralogy/petrology data. Comparisons are made between the properties of lenticular and blanket sandstone morphologies existing at the site. This paper provides an overview of a complete core analysis in a low-permeability sandstone reservoir. 66 refs., 17 figs. , 9 tabs.

Sattler, A.R.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

Sklarew, D.S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Variations in permeability and fine particle migrations in unconsolidated sandstones submitted to saline circulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of unconsolidated clayey sandstone were submitted to percolations with NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} solutions with ionic strengths I = 0.01 and I = 2 at 20, 60 and 90{degrees}C. The permeability decreased as a function of time for all the samples examined. When the temperature rose from 20 to 90{degrees}C, permeability decreased for the I = 0.01 solutions, but it increased for the I = 2 solutions. The fluid circulations were accompanied by an entrainment of fine particles that was all the greater as the solutions became more diluted and fluid. This behavior, explained by the phenomenon of clay flocculation-deflocculation, is governed by the values of the attraction and repulsion potentials between particles. The calculation of the forces present shows that the electrokinetic phenomena govern flocculation and migration of fine particles in sandstone.

Baudracco, J. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Mineralogie, U.A. 67, 39 Allees Jules Guesde, F-31400 Toulouse (FR))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

TRANSVIP: a solute transport model based on the spatial variability of intrinsic permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

groundwater flow and solute transport in three dimensions in both saturated and unsaturated porous media. The model simulates mechanical dispersion using a spatially vari- able intrinsic permeability field. This approach provides a, more realistic physical.... TRANSVIP is a three-dimensional flow and transport model capable of simulating contaminant transport in both saturated and unsaturated porous me- dia and does not assume Fickian dispersion. In TRANSVIP, the flow deviations that cause mechanical...

Freeze, Geoffrey Allan

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

In-situ remediation of naturally occurring radioactive materials with high-permeability hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS WITH HIGH-PERMEABILITY HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A Thesis by ANDRONIKOS STAVROS DEMARCHOS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Michael J. Economides (Chair of Committee) ulat D. Mamora (Member...

Demarchos, Andronikos Stavros

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Joint Inversion of Production and Temperature Data Illuminates Vertical Permeability Distribution in Deep Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at standard condition Density at source conditions S Number of non-zero elements Standard deviation of model parameter Standard deviation of observation Temperature Temperature of sources Time Internal energy... accurately, especially in the case of estimation of heterogeneous distribution of permeability where the amount of unknown parameters is very large. In deepwater reservoir or geothermal reservoir, like deepwater Gulf of Mexico reservoirs (Hutchinson et al...

Zhang, Zhishuai

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

314

The effect of various mud filtrates on the permeability of sandstone cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' or the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1954 MAJOR SUBJECT: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS MUD FILTRATES ON THE PERMEABILITY OF SANDSTONE CORES A Thesis By Robert A. Pfile Appr ved as to styIe and content by: (Chairman of mmittee... kind and amount of clay contained in the different cores. INTRODUCTION There is general agreement among members of the petroleum industry that the productive capacity of a well penetrating a clay- containing oil sand may be seriously impaired due...

Pfile, Robert Ambrose

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimation of vertical permeability from production data of wells in bottom water drive reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Vertical Permeability Introduced by Erroneous Horizontal Permeabilty on Future performance of a Mell 13 39 43 43 10 Effect of Production From Test Perforation on Future Performance of a Well (Kh/Kv 1) . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Effect of Production... between perforations and the WOC, Kh/Kv = I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Effect of cell break-up on producing WOR performance for 9 ft interval between perforations and the WOC, Kh/Kv 30 . l8 Effect of cell break-up on cumulative...

Tirek, Ali

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and permeability of saturated soils at various porosities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Ottawa Sand . 4. Thermal Conductivity Data Analysis 5. Thermal Conductivity of Reference Materials 6. DC Resistivity Data with Plate Electrode System for Kaolinite at Porosity of 49% PAGE 48 52 54 66 71 AC Resistivity Data for Kaolinite... THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, AND PERMEABILITY OF SATURATED SOILS AT VARIOUS POROSITIES A Thesis by JAMES KEITH ENDERBY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Enderby, James Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

317

An experimental study of the permeability of fracture intersections in Sioux quartzite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the intersection. The comminution of proppants at high confining pressure in such specimens probably causes the larger percentage (and sometimes absolute) reduction in permeability relative to comparable cohesive specimens. DEDICATION To My Parents Michael... the fractures than do the FCS (Figure 1Zd and a). 4) In a deformed single-fracture FNCS (Figure 12e), proppants appear to be crushed between the fracture surfaces. 5) The intersection in the FNCS (Figure 12f, Experiment 38) is offset about 0. 5 mm...

Juddo, Edward Paul

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Scaling of Counter-Current Imbibition Process in Low-Permeability Porous Media, TR-121  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project presents the recent work on imaging imbibition in low permeability porous media (diatomite) with X-ray completed tomography. The viscosity ratio between nonwetting and wetting fluids is varied over several orders of magnitude yielding different levels of imbibition performance. Also performed is mathematical analysis of counter-current imbibition processes and development of a modified scaling group incorporating the mobility ratio. This modified group is physically based and appears to improve scaling accuracy of countercurrent imbibition significantly.

Kvoscek, A.R.; Zhou, D.; Jia, L.; Kamath, J.

2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

319

Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

320

Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals - article no. G01012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral pH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe{sup +2}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, and K{sup +} ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe{sup +2} was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe{sup +2} from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

Jones, E.J.P.; Nadeau, T.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Landa, E.R. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

None

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Calculation of density and permeability of compacted crushed salt within an engineered shaft sealing system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crushed salt from the host Salado Formation is proposed as a sealing material in one component of a multicomponent seal system design for the shafts of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a mined geological repository for storage and disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The crushed salt will be compacted and placed at a density approaching 90% of the intact density of the host Salado salt. Creep closure of the shaft will further compact the crushed salt over time, thereby reducing the crushed-salt permeability from the initial state and creating an effective long-term seal. A structural model and a fluid flow model have been developed to provide an estimate of crushed-salt reconsolidation rate as a function of depth, time, and pore pressure. Model results are obtained in terms of crushed-salt permeability as a function of time and depth within the salt column. Model results indicate that average salt column permeability will be reduced to 3.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2} in about 100 years, which provides for an acceptable long-term seal component.

Loken, M. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Statham, W. [Intera Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

Doru M. Stefanescu

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

324

Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

Filippi, Arthur M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sprecace, Richard P. (Murrysville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Correlation effects in the iron pnictides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the central questions about the iron pnictides concerns the extent to which their electrons are strongly correlated. Here we address this issue through the phenomenology of the charge transport and dynamics, single-electron excitation spectrum, and magnetic ordering and dynamics. We outline the evidence that the parent compounds, while metallic, have electron interactions that are sufficiently strong to produce incipient Mott physics. In other words, in terms of the strength of electron correlations compared to the kinetic energy, the iron pnictides are closer to intermediately-coupled systems lying at the boundary between itinerancy and localization, such as V{sub 2}O{sub 3} a or Se-doped NiS{sub 2} , rather than to simple antiferromagnetic metals like Cr. This level of electronic correlations produces a new small parameter for controlled theoretical analyses, namely the fraction of the single-electron spectral weight that lies in the coherent part. Using this expansion parameter, we construct the effective low-energy Hamiltonian and discuss its implications for the magnetic order and magnetic quantum criticality. Finally, this approach sharpens the notion of magnetic frustration for such a metallic system, and brings about a multi band matrix t-J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model for the carrier-doped iron pnictides.

Zhu, Jian-xin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Si, Qimiao [RICE UNIV; Abrahams, Elihu [RUTGERS UNIV; Dai, Jianhui [ZHEJIANG UNIV

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density Speci?c heat capacity of liquid phase Speci?c heatspeci?c heat capacity of the solid phase, the liquid phase,Heat capacity Heat conductivity Intrinsic permeability of liquid

Wang, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable chelator for interception of biological mobile zinc  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the characterization of tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable zinc chelator for intercepting biological mobile zinc. Compared to N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), TPA ...

Huang, Zhen

328

The effect of surface active agents on the relative permeability of brine and gas in porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All oil and gas producing wells produce hydrocarbon at some residual water saturation. Therefore, the relative permeability to the hydrocarbon at the effective water saturation dictates performance and not the absolute permeability of the formation. Surface active agents are included in most aqueous treating fluids to improve the compatibility of aqueous fluids with the hydrocarbon containing reservoir. A review of the literature indicates very little core flow data to describe the effects to be expected. Traditionally, it is believed that the reduced surface tension will reduce capillary pressure and enhance the recovery of water after the treatment. The reduced water saturation is then believed to result in higher effective gas saturation and higher relative permeability to gas after the treatment. The principal emphasis of this study has been the development of non-damaging stimulation fluids to improve the production of methane from coalbed methane and other low permeability gas reservoirs.

Conway, M.W. [STIM-LAB, Inc., Duncan, OK (United States); Schraufnagel, R.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, K.; Thomas, T.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Probabilistic analysis of air void structure and its relationship to permeability and moisture damage of hot mix asphalt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with thickness for field cores. ..............................27 5 Difference in air void content with thickness for SGC limestone cores. .............28 6 Difference in air void content with thickness for SGC granite cores...................29 7 Examples... distribution for SGC granite cores. ............46 x FIGURE Page 20 Permeability vs. PSP using Lognormal distribution for SGC limestone cores....47 21 Permeability vs. PSP using Weibull distribution for SGC limestone cores...

Castelblanco Torres, Adhara

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS A Thesis By PARAYATH E. B. MENON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial... fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, f965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS...

Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Magnetic phase composition of strontium titanate implanted with iron ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The origin of RT-ferromagnetism in iron implanted strontium titanate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic iron nanoclusters form during implantation and define magnetic behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paramagnetic at room temperature iron-substituted strontium titanate identified. -- Abstract: Thin magnetic films were synthesized by means of implantation of iron ions into single-crystalline (1 0 0) substrates of strontium titanate. Depth-selective conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (DCEMS) indicates that origin of the samples magnetism is {alpha}-Fe nanoparticles. Iron-substituted strontium titanate was also identified but with paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Surface magneto-optical Kerr effect (SMOKE) confirms that the films reveal superparamagnetism (the low-fluence sample) or ferromagnetism (the high-fluence sample), and demonstrate absence of magnetic in-plane anisotropy. These findings highlight iron implanted strontium titanate as a promising candidate for composite multiferroic material and also for gas sensing applications.

Dulov, E.N., E-mail: evgeny.dulov@ksu.ru [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Ivoilov, N.G.; Strebkov, O.A. [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)] [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Tagirov, L.R. [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation) [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zavoisky Physico-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Nuzhdin, V.I. [Zavoisky Physico-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation)] [Zavoisky Physico-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Khaibullin, R.I. [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation) [Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Zavoisky Physico-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 420029 Kazan (Russian Federation); Kazan, S. [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey)] [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Mikailzade, F.A. [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey) [Department of Physics, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, H. Javid Av. 33, AZ 1143, Baku (Azerbaijan)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

Day, D.E.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

Uemura, Kenichiro

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

approved iron nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

thickness on magnetic interactions in self-assembled single domain iron nanoparticles Materials Science Websites Summary: of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, North Carolina...

336

Argonne scientists discover new magnetic phase in iron-based...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

neutron diffraction image giving evidence for the new magnetic phase in iron-based superconductors discovered by Argonne scientists. It shows the scattering results from a sample...

337

Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA); Shi, Yao (Berkeley, CA)

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

340

Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I use compilations of phosphorous and iron data in ironused upwelling dissolved phosphorous and ammonium as well asand adsorption of dissolved phosphorous onto microbial Fe

Planavsky, Noah John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Iron(III)-doped, silica : biodegradable, self-targeting nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of calcium and phosphorous, which can be attributed toamount of calcium and phosphorous increase. The iron(III)-composed of calcium and phosphorous were in the recovered

Mitchell, Kristina Kalani Pohaku

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

The effects of copper and iron deficiencies in the chick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was assimilated by the chick. Cunningham (1931) and Josephs (1932) found that rats fed a milk diet plus iron showed no significant difference from rats fed milk plus sources of copper and iron. Elvehjem and Sherman (1932) reported that when rats de- ficient.../or iron as follows: Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 ? no added copper or iron 2 - cupric sulfate added (5 ppm) 3 - cupric oxide added (5 ppm) 4 ? ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm) 5 - cupric sulfate (5 ppm) plus ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm...

McGhee, Flin Cameron

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Iron acquisition and utilization by Rhodococcus equi: potential virulence factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth of R. equi in minimal media (MM) and MM without iron 66 (MM-Fe) . . 67 12 13 Growth of R. equi in 100 ItM DIP + varying iron concentrations. . . . . . . . . 68 Effects of iron source (FeSO& or FeCls) onin vitro growth of R. equi. . . 69.... , virulence factors) against oxidative stress Three types of bacterial SODs have been described: those that contain either iron (Fe SOD), manganese (MnSOD), or copper-zinc (Cu-ZnSOD)(85). If the appropriate minerals are not available for production of SODs...

Carnes, Misty Lee

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed | Stanford...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

history. Earth's present layered structure with a metallic core and an overlying silicate mantle would have required mechanisms to separate iron alloy from a silicate phase....

345

Public good dynamics drive evolution of iron acquisition strategies in natural bacterioplankton populations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A common strategy among microbes living in iron-limited environments is the secretion of siderophores, which can bind poorly soluble iron and make it available to cells via active transport mechanisms. Such siderophore–iron ...

Cordero, Otto X.

346

Tricking Iron into Acting like a Rare-earth Element | The Ames...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tricking Iron into Acting like a Rare-earth Element By slipping iron between two nitrogen atoms in a lithium matrix, researchers are able to trick iron into having magnetic...

347

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Intensity in China and the U.S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pdf Association for Iron and Steel Technology (AIST). 2010a.American BOF Roundup. Iron & Steel Technology. November.for Iron and Steel Technology (AIST). 2010b. 2010 EAF

Price, Lynn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Crystal Structure of Iron-dependent Halogenase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: Crude Oil Period-Unit:Iron-dependent Halogenase Over 4000

350

Rare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese Pottery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1PrincipalRare Iron Oxide in Ancient Chinese

351

Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

H.Y. Sohn

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

352

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for andFuel-Efficient Engines | ornl.govIron

353

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,Octoberdeep |Iron

354

Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,OctoberdeepIron

355

Discrete element modeling of rock deformation, fracture network development and permeability evolution under hydraulic stimulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Key challenges associated with the EGS reservoir development include the ability to reliably predict hydraulic fracturing and the deformation of natural fractures as well as estimating permeability evolution of the fracture network with time. We have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a network flow model. In DEM model, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external and internal load is applied. The natural fractures are represented by a series of connected line segments. Mechanical bonds that intersect with such line segments are removed from the DEM model. A network flow model using conjugate lattice to the DEM network is developed and coupled with the DEM. The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms the mechanical bonds and breaks them if the deformation reaches a prescribed threshold value. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability of the flow network, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, intimately coupling the two processes. The intimate coupling between fracturing/deformation of fracture networks and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM- network flow simulations necessary in order to accurately evaluate the permeability evolution, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be discussed. Methodology for coupling the DEM model with continuum flow and heat transport models will also be discussed.

Shouchun Deng; Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fluid flow through very low permeability materials: A concern in the geological isolation of waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The geological isolation of waste usually involves the selection of sites where very low permeability materials exist, but there are few earth materials that are truly impermeable. Regulatory concerns for the containment of radioactive material extend for geologic periods of time (i.e., 10,000 years or more), and it becomes nearly impossible to ``assure`` the behavior of the site for such long periods of time. Experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shows that very slow movements of fluid can take place through materials that may, in fact, have no intrinsic permeability in their undisturbed condition. Conventional hydrologic models may not be appropriate to describe flow, may provide modeling results that could be in significant variance with reality, and may not be easy to defend during the compliance process. Additionally, the very small volumes of fluid and very slow flow rates involved are difficult to observe, measure, and quantify. The WIPP disposal horizon is excavated 655 m below the surface in bedded salt of Permian age. Salt has some unique properties, but similar hydrologic problems can be expected in site investigations were other relatively impermeable beds occur, and especially in deep sites where significant overburden and confining pressures may be encountered. Innovative techniques developed during the investigations at the WIPP may find utility when investigating other disposal sites. Ongoing work at the WIPP is expected to continue to advance understanding of flow through very low permeability materials. The study of flow under these conditions will become increasingly important as additional waste disposal sites are designed that require assurance of their safety for geological periods of time.

Deal, D.E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated in some detail, as are permeabilities of some of the simpler types of fractured materials.

Berryman, J.G.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil-water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in two parts. The first was to investigate changes in S/sub or/ with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. Runs were terminated when the water-cut exceeded 99.8%. For these experiments, S/sub or/ decreased from 0.31 at 70/sup 0/F to 0.09 at 250/sup 0/F. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in S/sub or/ was observed with temperature; (0.11 at 70/sup 0/F and 0.085 at 186/sup 0/F). Temperature effects on irreducible water saturations were studied. A small increase in irreducibile water saturation was observed upon increasing the temperature. However, the same magnitude of change was observed by changing the flowrate. Upon increasing the oil flowrate, immediate water production was observed from the core indicating a change in the capillary end effect. By comparing the change in irreducible water saturation with rate and temperature, it was determined that the change was caused mainly by a change in the viscous force across the core. A study on viscous instabilities was also performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It was also observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Well correction factors for three-dimensional reservoir simulation with nonsquare grid blocks and anisotropic permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROFILES FROM RADIAL MODEL FOR VARIOUS P~ILITY RATIOS' h /ht STEADY-STATE PRESSURE PROFILES FROM RADIAL MODEL FOR VARIOUS PERMEABILITY RATIOS, h /ht 0. 1 CORRECTION OF WELL CELL PRESSURE, pe, TO BOTTOMHOLE FLOWING PRESSURE, p f (after Ref. 3) 8 x 4... PENETRATION RATIOS, bx - 16, k /kh 0. 1 STEADY-STATE PRESSURE PROFILES FRON 3-D AREAL MODEL FOR VARIOUS CELL SIZES hp/ht 0 5 kz/kh 1 STEADY-STATE PRESSURE PROFILES FROM 3-D AREAL MODEL FOR VARIOUS CELL SIZES hp/ht 0 1 kz/kh 1 STEADY-STATE PRESSURE...

Kim, Dukmin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

An evaluation of Stones method to determinte pseudo-relative permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be evaluated to calculate the pseudo-relative permeability. The equation used for pseudo oil viscosity is given by Eq. 2-6. This equation is derived in Appendix A and is based on equations presented by Stone. 7 This equation will be discussed later. Kk Z (q... pressure. (4) Pseudo oil viscosity is calculated as the sum of the oil viscosities for each fine grid block at the outlet face of the upstream equivalent coarse grid block, using oil flow rates as the weighting factor. This oil flow rates are calculated...

Permadi, Asep Kurnia

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconducto...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconductors Researchers introduced disorder to test electron pairing in iron-based superconductors and produced...

362

Trophic status of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii influences the impact of iron deficiency on photosynthesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of iron de?ciency on photosynthesis Aimee M. Terauchi •rates by suppress- ing photosynthesis but increasing insteadal. 2007). In oxygenic photosynthesis, iron is a cofactor in

Terauchi, Aimee M.; Peers, Graham; Kobayashi, Marilyn C.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - ancient iron plate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oceans Noah... Keywords: iron-bacteria iron-formations Fe-isotopes rare earth elements Paleoproterozoic stromatolites We... conducted a geochemical and petrographic...

364

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha elements iron Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gordon*a Keywords... : Asymmetric iron(II) amidinate Bridging ligands Metathesis Sublimation kinetics Thermochemistry... A highly volatile asymmetric iron(II) amidinate,...

365

Neutron Scattering Studies of Cuprates and Iron Pnictides.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Presented within are neutron scattering studies of several different high temperature superconducting materials: BaFe1.9Ni0.1As2 [Barium Iron Nickel Arsenic], BaFe1.85Ni0.15As2 [Barium Iron Nickel Arsenic], Ba0.67K0.33Fe2As2 [Barium… (more)

Liu, Mengshu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Enhanced Superconducting Properties of Iron Chalcogenide Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Among the newly discovered iron-based superconductor, FeSe with the simplest structure and a transition temperature (T_c) around 8 K arouses much research interest. Although its Tc is much lower than that of the cuprates, iron chalcogenide has low...

Chen, Li

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

367

Next Generation Metallic Iron Nodule Technology in Electric Furnace Steelmaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose objective is to investigate reducing processing temperature, controlling the gas temperature and gas atmosphere over metalized iron nodules, and effectively using sub-bituminous coal as a reductant for producing high quality metalized iron nodules at low cost.

368

Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fabrication and processing of iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been shown to exhibit room-temperature ductility values of 15 to 19% by the control of composition and thermomechanical processing steps. The scale-up of one of the compositions to 2270-kg (5000-lb) electroslag-remelted (ESR) round ingot and 3272-kg (7200-lb) vacuum-induction-melted (VIM) slab ingot is described. Microstructural and mechanical property data are presented on small pieces sectioned from these ingots. The effects of final rolling temperature and the final annealing treatment on room-temperature ductility were investigated for the ESR ingot. A study of iron-aluminide binary alloys revealed that the environmental effects on room-temperature ductility values were absent for {le}8.5 wt % Al. The increasing aluminum content and the development of ordered structure resulted in increased environmental effects. Applications and a brief description of their status are described. Based on the combined property and cost advantage, continued development of iron aluminide is recommended.

Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Fabrication and processing of iron aluminides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been shown to exhibit room-temperature ductility values of 15 to 19% by the control of composition and thermomechanical processing steps. The scale-up of one of the compositions to 2270-kg (5000-lb) electroslag-remelted (ESR) round ingot and 3272-kg (7200-lb) vacuum-induction-melted (VIM) slab ingot is described. Microstructural and mechanical property data are presented on small pieces sectioned from these ingots. The effects of final rolling temperature and the final annealing treatment on room-temperature ductility were investigated for the ESR ingot. A study of iron-aluminide binary alloys revealed that the environmental effects on room-temperature ductility values were absent for {le}8.5 wt % Al. The increasing aluminum content and the development of ordered structure resulted in increased environmental effects. Applications and a brief description of their status are described. Based on the combined property and cost advantage, continued development of iron aluminide is recommended.

Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

System and method for producing metallic iron nodules  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Lindgren, Andrew J. (Grand Rapids, MN); Kiesel, Richard F. (Hibbing, MN)

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

The iron powder test for naphthenic acid corrosion studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the course of an ongoing investigation into the phenomenon of naphthenic acid corrosion, a new test method has evolved and is currently being further developed to substitute the total acid number (TAN or neutralization number) as an indicator for naphthenic acid corrosion potential. It can also be used to complement conventional autoclave corrosion tests in high temperature environments, which are based on weight loss of steel coupons. In this new method an oil sample reacts with pure iron powder within an autoclave heated to the testing temperature. The result is based on the amount of dissolved iron found in the oil sample. The oil sample can dissolve an amount of iron for a given time at a given temperature, depending on the naphthenic acid corrosion, since these acids react with iron to produce oil soluble iron naphthenates. This paper describes the method, compares it with conventional crude corrosiveness testing, and proposes it as a new way of measuring naphthenic acid corrosion potential.

Hau, J.L.; Yepez, O.; Specht, M.I.; Lorenzo, R. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

Poston, S.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.

Eric P. Robertson

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7/sup 0/ F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88/sup 0/ F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

Kamath, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

377

Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7/sup 0/F at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88/sup 0/F it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products. 1 table.

Kamath, K.

1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

378

Water Injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 1: Hydrofracture Growth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we model water injection through a growing vertical hydrofracture penetrating a low-permeability reservoir. The results are useful in oilfield waterflood applications and in liquid waste disposal through reinjection. Using Duhamel's principle, we extend the Gordeyev and Entov (1997) self-similar 2D solution of pressure diffusion from a growing fracture to the case of variable injection pressure. The flow of water injected into a low-permeability rock is almost perpendicular to the fracture for a time sufficiently long to be of practical interest. We revisit Carter's model of 1D fluid injection (Howard and Fast, 1957) and extend it to the case of variable injection pressure. We express the cumulative injection through the injection pressure and effective fracture area. Maintaining fluid injection above a reasonable minimal value leads inevitably to fracture growth regardless of the injector design and the injection policy. The average rate of fracture growth can be predicted from early injection. A smart injection controller that can prevent rapid fracture growth is needed.

Patzek, Tad W.; Silin, Dmitriy B.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

379

Fracture-enhanced porosity and permeability trends in Bakken Formation, Williston basin, western North Dakota  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fractures play a critical role in oil production from the Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin. The Bakken Formation in the study area is known for its low matrix porosity and permeability, high organic content, thermal maturity, and relative lateral homogeneity. Core analysis has shown the effective porosity and permeability development within the Bakken Formation to be related primarily to fracturing. In theory, lineaments mapped on the surface reflect the geometry of basement blocks and the zones of fracturing propagated upward from them. Fracturing in the Williston basin is thought to have occurred along reactivated basement-block boundaries in response to varying tectonic stresses and crustal flexure throughout the Phanerozoic. Landsat-derived lineament maps were examined for the area between 47/degrees/ and 48/degrees/ north lat. and 103/degrees/ and 104/degrees/ west long. (northern Billings and Golden Valley Counties, and western McKenzie County, North Dakota) in an attempt to identify large-scale fracture trends. In the absence of major tectonic deformation in the craton, a subtle pattern of fracturing has propagated upward through the sedimentary cover and emerged as linear topographic features visible on these large-scale, remote-sensed images.

Freisatz, W.B.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

MOSSBAUER STUDIES ON THE STATE OF TIN ATOMS SEGREGATED AT THE GRAIN BOUNDARY OF IRON AND IRON ALLOYS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOSSBAUER STUDIES ON THE STATE OF TIN ATOMS SEGREGATED AT THE GRAIN BOUNDARY OF IRON AND IRON, Tokyo, Japan Abstract.- The binding state of tin atoms segregated at the grain boundary of fine grained state differs considerably from that of solid solution tin even though the average binding force itself

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Laboratory tests, statistical analysis and correlations for regained permeability and breakthrough time in unconsolidated sands for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Empirical models for estimating the breakthrough time and regained permeability for selected nondamaging drill-in fluids (DIF's) give a clear indication of formation damage and proper… (more)

Serrano, Gerardo Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

THE ROLE OF FERRIC IRON UPTAKE REGULATOR (FUR) PROTEIN ON IRON REGULATION IN COXIELLA BURNETII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at 37?C for overnight. These cultures were then subcultured in 5mL media with either 50uM ferrous chloride or 200uM deferoxamine, an iron chelator until an OD600 of 0.45-0.55 was reached and the assay performed. Plasmids/Strain#7;Description#7;Source#7... Solution, 98mM KH2PO4, 270mM KCl, 26.8mM NaCl, 40mM MgCl, 0.2mM glucose, 2x spermine, 2x erythritol, 2x para-aminobenzoic acid, 2x NADH, 2x adenine, 2x hypoxanthine, 2x uracil) (Beare, personal communication) with 0uM, 10uM or 50uM iron sulfate. After...

Wilson, Mary J

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

383

Kinetics of dissolution and bio-availability of iron in amorphous siliceous iron oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard H. Loeppert Amorphous iron (Fe) oxides are of interest because of their high reactivity, surface area, and influence on Fe availability in the soil environment. These materials may have... potential utilization as slow-release Fe amendments for calcareous soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of various concentrations of silicon (Si), present during precipitation, on the dissolution kinetics of amorphous Fe oxides...

Seaman, John C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

Iron and steel industry process model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The iron and steel industry process model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking, from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modeled: fully integrated mills and mini-mills. User-determined inputs into the model are as follows: projected energy and materials prices; projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; energy-conserving options, both operating modes and investments; the internal rate of return required on investment; and projected demand for finished steel. Nominal input choices in the model for the inputs listed above are as follows: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems Demand Panel nominal energy-price projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; new technologies added; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5%/y growth. The model reproduces the base-year (1975) actual performance of the industry; then, given the above nominal input choices, it projects modes of operation and capacity expansion that minimize the cost of meeting the given final demands for each of 5 years, each year being the midpoint of a 5-year interval. The output of the model includes the following: total energy use and intensity (Btu/ton) by type, by process, and by time period; energy conservation options chosen; utilization rates for existing capacity; capital-investment decisions for capacity expansion.

Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.; Dougherty, T.; McBreen, E.; Juang, L.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

RUSTY OLD STARS: A SOURCE OF THE MISSING INTERSTELLAR IRON?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron, the universe's most abundant refractory element, is highly depleted in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, meaning it exists in solid form. The nature of this solid is unknown. In this Letter, we provide evidence that metallic iron grains are present around oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, where it is observationally manifest as a featureless mid-infrared excess. This identification is made using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of evolved globular cluster stars, where iron dust production appears ubiquitous and in some cases can be modeled as the only observed dust product. In this context, FeO is examined as the likely carrier for the 20 {mu}m feature observed in some of these stars. Metallic iron appears to be an important part of the dust condensation sequence at low metallicity, and subsequently plays an influential role in the interstellar medium. We explore the stellar metallicities and luminosities at which iron formation is observed, and how the presence of iron affects the outflow and its chemistry. The conditions under which iron can provide sufficient opacity to drive a wind remain unclear.

McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Markwick, A. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C.; Bernard-Salas, J. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Matsunaga, N. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuura, M. [UCL-Institute of Origins, Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kraemer, K. E., E-mail: iain.mcdonald-2@jb.man.ac.u, E-mail: albert.zijlstra@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: andrew.markwick@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.ed, E-mail: matsunaga@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.j, E-mail: mikako@star.ucl.ac.u [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States)

2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

389

Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600.degree. C. to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Julie K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Iron/soot interaction in a laminar ethylene nonpremixed flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laminar, coannular, ethylene/air nonpremixed flame doped with ferrocene additive is employed to address the fundamental question of how iron becomes incorporated into the carbonaceous soot phase, thus interfering with the soot formation processes. The structure and chemical composition of individual aggregates are characterized with respect to flame coordinates via a combination of thermophoretic sampling, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Soot aggregate microstructure clearly reveals iron occlusion, as well as stratification of soot layers over the occluded phase. The study provides physical evidence that the soot and iron compounds combine in the flame to form a hybrid (inhomogeneous) particulate phase. The reported observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ferrocene decomposes early in the combustion process and before the onset of soot particle inception, thus forming a fine aerosol for the subsequent deposition of carbonaceous substances. Examination of a series of inhomogeneous soot aggregates shows that the flame aerosol composition varies with flame coordinates. In particular, aggregates transported in the soot annulus near the luminous flame front are primarily composed of carbon and oxygen, with traces of iron finely dispersed through the aggregate matrix. On the other hand, carbonaceous soot transported at low heights and near the flame axis contains iron in its elemental form. Finally, soot aggregates in all other areas of the flame contain both iron and oxygen, thus implying the possible presence of iron oxides within the carbonaceous matrix.

Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

391

Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

Ahmad Ghassemi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for andFuel-Efficient Engines | ornl.govIronIronIron

396

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctoberOxide WasteIronIronIron

397

Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dissection of the Helicobacter pylori Fur regulatory circuitregulation of the Helicobacter pylori iron-cofactored

Harris, Daniel P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Scaling of Steady-State Effective Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent experiment has considered the effective permeability of two-phase flow of air and a water-glycerol solution under steady-state conditions in a two-dimensional model porous medium, and found a power law dependence with respect to capillary number. Running simulations on a two-dimensional network model a similar power law is found, for high viscosity contrast as in the experiment and also for viscosity matched fluids. Two states are found, one with stagnant clusters and one without. For the stagnant cluster state, a power law exponent 0.50 is found for viscosity matched fluids and 0.54 for large viscosity contrast. When there are no stagnant clusters the exponent depends on saturation and varies within the range of 0.67 - 0.80.

Grøva, Morten

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Scaling of Steady-State Effective Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent experiment has considered the effective permeability of two-phase flow of air and a water-glycerol solution under steady-state conditions in a two-dimensional model porous medium, and found a power law dependence with respect to capillary number. Running simulations on a two-dimensional network model a similar power law is found, for high viscosity contrast as in the experiment and also for viscosity matched fluids. Two states are found, one with stagnant clusters and one without. For the stagnant cluster state, a power law exponent 0.50 is found for viscosity matched fluids and 0.54 for large viscosity contrast. When there are no stagnant clusters the exponent depends on saturation and varies within the range of 0.67 - 0.80.

Morten Grøva

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

Static magnetic field concentration and enhancement using magnetic materials with positive permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper a novel compressor for static magnetic fields is proposed based on finite embedded transformation optics. When the DC magnetic field passes through the designed device, the magnetic field can be compressed inside the device. After it passes through the device, one can obtain an enhanced static magnetic field behind the output surface of the device (in a free space region). We can also combine our compressor with some other structures to get a higher static magnetic field enhancement in a free space region. In contrast with other devices based on transformation optics for enhancing static magnetic fields, our device is not a closed structure and thus has some special applications (e.g., for controlling magnetic nano-particles for gene and drag delivery). The designed compressor can be constructed by using currently available materials or DC meta-materials with positive permeability. Numerical simulation verifies good performance of our device.

Sun, F

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Parallel algorithms for modeling flow in permeable media. Annual report, February 15, 1995 - February 14, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the application of distributed-memory parallel programming techniques to a compositional simulator called UTCHEM. The University of Texas Chemical Flooding reservoir simulator (UTCHEM) is a general-purpose vectorized chemical flooding simulator that models the transport of chemical species in three-dimensional, multiphase flow through permeable media. The parallel version of UTCHEM addresses solving large-scale problems by reducing the amount of time that is required to obtain the solution as well as providing a flexible and portable programming environment. In this work, the original parallel version of UTCHEM was modified and ported to CRAY T3D and CRAY T3E, distributed-memory, multiprocessor computers using CRAY-PVM as the interprocessor communication library. Also, the data communication routines were modified such that the portability of the original code across different computer architectures was mad possible.

G.A. Pope; K. Sephernoori; D.C. McKinney; M.F. Wheeler

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Simulation of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) processes in stochastically generated permeable media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes involve injecting an agent, such as steam or CO{sub 2}, that is much more mobile than the resident oil. Other EOR processes attempt to improve sweep efficiency by adding polymer or surfactant to the injected water to create a favorable mobility ratio. This study examines the effect of statistically generated heterogeneity on miscible displacements at unfavorable and favorable mobility ratios. The principal goal is to delineate the effects of fingering, dispersion and channeling on volumetric sweep efficiency. Two-dimensional heterogeneous permeability fields are generated with variability (heterogeneity) and spatial correlation as characterizing parameters. Four levels of correlation and three of variability make up a 12 element matrix. At each element of the matrix, a miscible displacement simulation at unit mobility ratio shows the effect of the heterogeneity, and simulations at mobility ratios of 10 and 0.5 show the effect of viscous force differences combined with heterogeneity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Waggoner, J.R.; Castillo, J.L.; Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

An Injectable Apatite Permeable Reactive Barrier for In Situ 90Sr Immobilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An injectable permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology was developed to sequester 90Sr in groundwater through the in situ formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases, specifically apatite that incorporates 90Sr into the chemical structure. An integrated, multi-scale development and testing approach was used that included laboratory bench-scale experiments, an initial pilot-scale field test, and the emplacement and evaluation of a 300-ft-long treatability-test-scale PRB. Standard groundwater wells were used for emplacement of the treatment zone, allowing treatment of contaminants too deep below ground surface for trench-and-fill type PRB technologies. The apatite amendment formulation uses two separate precursor solutions, one containing a Ca-citrate complex and the other a Na-phosphate solution, to form apatite precipitate in situ. Citrate is needed to keep calcium in solution long enough to achieve a more uniform and areally extensive distribution of precipitate formation. In the summer of 2008, the apatite PRB technology was applied as a 91-m (300-ft) -long permeable reactive barrier on the downgradient edge of a 90Sr plume beneath the Hanford Site in Washington State. The technology was deployed to reduce 90Sr flux discharging to the Columbia River. Performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate the barrier is meeting performance objectives. The average reduction in 90Sr concentrations at four downgradient compliance monitoring locations was 95% relative to the high end of the baseline range approximately 1 year after treatment, and continues to meet remedial objectives more than 4 years after treatment.

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fritz, Brad G.; Williams, Mark D.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

ABSTRACT: Upscaling Fracture Properties in Support of Dual-permeability Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rainier Mesa (RM) is a tuffaceous, high-elevation plateau on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that has been subjected to numerous nuclear tests between 1957 and 1992. Unlike other tests on the NTS located within or just above the saturated zone, tests at the RM T-tunnel complex were conducted within a variably saturated sequence of bedded and non-welded vitric and zeolitized tuff units, located approximately 500 m above the regional groundwater flow system. The low permeability and high porosity of the underlying zeolitized tuff units suggest the downward transport of radionuclides released from these tests are minimal through the tuff matrix. However, numerous faults observed to discharge water into tunnel drifts may serve as preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. Data collected from tunnel drifts indicate that faulting within the zeolitized tuff units is sparse with fractal clustering, and that connectivity between adjacent fault clusters is often weak to non-existent. The sparse fault density at RM, in conjunction with the extreme variability in the spatial distribution of faults, poses challenges not readily addressed by existing upscaling methods that upscale fracture properties as equivalent grid tensors. The unique fault statistics at RM has led to the development of a fracture continuum method designed to faithfully preserve flow and transport properties of the sparse fault networks. This method is based on selective mapping and upscaling of fault hydraulic and transport properties onto a continuum grid in support of dual-permeability simulations. Comparisons of global flow and random walk particle breakthrough between two-dimensional discrete fracture network and fracture continuum simulations demonstrate the utility of this method.

Rishi Parashar; Donald M. Reeves

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to tritium migration.

C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

Christiansen, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Permeable pavement is a system that allows rainwater and runoff to move through the pavement's porous surface to a storage layer below.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Permeable pavement is a system that allows rainwater and runoff to move through the pavement. Research has also shown that the stormwater that flows through the layers of a permeable pavement system festivals and green fairs to teach people about stormwater management. Her cur rent work includes aiding

Goodman, Robert M.

411

anthropogenic iron cycles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tion in the average odds of each feature occurring within Sandercock, Brett K. 42 Solar Cycle Variations in the Elemental Abundance of Helium and Fractionation of Iron in the...

412

Mechanism of iron catalysis of carbon monoxide decomposition in refractories  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the catalytic effects of selected iron phases (metals, oxides, sulfides, and carbides) on the Boudouard reaction studied in an effort to more fully understand the disintegration of refractories when exposed to CO for long periods of time. It was found that active Fe atoms generated from the reduction of the iron oxides, especially {alpha}-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, are the actual catalysts for the Boudouard reaction. The catalytic process confirmed by thermodynamic calculations, kinetic data, and X-ray diffraction data, consists of adsorption and decomposition of CO simultaneously forming carbides of iron. The chemisorption and subsequent decomposition of the iron carbides, rather than diffusion, constitute the rate-controlling process for carbon deposition.

Xu, M.W.P.; Brown, J.J. Jr. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors Wednesday, April 30, 2014 HTSC Figure 1 Fig. 1. Measured electronic structure of underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 in...

415

Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory...

416

The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Print It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons....

417

The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2008 00:00 It is now known that the iron present in minerals of the lower mantle of the Earth undergoes a pressure-induced transition with pairing of the spins of its 3d electrons....

418

Modernization of the iron making plant at SOLLAC FOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the blast furnaces at SOLLAC/FOS were relined, the objective being to ensure a worklife of 15 years, it was decided that the iron making plant would be modernized at the same time: the coking plant has been overhauled and renovated and its coking time increased to ensure a worklife of at least 34 years. The surface area of the sinter strand was increased from 400 to 520 m{sup 2}, the burden preparation circuit were simplified, and pig iron production capacity increased from 4.2 to 4.5 million metric tons per year. Coal injection was developed so as to obtain 170 kg/t of pig iron, an expert system was added to ensure more efficient blast furnace operation, and new measures have been carried out for environmental protection. Since these heavy investments have been completed, SOLLAC/FOS is a high-performance iron making plant, allowing it to face new challenges in the future.

Crayelynghe, M. van; Dufour, A.; Soland, J.; Feret, J.; Lebonvallet, J.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF IRON WITH COPPER BASE ALLOY POWDERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Symposium on Powder Metallurgy - The Iron and Steel Inst.a Liquid Phase", Powder Metallurgy, 17 (33), 227 (1974). H.Other made by powder metallurgy techniques. ses to produce

Chen, M.-H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

422

Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

Jun, Kimin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

424

Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

Leitnaker, James M. (Kingston, TN); Trowbridge, Lee D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The automotive industry is seeking to replace current car parts made of aluminum and iron castings with thin wall (down to 2 mm) iron castings to reduce the cost and weight of automobiles. The mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings are affected strongly by the thickness of the castings. The thinner castings cool at a faster rate, and microstructural features that form during solidification, and subsequently, transform in the solid state, are strongly dependent on a geometrical parameter related to the ratio of surface area-to-volume of the casting. As this ratio becomes larger, castings cool faster. As a result, the nodule count on the observation plane of the specimens increases dramatically (>2000 nodules/mm2 in most specimens), i.e. as the thickness of castings decreases. Also, the matrix of the thin walled ductile iron castings becomes more ferritic as the ratio of surface area-to-volume decreases.

Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P. (Intermet Corp., Lynchburg, VA)

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

J.Y. Hwang

2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

430

The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles for biological applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) of high crystallinity, high magnetization, and size-monodispersity were synthesized with oleic acid as their native ligands. These hydrophobic and non-functionalized MPs have magnetic ...

Insin, Numpon

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Iron limitation and the role of Siderophores in marine Synechococcus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marine cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus are widely distributed and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. In many parts of the ocean their growth is limited by a lack of iron, an essential nutrient ...

Rivers, Adam R. (Adam Reid)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Neutron scattering study of the iron based superconductors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In most iron-based and copper-oxide superconductors, the Tc [superconducting critical temperature] gradually increases upon charge carrier doping or isovalent doping. In the under-doped regime of… (more)

Wang, Miaoyin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Analysis of HMA permeability through microstructure characterization and simulation of fluid flow in X-ray CT images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that are not restricted by |Rec|?2. The validity of the numerical model is verified through comparisons with closed-form solutions for idealized microstructure. The numerical model was used to find the components of the three-dimensional (3-D) permeability tensor...

Al Omari, Aslam Ali Mufleh

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

435

Modelling of steady-state fluid flow in 3D fractured isotropic porous media: Application to effective permeability calculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial applications such as: underground radioactive waste repositories, natural oil/gas recovery, geological CO2 storage, geothermal energy, etc. However, determining effective permeability for fractured and geotechnical engineers. Effective continuum is a simple and efficient approach to study the macroscopic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot: implications for the heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot numerical study of the coupling between forced and free convective flows has been performed by considering: implications for the heat production of an Enhanced Geothermal System Arnaud Batailléa , Pierre Genthona

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

An experimental assessment of the saturated transverse permeability of Non-Crimped New Concept (NC2) multiaxial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prior to cure, and more specifically resin infusion across the fabric thickness in the so-called Resin Infusion Processes. Therefore, in these growingly used processes the transverse permeability of the fabrics these processes, Resin Infusion Processes (RFI, RIFT, LRI, ...) [2], [3], [4], [5] have been identified as cost

Boyer, Edmond

438

SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Methyl arsenic adsorption and desorption behavior on iron oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2004 Major Subject: Soil Science METHYL ARSENIC ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION BEHAVIOR ON IRON OXIDES A Thesis by BRANDON JAMES LAFFERTY Submitted to Texas A&M University...

Lafferty, Brandon James

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

Electrodeposition of binary iron-group alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of NiCo and CoFe have been galvanostatically electroplated onto a platinum rotating disk electrode from simple sulfate baths containing 0.5M of the more noble metal sulfate and 0.1M of the less noble metal sulfate. The experimental results are compared to those of previous studies of NiFe codeposition in order to study the anomalous codeposition behavior of the binary iron-group alloys. Comparison of the electrodeposition results indicates that codeposition of these binary alloys is not totally analogous. It was found that codeposition of NiCo and NiFe show more mass-transfer effects than does CoFe deposition within the range of current densities studied. A model of anomalous codeposition put forth previously for NiFe was applied to the electrodeposition of NiCo and CoFe to determine the extensibility of the model, which assumes metal mono hydroxides, MOH{sup +}, are the important charge-transfer species. This model was unable to characterize fully either NiCo or CoFe electrodeposition. However, with minor changes to the hydrolysis constants used in the model, the model predictions were found to agree with the data for CoFe codeposition and greatly, improve the fit for the NiCo results.

Sasaki, K.Y.; Talbot, J.B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Interplay between interband coupling and ferromagnetism in iron pnictide superconductor/ferromagnet/iron pnictide superconductor junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extended eight-component Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation is applied to study the Josephson effect between iron-based superconductors (SCs) with s{sub ±}-wave pairing symmetry, separated by an ferromagnet (FM). The feature of damped oscillations of critical Josephson current as a function of FM thickness, the split of the peaks induced by the interband coupling is much different from that for the junction with the s{sub ±}-wave SCs replaced by s{sub ++}-wave ones. In particular, a 0?? transition as a function of interband coupling strength ? is found to always exhibit with the corresponding dip shifting toward the larger ? due to enhancing the spin polarization in the FM, while there exits no 0?? transition for the SC with s{sub ++}-wave pairing symmetry. The two features can be used to identify the pairing symmetry in the iron pnictide SC different from the s{sub ++}-wave one in MgB{sub 2}. Experimentally, by adjusting the doping level in the s{sub ±}-wave SCs, one can vary ?.

Liu, S. Y.; Tao, Y. C., E-mail: yctao88@163.com [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Hu, J. G. [Department of Physics, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002 (China)

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

Exchange bias in Core-Shell Iron-Iron Oxide Nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exchange bias study has been performed on core-shell iron-iron oxide (Fe-Fe3O4) nanoclusters (NCs) of size 11 nm and 14 nm carrying a different core to shell ratio. NCs show complicated behaviors due to competition between interfacial exchange and Zeeman energy in the presence of magnetic field during cooling. These behaviors are accompanied by the evolution of size- dependent cluster structures in the ferromagnetic-core/ferri- or antiferro-magnetic-shell. Smaller clusters have larger coercive field, exchange bias field, and vertical magnetization shift due to the greater contribution from frozen spins of shell/interfaces. These smaller clusters thus also show more dramatic changes with the training effect. Both sizes of clusters display an additional anomaly of the upper part of the hysteresis loop at 10 K under low cooling field (0.1 kOe). This anomaly decreases with number of loop cycles with same field, and disappear with large cooling field (> 0.1 kOe). It may be caused by the competition between the magnetization reversal and the magnetostatic interactions.

Kaur, Maninder; McCloy, John S.; Qiang, You

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

446

The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography column permeability and changes of the eluent properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1 mm i.d. x30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d{sub p} {approx} 1.7 {micro}m, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C{sub 18}, named BEH-C{sub 18}) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of C in still air and C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144 {+-} 3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured {Delta}T = 25-30 K, ({Delta}{eta}/{eta}) {approx_equal} 100%, and ({Delta}{rho}/{rho}) {approx_equal} 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in UPLC is discussed.

Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Dynamics of iron-acceptor-pair formation in co-doped silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pairing dynamics of interstitial iron and dopants in silicon co-doped with phosphorous and several acceptor types are presented. The classical picture of iron-acceptor pairing dynamics is expanded to include the thermalization of iron between different dopants. The thermalization is quantitatively described using Boltzmann statistics and different iron-acceptor binding energies. The proper understanding of the pairing dynamics of iron in co-doped silicon will provide additional information on the electronic properties of iron-acceptor pairs and may become an analytical method to quantify and differentiate acceptors in co-doped silicon.

Bartel, T.; Gibaja, F.; Graf, O.; Gross, D.; Kaes, M.; Heuer, M.; Kirscht, F. [Calisolar GmbH, Magnusstrasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany)] [Calisolar GmbH, Magnusstrasse 11, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Möller, C. [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany) [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany); TU Ilmenau, Institut für Physik, Weimarer Str. 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Lauer, K. [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)] [CiS Forschungsinstitut für Mikrosensorik und Photovoltaik GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 14, 99099 Erfurt (Germany)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

449

Water injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 2: Control Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Part 1, we have demonstrated the inevitable growth of the fluid injection hydrofractures in low-permeability rocks. Thus, a smart controller that manages fluid injection in the presence of hydrofracture extension is highly desirable. Such a controller will be an essential part of automated waterflood project surveillance and control. Here we design an optimal injection controller using methods of optimal control theory. The controller inputs are the history of the injection pressure and the cumulative injection, along with the fracture size. The output parameter is the injection pressure and the control objective is the injection rate. We demonstrate that the optimal injection pressure depends not only on the instantaneous measurements, but it is determined by the whole history of the injection and of the fracture area growth. We show the controller robustness when the inputs are delayed and noisy and when the fracture undergoes abrupt extensions. Finally, we propose a procedure that allows estimation of the hydrofracture size at no additional cost.

Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Determination of hydraulic conductivities of low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation, Albuquerque basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low permeability materials in the Sierra Ladrones Formation were sampled and analyzed to determine their hydraulic conductivities using the falling head centrifugation method (fc) as described by Nimmo et al. (1991). The method is similar to the traditional falling head method, only it uses greatly increased centrifugal forces, allowing measurements to make in a relatively short amount of time. Using these measurements, variations in saturated hydraulic conductivities between different sediment types were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Sampling resulted in useable data chiefly from the clay and silt facies of the formation. The range of conductivities determined are representative of brown and red clays, and silts which make up the overbank deposits of this region. Hydraulic conductivities for these overbank fines were found to range from approximately log K = {minus}9 m/s to log K = {minus}7 m/s. The upper measurement limit of the centrifuge apparatus was determined to be approximately 1.43 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} m/s and the lower limit was approximately 7.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} m/s.

Planert, C.S.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Potentials in the Iron and steel Industry in China. Reportfor the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guidebusiness/industry/Iron_Steel_Guide.pdf Worrell, E. Ramesohl,

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23 5. Comparison of Energy Intensity of Iron and Steelthe U.S. . 27 5.1. Energy Intensity of Iron and27 5.2. Energy Intensity of Iron and Steel Production in

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

Response of zinc, iron and copper status parameters to supplementation with zinc or zinc and iron in women  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supplementation with zinc at levels available over-the-counter may compromise iron or copper status. This study examined the effects of zinc(50mg/day) or zinc and iron(50 mg each/day) on 18 women aged 25-40. Subjects were matched on initial levels of serum ferritin(SF) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase(ESOD) and randomly assigned to Group Z (zinc) or F-Z (iron and zinc). The following were measured pretreatment and after 6 and 10 weeks treatment: serum zinc (BZ), salivary sediment zinc (SSZ), hemoglobin (Hgb), hematocrit (Hct), SF, serum ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ESOD. Effects of treatment and weeks of treatment on changes from initial blood and saliva levels were analyzed using AOV. BZ increased (P=0.0144) and ESOD decreased (P=0.0001) with weeks of treatment. Differences due to treatment are presented. No effects were noted on Hgb, Hct or Cp. Intakes of zinc supplements at about 4X RDA appear to decrease copper(ESOD) and iron(SF) status. Use of iron w/zinc may be protective for FE but not Cu, and may compromise zinc (SSZ) status.

Yadrick, K.; Kenney, M.A.; Winterfeldt, E.

1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fissile sample worths in the Uranium/Iron Benchmark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the long-standing problems from LMFBR critical experiments is the central worth discrepancy, the consistent overprediction of the reactivity associated with introducing a small material sample near the center of an assembly. Reactivity (sample worth) experiments in ZPR-9, assembly 34, the Uranium/Iron Benchmark (U/Fe), were aimed at investigating this discrepancy. U/Fe had a large, single-region core whose neutronics was governed almost entirely by /sup 235/U and iron. The essentially one-dimensional plate unit cell had one 1.6 mm-wide column of 93% enriched uranium (U(93)) near the center, imbedded in about 50 mm of iron and stainless steel. The neutron spectrum was roughly comparable to that of an LMFBR, but the adjoint spectrum was much flatter than an LMFBR's. The worths of four different fissile materials were measured and the worth of U(93) was measured using several different experimental techniques.

Schaefer, R.W.; Bucher, R.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

XMM-Newton Observations of AGN Iron Line Profiles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

XMM-Newton observations of type I AGN are presented. The properties of the iron K emission line are reviewed, the majority of AGN observed by XMM-Newton show narrow, unresolved (by XMM) iron lines at 6.4 keV from cold matter that must originate far from the inner accretion disc, perhaps in the putative torus or outer broad line region. The strength of this narrow line appears to decrease with luminosity, implying a reduction in the covering fraction of this material in the more luminous quasars. Few examples of the broad, relativistic iron line profile have been found by XMM-Newton, although in MCG -6-30-15, the extreme breadth of the broad line component may imply a Kerr metric for the central black hole. Generally, relativistic Fe K line profiles are not required in a number of other Seyfert 1 X-ray spectra.

James Reeves

2002-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

458

The Influence of Temperature on the Sorption and Permeability of CO2 in poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the transport and sorption properties of poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazene) (PFAP) membranes for carbon dioxide and nitrogen in both pure and mixed gas experiments. The CO2 permeability decreased from 336 to 142 Barrers with an increase in the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor from 12 to 21 as the membrane temperature was decreased from 303 K to 258 K at feed pressure of 2.9 bars. At lower feed pressure (1.5 bars) the CO2 permeability decreased from 327 to 140 Barrers, while the CO2/N2 ideal separation factor increased from 13 to 22 over the same temperature range. CO2 sorption isotherms were measured using the pressure decay equilibrium method. Solubility of CO2 was determined using the sorption isotherms and the diffusion coefficients were calculated from CO2 permeabilities and solubilities. Sorption isotherms were linear at each temperature for the pressure range studied and the enthalpy of sorption was -5.8 kcal/mol. The solubility coefficient values for CO2 increased from 0.95 to 5.43 cm3 CO2(STP)/cm3 polymer.atm whereas the diffusion coefficient decreased from 2.71 X 10-6 to 0.19 X 10-6 cm2/sec as the temperature decreased from 303 K to 258 K.

Mayur Ostwal; JOshua M. Lau; Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart; J. Douglas Way

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work compares the performance of two alternative flow models for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic coupled processes in low permeable porous media: non-isothermal Richards and two-phase flow concepts. Both models take vaporization processes into account: however, the Richards model neglects dynamic pressure variations and bulk flow of the gaseous phase. For the comparison of the two approaches first published data from a laboratory experiment is studied involving thermally driven moisture flow in a partially saturated bentonite sample. Then a benchmark test of longer-term thermal-hydraulic behavior in the engineered barrier system of a geological nuclear waste repository is analyzed (DECOVALEX project). It was found that both models can be used to reproduce the vaporization process if the intrinsic permeability is relative high. However, when a thermal-hydraulic coupled problem has the same low intrinsic permeability for both the liquid and the gas phase, only the two-phase flow approach provides reasonable results.

Wang, W.; Rutqvist, J.; Gorke, U.-J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kolditz, O.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.

Kelkar, Sharad [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Consolidation, permeability, and strength of crushed salt/bentonite mixtures with application to the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three tests were performed to measure the consolidation, permeability, and compressive strength of specimens prepared from bentonite/crushed salt mixtures. Each mixture comprised 30% bentonite and 70% crushed salt based on total dry weight. Brine was added to each mixture to adjust its water content to either 5 or 10% (nominal) of the total dry weight of the mixture. In the consolidation tests, each specimen was subjected to multiple stages of successively higher hydrostatic stress (pressure). During each stage, the pressure was maintained at a constant level and volumetric strain data were continuously logged. By using multiple stages, consolidation data were obtained at several pressures and the time required to consolidate the specimens to full saturation was reduced. Once full saturation was achieved, each specimen was subjected to a final test stage in which the hydrostatic stress was reduced and a permeability test performed. Permeability was measured using the steady flow of brine and was found to range between 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} m{sup 2}. After the final test stage, unconfined compressive strength was determined for each specimen and was found to range between 0.5 and 8.1 MPa. Two constitutive models were fitted to the consolidation data. One relatively simple model related volumetric strain to time while the other related instantaneous density to time, pressure, and initial density. 8 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

Pfeifle, T.W. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Iron-Containing Minerals and Catalysts in Circumneutral pH Solutions: Implications for ex situ and in situ Treatment of Contaminated Water and Soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

iron and oxygen. Environmental Science & Technology 2008,iron and oxygen. Environmental Science & Technology 2008,

Pham, Anh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900–1973  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

poorly endowed as Japan in coking coal and iron ore (WarrenYawata of iron ore for coking coal and the progressive in-

Bernard Elbaum

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensityof Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensitycomparisons of steel production energy efficiency and CO 2

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

E-Print Network 3.0 - as-cast iron-aluminide alloys Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fe3Al alloys. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nickel and Iron... . A., and Liu, C. T. 1989. Effect of chromium on properties of iron ... Source: DuPont, John N. -...

466

Sedimentary and mineral dust sources of dissolved iron to the world ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the tropi- cal Pacific Ocean II. Iron biogeochemistry,in the Northeast Pacific Ocean Gyre: Aerosols, iron, and theF. M. M. : The equatorial Pacific Ocean: Grazer-controlled

Moore, J. K; Braucher, O.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Interactions of Fe(II) with the iron oxidizing bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial anaerobic iron oxidation has long been of interest to biologists and geologists, both as a possible mechanism for the creation of banded iron formations before the rise of oxygen, and as a model system for organisms ...

Bird, Lina J. (Lina Joana)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility...

469

Characterization of temperature profile in furnace and solubility of iron in silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A better understanding of the behavior of impurities, such as iron, in silicon can lead to increases in solar cell efficiency. The purpose of this thesis was to study the behavior of iron in silicon via three sub-tasks: ...

Modi, Vrajesh Y

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Mineralogical and Microbial Controls on Iron Reduction in a Contaminated Aquifer-Wetland System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and lepidocrocite); moderately reducible iron (such as goethite, akageneite, and hematite); organically bound iron; magnetite; and pyrite. The second phase of this research involved creating in situ microcosm experiments that exposed native microbial communities...

Howson, Andrea Melissa

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

471

A Radar-like Iron based Nanohybrid as an Efficient and Stable...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radar-like Iron based Nanohybrid as an Efficient and Stable Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction. A Radar-like Iron based Nanohybrid as an Efficient and Stable Electrocatalyst for...

472

V-021: Cisco IronPort Web / Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1: Cisco IronPort Web Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti-Virus Multiple Vulnerabilities V-021: Cisco IronPort Web Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti-Virus Multiple...

473

The shielding effect of wild type iron reducing bacterial flora on the corrosion of linepipe steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The shielding effect of wild type iron reducing bacterial flora on the corrosion of linepipe steel (iron reducing bacteria (IRB)) on API 5L Ã?52 carbon steel coupons was investigated. A wild type of IRB

474

Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption to Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium subsurface mobility is primarily controlled by its oxidation state, which in turn is loosely coupled to the oxidation state of iron in the system. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of sediment iron mineral composition and oxidation state on plutonium sorption and oxidation state. A pH 6.3 vadose zone sediment containing iron oxides and iron-containing phyllosilicates was treated with various complexants (ammonium oxalate) and reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate) to selectively leach and/or reduce iron oxide and phyllosilicate phases. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to identify initial iron mineral composition of the sediment and monitor dissolution and reduction of iron oxides. Sorption of Pu(V) was monitored over one week for each of six treated sediment fractions. Plutonium oxidation state speciation in the aqueous and solid phases was monitored using solvent extraction, coprecipitation, and XANES. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that the sediment contained 25-30% hematite, 60-65% Al-goethite, and <10%Fe(III) in phyllosilicate; there was no detectable Fe(II). Upon reduction with a strong chemical reductant (dithionite-citrate buffer, DCB), much of the hematite and goethite disappeared and the Fe in the phyllosilicate reduced to Fe(II). The rate of sorption was found to correlate with the 1 fraction of Fe(II) remaining within each treated sediment phase. Pu(V) was the only oxidation state measured in the aqueous phase, irrespective of treatment, whereas Pu(IV) and much smaller amounts of Pu(V) and Pu(VI) were measured in the solid phase. Surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV) occurred in treated and untreated sediment samples; Pu(V) remained on untreated sediment surface for two days before reducing to Pu(IV). Similar to the sorption kinetics, the reduction rate was correlated with sediment Fe(II) concentration. The correlation between Fe(II) concentrations and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing iron mineralogy on plutonium subsurface transport through redox transition areas. These findings should influence the conceptual models of long-term stewardship of Pu contaminated sites that have fluctuating redox conditions, such as vadose zones or riparian zones.

Hixon, Amy E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Nitsche, Heino; Qafoku, Odeta; Powell, Brian A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Geologic evolution of Iron Mountain, central Mojave Desert, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

' quadrangle, mapped Iron Mountain [Dibblee, 1967] at a scale of 1:62,500, and presented the first description of many of the rock types at Iron Mountain. Detailed geologic mapping at 1:12,000 of the entire range, undertaken by S.S. Boettcher in the Fall... by coarsely crystalline dolomitic marble that is massive to finely laminated. A distinct, micaceous quartzite unit, up to 50 m thick, forms aprominent marker. It contains abundant, closely spaced, dark laminations ofbiotite, magnetite and other heavy...

Boettcher, Stefan S.; Walker, J. Douglas

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Iron-phosphorus relationships in Fe chlorisis of sorghum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IRON-PHOSPHORUS RELATIONSHIPS IN FE CHLOROSIS OF SORGHUM A Thesis by DENNIS A. MORALES-VARGAS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASl'ER OF SCIENCE December... 1979 Major Subject: Soil Science IRON-PHOSPHORUS RELATIONSHIPS IN FE CHLOROSI OF SORGHUM A Thesis by DENNIS A. MORALES-VARGAS Approved as to style and content by: \\ J(c'w"H~. v& 4 Cc ~. r&'4 wc' c "&"~ / ~Chairman of Committee ! ~Co-' hai...

Morales-Vargas, Dennis A

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for andFuel-Efficient Engines |Iron is the Key toIron is

478

The Iron Spin Transition in the Earth's Lower Mantle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2DifferentTheInforum LIFTThe Iron SpinThe Iron

479

Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctober 5,OctoberdeepIronIron

480

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctoberOxide WasteIron andIron

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "zero-valent iron permeable" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctoberOxide WasteIronIron is

482

Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponsesIon/Surface Reactions andOctoberOxide WasteIronIron

483

Laboratory tests, statistical analysis and correlations for regained permeability and breakthrough time in unconsolidated sands for improved drill-in fluid cleanup practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Empirical models for estimating the breakthrough time and regained permeability for selected nondamaging drill-in fluids (DIF's) give a clear indication of formation damage and proper cleanup treatments for reservoir conditions analyzed...

Serrano, Gerardo Enrique

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

The Frisco City sandstone, North Frisco City (Paramount) field, Monroe County, Alabama: a case study of net pay and permeability anisotrophy evaluation related to geology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. S. , Anton de Kom University of Suriname Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas B lasingame Dr. Jerry Jensen Net pay and permeability anisotropy are important parameters when making hydrocarbon reserves estimates. This research focused...

Menke, Janice Yvonne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

485

High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

K. Coulter

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

486

CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expanded details and additional results are presented on two methods for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from scattered seismic wavefield signals. In the first, fracture density is estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the integrated amplitudes of the scattered waves as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Spectral peaks correctly identified the 50m, 35m, and 25m fracture spacings from numerical model data using a 40Hz source wavelet. The second method, referred to as the Transfer Function-Scattering Index Method, is based upon observations from 3D finite difference modeling that regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda-type signature to any seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This coda energy is greatest when the acquisition direction is parallel to the fractures, the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function, which quantifies the change in an apparent source wavelet propagating through a fractured interval. The transfer function for an interval with low scattering will be more spike-like and temporally compact. The transfer function for an interval with high scattering will ring and be less temporally compact. A Scattering Index is developed based on a time lag weighting of the transfer function. When a 3D survey is acquired with a full range of azimuths, the Scattering Index allows the identification of subsurface areas with high fracturing and the orientation (or strike) of those fractures. The method was calibrated with model data and then applied to field data from a fractured reservoir giving results that agree with known field measurements. As an aid to understanding the scattered wavefield seen in finite difference models, a series of simple point scatterers was used to create synthetic seismic shot records collected over regular, discrete, vertical fracture systems. The model contains a series of point scatterers delineating the top tip and bottom tip of each vertical fracture. When the shot record is located in the middle of the fractured zone and oriented normal to the direction of fracturing, a complicated series of beating is observed in the back scattered energy. When the shot record is oriented parallel to the fracturing, ringing wavetrains are observed with moveouts similar to reflections from many horizontal layers. These results are consistent with the full 3D elastic modeling results. An AVOA analysis method was refined and applied to a field data set. An iterative, nonlinear least squares inversion that uses the Gauss-Newton method and analyzes the full range of azimuths simultaneously was employed. Resulting fracture location and strike orientation estimates are consistent with other fracture information from the area. Two modeling approaches for estimating permeability values from seismically derived fracture parameters have been investigated. The first is a statistical method that calculates the permeability tensor for a given distribution of fractures. A possible workflow using this method was tested on fracture distributions obtained from the Transfer Function-Scattering Index analysis method. Fracture aperture and length estimates are needed for this method. The second method is a direct flow model of discrete fractures and fracture networks using a computational fluid dynamics code. This tool provides a means of visualizing flow in fracture networks and comparing expressions for equivalent fracture aperture flow to the actual flow. A series of two dimensional models of fractures and fracture networks, as well as a 3-D model of a single rough fracture, were tested.

Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

2004-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

487

Natural and Induced Fracture Diagnostics from 4-D VSP Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tight gas sand reservoirs generally contain thick gas-charged intervals that often have low porosity and very low permeability. Natural and induced fractures provide the only means of production. The objective of this work is to locate and characterize natural and induced fractures from analysis of scattered waves recorded on 4-D (time lapse) VSP data in order to optimize well placement and well spacing in these gas reservoirs. Using model data simulating the scattering of seismic energy from hydraulic fractures, we first show that it is possible to characterize the quality of fracturing based upon the amount of scattering. In addition, the picked arrival times of recorded microseismic events provide the velocity moveout for isolating the scattered energy on the 4-D VSP data. This concept is applied to a field dataset from the Jonah Field in Wyoming to characterize the quality of the induced hydraulic fractures. The time lapse (4D) VSP data from this field are imaged using a migration algorithm that utilizes shot travel time tables derived from the first breaks of the 3D VSPs and receiver travel time tables based on the microseismic arrival times and a regional velocity model. Four azimuthally varying shot tables are derived from picks of the first breaks of over 200 VSP records. We create images of the fracture planes through two of the hydraulically fractured wells in the field. The scattered energy shows correlation with the locations of the microseismic events. In addition, the azimuthal scattering is different from the azimuthal reflectivity of the reservoir, giving us more confidence that we have separated the scattered signal from simple formation reflectivity. Variation of the scattered energy along the image planes suggests variability in the quality of the fractures in three distinct zones.

Mark E. Willis; Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

488

Chromium modified nickel-iron aluminide useful in sulfur bearing environments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved nickel-iron aluminide containing chromium and molybdenum additions to improve resistance to sulfur attack.

Cathcart, John V. (Knoxville, TN); Liu, Chain T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

489

Consequence of total lepton number violation in strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of a neutrinoless electron to positron conversion on a cooling of strongly magnetized iron white dwarfs is studied.

Belyaev, V. B. [Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ricci, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Šimkovic, F. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F1, SK-842 15, Bratislava, Slovakia and Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Adam, J. Jr.; Tater, M.; Truhlík, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics ASCR, CZ-250 68 ?ež (Czech Republic)

2013-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

490

Development and analytical validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the assessment of gastrointestinal permeability and intestinal absorptive capacity in dogs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the characterization and localization of the mucosal lesions.3 Additionally, an important set of biological markers has been validated for the monitoring of IBD activity.4,5 However, these diagnostic techniques do not provide functional information about...-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cytotoxic drugs have been shown to increase gastrointestinal permeability.64,65 Also, GI permeability tests may also be used to monitor response to therapy. Several studies in humans and dogs have reported the normalization...

Rodriguez Frausto, Heriberto

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

491

Iron Based Superconductors Jeffrey W. Lynn, NIST Center for Neutron Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Iron Based Superconductors Jeffrey W. Lynn, NIST Center for Neutron Research The phenomenon energy without dissipation. Superconductors have other unique properties such as the ability to expel of superconductors based on iron. These iron-based superconductors have initiated a flurry of activity as researchers

Lynn, Jeffrey W.

492

The Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Continental Margin is a Key Source of Iron to the HNLC North Pacific Ocean Phoebe J. Lam1 concentrations in the upper 500m of the Western Subarctic Pacific, an iron-limited High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll a key source of bioavailable Fe to the HNLC North Pacific. Keywords: iron, continental margin, HNLC 1

493

Phase diagram of iron, revised-core temperatures Thomas J. Ahrens, Kathleen G. Holland,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In agreement with Brown [2001] the discrepancy between the diamond cell melting data and the iron shock and Ahrens [1998b]. [6] We used polycrystalline iron (99%) targets in the shape of two cylinders that for the VISAR shots, the iron sample is covered with a 0.5 mm thick shim of polycrystalline Mo. [10] For g

Stewart, Sarah T.

494

Highpressure behavior of iron carbide (Fe7C3) at inner core conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highpressure behavior of iron carbide (Fe7C3) at inner core conditions Mainak Mookherjee,1 Yoichi at high pressures have demonstrated that Fe7C3 iron carbide is a likely candidate for the Earth's inner behavior of iron carbide (Fe7C3) at inner core conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B04201, doi:10

Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

495

Factors Affecting the Reactvity of Granular Iron in contact with Chlorinated Solvents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in column experiments: Connelly Iron (GI)(~3% C) and Electrolytic Iron (EI) (¡Ü 0.01% C). Kinetic data suggested a shift in rate constant (k) and sorption parameters for both iron types with time. This work demonstrated the implication of carbon during...

Firdous, Rubina

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

496

Author's personal copy Hematite and iron carbonate precipitation-coexistence at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide The hydrothermal reactivity of swelling clays has relevant implications on the geological that the carbon dioxide increased the hydrothermal reactivity of montmorillonite because the hematite and ironAuthor's personal copy Hematite and iron carbonate precipitation-coexistence at the iron

Montes-Hernandez, German

497

Numerical analysis of a model for Nickel-Iron alloy electrodeposition on rotating disk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical analysis of a model for Nickel-Iron alloy electrodeposition on rotating disk electrode N the nickel-iron electrodeposition process, we have developed one-dimensional numerical model. This model ad can predict characteristic features of the nickel-iron sys- tem. this work was supported

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

498