Sample records for zero-valent iron permeable

  1. Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical...

  2. Mineral Precipitation Upgradient from a Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. L.; Thoms, R. B.; Johnson, R. O.; Nurmi, J. T.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core samples taken from a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant, Nebraska, were analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics. Precipitates containing iron and sulfide were present at much higher concentrations in native aquifer materials just upgradient of the PRB than in the PRB itself. Sulfur mass balance on core solids coupled with trends in ground water sulfate concentrations indicates that the average ground water flow after 20 months of PRB operation was approximately twenty fold less than the regional ground water velocity. Transport and reaction modeling of the aquifer PRB interface suggests that, at the calculated velocity, both iron and hydrogen could diffuse upgradient against ground water flow and thereby contribute to precipitation in the native aquifer materials. The initial hydraulic conductivity (K) of the native materials is less than that of the PRB and, given the observed precipitation in the upgradient native materials, it is likely that K reduction occurred upgradient to rather than within the PRB. Although not directly implicated, guar gum used during installation of the PRB is believed to have played a role in the precipitation and flow reduction processes by enhancing microbial activity.

  3. Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barriers: A Review of Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, NE

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly reviews issues regarding the implementation of the zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology at sites managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Initially, the PRB technology, using zero-valent iron for the reactive media, was received with great enthusiasm, and DOE invested millions of dollars testing and implementing PRBs. Recently, a negative perception of the technology has been building. This perception is based on the failure of some deployments to satisfy goals for treatment and operating expenses. The purpose of this report, therefore, is to suggest reasons for the problems that have been encountered and to recommend whether DOE should invest in additional research and deployments. The principal conclusion of this review is that the most significant problems have been the result of insufficient characterization, which resulted in poor engineering implementation. Although there are legitimate concerns regarding the longevity of the reactive media, the ability of zero-valent iron to reduce certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and to immobilize certain metals and radionuclides is well documented. The primary problem encountered at some DOE full-scale deployments has been an inadequate assessment of site hydrology, which resulted in misapplication of the technology. The result is PRBs with higher than expected flow velocities and/or incomplete plume capture. A review of the literature reveals that cautions regarding subsurface heterogeneity were published several years prior to the full-scale implementations. Nevertheless, design and construction have typically been undertaken as if the subsurface was homogeneous. More recently published literature has demonstrated that hydraulic heterogeneity can cause so much uncertainty in performance that use of a passive PRB is precluded. Thus, the primary conclusion of this review is that more attention must be given to site-specific issues. Indeed, the use of a passive PRB requires an unusually comprehensive hydrologic characterization so that the design can be based on a thorough understanding of subsurface heterogeneity rather than on average values for hydraulic parameters. Scientists and engineers are capable of conducting the level of investigation required. However, design costs will increase, and the pre-design field work may demonstrate that a passive PRB is not suitable for a particular site. In such cases, an option to consider is hydraulic augmentation, such as pumping (in which the system is no longer passive) or gravity flow from drains. In these circumstances, operation of the treatment media is under known hydraulic conditions. These systems typically contain the treatment media in a vault or in drums. Most of the media problems in such systems have been related to the exclusion of air and can be addressed by better engineering design or by frequent maintenance. Finally, a number of outstanding issues require resolution for further application of this technology. Of particular interest to DOE is resolving the removal mechanisms for uranium and technetium. Few data are available for the latter, and for the former, the technical literature is contradictory. Determining the mechanisms has long-term cost implications; engineers must consider whether it is appropriate to remove or simply abandon a barrier that is no longer functioning. Other issues that are unresolved include determining how hydraulic performance is affected by the emplacement method and quantifying the effects of varying groundwater types on barrier longevity.

  4. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  5. Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and M Oostrom.2011."Demonstration of Combined Zero-Valent Iron and Electrical Resistance Heating for In Situ Trichloroethene Remediation."Environmental Science & Technology...

  6. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  7. Assessing Arsenic Removal By Zero-Valent Iron Under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    6 8 10 12 14 ­.5 0 .5 1 pH Eh(volts) SO4 -- HS - H2S(aq) HSO4 - 20°C Dell Fri Feb 08 2008 DiagramSO4Assessing Arsenic Removal By Zero-Valent Iron Under Various Water Quality Conditions Paul Pepler and operate. #12;7 Best Available Technologies for As Removal (USEPA 2003) Ion exchange Activated alumina

  8. Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhaohui

    Chromate transport through columns packed with surfactant-modified zeolite/zero valent iron pellets Chromate transport through columns packed with zeolite/zero valent iron (Z/ZVI) pellets, either untreated originated from chromate sorption onto the HDTMA modified Z/ZVI pellets. Due to dual porosity, the presence

  9. Bench Scale Application of the Hybridized Zero Valent Iron Process for the Removal of Dissolved Silica From Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morar, Nilesh Mohan

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    is effective. A more robust and cost-effective dissolved silica removal technique is desirable. The hybridized zero-valent iron (hZVI) process, now commercially available as Pironox™, uses zero-valent iron (Fe^0 ) as its main reactive media developed to remove...

  10. Modelling the remediation of contaminated groundwater using zero-valent iron barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Hinton House, Risley, Warrington, WA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of modelling studies on remediation of groundwater contaminated with uranium using a zero-valent iron permeable reactive barrier (ZVI PRB) at the U.S. Oak Ridge Y-12 site that are used to establish modelling techniques that are of value to other sites such as in the UK. A systematic modelling methodology has been developed to study the problem by using a suite of modelling tools. Firstly a conceptual basis of the main chemical processes representing the remediation of uranium by the ZVI PRB is developed. Two main effects involving reduction and corrosion have been identified as being relevant for the remediation processes. These are then formulated and implemented using the reactive chemical model PHREEQC to provide underpinning chemical input parameters for subsequent reactive solute transport modelling using the TRAFFIC and PHAST codes. Initial results shows that modelling can be a very cost-effective means to study the hydrogeological and geochemical processes involved and to aid understanding of the remediation concept. The modelling approaches presented and lessons learnt are thought to be relevant to other cases of contaminated land study and are likely to be of value to site management concepts which consider on-site disposal of contaminated soils and materials. (authors)

  11. Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present during Synthesis on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron nanoparticles was quantified by monitoring the kinetics as well as products of carbon tetrachloride reduction, and significant differences in reactivity and chloroform...

  12. Degradation of organic and inorganic contaminants by zero valent iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malla, Deepak Babu

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in combination. All three target contaminants were effectively reduced by both iron (Feo) and palladized iron (Pd/Fe'). However, the rate of reduction by Pd/Fe' was found to be much faster than that by Feo. The reduction of all the contaminants in mixed waste...

  13. Impact of sample preparation on mineralogical analysis of zero-valent iron reactive barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Debra Helen [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Roh, Yul [ORNL

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) of zero-valent iron (Fe{sup 0}) are increasingly being used to remediate contaminated ground water. Corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings and the formation of precipitates can occur when the PRB material comes in contact with ground water and may reduce the lifespan and effectiveness of the barrier. At present, there are no routine procedures for preparing and analyzing the mineral precipitates from Fe{sup 0} PRB material. These procedures are needed because mineralogical composition of corrosion products used to interpret the barrier processes can change with iron oxidation and sample preparation. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate a method of preparing Fe{sup 0} reactive barrier material for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and (ii) to identify Fe mineral phases and rates of transformations induced by different mineralogical preparation techniques. Materials from an in situ Fe{sup 0} PRB were collected by undisturbed coring and processed for XRD analysis after different times since sampling for three size fractions and by various drying treatments. We found that whole-sample preparation for analysis was necessary because mineral precipitates occurred within the PRB material in different size fractions of the samples. Green rusts quickly disappeared from acetone-dried samples and were not present in air-dried and oven-dried samples. Maghemite/magnetite content increased over time and in oven-dried samples, especially after heating to 105 C. We conclude that care must be taken during sample preparation of Fe{sup 0} PRB material, especially for detection of green rusts, to ensure accurate identification of minerals present within the barrier system.

  14. Sulfur-Modified Zero-Valent Iron for Remediation Applications at DOE Sites - 13600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogwell, Thomas W. [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States)] [Fogwell Consulting, P.O. Box 20221, Piedmont, CA 94620 (United States); Santina, Pete [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)] [SMI-PS, Inc., 2073 Prado Vista, Lincoln, CA 95648 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many DOE remediation sites have chemicals of concern that are compounds in higher oxidation states, which make them both more mobile and more toxic. The chemical reduction of these compounds both prevents the migration of these chemicals and in some cases reduces the toxicity. It has also been shown that zero-valent iron is a very effective substance to use in reducing oxygenated compounds in various treatment processes. These have included the treatment of halogenated hydrocarbons in the form volatile organic compounds used as solvents and pesticides. Zero-valent iron has also been used to reduce various oxidized metals such as chromium, arsenic, and mercury in order to immobilize them, decrease their toxicity, and prevent further transport. In addition, it has been used to immobilize or break down other non-metallic species such as selenium compounds and nitrates. Of particular interest at several DOE remediation sites is the fact that zero-valent iron is very effective in immobilizing several radioactive metals which are mobile in their oxidized states. These include both technetium and uranium. The main difficulty in using zero-valent iron has been its tendency to become inactive after relatively short periods of time. While it is advantageous to have the zero-valent iron particles as porous as possible in order to provide maximum surface area for reactions to take place, these pores can become clogged when the iron is oxidized. This is due to the fact that ferric oxide has a greater volume for a given mass than metallic iron. When the surfaces of the iron particles oxidize to ferric oxide, the pores become narrower and will eventually shut. In order to minimize the degradation of the chemical activity of the iron due to this process, a modification of zero-valent iron has been developed which prevents or slows this process, which decreases its effectiveness. It is called sulfur-modified iron, and it has been produced in high purity for applications in municipal water treatment applications. Sulfur-modified iron has been found to not only be an extremely economical treatment technology for municipal water supplies, where very large quantities of water must be treated economically, but it has also been demonstrated to immobilize technetium. It has the added benefit of eliminating several other harmful chemicals in water supplies. These include arsenic and selenium. In one large-scale evaluation study an integrated system implemented chemical reduction of nitrate with sulfur-modified iron followed by filtration for arsenic removal. The sulfur-modified iron that was used was an iron-based granular medium that has been commercially developed for the removal of nitrate, co-contaminants including uranium, vanadium and chromium, and other compounds from water. The independent study concluded that 'It is foreseen that the greatest benefit of this technology (sulfur-modified iron) is that it does not produce a costly brine stream as do the currently accepted nitrate removal technologies of ion exchange and reverse osmosis. This investigation confirmed that nitrate reduction via sulfur-modified iron is independent of the hydraulic loading rate. Future sulfur-modified iron treatment systems can be designed without restriction of the reactor vessel dimensions. Future vessels can be adapted to existing site constraints without being limited to height-to-width ratios that would exist if nitrate reduction were to depend on hydraulic loading rate'. Sulfur-modified iron was studied by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for its effectiveness in the reduction and permanent sequestration of technetium. The testing was done using Hanford Site groundwater together with sediment. The report stated, 'Under reducing conditions, TcO{sub 4} is readily reduced to TcIV, which forms highly insoluble oxides such at TcO{sub 2}.nH{sub 2}O. However, (re)oxidation of TcIV oxides can lead to remobilization. Under sulfidogenic conditions, most TcIV will be reduced and immobilized as Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7}, which is less readily re-mobilized, ev

  15. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  16. Degradation of carbon tetrachloride in the presence of zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, J. S.; Rose, C.; LaFreniere, L.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to achieve the decomposition of carbon tetrachloride through anaerobic and aerobic bioremediation and chemical transformation have met with limited success because of the conditions required and the formation of hazardous intermediates. Recently, particles of zero-valent iron (ZVI) have been used with limited success for in situ remediation of carbon tetrachloride. We studied a modified microparticulate product that combines controlled-release carbon with ZVI for stimulation of in situ chemical reduction of persistent organic compounds in groundwater. With this product, a number of physical, chemical, and microbiological processes were combined to create very strongly reducing conditions that stimulate rapid, complete dechlorination of organic solvents. In principle, the organic component of ZVI microparticles is nutrient rich and hydrophilic and has high surface area capable of supporting the growth of bacteria in the groundwater environment. In our experiments, we found that as the bacteria grew, oxygen was consumed, and the redox potential decreased to values reaching -600 mV. The small modified ZVI particles provide substantial reactive surface area that, in these conditions, directly stimulates chemical dechlorination and cleanup of the contaminated area without accumulation of undesirable breakdown products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of ZVI microparticles in reducing carbon tetrachloride under laboratory and field conditions. Changes in concentrations and in chemical and physical parameters were monitored to determine the role of the organic products in the reductive dechlorination reaction. Laboratory and field studies are presented.

  17. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuxin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    permeable reactive barrier (PRB) integrity using electricalpermeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an in-situ technologyextracted from an active PRB (Wu et al. , 2006), show that

  18. Deployment of an innovative thermally enhanced soil mixing process augmented with zero-valent iron.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, P. L.

    1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative in-situ soil treatment process, referred to as soil mixing/thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction (SM/TESVE), was used to remediate the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory-East (i.e., Argonne), which is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Following the initial soil treatment, polishing was required to reduce residual concentrations of contaminants. A study of polishing methods was conducted. It determined that injecting metallic iron particles into the soil, in conjunction with soil mixing, would reduce residual VOC concentrations more effectively than the original conventional soil ventilation approach. After the effectiveness of iron injection was verified, it replaced the soil ventilation step. The modified process involved mixing the soil while hot air and steam were injected into it. Off-gases were captured in a hood over the treatment area. During this process, an iron slurry, consisting of up to 50% iron particles in water with guar gum added as a thickening agent, was injected and mixed into the soil by the mixing equipment. Approximately 6,246 m{sup 3} (8, 170 yd{sup 3}) of soil was treated during this project. Confirmatory samples were then collected. In these samples, VOC concentrations were usually reduced by more than 80%.

  19. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuxin Wu; Roelof Versteeg; Lee Slater; Doug Labrecque

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcium carbonate is a major secondary mineral precipitate that influences PRB reactivity and hydraulic performance. In this study, we conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO3 and iron oxides precipitation in two simulated PRB media. Solid phase analysis identified CaCO3 (calcite and aragonite) as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite being another major phase present close to the influent. Electrical measurements revealed a consistent decrease in conductivity and polarization magnitude of both columns, suggesting that the electrically insulating CaCO3 dominates the electrical response despite the presence of both electrically conductive iron oxides and CaCO3 precipitates. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical properties result from the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. The CaCO3 forms an insulating film on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, which we assume restricts redox-driven transfer of electric charge between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss.

  20. Bench Scale Application of the Hybridized Zero Valent Iron Process for the Removal of Dissolved Silica From Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morar, Nilesh Mohan

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    heavy metals/metalloids, reactive oxyanions, and impurities from water/wastewater. The distinctive feature of this novel chemical treatment platform is the controlled formation of magnetite as the main iron corrosion product in the presence of aqueous Fe...

  1. Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

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  2. Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jory A. Yarmoff; Christopher Amrhein

    2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  3. Electrochemical deposition of green rust on zero-valent iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Dhananjay Vijay

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................. 22 3 Analysis of green rust for content of Fe(II) and Fe(III) after extraction by 0.12 N HCl or Endox ................................................................................................................ 25 4... immersed in seawater and on the hulls of large ships (3). Green rusts are compounds with double-layers of mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides surrounding a layer of anions (A -n ). This structure can be represented by the general formula (Fe II ) 6-x (Fe...

  4. Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chun Woo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    effective technologies, especially chemical treatments, to completely destroy trace levels of perchlorate present in drinking and groundwater. The research on perchlorate reduction by zero-valent titanium (Ti(0)) showed that perchlorate was effectively...

  5. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  6. EPA/ITRC-RTDF permeable reactive barrier short course. Permeable reactive barriers: Application and deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the following: Permeable Reactive Barriers: Application and Deployment; Introduction to Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs) for Remediating and Managing Contaminated Groundwater in Situ; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 1: Site Characterization for PRBs; Reactive Materials: Zero-Valent Iron; Collection and Interpretation of Design Data 2: Laboratory and Pilot Scale Tests; Design Calculations; Compliance Monitoring, Performance Monitoring and Long-Term Maintenance for PRBs; PRB Emplacement Techniques; PRB Permitting and Implementation; Treatment of Metals; Non-Metallic Reactive Materials; Economic Considerations for PRB Deployment; and Bibliography.

  7. Development of permeable reactive barriers to prevent radionuclide migration from the nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.; Batuk, O. [Chemistry department of Lomonosov Moscow, State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazakovskaya, T.; Shapovalov, V. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Haire, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is focused on three possible materials for permeable reactive barriers (PRB): 1) depleted uranium oxide that is accumulated as a residual product of the natural uranium enrichment process, 2) zero-valent iron and, 3) the composite material based on montmorillonite clay modified with different anion exchangers. The main aim of permeable reactive barriers is to prevent release of radionuclides emerging from a repository waste package containing spent nuclear fuel to outside the control area of the nuclear waste repository sites. The most experimentally developed material is depleted uranium oxide. It can be used both as a component of radiation shielding and as an absorbent for migrating long-lived radionuclides (especially {sup 237}Np and {sup 99}Tc). Experiments demonstrate the high sorption properties of depleted uranium oxide towards Np and Tc both from deionized water and from solution that simulates Yucca Mountain. Zero-valent iron, and the composite based on montmorillonite clay, also seem to be very promising to use in a PRB. Nano-particles of zero-valent iron with high surface will reduce high valency Np and Tc to the tetravalent state and thus immobilize them due to the extremely low solubility of corresponding hydroxides. The composite based on montmorillonite clay modified with different anion exchangers will possess high sorption affinity towards anionic and cationic species. (authors)

  8. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures.

  9. THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL. THE EFFECT OF SMECTITE ON THE CORROSION OF IRON METAL. Abstract: The combination of zero-valent iron and a clay-type...

  10. Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  11. 2.2 Zero-valent Iron Nanoparticles 2.2.1 Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the use of ZVI as a PRB. The non-nanoparticle ZVI PRB technology has been used to remediate contaminated

  12. Dechlorination of PCE by mixtures of green rust and zero-valent iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchal, Fabienne

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H for the reductive dechlorination of 0. 246 mM PCE in 0. 007g/g GRso4 suspension. Error bars for k represent 95% confidence intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Initial reductive capacity of GRso4 for PCE as a function of pH. Error... bars for the reductive capacities represent 95% confidence intervals. . . . . . . . . 21 Reductive dechlorination of 0. 246 mM PCE by non-treated ZVI at pH 8, 9, and 10. Some errors bars are smaller than the symbols...

  13. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yuxin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations, i.e. calcium and carbonate controllingSolutions Containing Calcium Carbonate with Trichloroetheneand transformation of calcium carbonate polymorphs under

  14. Degradation of Polymers Coating Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron Particles used in Groundwater Remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    if a black precipitate formed indicating sulfide production. Polymer Quantification: An Ultra to transform the solution containing the bacteria into pellet form. Some bacteria and protein is lost during

  15. Aminoclay-templated nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis for efficient harvesting of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    of oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1 Young-Chul Lee,ae Kyubock Lee,b Yuhoon Hwang,c Henrik Rasmus of oleaginous microalgae was demonstrated. According to various aminoclay loadings (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5 loading under a magnetic field. In a scaled- up (24 L) microalga harvesting process using magnetic rods

  16. Dispersivity Testing of Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells: Monticello, Utah,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T ADRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL

  17. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee D.; Korte, N.; Baker, J.

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to conduct laboratory and field experiments to determine the sensitivity of low frequency electrical measurements (resistivity and induced polarization) to the processes of corrosion and precipitation that are believed to limit permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance. The research was divided into four sets of experiments that were each written up and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal: [1] A laboratory experiment to define the controls of aqueous chemistry (electrolyte activity; pH; valence) and total zero valent iron (Fe0) available surface area on the electrical properties of Fe0 columns. [2] A laboratory experiment to determine the impact of corrosion and precipitation on the electrical response of synthetic Fe0 columns as a result of geochemical reactions with NaSO4 and NaCO3 electrolytes. [3] Laboratory experiments on a sequence of cores retrieved from the Kansas City PRB to determine the magnitude of electrical and geochemical changes within a field active PRB after eight years of operation [4] Field-scale cross borehole resistivity and induced polarization monitoring of the Kansas City PRB to evaluate the potential of electrical imaging as a technology for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of indicators of reduced PRB performance This report first summarizes the findings of the four major experiments conducted under this research. The reader is referred to the four papers in Appendices 1-4 for a full description of each experiment, including motivation and significance, technical details, findings and implications. The deliverables of the project, including the publications, conference papers and new collaborative arrangements that have resulted are then described. Appendices 5-6 contain two technical reports written by co-PI Korte describing (1) supporting geochemical measurements, and (2) the coring procedure, conducted at the Kansas City PRB as part of this project.

  18. Conversion of Steel Mill's Surface Waste into Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Generation for PEMFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    . The currently pursued modes of hydrogen generation include autothermal and/ or steam reforming of fossil fuels metal-steam reforming (MSR, 3M+4H2OM3O4+4H2). From the standpoint of favorable thermodynamics friendly method of generating high purity hydrogen is by the reaction of certain metals with steam, called

  19. Chromium-Removal Processes during Groundwater Remediation by a Zerovalent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkin, Richard T.; Su, Chunming; Ford, Robert G.; Paul, Cynthia J. (US EPA)

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-phase associations of chromium were examined in core materials collected from a full-scale, zerovalent iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center located near Elizabeth City, NC. The PRB was installed in 1996 to treat groundwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium. After eight years of operation, the PRB remains effective at reducing concentrations of Cr from average values >1500 {micro}g L{sup -1} in groundwater hydraulically upgradient of the PRB to values <1 {micro}g L{sup -1} in groundwater within and hydraulically downgradient of the PRB. Chromium removal from groundwater occurs at the leading edge of the PRB and also within the aquifer immediately upgradient of the PRB. These regions also witness the greatest amount of secondary mineral formation due to steep geochemical gradients that result from the corrosion of zerovalent iron. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy indicated that chromium is predominantly in the trivalent oxidation state, confirming that reductive processes are responsible for Cr sequestration. XANES spectra and microscopy results suggest that Cr is, in part, associated with iron sulfide grains formed as a consequence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in and around the PRB. Results of this study provide evidence that secondary iron-bearing mineral products may enhance the capacity of zerovalent iron systems to remediate Cr in groundwater, either through redox reactions at the mineral-water interface or by the release of Fe(II) to solution via mineral dissolution and/or metal corrosion.

  20. Field Projects: Monticello, Utah

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A permeable reactive barrier (PRB) of zero-valent iron is helping to clean up groundwater at a former uranium and vanadium ore processing mill at Monticello, Utah. LM managed remediation of...

  1. Removal of Selenium from Wastewater using ZVI and Hybrid ZVI/Iron Oxide Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    .-W., Chiu, P.-C (1998). "Nitrate reduction by metallic iron." Water Res. 32: 8. 22. Huang, Y. H., Zhang, T.C (2005). "Effects of dissolved oxygen on formation of corrosion products and concomitant oxygen and nitrate reduction in zero-valent iron systems... Chromatographer ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy mM Millimole Na Sodium Na2CO3 Sodium Carbonate NaHCO3 Sodium Bicarbonate NH4+ Ammonium Ion NO3- Nitrate Ion NaCl Sodium chloride NaNO3...

  2. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  3. Overview on backfill materials and permeable reactive barriers for nuclear waste disposal facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Hasan, Ahmed Ali Mohamed; Holt, Kathleen Caroline; Hasan, Mahmoud A. (Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt)

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A great deal of money and effort has been spent on environmental restoration during the past several decades. Significant progress has been made on improving air quality, cleaning up and preventing leaching from dumps and landfills, and improving surface water quality. However, significant challenges still exist in all of these areas. Among the more difficult and expensive environmental problems, and often the primary factor limiting closure of contaminated sites following surface restoration, is contamination of ground water. The most common technology used for remediating ground water is surface treatment where the water is pumped to the surface, treated and pumped back into the ground or released at a nearby river or lake. Although still useful for certain remediation scenarios, the limitations of pump-and-treat technologies have recently been recognized, along with the need for innovative solutions to ground-water contamination. Even with the current challenges we face there is a strong need to create geological repository systems for dispose of radioactive wastes containing long-lived radionuclides. The potential contamination of groundwater is a major factor in selection of a radioactive waste disposal site, design of the facility, future scenarios such as human intrusion into the repository and possible need for retrieving the radioactive material, and the use of backfills designed to keep the radionuclides immobile. One of the most promising technologies for remediation of contaminated sites and design of radioactive waste repositories is the use of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs are constructed of reactive material(s) to intercept and remove the radionuclides from the water and decontaminate the plumes in situ. The concept of PRBs is relatively simple. The reactive material(s) is placed in the subsurface between the waste or contaminated area and the groundwater. Reactive materials used thus far in practice and research include zero valent iron, hydroxyapatite, magnesium oxide, and others. As the contaminant moves through the reactive material, the contaminant is either sorbed by the reactive material or chemically reacts with the material to form a less harmful substance. Because of the high risk associated with failure of a geological repository for nuclear waste, most nations favor a near-field multibarrier engineered system using backfill materials to prevent release of radionuclides into the surrounding groundwater.

  4. Automated Impedance Tomography for Monitoring Permeable Reactive Barrier Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBrecque, D J; Adkins, P L

    2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was the development of an autonomous, automated electrical geophysical monitoring system which allows for near real-time assessment of Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) health and aging and which provides this assessment through a web-based interface to site operators, owners and regulatory agencies. Field studies were performed at four existing PRB sites; (1) a uranium tailing site near Monticello, Utah, (2) the DOE complex at Kansas City, Missouri, (3) the Denver Federal Center in Denver, Colorado and (4) the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana. Preliminary surface data over the PRB sites were collected (in December, 2005). After the initial round of data collection, the plan was modified to include studies inside the barriers in order to better understand barrier aging processes. In September 2006 an autonomous data collection system was designed and installed at the EPA PRB and the electrode setups in the barrier were revised and three new vertical electrode arrays were placed in dedicated boreholes which were in direct contact with the PRB material. Final data were collected at the Kansas City, Denver and Monticello, Utah PRB sites in the fall of 2007. At the Asarco Smelter site in East Helena, Montana, nearly continuous data was collected by the autonomous monitoring system from June 2006 to November 2007. This data provided us with a picture of the evolution of the barrier, enabling us to examine barrier changes more precisely and determine whether these changes are due to installation issues or are normal barrier aging. Two rounds of laboratory experiments were carried out during the project. We conducted column experiments to investigate the effect of mineralogy on the electrical signatures resulting from iron corrosion and mineral precipitation in zero valent iron (ZVI) columns. In the second round of laboratory experiments we observed the electrical response from simulation of actual field PRBs at two sites: the Kansas City barrier and the East Helena barrier. As these sites are also used for our field monitoring efforts, this allowed for a comparison between field and laboratory. In column studies with high concentrations of calcium and carbonate/bicarbonate, we observed that the increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of polarization magnitude is significant and is mainly controlled by the precipitation of calcium carbonates. In general, the electrical properties of all of the barriers studied follow a pattern. New barriers are fairly resistive with in-situ conductivity only a few times background (outside the barrier) values. Older barriers get increasingly conductive, with failed barriers showing values of over 100 S/m. The induced polarization response is more complicated. Chargeability values increase over time for young barriers, are largest for healthy barriers in the middle of their lifespan, and decrease as the barrier ages These results suggest that normalized IP appears promising as a measure of barrier age.

  5. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to quantify the ability of the electrical induced polarization (IP) method to noninvasively monitor the reduction in reactive iron performance that is known to reduce the effectiveness of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with time. The primary scientific goals include: (A) fundamental laboratory studies to evaluate the sensitivity of the IP method to: Fe0 total surface area Fe0 surface chemistry physical/chemical changes to the Fe0 surface resulting from oxidation and precipitation; (B) monitoring of the electrical tomographic response of the Kansas City PRB over a three-year period and assessment, via correlation with aqueous geochemical data and extracted iron cores, of whether electrical signatures associated with reduced PRB performance are resolvable in field studies; (C) optimization of a three-dimensional tomographic imaging algorithm for application to highly conductive, high electrical contrast environments as represented by a PRB.

  6. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this project is to quantify the ability of the electrical induced polarization (IP) method to non-invasively monitor the reduction in reactive iron performance that is known to reduce the effectiveness of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with time. The primary scientific goals include: (1) fundamental laboratory studies to evaluate the sensitivity of the IP method to physical/chemical changes to the iron surface resulting from oxidation, precipitation and clogging (2) monitoring of the electrical tomographic response of an installed PRB over a three-year period and assessment, via correlation with aqueous geochemical data and extracted iron cores, of whether electrical signatures associated with reduced PRB performance are resolvable in field studies (3) optimization of a three-dimensional tomographic imaging algorithm for application to highly conductive, high electrical contrast environments as represented by a PRB IP theory and empirical data resulting from the original development of the method for mineral exploration suggests that the method is highly relevant in the study of reactive iron barriers. Laboratory and field IP studies on mineral deposits illustrate the sensitivity of IP parameters to metal concentration, particle size and metal surface chemistry. IP theory, based on electrical (Warburg) impedance associated with diffusive ion transfer to/from the electrolyte to electron exchange sites on the metal surface, provides a framework for interpreting IP signatures of PRBs as a function of redox chemistry.

  7. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada)] [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada)] [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)] [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface and the creek and ponds in the HDSR. The first of the PRBs will be installed immediately up-gradient of the wet discharge area approximately 50 m from the creek, the other two will be installed across the area of shallow soil replacement, and all will extend from ground surface to the base of the water table aquifer through which the impacted groundwater flows. The PRBs have been designed to provide the removal of uranium and arsenic for decades, although the capacity of the treatment mixture for contaminant removal suggests that a longer period of treatment may be feasible. The environmental management plan includes an allowance for on-going monitoring, and replacement of a PRB(s) as might be required. (authors)

  8. Effect of Temperature and Solution Composition on the Permeability of St. Peters Sandstone: Role of Iron (III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J.M.; Nur, A.; Dibble, W.E. Jr.

    1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate effects of temperature and fluid composition on the permeability of quartz sandstones. We have concentrated our initial efforts on the time and flow dependence at 2 elevated temperatures (100°C, 200°C).

  9. Chromate Reduction in Highly Alkaline Groundwater by Zerovalent Iron: Implications for Its Use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Ian

    (VI) can be used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to immobilize Cr leaching from hyperalkaline in COPR leachate will limit the design life of a PRB. INTRODUCTION Chromium is widely used barrier (PRB) in the groundwater plume downstream of the waste.17-19 In a PRB the contaminant is removed

  10. Investigating the Potential for Long-Term Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) Monitoring from the Electrical Signatures Associated with the Reduction in Reactive Iron Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to quantify the ability of the electrical induced polarization (IP) method to non-invasively monitor the reduction in reactive iron performance that is known to reduce the effectiveness of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with time. The primary scientific goals include: (1) fundamental laboratory studies to evaluate the sensitivity of the IP method to: Fe0 total surface area Fe0 surface chemistry physical/chemical changes to the Fe0 surface resulting from oxidation and precipitation (2) monitoring of the electrical tomographic response of the Kansas City PRB over a three-year period and assessment, via correlation with aqueous geochemical data and extracted iron cores, of whether electrical signatures associated with reduced PRB performance are resolvable in field studies (3) optimization of a three-dimensional tomographic imaging algorithm for application to highly conductive, high electrical contrast environments as represented by a PRB IP theory and empirical data resulting from the original development of the method for mineral exploration suggests that the method is highly relevant in the study of reactive iron barriers. Laboratory and field IP studies on mineral deposits illustrate the sensitivity of IP parameters to metal concentration, particle size and metal surface chemistry. IP theory, based on electrical (Warburg) impedance associated with diffusive ion transfer to/from the electrolyte to electron exchange sites on the metal surface, provides a framework for interpreting IP signatures of PRBs as a function of redox chemistry.

  11. Investigating the potential for long-term permeable reactive barrier (PRB) monitoring from the electrical signatures associated with the reduction in reactive iron performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, Lee

    2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to quantify the ability of the electrical induced polarization (IP) method to noninvasively monitor the reduction in reactive iron performance that is known to reduce the effectiveness of the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) with time. The primary scientific goals include: (1) fundamental laboratory studies to evaluate the sensitivity of the IP method to: Fe0 total surface area Fe0 surface chemistry physical/chemical changes to the Fe0 surface resulting from oxidation and precipitation (2) monitoring of the electrical tomographic response of the Kansas City PRB over a three-year period and assessment, via correlation with aqueous geochemical data and extracted iron cores, of whether electrical signatures associated with reduced PRB performance are resolvable in field studies (3) optimization of a three-dimensional tomographic imaging algorithm for application to highly conductive, high electrical contrast environments as represented by a PRB IP theory and empirical data resulting from the original development of the method for mineral exploration suggests that the method is highly relevant in the study of reactive iron barriers. Laboratory and field IP studies on mineral deposits illustrate the sensitivity of IP parameters to metal concentration, particle size and metal surface chemistry. IP theory, based on electrical (Warburg) impedance associated with diffusive ion transfer to/from the electrolyte to electron exchange sites on the metal surface, provides a framework for interpreting IP signatures of PRBs as a function of redox chemistry.

  12. Sequestration of technetium | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    strategy involving the sequestration of technetium as sulfide by sulfide-transformed nano zero-valent iron. The Impact The findings suggest nano zero-valent iron can be used to...

  13. In-situ method to remove iron and other metals from solution in groundwater down gradient from permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Clay E. (Grand Junction, CO); Morrison, Stanley J. (Grand Junction, CO)

    2001-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a process for treating the flow of anaerobic groundwater through an aquifer with a primary treatment media, preferably iron, and then passing the treated groundwater through a second porous media though which an oxygenated gas is passed in order to oxygenate the dissolved primary treatment material and convert it into an insoluble material thereby removing the dissolved primary treatment material from the groundwater.

  14. Review of hydrogen isotope permeability through materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, S.A.

    1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the first part of a comprehensive summary of the literature on hydrogen isotope permeability through materials that do not readily form hydrides. While we mainly focus on pure metals with low permeabilities because of their importance to tritium containment, we also give data on higher-permeability materials such as iron, nickel, steels, and glasses.

  15. Optimization of soil mixing technology through metallic iron addition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moos, L. P.

    1999-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced soil mixing is a process used to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil. In this process, also known as soil mixing with thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction, or SM/TESVE, a soil mixing apparatus breaks up and mixes a column of soil up to 9 m (30 ft) deep; simultaneously, hot air is blown through the soil. The hot air carries the VOCs to the surface where they are collected and safely disposed of. This technology is cost effective at high VOC concentrations, but it becomes cost prohibitive at low concentrations. Argonne National Laboratory-East conducted a project to evaluate ways of improving the effectiveness of this system. The project investigated the feasibility of integrating the SM/TESVE process with three soil treatment processes--soil vapor extraction, augmented indigenous biodegradation, and zero-valent iron addition. Each of these technologies was considered a polishing treatment designed to remove the contaminants left behind by enhanced soil mixing. The experiment was designed to determine if the overall VOC removal effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the SM/TESVE process could be improved by integrating this approach with one of the polishing treatment systems.

  16. Liquid metal feeding through dendritic region in Ni-Hard white iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Dogan, Omer N.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid permeability in the dendritic regions is one of the factors that determine porosity formation and macro segregation in castings. Permeability in the dendritic structure of Ni-Hard white iron was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of microstructural coarsening on the permeability was also investigated. Permeability increased with coarsening dendritic structure in Ni-Hard white iron.

  17. Perchlorate reduction using electrochemically induced pitting corrosion of zero-valent titanium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chun Woo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    reduced to chloride using electrochemically developed pitting corrosion on Ti(0). Perchlorate reduction was believed to be caused by an active reductant (dissolved Ti(II)) during the pitting corrosion of Ti(0). The rate of perchlorate reduction...

  18. Field Projects: Cañon City, Colorado

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June 2000, Cotter Corporation installed a PRB at its uranium ore processing millsite in Cañon City, Colorado. The PRB contains zero-valent iron (ZVI) that treated molybdenum and uranium...

  19. Water Resources Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A. Arnold, and R. L. Penn. 2011. Zero Valent Iron: Impact of Anions Present During Synthesis of Goethite During the Reduction of Nitroaromatics. Goldschmidt 2011, Prague, Czech Republich, August 14

  20. Features of the action of low-energy gamma radiation on the hydrogen permeability of certain materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Bekman, I.N.; Rudenko, N.V.; Shestakov, V.P.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper determines the diffusion coefficients, the constants of permeability, and solubility of hydrogen in palladium, nickel, and Armco iron under the action of low-energy gamma radiation. It was established that without radiation all of the kinetic diffusion curves of hydrogen in palladium and nickel straighten well in a functional scale. In armco iron, some deviations are observed.

  1. Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    Permeable Pavements, Green Roofs, and Cisterns Stormwater Treatment Practices for Low site planning and engineer- pavements, green roofs, and cisterns, are ing to reduce or prevent cooperating. #12;Permeable Pavements What are they? Permeable pavements provide alternatives to standard

  2. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  3. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  4. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  5. Effect of oxide films on hydrogen permeability of candidate Stirling heater head tube alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuon, S R; Misencik, J A

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure hydrogen has been selected as the working fluid for the developmental automotive Stirling engine. Containment of the working fluid during operation of the engine at high temperatures and at high hydrogen gas pressures is essential for the acceptance of the Stirling engine as an alternative to the internal combustion engine. Most commercial alloys are extremely permeable to pure hydrogen at high temperatures. A program was undertaken at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to reduce hydrogen permeability in the Stirling engine heater head tubes by doping the hydrogen working fluid with CO or CO/sub 2/. Small additions of these gases were shown to form an oxide on the inside tube wall and thus reduce hydrogen permeability. A study of the effects of dopant concentration, alloy composition, and effects of surface oxides on hydrogen permeability in candidate heater head tube alloys is summarized. Results showed that hydrogen permeability was similar for iron-base alloys (N-155, A286, IN800, 19-9DL, and Nitronic 40), cobalt-base alloys (HS-188) and nickel-base alloys (IN718). In general, the permeability of the alloys decreased with increasing concentration of CO or CO/sub 2/ dopant, with increasing oxide thickness, and decreasing oxide porosity. At high levels of dopants, highly permeable liquid oxides formed on those alloys with greater than 50% Fe content. Furthermore, highly reactive minor alloying elements (Ti, Al, Nb, and La) had a strong influence on reducing hydrogen permeability.

  6. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  7. Dexou low pH plume baseline permeable reactive barrier options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M.A.

    2000-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The current Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) baseline configuration consists of a limestone trench and a granular cast iron trench in series. This report provides information relative to the use of PRB technology for the remediation of the D-Area low pH groundwater plumes.

  8. Colloidosomes: Selectively Permeable Capsules Composed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    structures, which we call "col- loidosomes," are hollow, elastic shells whose permeability and elasticity can at the surface of water drops can be used to fabricate nano- or microporous capsules (1­5, 9); other fluid a flexible approach to the prep- aration of hollow, elastic capsules, with sizes ranging from micrometers

  9. STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

  10. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

  11. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

  12. Lack of iron | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lack of iron Lack of iron Released: February 26, 2014 Iron-bearing minerals in sediments naturally reduce contaminant levels The Science The release of wastes associated with...

  13. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  14. Magma energy and geothermal permeability enhancement programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments during FY85 and project plans for FY86 are described for the Magma Energy Extraction and Permeability Enhancement programs. (ACR)

  15. Fracture permeability and seismic wave scattering ŒPoroelastic ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seiji Nakagawa

    2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 18, 2010 ... The new model contains fracture permeability in the plan-parallel direction. ... Division of Chemical Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy ...

  16. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

  17. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

  18. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study...

  19. Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Field Demonstration Of Permeable Reactive Barriers To Remove Dissolved Uranium From Groundwater-001 November 2000 FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMOVE DISSOLVED URANIUM FROM

  20. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials. Abstract: Uranium(VI) diffusion was investigated in...

  1. aqp1 water permeability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION Renewable Energy Websites Summary: STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM...

  2. Iron and Prochlorococcus/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne Williford

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron availability and primary productivity in the oceans are intricately linked through photosynthesis. At the global scale we understand how iron addition induces phytoplankton blooms through meso-scale iron-addition ...

  3. Investigating Iron Ions | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigating Iron Ions Investigating Iron Ions Computer code provides detailed predictions of highly charged ions in water Using resources at EMSL, scientists obtained...

  4. HP-41 Calculates Dykstra-Parsons permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bixler, B.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new program for the HP-41 programmable calculator has been written which will calculate the often used Dykstra-Parsons permeability variation factor, V. No longer must numerous individual permeability values be plotted on log probability paper as a first step in determining V. Input is simply these same permeability values selected at equal spacing along the interval in question. For most core analysis this spacing will be 1 ft. This program is labeled ''KVAR'' (for permeability variation) and is listed here, along with its bar code for those with optical wands. It requires only nine registers for program storage (since it uses HP built-in statistical functions) and eight registers for data storage. Also, it can be stored on one track of the standard two-track magnetic card. Data entry is terminated by entering ''O''. Lastly, it will run with or without a printer.

  5. Reservoir permeability from seismic attribute analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the reservoir permeability based on seismic and log data.seismic reservoir response based on well and 3D seismic datadata analysis we suggest seismic imaging of the reservoir

  6. Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability and Pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Transport in Cement:Transport in Cement: Relating Permeability and PoreRelating Permeability, 2004 #12;OutlineOutline Cement Manufacturing and StructureCement Manufacturing and Structure ofofCalcinated in rotaryin rotary kiln at 1500 C for 30kiln at 1500 C for 30-- 40 minutes40 minutes Produces Cement

  7. Technical Assistance to Ohio Closure Sites Technologies to Address Excavated VOC Contaminated Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    and available solar heat. This report focuses on design features and recommendations for implementing disposal, passive soil venting, enhanced soil venting, zero-valent iron, anaerobic bioremediation, aerobic and functional design requirements (equipment, flow rates, options, issues, cautions, etc.).The design

  8. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  9. IIT Bombay offers to license intellectual property (IP) created through its research and development efforts and which are available in the form of patents, patent applications, design, trademark, copy-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayanan, H.

    An improved process for water treatment to remove Arsenic, Iron and Phosphate 2336/MUM/2008 by zero valent EE 14 Refrigeration cum water heating system 151/MUM/2002 EE 15 Switchable heat pipe 152/MUM/2002 EE as a fluorescence sensor for the recognition 730/MUM/2011 of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  10. Bioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    (IV) (UO2[s], uraninite) Anthropogenic · Release of mill tailings during uranium mining - MobilizationBioremediation of Uranium Plumes with Nano-scale Zero-valent Iron Angela Athey Advisers: Dr. Reyes Undergraduate Student Fellowship Program April 15, 2011 #12;Main Sources of Uranium Natural · Leaching from

  11. Permeability decline due to flow of dilute suspensions through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasr-El-Din, H.A. [Lab R& D Center, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Suspension flow in porous media is encountered in many industrial applications. In the oil industry, suspended solids present in injected waters cart cause significant damage around the wellbore or deep in the formation. Depending on tire physical properties of tire solid particles, the porous medium, and operating conditions, solids can form external or internal filter cake, or just flow through the media without causing any damage. External filter cake formation causes a fast and sharp drop in permeability or injectivity of the formation. Reversing the flow direction can recover some of the damaged permeability. Internal filter cake formation cases a gradual or steady drop in permeability. Reversing the flow direction will not recover tire damaged permeability. Increasing solids concentration or particle size will cause more damage to formation. Injection of low-salinity water into sandstone reservoirs can trigger fines migration and clay swelling. Both factors can damage the formation. Injection of water that is incompatible with the formation brine may cause precipitation of insoluble sulfates that cart plug the formation. Stimulation (or acidizing) the formation cart also produce solid particles that can damage the formation. Corrosion by-products (e.g., iron sulfide) cart block the flow paths and reduce the permeability of the formation. Many experimental and modeling studies to predict formation damage due to flow of suspensions in porous media are discussed in this chapter. Solids can be present in injected waters or be generated in the formation. More research is needed to predict flow of suspensions in porous media when solid particles invade and are generated in tire formation simultaneously. 71 refs., 19 figs.

  12. INTRODUCTION Permeability is a critical geologic parameter,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    a fundamental role in mass and heat transfer and crustal rheology (e.g., Ingebritsen and Sanford, 1998 result. In contrast, the primary data from studies of meta- morphic systems consist of time-integrated fluid- flux (Q, or qt) estimates, which must be trans- lated to time-averaged permeabilities through (2

  13. WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POROUS ASPHALT, PERVIOUS CONCRETE, AND CONVENTIONAL ASPHALT IN A NORTHERN CLIMATE BY KRISTOPHER M. HOULE BS, Worcester the University of New Hampshire, the Northern New England Concrete Promotion Association (NNECPA), the Northeast

  14. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  15. Permeability anisotropy and resistivity anisotropy of mechanically compressed mudrocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Amy Lynn

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability anisotropy (the ratio of the horizontal to vertical permeability) is an important parameter used in sedimentary basin models and geotechnical design to model fluid flow, locate hydrocarbon reserves and estimate ...

  16. Semi-analytical estimates of permeability obtained from capillary pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huet, Caroline Cecile

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to develop and test a new concept for predicting permeability from routine rock properties. First, we develop a model predicting permeability as a function of capillary pressure. Our model, ...

  17. Prevention of Porosity Formation and Other Effects of Gaseous Elements in Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albany Research Center

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron foundries have observed porosity primarily as interdendritic porosity in large freezing range alloys such as Ni-Hard I and hypoeutectic high Cr alloys or pinholes and fissure defects in gray and ductile irons. For most iron foundries, porosity problems occur sporadically, but even occasional outbreaks can be costly since even a very small amount of porosity can significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the castings. As a result when porosity is detected, the castings are scrapped and remelted, or when the porosity is undetected, defective parts are shipped to the consumer. Neither case is desirable. This project was designed to examine various factors contributing to the porosity formation in iron castings. Factors such as solubility of gases in liquid and solid iron alloys, surface tension of liquid iron alloys, and permeability of dendritic structures were investigated in terms of their effect on the porosity formation. A method was developed to predict how much nitrogen the molten alloy picks up from air after a given amount of holding time for a given melting practice. It was shown that small batches of iron melts in an induction furnace can end up with very high concentration of nitrogen (near solubility limit). Surface tension of liquid iron alloys was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of minor additions of S, Ti, and Al on the surface tension of liquid iron alloys was investigated. Up to 18% change in surface tension was detected by minor element additions. This translates to the same amount of change in gas pressure required in a bubble of a given size to keep the bubble stable. A new method was developed to measure the permeability of dendritic structures in situ. The innovative aspect of these experiments, with respect to previous interdendritic permeability measurements, was the fact that the dendritic structure was allowed to form in situ and was not cooled and re-heated for permeability tests. A permeability model was developed and tested using the results of the permeability experiments. The permeability model for flow parallel to the columnar dendrites predicted the experimental permeability results closely when the liquid volume fraction data from equilibrium calculations were used. The permeability gradient model was constructed in order to test the impact of interdendritic channel constriction on the flow of liquid through the mushy zone of a casting. The model examines two different regimes: (i) Dendritic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in liquid volume fraction and dendrite arm spacing, and (ii) Eutectic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in viscosity of eutectic mixture. It is assumed that the eutectic mixture behaves like a slurry whose viscosity increases with increasing solid fraction. It is envisioned that this model can be developed into a tool that can be very useful for metal casters.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF STEAM WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY RELATIONS A REPORT SUBMITTED;Abstract A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous ow of steam and water in porous media with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeability for steam phase

  19. Determination of formation permeability using back-pressure test data from hydraulically-fractured, low-permeability gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krawtz, John Paul

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACX-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AsJ4 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major subject: petroleum Engineering DETERMINATION OF FORMATION PERMEABILITY USING BACK-PRESSURE TEST DATA FROM HYDRAULICALLY-FRACTURED, LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS WELLS A Thesis JOHN PAUL KRAWTZ...

  20. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water (/sup 3/HHO) and /sup 14/C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for /sup 3/HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D/sub 2/), and the extracellular material (D/sub 1/) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for /sup 3/HHO was higher than that for AP and for both /sup 3/HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes.

  1. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B. (Wayne State Univ. School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness.

  2. Towards a characteristic equation for permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Adil Ahmed

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    on a fractal-based derivation of permeability from porosity. The Pape et al. result is presented as an additive power law relation, typically of the form: k = a? + b? 2 + c? 10 . We do not believe that the Pape et al. model will find significant... utility in the petroleum industry, apart from unconsolidated materials and rocks of very uniform grain sizes. We do not wish to diminish the work of Pape et al. rather we just do not see the same behavior in our rock sample data (i.e., extremely well...

  3. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Townsend, Carl W. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  4. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, G.M.; Kollie, T.G.; Watkin, D.C.; Walton, D.G.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the ``body-filled panel.`` Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials. 4 figs.

  5. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Watkin, David C. (Clinton, TN); Walton, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the "body-filled panel". Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials.

  6. Osmotic water permeability of human red cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, T.C.; Solomon, A.K.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The osmotic water permeability of human red cells has been reexamined with a stopped-flow device and a new perturbation technique. Small osmotic gradients are used to minimize the systematic error caused by nonlinearities in the relationship between cell volume and light scattering. Corrections are then made for residual systematic error. Our results show that the hydraulic conductivity, Lp, is essentially independent of the direction of water flow and of osmolality in the range 184-365 mosM. the mean value of Lp obtained obtained was 1.8 +/- 0.1 (SEM) X 10-11 cm3 dyne -1 s-1.

  7. Modelling effective permeability of fracture networks in permeable rock formation by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as underground nuclear waste disposal in claystone, geological CO2 storage or hydrocabure reservoir in a fractured porous rock are used to investigate its effective permeability. If the far field inflow is uniform, the theoretical solution shows that the pressure field in the matrix is a function of the discharge

  8. Grow Iron, Slow Pollution | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Grow Iron, Slow Pollution Scientists connect previous studies on electron transport in hematite Making a Deposit: Scanning electron micrographs of...

  9. astrocyte water permeability: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 Predicting relative permeability from water retention: A direct approach based on fractal geometry Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: curves (e.g.,...

  10. arterioso permeable por: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mol% yttria-stabilized (more) Sweeney, Sean 2005-01-01 13 Permeability prediction from well log data using multiple regression analysis. Open Access Theses and Dissertations...

  11. "EFICIENCIA DE FUNCIONAMIENTO DE LA PRB (Barrera Permeable Reactiva)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    "EFICIENCIA DE FUNCIONAMIENTO DE LA PRB (Barrera Permeable Reactiva) EN AZNALCOLLAR (ESPAÑA)" Autor Barrera Geoquímica Experimental (PRB)? ·Un emplazamiento subsuperficial de materiales reactivos ·Diseñado

  12. IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES...

  13. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley,...

  14. A Film Depositional Model of Permeability for Mineral Reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to solid-aqueous phase reactions. Citation: Freedman VL, P Saripalli, DH Bacon, and PD Meyer.2004."A Film Depositional Model of Permeability for Mineral Reactions in Unsaturated...

  15. New additives for minimizing cement body permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talabani, S. [Western Atlas International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Hareland, G. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Islam, M.R. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation was carried out with a new array of cement additives, replacing some of the currently used ones. In this study, the cement slurry pressure was monitored during the setting of the element. To obtain the optimum tightness of the cement, final contraction in the cycle is crucial for blockage of gas migration. Concentrations of the additives were obtained experimentally in this study for which the cyclic pressure behavior of the cement was optimized and the permeability reduced for the best final cement results. The parameters investigated in this study were as follows: pressure applied on the slurry with time, compressive strength, and permeability of the set cement. The major causes of the early microfractures are the incomplete cement-water reaction, low compressive strength of the set cement, and the sudden change in the hydrostatic pressure as the cement changes its phase from a liquid to a solid state. This paper reports the appropriate amounts of X-C polymer, Anchorage clay, Ironite Sponge, and synthetic rubber needed to optimize the compressive strength and eliminate both microfracture and microannulus. There are certain limits to the amount and type of synthetic rubber powder for which microfractures are eliminated. The article reports an experimental approach that can be used to eliminate gas migration through a cement design that is environmentally safe and inexpensive, using recyclable materials.

  16. Highly porous aerogels of very low permeability *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Phalippou; T. Woignier; R. Sempéré; P. Dieudonné

    In this paper, we firstly investigate the way the pores are created in silica gel during gelation. Then we show that the solid particle arrangement acts on the geometrical pore characteristics (pore volume and pore size distribution). According to the pore size value, the permeability of gels is quite low even if the value of the gel porosity exceeds 95%. Analogous properties can be extended to silica aerogels for which now the solvent is replaced by air. Consequently, and according to their low permeability, light weight aerogels exhibit very striking response to mechanical stresses. Here we report unusual experiments allowing us to estimate the mechanical properties of aerogels thanks to their low value of the average pore size. Moreover, one demonstrates that aerogels may be densified at room temperature using an external isostatic pressure. In that case, the pore size may be tailored with respect to the nature and the characteristics of the starting aerogel. The evolution of the textural properties such as the mean pore size and the specific surface area of these tailored aerogels is investigated as a function of isostatic pressure. 1.

  17. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  18. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN); Renner, Michael John (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  19. Ground rubber: Reactive permeable barrier sorption media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kershaw, D.S.; Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to examine the feasibility of using ground tire rubber as a sorbent media in reactive permeable barrier systems. Previous research by the current authors has demonstrated that tire rubber can sorb significant quantities of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and O-xylene from aqueous solutions. The current research was run to examine the usage rate of ground rubber in a packed bed reactor under specific contact times. In addition, desorption and repetitive sorption tests were run to determine the reversibility of the sorption process for ground tire rubber. These tests were run to determine the regeneration capacity of ground tire rubber. Results of the study show that the usage rates are greater than 50% with an empty bed contact times of 37 minutes, and minimal amounts of energy are needed to regenerate the tire rubber after use.

  20. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  1. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT calculations. X-ray computer tomography (CT) aided by measuring in-situ steam saturation more directly. The measured steam-water relative permeability curves assume a shape similar to those obtained by Corey (1954

  3. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressureof excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, andrange of approaches to model damage and permeability changes

  4. Isotope Permeability Through Materials S. A. Steward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer ReviewIron isIs

  5. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  6. IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

  7. Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

    1999-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

  8. The determination of permeability using a pulse decay technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowe, William Charlton

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressures from 0 to 15, 000 psi and a maximum pore pressure of 16 psi. The core samples studied had permeabilities rang1ng from 40 to 319 md. They concluded that permeability of sandstone decreases with increase in overburden pressure. The major reduct1...on occurred over the range of 0 to 3000 psi overburden pressure. At 3000 psi overburden pressure, permeabilities ranged from 59 to 89 per cent of their orig1nal unstressed cond1tions, as illustrated in F1g. l. In 1969, Ritch and Kozik4 reported...

  9. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  10. altered permeability states: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compounds: The effect of structure and pH on Caco-2 cell permeability University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: A tetrazole ring is often used in drug discovery as a...

  11. Extended correlations of porosity, permeability, and formation resistivity factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Keith Wade

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained through a literature search, and the remainder were obtained through donations by Shell and Tenneco. The complete data set consists of permeability, porosity and formation factor measurements for twenty formations. Of the twenty data sets, seven...

  12. Experimental Study on Rock Deformation and Permeability Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Jihui

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a petroleum reservoir would inevitably induce a rearrangement of the in-situ stress field. The rearrangement of the stress field would then bring about a deformation of the reservoir rock and a change of the permeability...

  13. Combined permeable pavement and ground source heat pump systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grabowiecki, Piotr

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PhD thesis focuses on the performance assessment of permeable pavement systems incorporating ground source heat pumps (GSHP). The relatively high variability of temperature in these systems allows for the survival of pathogenic organisms within...

  14. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  15. Permeability, Resistivity and Strength of Fouled Railroad Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, A. J.

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    particles between the ballast particles; therefore, permeability and resistivity were also correlated. The strength properties of clean and fouled ballast were also evaluated using large direct shear box and modified direct shear box (extension in height...

  16. Stress-dependent permeability on tight gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Cesar Alexander

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    People in the oil and gas industry sometimes do not consider pressure-dependent permeability in reservoir performance calculations. It basically happens due to lack of lab data to determine level of dependency. This thesis ...

  17. Creating an iron understudy | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron reactivity. To test their process, the team created tiny iron oxide spheres with titanium added to control the Fe(II)Fe(III) ratio directly. The designer particles are also...

  18. Validity and limitations of gas-drive relative permeability measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Anand Kumar

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VALIDITY AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS-DRIVE RELA TI VE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMEN T A Thesis by ANAND KUMAR GUPTA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillxnent of the requirement for the degree of MASTER Ok SCIENCE... August, 1971 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering VALIDITY AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS-DRIVE RELATIVE PERMEABILITY MEASUREMENT A Thesis by ANAND KUMAR GUPTA Approved as to style and content by: ( airman of Committee) ber) Head of Department) (Member...

  19. Water permeability and microstructure of three old concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearn, N.; Detwiler, R.J.; Sframeli, C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of the permeability of concrete to water is complicated by the self-sealing phenomenon, the progressive reduction of flow during the test. Many researchers have attributed self sealing to the hydration of previously unreacted cement on exposure to water. This paper describes permeability tests on concretes continuously hydrated for 26 years. Backscattered electron images show that virtually no unhydrated cement remains in these specimens, yet they exhibit self-sealing behavior.

  20. Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)

  1. Investigation of the rate sensitivity of pseudo relative permeabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brittain, Charles Finney

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of hypothetical reservoir stratifications were considered. Cross-sectional simulation runs were made using each stratification case for a range of waterflood injection rates and endpoint mobility ratios. Dynamic pseudo relative permeabilities were calculated... , These dynamic pseudo relative permeabilities were developed for those reservoirs that do not satisfy the assumptions of the vertical equilibrium or viscous-dominated pKr models. For waterflooding a stratified oil reservoir, fluid flow rate (velocity...

  2. The effect of various states of stress on the permeability of Berea sandstone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gatto, Henrietta G

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES. Rock Samples. Specimen Preparation. Triaxial Apparatus. Permeability Measurements. Data Reduction. Performance of the Tests. TEST RESULTS. Hydrostatic Stress Conditions. Triaxial Test Results; Stress vs. Permeability.... . Uniaxial Strain Data Triaxial Test Results; Stress-Strain Data. . . . . . . Observational Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . DISCUSSION. Whole Rock Permeability. Fracture (Pre-cut Specimen) Permeability. . . Significance...

  3. Treatment of Arsenic, Heavy Metals, and Acidity Using a Mixed ZVI-Compost PRB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, R.; Smyth, D; Blowes, D; Spink, L; Wilkin, R; Jewett, D; Weisener, C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 30-month performance evaluation of a pilot permeable reactive barrier (PRB) consisting of a mixture of leaf compost, zero-valent iron (ZVI), limestone, and pea gravel was conducted at a former phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facility in Charleston, SC. The PRB is designed to remove heavy metals and arsenic from groundwater by promoting microbially mediated sulfate reduction and sulfide-mineral precipitation and arsenic and heavy metal sorption. Performance monitoring showed effective treatment of As, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Ni from concentrations as high as 206 mg L{sup -1}, 2.02 mg L{sup -1}, 0.324 mg L{sup -1}, 1060 mg L{sup -1}, and 2.12 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, entering the PRB, to average concentrations of <0.03 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.003 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.001 mg L{sup -1}, < 0.23 mg L{sup -1}, and <0.003 mg L{sup -1}, respectively, within the PRB. Both As(III) and As(V) were effectively removed from solution with X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis of core samples indicating the presence of As(V) in oxygen-bound form and As(III) in both oxygen- and sulfur-bound forms. XANES solid phase sulfur analysis indicated decreases in the peak amplitude of intermediate oxidized sulfur species and sulfate components with increasing distance and depth within the PRB.

  4. Iron pages of HTSC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparov, V. A., E-mail: vgasparo@issp.ac.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data are presented on the superconducting and electronic properties of iron-based high-temperature superconductors in the normal and superconducting states. The following topics are discussed: lattice structure; structure of magnetic vortices; magnetic penetration depth; Fermi surface; isotope effect; and critical magnetic fields both in oxide compounds of 1111 type and oxide-free compounds of 122, 111, and 011 types as a function of the doping level, temperature, and external pressure.

  5. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  6. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  7. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  8. Upscaling verticle permeability within a fluvio-aeolian reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical permeability (k{sub v}) is a crucial factor in many reservoir engineering issues. To date there has been little work undertaken to understand the wide variation of k{sub v} values measured at different scales in the reservoir. This paper presents the results of a study in which we have modelled the results of a downhole well tester using a statistical model and high resolution permeability data. The work has demonstrates and quantifies a wide variation in k{sub v} at smaller, near wellbore scales and has implications for k{sub v} modelling at larger scales.

  9. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  10. Iron efficiency in sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esty, James Craig

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) James Craig Esty, B, S. , Panhandle State College Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Arthur B. Onken Dr. Lloyd R. Hossner R tt *ht ' d f * ' g * gh L~Sh bicolor (L. ) Moenchj parental lines and Fl hybrids indicate varying degrees of iron (Fe...) utilization. Visual ratings after seven days of Fe stress indicated only one hybrid, ATx 378 x RTx 2536, to be green or Fe efficient. Hybrids or parental lines rated partially chlorotic were: ATx 378 x RTx 415 and RTx 2536. Those sorghums rated chlorotic...

  11. Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Backe, Knut

    Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength, and Shrinkage K.R. Backe oilwell cements. The results show that the curing characteristics are a function of temperature and that there is a correlation between shrinkage and cement content. The paper also introduces a new mechanism for gas migration

  12. MULTILEVEL FAST MULTIPOLE METHOD FOR MODELING PERMEABLE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    MULTILEVEL FAST MULTIPOLE METHOD FOR MODELING PERMEABLE STRUCTURES USING CONFORMAL FINITE ELEMENTS #12;Copyright c Kubilay Sertel All Rights Reserved 2003 #12;ABSTRACT MULTILEVEL FAST MULTIPOLE METHOD fast multipole method for impen- etrable targets in the context of flat-triangular geometry

  13. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement (PICP) for Stormwater Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement (PICP) for Stormwater Management Benefits and Uses · Potential for Extended Pavement Life Due to Well Drained Base and Reduced Freeze-Thaw · No curing time Cost Can Be Comparable for PICP with Reduced Stormwater Infrastructure VS. Standard Pavement

  14. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  15. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  16. Property measurement and correlation for homogeneous and naturally fractured low permeability cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Jin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pseudopressures for fracture permeabilities of I, 10, 100, and 1000 md are plotted versus time, with other parameters being constant. Fig, 6. 3 shows that as fracture permeability increases, the convergence time decreases because the rate of gas flow from...

  17. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  18. LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundstrom, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THE STRIPA MINE AND,PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE ANDPERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND

  19. Evidence of Pressure Dependent Permeability in Long-Term Shale Gas Production and Pressure Transient Responses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Rosales, Fabian 1986-

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The current state of shale gas reservoir dynamics demands understanding long-term production, and existing models that address important parameters like fracture half-length, permeability, and stimulated shale volume assume constant permeability...

  20. Transcriptional and translational regulatory responses to iron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique cultures to iron limitation in natural seawater media supplemented with a siderophore to chelate iron. MethodologyPrincipal Findings:...

  1. Evaluation of a permeability-porosity relationship in a low permeability creeping material using a single transient test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash; Saint-Marc, Jérémie; 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2008.10.003

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for the evaluation of the permeability-porosity relationship in a low-permeability porous material using the results of a single transient test. This method accounts for both elastic and non-elastic deformations of the sample during the test and is applied to a hardened class G oil well cement paste. An initial hydrostatic undrained loading is applied to the sample. The generated excess pore pressure is then released at one end of the sample while monitoring the pore pressure at the other end and the radial strain in the middle of the sample during the dissipation of the pore pressure. These measurements are back analysed to evaluate the permeability and its evolution with porosity change. The effect of creep of the sample during the test on the measured pore pressure and volume change is taken into account in the analysis. This approach permits to calibrate a power law permeability-porosity relationship for the tested hardened cement paste. The porosity sensitivity exponent of the power...

  2. Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 2. Influence of fluid chemistry on flow and functionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Bruce

    Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 2. Influence of fluid chemistry on flow and functionally; accepted 14 July 2004; published 14 October 2004. [1] Bedding-parallel permeability of illite-rich shale Geochemistry: Low-temperature geochemistry; KEYWORDS: permeability, shale, fluid chemistry Citation: Kwon, O

  3. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coale, Kenneth H.

    2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the Southern Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments. Seattle, WA. Geological Society of America. Coale, K., 2003. Open Ocean Iron Enrichment Experiments: What they have told us, what they have not. American Society for Limnology and Oceanography and The Oceanography Society, Honolulu, February 2004. Coale, K., 2004. Recent Research from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), in Taking the Heat: What is the impact of ocean fertilization on climate and ocean ecology? Science of earth and sky. AAAS, February 12-16, Seattle, WA

  4. Tubular hydrogen permeable metal foil membrane and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieri, Stephen N.; Birdsell, Stephen A.; Barbero, Robert S.; Snow, Ronny C.; Smith, Frank M.

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A tubular hydrogen permeable metal membrane and fabrication process comprises obtaining a metal alloy foil having two surfaces, coating the surfaces with a metal or metal alloy catalytic layer to produce a hydrogen permeable metal membrane, sizing the membrane into a sheet with two long edges, wrapping the membrane around an elongated expandable rod with the two long edges aligned and overlapping to facilitate welding of the two together, placing the foil wrapped rod into a surrounding fixture housing with the two aligned and overlapping foil edges accessible through an elongated aperture in the surrounding fixture housing, expanding the elongated expandable rod within the surrounding fixture housing to tighten the foil about the expanded rod, welding the two long overlapping foil edges to one another generating a tubular membrane, and removing the tubular membrane from within the surrounding fixture housing and the expandable rod from with the tubular membrane.

  5. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS FOR THE PILOT IN-SITU CHROMIUM REDUCTION TEST AT RIVERBANK ARMY AMMUNITIONS PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridley, M

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatability study was conducted at Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant's (RBAAP) Site 17, to evaluate the effectiveness of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup 6+}). The chromium contamination at Site 17 is hydrologically isolated and unsuitable for standard extraction and treatment (pump and treat). The majority of the chromium contamination at Site 17 is trapped within the fine grain sediments of a clay/slit zone (45 to 63). The PRB was established above and adjacent to the contaminated zone at Site 17 to reduce the hexavalent chromium as it leaches out of the contaminated clay/silt zone separating the A zone from the A zone. Site 17 and the monitoring network are described in the In-Situ Chromium Reduction Treatability Study Work Plan (CH2MHILL, January 2004). The PRB was created by reducing naturally occurring Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} with the injection of a buffered sodium dithionite solution into subsurface chromium source area. The Cr{sup 6+} leaching out of the contaminated clay/silt zone and migrating through the PRB is reduced by Fe{sup 2+} to Cr{sup 3+} and immobilized (Amonette, et al., 1994). The sodium dithionite will also reduce accessible Cr{sup 6+}, however the long-term reductant is the Fe{sup 2+}. Bench scale tests (Appendix A) were conducted to assess the quantity and availability of the naturally occurring iron at Site 17, the ability of the sodium dithionite to reduce the hexavalent chromium and Fe within the sediments, and the by-products produced during the treatment. Appendix A, provides a detailed description of the laboratory treatability tests, and provides background information on the technologies considered as possible treatment options for Site 17. Following the sodium dithionite treatment, groundwater/treatment solution was extracted to remove treatment by-products (sulfate, manganese, and iron). The following sections briefly discuss the current treatment status, future recommendations for Site 17, and future recommendations for the application of sodium dithionite at additional sites. At the completion of the treatability test, none of the wells at Site 17 had detectable hexavalent chromium, but the sulfate, iron, and manganese concentrations were detected and exceeded the CA secondary drinking water standards. The extraction done after the injection of the sodium dithionite solution to remove the sulfate, manganese, and iron has to a large extent negated the effectiveness of the iron reduction. Riverbank's local groundwater is naturally high in dissolved oxygen (concentration range at Site 17: 1.8 to 6.0 mg/l) and moving this type of groundwater through the reduced zone caused oxidation of the Fe2+ within the treatment zone, followed by a new release of hexavalent chromium detected in one of the treatment wells. Additional extraction at Site 17 will continue to degrade the PRB, threatening to release additional Cr{sup 6+} into the groundwater. Sulfate and manganese only exceed the CA secondary drinking water standards in the area immediately surrounding the PRB. It is unlikely that these contaminants will threaten any water supply wells in the area. The chromium concentrations are increasing in IW-17. The current concentration is still only a third of the original concentration. It might be worth investigating some of the new zero valent iron treatments, such as nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to replace the in-situ naturally occurring iron, which may no longer be available for reduction. The NZVI has been successfully tested at NASA in Florida (O'Hara, 2006), and demonstrated no release of metals from the natural sediments. This might also be a viable option for other sites at RBAAP.

  6. An analysis of the accuracy of relative permeability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Teh-Ming

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties Used in Sample Study. . . 2. Summary of Cases Run 34 3. Summary of Sample Properties. 36 4. Comparison of the Relative Error 51 5. Error in Water Infection Rate. 57 6. Influence of Different Magnitude of Measurement Error. 75 LIST QF FIGURES.... Pressure Variation. 27 8. Simulated Measurement Errors. 31 Estimation Deviation Distribution of k for Cases 1, 5, 6, 7. 41 10 Estimation Deviation Distribution of k for Cases 1, 5, 6, 7. 42 Standard Deviation Distribution of Oil Relative Permeability...

  7. Low permeability gas reservoir production using large hydraulic fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holditch, Stephen A

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extending up to three thousand feet from the producing well. Also, a model simulating a nuclear cavity was designed. This model simulated a well containing an eighty foot radius cavity with a fractured zone of one hundred times the reservoir permeability... of each system was prepared. The results of this study showed that all fractures of greater than one thousand foot radius had greater productivity and greater cumu- lative gas produced than did the nuclear cavity. It appears that large hydraulic...

  8. Semi-analytical estimates of permeability obtained from capillary pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huet, Caroline Cecile

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ..............................................................................................................................................(2.7) Where ? is the pore size distribution index. This model is commonly used for consolidated porous media. In 1980, Van Genuchten26 adopted a capillary pressure model to predict the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Van... on permeability and its prediction ? the first part of the derivation follows the work of Wyllie and Gardner.3 Their model describes the porous media as a bundle of capillary tubes featuring a random connection of pore spaces. Some of the assumptions made are...

  9. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  10. Porosity and permeability of Eastern Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeder, D.J.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight Devonian gas shale samples from the Appalachian basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian Age Huron member of the Ohio shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eight core sample consists of Middle Devonian Age Marcellus shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, WV. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the work has identified a number of geological factors that influence gas production from organic-rich shales. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and gas permeability of the rock matrix is commonly less than 0.1 ..mu..d at reservoir stress. The Marcellus shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10%, and a surprisingly high permeability of 20 ..mu..d. Gas permeability of the Marcellus was highly stress-dependent, however; doubling the net confining stress reduced the permeability by nearly 70%. The conclusion reached from this study is that the gas productivity potential of Devonian shale in the Appalachian basin is influenced by a wide range of geologic factors. Organic content, thermal maturity, natural fracture spacing, and stratigraphic relationships between gray and black shales all affect gas content and mobility. Understanding these factors can improve the exploration and development of Devonian shale gas.

  11. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, Balu (Airmont, NY); Downing, Kenneth B. (Greenville, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (i) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (ii) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (iii) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: e) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550.degree. C. and f) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 tonne per square meter.

  12. Method for reducing iron losses in an iron smelting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of smelting iron that comprises the steps of: (a) introducing a source of iron oxide, oxygen, nitrogen, and a source of carbonaceous fuel to a smelting reactor, at least some of said oxygen being continuously introduced through an overhead lance; (b) maintaining conditions in said reactor to cause (1) at least some of the iron oxide to be chemically reduced, (2) a bath of molten iron to be created and stirred in the bottom of the reactor, surmounted by a layer of slag, and (3) carbon monoxide gas to rise through the slag; (c) causing at least some of said carbon monoxide to react in the reactor with the incoming oxygen, thereby generating heat for reactions taking place in the reactor; and (d) releasing from the reactor an offgas effluent, is run in a way that keeps iron losses in the offgas relatively low. After start-up of the process is complete, steps (a) and (b) are controlled so as to: (1) keep the temperature of the molten iron at or below about 1550 C and (2) keep the slag weight at or above about 0.8 ton per square meter. 13 figs.

  13. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  14. The effects of viscous forces on three-phase relative permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, D.R.; Mahmood, S.M.; Honarpour, M.M.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of Three-Phase Relative Permeability Project (BE9) is to develop guidelines for improving the accuracy of three-phase relative permeability determinations. This report summarizes previous studies and explains the progress made at NIPER on studying the effect of variations in viscous forces on three-phase relative permeabilities by changing the viscosity of both wetting and nonwetting phases. Significant changes were observed due to viscosity variations. An increase in oil viscosity reduced the relative permeability to gas; an increase in brine/(wetting-phase) viscosity reduced the relative permeability to brine. A slight increase in gas relative permeability was also observed. These observations suggest that the viscosities of both oil and water influence three-phase permeability data. During this study, data scatter was sometimes encountered which was comparable to that of published results. The causes of this scatter are outlined in this report and remedial attempts are discussed. 20 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  16. Iron and Steel Energy Intensities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    If you are having trouble, call 202-586-8800 for help. Home > >Energy Users > Energy Efficiency Page > Iron and Steel Energy Intensities First Use of Energy Blue Bullet First Use...

  17. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder.

  18. Process for the synthesis of iron powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welbon, W.W.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing iron powder suitable for use in preparing the iron-potassium perchlorate heat-powder fuel mixture used in thermal batteries, comprises preparing a homogeneous, dense iron oxide hydroxide precipitate by homogeneous precipitation from an aqueous mixture of a ferric salt, formic or sulfuric acid, ammonium hydroxide and urea as precipitating agent; and then reducing the dense iron oxide hydroxide by treatment with hydrogen to prepare the iron powder. 2 figs.

  19. State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 2-Verifiable, Accurate Permeability Predictions, the Touch-Stone of All Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30979 State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 2- Verifiable prediction from well log data, is accurate and verifiable prediction of permeability for wells from which only the well log data is available. So far all the available models and techniques have been tried

  20. Explorations of iron-iron hydrogenase active site models by experiment and theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, Jesse Wayne

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes computational and experimental studies of synthetic complexes that model the active site of the iron-iron hydrogenase [FeFe]H2ase enzyme. Simple dinuclear iron dithiolate complexes act as functional models of the ironiron...

  1. Explorations of iron-iron hydrogenase active site models by experiment and theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tye, Jesse Wayne

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes computational and experimental studies of synthetic complexes that model the active site of the iron-iron hydrogenase [FeFe]H2ase enzyme. Simple dinuclear iron dithiolate complexes act as functional models of the ironiron...

  2. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  3. anaemia iron deficiency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bhaniani, Amit 2009-05-29 5 Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar Iron Fertilizer Engineering Websites Summary: Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Soybean with Foliar...

  4. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  5. Liquid Spills on Permeable Soil Surfaces: Experimental Confirmations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Carver S.; Keller, Jason M.

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictive tools for assessing the quantity of a spill on a soil from the observed spreading area could contribute to improving remediation when it is necessary. On a permeable soil, the visible spill area only hints about the amount of liquid that might reside below the surface. An understanding of the physical phenomena involved with spill propagation on a soil surface is key to assessing the liquid amount possibly present beneath the surface. The objective of this study is an improved prediction capability for spill behavior.

  6. Permeability of CoNbZr amorphous thin films over a wide frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, H.; Tsujimoto, H.; Shirae, K.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CoNbZr amorphous films have attracted the attention of many researchers because of their high saturation magnetization, high permeability, low coercivity, and nearly zero magnetostriction. For these films to be used, one of the important magnetic properties is the behavior of the permeability over a wide frequency range. We have measured the permeability of a square-shaped magnetic film (13 mm x 55 mm) sputtered on a glass substrate from 1 MHz to 400 MHz using a stripline. Over 400 MHz, the permeability of the magnetic film was measured using a ring-shaped sample mounted in a coaxial fixture. The wall motion permeability of CoNbZr amorphous films decreases from 1 kHz to nearly zero at 1 MHz. The rotation permeability is constant to 100 MHz and ferromagnetic resonance is observed near 1 GHz.

  7. A New Coal-Permeability Model: Internal Swelling Stress and Fracture–Matrix Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L. : Adsorption-induced coal swelling and stress:acid gas sequestration into coal seams. J Geophys. Res. (fracturing on permeability of coal. Min. Sci. Technol. 3,

  8. anion-cation permeability correlates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    outside cell High water Rose, Michael R. 16 Improved permeability prediction using multivariate analysis methods Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: . In statistics,...

  9. Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

  10. Techniques to Handle Limitations in Dynamic Relative Permeability Measurements, SUPRI TR-128

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qadeer, Suhail; Brigham, William E.; Castanier, Louis M.

    2002-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to understand the limitations of the conventional methods of calculating relative permeabilities from data obtained from displacement experiments.

  11. Liquid CO2 Displacement of Water in a Dual-Permeability Pore...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permeability contrasts exist in multilayer geological formations under consideration for carbon sequestration. To improve our understanding of heterogeneous pore-scale...

  12. The role of geology in the behavior and choice of permeability predictors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, L.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L.; Lewis, J.J.M. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For effective flow-simulation models, it may be important to estimate permeability accurately over several scales of geological heterogeneity. Critical to the data analysis and permeability prediction are the volume of investigation and sampling interval of each petrophysical tool and how each relates to these geological scales. The authors examine these issues in the context of the As Sarah Field, Sirte Basin, Libya. A geological study of this braided fluvial reservoir has revealed heterogeneity at a series of scales. This geological hierarchy in turn possessed a corresponding hierarchy of permeability variation.The link between the geology and permeability was found to be very important in understanding well logs and core data and subsequent permeability upscaling. They found that the small scale (cm) permeability variability was better predicted using a flushed-zone resistivity, R{sub xo}, tool, rather than a wireline porosity measurement. The perm-resistivity correlation was strongest when the probe permeabilities were averaged to best match the window size of the wireline R{sub xo}. This behavior was explained by the geological variation present at this scale. For the larger scale geological heterogeneity, the production flowmeter highlighted discrepancies between flow data and averaged permeability. This yielded a layered sedimentological model interpretation and a change in averaging for permeability prediction at the bedset scale (ms-10 x ms).

  13. Semi-permeable vesicles composed of natural clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand B. Subramaniam; Jiandi Wan; Arvind Gopinath; Howard A. Stone

    2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a simple route to form robust, inorganic, semi-permeable compartments composed of montmorillonite, a natural plate-like clay mineral that occurs widely in the environment. Mechanical forces due to shear in a narrow gap assemble clay nanoplates from an aqueous suspension onto air bubbles. Translucent vesicles suspended in a single-phase liquid are produced when the clay-covered air bubbles are exposed to a variety of water-miscible organic liquids. These vesicles of clay are mechanically robust and are stable in water and other liquids. The formation of clay vesicles can be described by a physical mechanism that recognizes changes in the wetting characteristics of clay-covered air bubbles in organic liquids. The clay vesicles are covered with small pores and so intrinsically exhibit size-selective permeability, which allows spontaneous compartmentalization of self-assembling molecules in aqueous environments. The results we report here expand our understanding of potential paths to micro-compartmentalization in natural settings and are of relevance to theories of colloidal aggregation, mineral cycles, and the origins of life.

  14. DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    310 DOMAIN PATTERNS AND REVERSALS BY WALL MOVEMENTS OF THIN FILMS OF IRON AND NICKEL IRON By C. E directions but in the case of the nickel-iron film the reversal of magnetization in the perpendicular domain reversals in nickel-iron films observed by the Kerr effect, and that of Williams and Sherwood [2

  15. Good Sources of Nutrients: Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Amanda; Replogle, Jacqueline

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    ENP-2881 08-08 Good Sources of Nutrients Iron Buenas fuentes de nutrientes Hierro La funci?n del hierro Transporta ox?geno en la sangre para que su ? cuerpo tenga energ?a Facilita crecimiento? Proporciona energ?a que ayuda a los ni?os a ? jugar y...

  16. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  17. System and method for measuring permeability of materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  18. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  19. Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Predicting fault permeability at depth: incorporating natural permeability controls on fluid flow in oil and gas reservoirs. Fault zones are composed of many deformation elements will receive 20 weeks bespoke, residential training of broad relevance to the oil and gas industry: 10 weeks

  20. Liquid-Gas Relative Permeabilities in Fractures: Effects of Flow Structures, Phase Transformation and Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Transformation and Surface Roughness Chih-Ying Chen June 2005 Financial support was provided through the Stanford permeabilities, accounting for phase transformations, the inviscid bubble train models coupled with relative permeability concepts were developed. The phase transformation effects were evaluated by accounting

  1. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  2. How Permeability Depends on Stress and Pore Pressure in Coalbeds: A New Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pressure falloff and matrix shrinkage because of gas desorption together in one equation. The matrixHow Permeability Depends on Stress and Pore Pressure in Coalbeds: A New Model Ian Palmer, SPE, permeability is sensitive to changes in stress or pore pressure (i.e., changes in effective stress). This paper

  3. Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbert, Bruce

    Permeability of illite-bearing shale: 1. Anisotropy and effects of clay content and loading-rich shale recovered from the Wilcox formation and saturated with 1 M NaCl solution varies from 3 Ã? 10Ã?22 transport; KEYWORDS: permeability, shale, connected pore space Citation: Kwon, O., A. K. Kronenberg, A. F

  4. STRUCTURE OF THE LOW PERMEABLE NATURALLY FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR Chrystel Dezayes*, Albert Genter** & Benot Valley ***

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 STRUCTURE OF THE LOW PERMEABLE NATURALLY FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR AT SOULTZ Chrystel cluster appears as a fractured reservoir developed within a low permeable matrix. Fracture zones represent) where reservoir development involved the reactivation of the pre- existing fractures in the granite [16

  5. A Permeability Model for Coal and Other Fractured, Sorptive-Elastic Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson; Richard L. Christiansen

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the derivation of a new equation that can be used to model the permeability behavior of a fractured, sorptive-elastic media, such as coal, under variable stress conditions commonly used during measurement of permeability data in the laboratory. The model is derived for cubic geometry under biaxial or hydrostatic confining pressures. The model is also designed to handle changes in permeability caused by adsorption and desorption of gases from the matrix blocks. The model equations can be used to calculate permeability changes caused by the production of methane from coal as well as the injection of gases, such as carbon dioxide, for sequestration in coal. Sensitivity analysis of the model found that each of the input variables can have a significant impact on the outcome of the permeability forecast as a function of changing pore pressure; thus, accurate input data are essential. The permeability model can also be used as a tool to determine input parameters for field simulations by curve-fitting laboratory-generated permeability data. The new model is compared to two other widely used coal permeability models using a hypothetical coal with average properties.

  6. CALCULATION AND USE OF STEAM/WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    c c c i i c I CALCULATION AND USE OF STEAM/WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS to calculate the steam/water relative permeabilities in geothermal reservoirs was developed and applied. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PRZVIOUS PIETHODS OF CALCLXATING STEAM/TtJATER RELATIVE PERPlEX3ILITIES IN GEOTHE?XAL XZSERVOIFG

  7. New cement additives that eliminate cement body permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talabani, S.; Hareland, G. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation was carried out replacing some currently used cement additives with three new additives. The experiments performed monitored the cement slurry pressure during the setting of the cement. During the setting period of the cement, two time cycles of cement expansion and contraction are observed. This is due to the individual contribution of each component in the cement mixture. To obtain the optimum tightness of the cement, final contraction in the cycle is crucial for blockage of gas migration. In these studies optimum concentrations of the additives were obtained experimentally, where the cyclic pressure behavior of the cement was optimized and the permeability reduced for the best final cement results. The parameters investigated in this study were; change in the applied pressure on the slurry with time, the compressive strength and permeability of the set cement. The major causes of the early microfractures are the in-complete cement-water reaction, low compressive strength of the set cement, and the sudden change in the hydrostatic pressure as the cement changes its phase from liquid to a solid state. The fluid loss and free water content were measured and controlled for each sample. The results of this study is that proper amounts of X-C polymer, Anchorage clay, Ironite Sponge, and Synthetic Rubber can be used to optimize the compressive strength and eliminate both micro-fracture and micro-annulus. There are certain limits to the amount and type of Synthetic Rubber powder which cement will set and the micro-fractures are eliminated. This experimental approach can be used to eliminate gas migration through a cement design that is environmentally safe, inexpensive, and uses recyclable materials.

  8. Porosity and permeability of eastern Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soeder, D.J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight samples of Devonian gas shale from the Appalachian Basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian age Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eighth core sample consists of Middle Devonian age Marcellus Shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, West Virginia. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the results have also shown that there are a number of previously unknown factors which influence or control gas production from organic-rich shales of the Appalachian Basin. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron Shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and permeability of the rock matrix to gas is less than 0.1 microdarcy at reservoir stress. The Marcellus Shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10% under stress with a fairly strong ''adsorption'' component. Permeability to gas (K/sub infinity/ was highly stress-dependent, ranging from about 20 microdarcies at a net stress of 3000 psi down to about 5 microdarcies at a net stress of 6000 psi. The conclusion reached from this study is that Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin is a considerably more complex natural gas resource than previously thought. Production potential varies widely with geographic location and stratigraphy, just as it does with other gas and oil resources. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Energy Dissipation Properties of Cementitious Materials: Applications in Mechanical Damping and Characterization of Permeability and Moisture State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Chin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    variety of frequency ranges. Composite model prediction indicated that permeability of saturated cementitious materials studied in this research is likely dependent on the amount of free water in the pores. Permeability can be inferred from the pore...

  10. Three Dimensional Controlled-source Electromagnetic Edge-based Finite Element Modeling of Conductive and Permeable Heterogeneities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Souvik

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ordnance, is often highly conductive and magnetically permeable. Interpretation of the CSEM response in the presence of cultural noise requires an understanding of electromagnetic field diffusion and the effects of anomalous highly conductive and permeable...

  11. Probabilistic analysis of air void structure and its relationship to permeability and moisture damage of hot mix asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castelblanco Torres, Adhara

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of the studies primarily focused on relating permeability to the average percent air voids in the mix. Such relationships cannot predict permeability accurately due to the different distributions of air void structures at a given average percent of air voids...

  12. The Effect of Acid Additives on Carbonate Rock Wettability and Spent Acid Recovery in Low Permeability Gas Carbonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saneifar, Mehrnoosh

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent acid retention in the near-wellbore region causes reduction of relative permeability to gas and eventually curtailed gas production. In low-permeability gas carbonate reservoirs, capillary forces are the key parameters that affect the trapping...

  13. ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY OF THE ULTRASOUND-INDUCED BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER OPENING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    ACOUSTIC CAVITATION ASSESSMENT OF THE REVERSIBILITY AND PERMEABILITY cavitation can be potentially used to assess the reversibility and permeability of the induced BBB opening. Method: This study links the microbubble dynamics, represented by the cavitation dose, as monitored

  14. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews3 Water

  15. Iron production maintenance effectiveness system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augstman, J.J. [Dofasco Inc., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, an internal study in the Coke and Iron Maintenance Department identified the opportunities available to increase production, by decreasing unscheduled maintenance delays from 4.6%. A five year front loaded plan was developed, and presented to the company president. The plan required an initial investment of $1.4 million and a conservative break-even point was calculated to be 2.5 years. Due to budget restraints, it would have to be self-funded, i.e., generate additional production or savings, to pay for the program. The program began in 1991 at number 2 coke plant and the blast furnaces. This paper will describe the Iron Production Maintenance Effectiveness System (ME), which began with the mechanical and pipefitting trades.

  16. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  17. Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are drawn into the fractured reservoir rock under vacuum.equivalent fractured rock permeability in the reservoir is

  18. Effects of thermal sulfate reduction on permeability distributions of the Norphlet Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, T.L.; Surdam, R.C. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Framework grain coatings are common in the Norphlet. Clay coatings are present throughout the depth range (16,000 to 22,000 ft) over which significant variations of permeability occur. Pyrobitumen coatings occur within the deep, low-permeability interval (approximately 18,000-20,000 ft) and the deeper (greater than 20,000 ft), more permeable interval. Both types of coatings may be important in preserving porosity during portions of the burial history of the Norphlet sandstones; however, their occurrence does not correlate with observed variations in permeability. Diagenetic reactions associated with thermal sulfate reduction provide a mechanism for the dissolution of carbonate cements in deep zones characterized by enhanced permeabilities. Protons generated from dissociation of H{sub 2}S produced during sulfate reduction results in the dissolution of carbonate cements. To be effective, this process must remove cements that precipitated after grain coatings. Uncoated quartz grains produce quartz overgrowths. Vertical permeability distributions within the Norphlet suggest that early and intermediate diagenetic carbonate and sulfate cements, sourced from the intercalated, interdunal pond strata, were redistributed throughout the dune sands. Portions of carbonate cements were either dissolved or the extent of their precipitation was reduced as thermal decarboxylation was closely followed by the initiation of sulfate reduction. Hence, variations in Norphlet permeability distributions are in part the result of diagenetic reactions associated with thermal sulfate reduction and, therefore, can be predicted using kinetic modeling of sulfate reaction.

  19. Iron speciation and its biological availability in seawater: A workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, M.L.; Bruland, K.W.

    1995-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This workshop brought together marine chemists with expertise in iron chemistry and biologists with expertise in the role of iron in phytoplankton production to discuss controversies regarding the role of iron in oceanic primary productivity and global climatic change. A new paradigm for marine iron biogeochemistry was generated. The five major new items within this paradigm included (1) the nature of iron inputs to the sea, (2) chemical speciation of iron in seawater, (3) relationships between iron chemistry and marine microbial community dynamics, (4) adaptations of marine microbes to iron input, and (5) ecological and biogeochemical implications of changes in iron supply to the sea.

  20. Stress- and Chemistry-Mediated Permeability Enhancement/Degradation in Stimulated Critically-Stressed Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Elsworth; Abraham S. Grader; Chris Marone; Phillip Halleck; Peter Rose; Igor Faoro; Joshua Taron; André Niemeijer; Hideaki Yasuhara

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work has investigated the interactions between stress and chemistry in controlling the evolution of permeability in stimulated fractured reservoirs through an integrated program of experimentation and modeling. Flow-through experiments on natural and artificial fractures in Coso diorite have examined the evolution of permeability under paths of mean and deviatoric stresses, including the role of dissolution and precipitation. Models accommodating these behaviors have examined the importance of incorporating the complex couplings between stress and chemistry in examining the evolution of permeability in EGS reservoirs. This document reports the findings of experiment [1,2] and analysis [3,4], in four sequential chapters.

  1. Effect of permeability on cooling of magmatic intrusion in a goethermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.H.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient cooling of magmatic intrusion in a geothermal reservoir due to conduction and convection is studied. The effects of overlying cap rock and different horizontal and vertical permeability of the reservoir are considered. Results are compared to the data from Salton Sea Geothermal Field. It is also observed that multiple layers of convection cells exist when horizontal permeability is much larger than the vertical permeability. The sharp dropoff of surface heat flow observed at Salton Sea Geothermal Field is confirmed by numerical results. Based on these numerical results, it is possible to speculate that the age of the intrusive body is about 8000 to 12,000 years.

  2. Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laure, P. [Laboratoire J.-A. Dieudonne, CNRS UMR 6621, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M. [MINES ParisTech, CEMEF-Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, CNRS UMR 7635, BP 207 1 rue Claude, Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

  3. Permeability of consolidated incinerator facility wastes stabilized with portland cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) burns low-level radioactive wastes and mixed wastes as a method of treatment and volume reduction. The CIF generates secondary waste, which consists of ash and offgas scrubber solution. Currently the ash is stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process. The scrubber solution (blowdown) is sent to the SRS Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for treatment as wastewater. In the past, the scrubber solution was also stabilized/solidified in the Ashcrete process as blowcrete, and will continue to be treated this way for listed waste burns and scrubber solutions that do not meet the ETF Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The disposal plan for Ashcrete and special case blowcrete is to bury these containerized waste forms in shallow unlined trenches in E-Area. The WAC for intimately mixed, cement-based wasteforms intended for direct disposal specifies limits on compressive strength and permeability. Simulated waste and actual CIF ash and scrubber solution were mixed in the laboratory and cast into wasteforms for testing. Test results and related waste disposal consequences are given in this report.

  4. Characterization of tungsten films and their hydrogen permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemani?, Vincenc, E-mail: vincenc.nemanic@ijs.si; Kova?, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lungu, Cristian; Porosnicu, Corneliu [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, NILPRP, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Zajec, Bojan [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimi?eva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of tritium migration and its retention within fusion reactors is uncertain due to a significant role of the structural disorder that is formed on the surface layer after plasma exposure. Tungsten films deposited by any of the suitable methods are always disordered and contain a high density of hydrogen traps. Experiments on such films with hydrogen isotopes present a suitable complementary method, which improves the picture of the hydrogen interaction with fusion relevant materials. The authors report on the morphology, composition, and structure of tungsten films deposited by the thermionic vacuum arc method on highly permeable Eurofer substrates. Subsequently, hydrogen permeation studies through these films were carried out in a wide pressure range from 20 to 1000 mbars at 400?°C. The final value of the permeation coefficient for four samples after 24?h at 400?°C was between P?=?3.2?×?10{sup ?14}?mol?H{sub 2}/(m?s?Pa{sup 0.5}) and P?=?1.1?×?10{sup ?15}?mol H{sub 2}/(m s Pa{sup 0.5}). From the time evolution of the permeation flux, it was shown that diffusivity was responsible for the difference in the steady fluxes, as solubility was roughly the same. This is confirmed by XRD data taken on these samples.

  5. The magnetic properties of the iron-rich, iron-nickel-zinc alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupton, Paul Stephen

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1961 Major Subject Nuclear Engineering THE MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF THE IRON-RICH, IRON-NICKEL-ZINC ALLOYS A Thesis By Paul Stephen Gupton Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Ittee) Head of Oepartment...

  6. Kinetics of dissolution and bio-availability of iron in amorphous siliceous iron oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seaman, John C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Soil Science KINETICS OF DISSOLUTION AND BIO-AVAILABILITY OF IRON IN AMORPHOUS SILICEOUS IRON OXIDES A Thesis By John C. Seaman Approved as to style and content by: Richard H. Loeppert (Chair of Committee...

  7. Correcting Iron Deficiencies in Grain Sorghum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen; Coffman, Cloyce G.; Unruh, L. G.

    1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    tial for chlorosis when grown on high- ese hybrids lack the ability to fully specif_ied and the iron should be determined by atomic absorption or a method that best indicates available iron in production f_ields. The ICAP (Inductive Coupled Argon Plasma...) method of analysis is prone to evaluate some of the iron on the clay structure as well as suspended iron. Therefore, adequate (but false) values are sometimes reported. One way to avoid this problem is to air-dry the samples instead of oven-drying them...

  8. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  9. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods DOE 2011 Vehicle Technologies...

  10. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

  11. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  12. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science & Technology,Keywords: Lithium batteries, iron vanadates, insertionelectrode materials for lithium batteries, (mostly layered

  13. Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanostructure, Chemistry and Crystallography of Iron Nitride Magnetic Materials by Ultra-High-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Related Methods Nanostructure, Chemistry and...

  14. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and for radionuclides such as 226 Ra. These mineral-bound contaminants are considered immobilized under oxic conditions in mineral dissolution, releasing these bound contaminants. Reduction of structural sulfate in the ironRole of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals Elizabeth J. P

  15. Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients Undergoing Periodic EPO and Iron Treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Red Blood Cell and Iron Dynamics in Patients Undergoing Periodic EPO and Iron Treatments H in the kidneys, that stimulates red blood cell (RBC) production. Without intervention, patients suffer from, erythrocyte, red blood cell, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, iron, neocytolysis, hepcidin, EPO, hemoglobin e

  16. Electrodynamics in Iron and Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Paul Wallace

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to calculate the reflected EM fields at low amplitudes in iron and steel, more must be understood about the nature of long wavelength excitations in these metals. A bulk piece of iron is a very complex material with microstructure, a split band structure, magnetic domains and crystallographic textures that affect domain orientation. Probing iron and other bulk ferromagnetic materials with weak reflected and transmitted inductive low frequency fields is an easy operation to perform but the responses are difficult to interpret because of the complexity and variety of the structures affected by the fields. First starting with a simple single coil induction measurement and classical EM calculation to show the error is grossly under estimating the measured response. Extending this experiment to measuring the transmission of the induced fields allows the extraction of three dispersion curves which define these internal fields. One dispersion curve yielded an exceedingly small effective mass of 1.8 10^{-39}kg (1.3 10^{-9} m_e) for those spin waves. There is a second distinct dispersion curve more representative of the density function of a zero momentum bound state rather than a propagating wave. The third dispersion curve describes a magneto-elastic coupling to a very long wave length propagating mode. These experiments taken together display the characteristics of a high temperature Bose-Einstein like condensation that can be initiated by pumping two different states. A weak time dependent field drives the formation of coupled J=0 spin wave pairs with the reduced effective mass reflecting the increased size of the coherent state. These field can dominate induction measurements well past the Curie temperature.

  17. The production of iron carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.M.; Scheel, J. [Nucor Iron Carbide, Inc., Point Lisas (Trinidad and Tobago)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    From start-up in 1994 to present, Nucor`s Iron Carbide plant has overcome many obstacles in achieving design production. Many of these impediments were due to flaws in equipment design. With the integration existing within the plant, limitations in any one system reduced the operating capacity of others. For this reason, as modifications were made and system capacities were increased, the need for additional modifications became apparent. Subsequently, operating practices, maintenance scheduling, employee incentives, and production objectives were continually adapted. This paper discusses equipment and design corrections and the quality issues that contributed to achieving the plant`s production capacity.

  18. Data report: Permeability measurements under confining pressure, Legs 315 and 316, Nankai Thierry REUSCHLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Data report: Permeability measurements under confining pressure, Legs 315 and 316, Nankai Trough level two cylindrical specimens (20 mm in diameter and 15 - 20 mm in length) were drilled out

  19. Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004

  20. Evaluating permeability anisotropy in the early Jurassic Tilje formation, offshore mid-Norway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliyev, Kanan

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of evaluating permeability anisotropy in the Tilje Formation, Heidrum field, offshore mid-Norway, has been investigated by the Statoil Research Centre by a detailed combination of the geological and petrophysical data. The large...

  1. Permeability-thickness determination from transient production response at the southeast geysers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulder, D.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fetkovich production decline curve analysis method was extended for application to vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs for the purpose of estimating the permeability-thickness product (kh) from the transient production response. The analytic dimensionless terms for pressure, production rate, decline rate, and decline time were derived for saturated steam using the real gas potential and customary geothermal production units of pounds-mass per hour. The derived terms were numerically validating using ``Geysers-line`` reservoir properties at initial water saturation of 0 and at permeabilities of 1, 10, and 100 mD. The production data for 48 wells in the Southeast Geysers were analyzed and the permeability-thickness products determined from the transient production response using the Fetkovich production decline type curve. The kh results were in very good agreement with the published range at the Southeast Geysers and show regions of high permeability-thickness.

  2. The evaluation of waterfrac technology in low-permeability gas sands in the East Texas basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschirhart, Nicholas Ray

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operators believe that low-viscosity, low-proppant concentration fracture stimulation treatments known as ??waterfracs?? produce comparable stimulation results in low-permeability gas sands and are preferred because they are less expensive than gelled...

  3. Well Performance Analysis for Low to Ultra-low Permeability Reservoir Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilk, Dilhan

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    to evaluate well performance in unconventional (i.e., low to ultra-low permeability) reservoir systems. The specific tasks achieved in this work include the following: ? Integrated Diagnostics and Analysis of Production Data in Unconventional Reservoirs: We...

  4. LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundstrom, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.2 LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THEMINE AND, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST Lars Lundstrom and HakanSUMMARY REPORT Background TEST SITE Layout of test places

  5. Determination of the Controls on Permeability and Transport in Shale by Use of Percolation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Ian

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    of pore scale connectivity simulations on lattice and in the continuum allow for understanding relationships between pore topology, system porosity and system permeability. Additionally, questions regarding the role of Total Organic Carbon as well...

  6. Transport and seismoelectric properties of porous permeable rock : numerical modeling and laboratory measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Xin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to better understand the transport and seismoelectric (SE) properties of porous permeable rock. Accurate information of rock transport properties, together with pore geometry, can aid us to ...

  7. Permeability characterization and spatial modeling in complex reservoirs: use of tree classifiers and Markov Random Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez Vega, Hector H

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research presents two approaches for working with reservoir properties. The first is the application of decision tree classifiers for predicting partitioning or classifications based on well logs for improving the permeability estimations...

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of the permeability and capillary adsorption of cement model microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalzale, M. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McDonald, P.J., E-mail: p.mcdonald@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The lattice Boltzmann method is used to investigate the permeability of microstructures of cement pastes generated using the numerical models CEMHYD3D (Bentz, 1997) and {mu}IC (Bishnoi and Scrivener, 2009). Results are reported as a function of paste water-to-cement ratio and degree of hydration. The permeability decreases with increasing hydration and decreasing water-to-cement ratio in agreement with experiment. However the permeability is larger than the experimental data recorded using beam bending methods (Vichit-Vadakan and Scherer, 2002). Notwithstanding, the lattice Boltzmann results compare favourably with alternate numerical methods of permeability calculation for cement model microstructures. In addition, we show early results for the liquid/vapour capillary adsorption and desorption isotherms in the same model {mu}IC structures. The broad features of the experimental capillary porosity isotherm are reproduced, although further work is required to adequately parameterise the model.

  9. Bioclogging and Permeability Alteration by L. mesenteroides in a Sandstone Reservoir: A Reactive Transport Modeling Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Susan

    -Enhanced- Hydrocarbon-Recovery (MEHR).2 During water flooding in secondary recovery, hydrocarbons in highly permeable systems to favorable performance conditions. Applications may include microbial-enhanced-hydrocarbon-recovery

  10. Oceanographic and ecological consequences of iron localization in phytoplankton photosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkinson, Brian Matthew

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Zhang, and K.W. Bruland. 1998. An iron limitation mosaicRue, J. Conn, and K.W. Bruland. 2002. Phytoplankton ironY. Zhang, and K.W. Bruland. 1998. An iron limitation mosaic

  11. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic Diagenesis in Banded Iron Formations.J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic Diagenesis in Banded Iron Formations.J.C.G. , 1984. Suboxic diagenesis in banded iron formations.

  12. Investigation of the rate sensitivity of pseudo relative permeabilities for gas-oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Carl Kevin

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of Master of Science May 1987 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering INVESTIGATION OF THE RATE SENSITIVITY OF PSEUDO RELATIVE PERMEABILITIES FOR GAS-OIL SYSTEMS A Thesis by CARL KEVIN SMITH Approved as to style and content by: R. A, Wattenbarger...

  13. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  14. Permeability and wet-out characterization of SRIM automotive bumper beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morse, Christopher Todd

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PERMEABILITY AND WET-OUT CHARACTERIZATION OF SRIM AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER BEAMS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER TODD MORSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

  15. Empirical relationships between consolidation pressure, porosity and permeability for marine sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Robert Hwei-Nan

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The power law seems to 'be an excellent model for the relationship between porosity and permeability. The permea'bility decreased at least seven orders of magnitude faster than the porosity f' or the materials tested. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes... soil samples 29 Mineralogical analysis of' three soil samples 29 Equations for consolidation pressure- porosity relationships for three soil samples by using the power law model 36 Equations for consolidation pressure- porosity relationships...

  16. Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

  17. The iron reduction ability of various rose rootstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Garry Vernon

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and day 14. . . . . . . . 3. Summation of peak iron reduction rates in the rose genotypes at day 7, and FeEDTA concentration of peak reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page . . . . 30 . . . . 36 . . . . 38 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Iron nutrition..., usually as oxides. The amount of iron that is soluble in a soil is quite low compared to the total iron content, being dependent on the solubility of inorganic iron oxides. Soluble forms of inorganic iron include Fe +, Fe(OH) +, Fe(OH)g+ and Fe...

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Muftikian, Rosy (Tucson, AZ); Korte, Nic (Grand Junction, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products.

  19. Production of iron from metallurgical waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, David W; Iwasaki, Iwao

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering metallic iron from iron-bearing metallurgical waste in steelmaking comprising steps of providing an iron-bearing metallurgical waste containing more than 55% by weight FeO and FeO equivalent and a particle size of at least 80% less than 10 mesh, mixing the iron-bearing metallurgical waste with a carbonaceous material to form a reducible mixture where the carbonaceous material is between 80 and 110% of the stoichiometric amount needed to reduce the iron-bearing waste to metallic iron, and as needed additions to provide a silica content between 0.8 and 8% by weight and a ratio of CaO/SiO.sub.2 between 1.4 and 1.8, forming agglomerates of the reducible mixture over a hearth material layer to protect the hearth, heating the agglomerates to a higher temperature above the melting point of iron to form nodules of metallic iron and slag material from the agglomerates by melting.

  20. Helium Migration in Iron Christ's College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Helium Migration in Iron Y. Zhang Christ's College Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy the achievement at all. ii #12;Abstract A theoretical model of helium migration in body centred cubic (BCC)structure irons has been developed using the concept of the effective helium diffusion coeffi- cient

  1. Introduction Southern Ocean natural iron fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    led to immediate localized phytoplankton blooms. They also have stimulated con- siderable speculation processes motivated three field programs in 2004­ 2006. The United Kingdom led the "CROZet natural iron into surface waters, recycling of nutrients, reactivity of iron, and phytoplankton physiology. This special

  2. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations American Iron and Steel Institute For over a century, North American steel producers have worked as partners and members of the American Iron and Steel...

  3. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  4. Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Abstract:...

  5. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs. Production and Early Preservation of Lipid Biomarkers in Iron Hot Springs. Abstract: The...

  6. Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium...

  7. Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common Constituents of Natural Waters on Corrosion Electrochemical Studies of Packed Iron Powder Electrodes: Effects of Common...

  8. Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions: Effect of Amended Goethite on Microbial Community Microbial Reduction of Uranium under Iron- and Sulfate-reducing Conditions:...

  9. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Iron and Steel (NAICS 3311, 3312), October 2012 (MECS 2006)...

  10. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and...

  11. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the iron associated with fossil tissues, which occurred primarily as the mineral goethite. They then employed experiments to show that iron, derived from hemoglobin lysate,...

  12. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aqueous ferrous iron and goethite. Earth and PlanetaryAdsorption of Phosphate on Goethite in Marine Electrolytes.aqueous ferrous iron and goethite and found an equilibrium

  13. 2iron-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossoni, L [University of Pavia-CNISM; Romano, L [University of Parma, Parco Area dell Scienze; Canfield, Paul C [Ames Laboratory; Lascialfari, A [Universita degli Studi di Milano

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the static uniform spin susceptibility of Ba(Fe1?xRhx)2As2 iron-based superconductors, over a broad range of doping (0.041x0.094) and magnetic fields. At small fields (H1kOe) we observed, above the transition temperature Tc, the occurrence of precursor diamagnetism, which is not ascribable to the Ginzburg–Landau theory. On the contrary, our data agree with a phase fluctuation model, which has been used to interpret a similar phenomenology occurring in the high- Tc cuprate superconductors. Additionally, in the presence of strong fields, the unconventional fluctuating diamagnetism is suppressed, whereas Ginzburg–Landau fluctuations are found, in agreement with literature.

  14. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ki-Bok; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Jing, Lanru

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the stress-dependent permeability issue in fractured rock masses considering the effects of nonlinear normal deformation and shear dilation of fractures using a two-dimensional distinct element method program, UDEC, based on a realistic discrete fracture network realization. A series of ''numerical'' experiments were conducted to calculate changes in the permeability of simulated fractured rock masses under various loading conditions. Numerical experiments were conducted in two ways: (1) increasing the overall stresses with a fixed ratio of horizontal to vertical stresses components; and (2) increasing the differential stresses (i.e., the difference between the horizontal and vertical stresses) while keeping the magnitude of vertical stress constant. These numerical experiments show that the permeability of fractured rocks decreases with increased stress magnitudes when the stress ratio is not large enough to cause shear dilation of fractures, whereas permeability increases with increased stress when the stress ratio is large enough. Permeability changes at low stress levels are more sensitive than at high stress levels due to the nonlinear fracture normal stress-displacement relation. Significant stress-induced channeling is observed as the shear dilation causes the concentration of fluid flow along connected shear fractures. Anisotropy of permeability emerges with the increase of differential stresses, and this anisotropy can become more prominent with the influence of shear dilation and localized flow paths. A set of empirical equations in closed-form, accounting for both normal closure and shear dilation of the fractures, is proposed to model the stress-dependent permeability. These equations prove to be in good agreement with the results obtained from our numerical experiments.

  15. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  16. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from effluents containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. The present invention also provides kits, devices, and other instruments that use the above-mentioned palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds. 10 figs.

  17. IMPACT OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON THE SATURATED LIQUID PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F.; Harbour, J.

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the impact of curing temperature on the performance properties of simulated Saltstone mixes. The key performance property of interest is saturated liquid permeability (measured as hydraulic conductivity), an input to the Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Therefore, the current study was performed to measure the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity on curing temperature of Saltstone mixes, to correlate these results with measurements of Young's moduli on the same samples and to compare the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the microstructure at each curing temperature in an effort to associate this significant changes in permeability with changes in microstructure. This work demonstrated that the saturated liquid permeability of Saltstone mixes depends significantly on the curing temperature. As the curing temperature increases, the hydraulic conductivity can increase over three orders of magnitude from roughly 10{sup -9} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec over the temperature range of 20 C to 80 C. Although an increased aluminate concentration (at 0.22 M) in the ARP/MCU waste stream improves (decreases) saturated permeability for samples cured at lower temperatures, the permeabilities for samples cured at 60 C to 80 C are the same as the permeabilities measured for an equivalent mix but with lower aluminate concentration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the unsaturated flow apparatus (UFA) system can be used to measure hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples. The permeability results obtained using the UFA centrifuge system were equivalent within experimental error to the conventional permeameter results (the falling head method) obtained at MACTEC. In particular the UFA technique is best suited for the range of hydraulic conductivities between 10{sup -10} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec. Measurements of dynamic Young's moduli (E) for these mixes revealed a correlation between E and hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, it is possible to use E values to estimate the values of hydraulic conductivity. Measurement of Young's modulus is much easier than the measurement of permeability of Saltstone mixes and facilitates the measurement of the time dependence hydraulic conductivity. The results presented in this report show that changes in permeability as a function of curing temperature appear to be related to microstructural changes in the cured Saltstone mixes. Backscattered electron microscopy images revealed significant differences between the samples cured at different temperatures.

  18. Effect of permeable ribs on heat transfer and friction in a rectangular channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J.J. [Chung-Hua Polytechnic Inst., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Liou, T.M. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Power Mechanical Engineering

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To increase specific thrust and to reduce specific fuel consumption (SFC), high turbine entry gas temperature (1,400--1,600 C) has become the trend in advanced aero-engine design. Such a high gas temperature is far above the allowable metal temperature; therefore, turbine blades must be cooled in order to operate in the high gas temperature environment. Heat transfer and friction characteristics in a rectangular channel with perforated ribs arranged in-line on two opposite walls are investigated experimentally. Five perforated rib open-area ratios (0, 10, 22, 38, and 44%) and three rib pitch-to-height ratios (10, 15, and 20) are examined. The Reynolds number ranges from 5,000 to 50,000. The rib height-to-channel hydraulic diameter ratio and the channel aspect ratio are 0.081 and 4, respectively. Laser holographic interferometry is employed not only to measure the heat transfer coefficients of the ribbed wall but also to determine the rib apparent permeability. It is found that ribs with appropriate high open-area ratio and high Reynolds number are permeable, and the critical Reynolds number for evidence of flow permeability decreases with increasing rib open-area ratio. Results of local heat transfer coefficients further show that the permeable ribs have an advantage of obviating hot spots. Moreover, the duct with permeable ribs gives a higher thermal performance than that with solid ribs.

  19. Characterizing two-phase flow relative permeabilities in chemicalflooding using a pore-scale network model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qingjie; Shen, Pingping; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic pore-scale network model is presented for investigating the effects of interfacial tension and oil-water viscosity on relative permeability during chemical flooding. This model takes into account both viscous and capillary forces in analyzing the impact of chemical properties on flow behavior or displacement configuration, as opposed to the conventional or invasion percolation algorithm which incorporates capillary pressure only. The study results indicate that both water and oil relative-permeability curves are dependent strongly on interfacial tension as well as an oil-water viscosity ratio. In particular, water and oil relative-permeability curves are both found to shift upward as interfacial tension is reduced, and they both tend to become linear versus saturation once interfacial tension is at low values. In addition, the oil-water viscosity ratio appears to have only a small effect under conditions of high interfacial tension. When the interfacial tension is low, however, water relative permeability decreases more rapidly (with the increase in the aqueous-phase viscosity) than oil relative permeability. The breakthrough saturation of the aqueous phase during chemical flooding tends to decrease with the reduction of interfacial tension and may also be affected by the oil-water viscosity ratio.

  20. A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new coal-permeability model for uniaxial strain and constant confining stress conditions. The model is unique in that it explicitly considers fracture-matrix interaction during coal deformation processes and is based on a newly proposed internal-swelling stress concept. This concept is used to account for the impact of matrix swelling (or shrinkage) on fracture-aperture changes resulting from partial separation of matrix blocks by fractures that do not completely cut through the whole matrix. The proposed permeability model is evaluated with data from three Valencia Canyon coalbed wells in the San Juan Basin, where increased permeability has been observed during CH{sub 4} gas production, as well as with published data from laboratory tests. Model results are generally in good agreement with observed permeability changes. The importance of fracture-matrix interaction in determining coal permeability, demonstrated in this work using relatively simple stress conditions, underscores the need for a dual-continuum (fracture and matrix) mechanical approach to rigorously capture coal-deformation processes under complex stress conditions, as well as the coupled flow and transport processes in coal seams.

  1. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  2. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  3. Design, installation, and performance of a multi-layered permeable reactive barrier, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J. P. (John P.); Longmire, P. A. (Patrick A.); Strietelmeier, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Taylor, T. P. (Tammy P.); Den-Baars, P. S. (Peter S.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered permeable reactive barrier (PRB) has been installed in Mortandad Canyon, on the Pajarito Plateau in the north-central part of LANL, to demonstrate in-situ treatment of a suite of contaminants with dissimilar geochemical properties. The PRB will also mitigate possible vulnerabilities from downgradient contaminant movement within alluvial and deeper perched groundwater. Mortandad Canyon was selected as the location for this demonstration project because the flow of alluvial groundwater is constrained by the geology of the canyon, a large network of monitoring wells already were installed along the canyon reach, and the hydrochemistry and contaminant history of the canyon is well-documented. The PRB uses a funnel-and-gate system with a series of four reactive media cells to immobilize or destroy contaminants present in alluvial groundwater, including strontium-90, plutonium-238,239,240, americium-241, perchlorate, and nitrate. The four cells, ordered by sequence of contact with the groundwater, consist of gravel-sized scoria (for colloid removal); phosphate rock containing apatite (for metals and radionuclides); pecan shells and cotton seed admixed with gravel (bio-barrier, to deplete dissolved oxygen and destroy potential RCRA organic compounds, nitrate and perchlorate); and limestone (pH buffering and anion adsorption). Design elements of the PRB are based on laboratory-scale treatability studies and on a field investigation of hydrologic, geochemical, and geotechnical parameters. The PRB was designed with the following criteria: 1-day residence time within the biobarrier, 10-year lifetime, minimization of surface water infiltration and erosion, optimization of hydraulic capture, and minimization of excavated material requiring disposal. Each layer has been equipped with monitoring wells or ports to allow sampling of groundwater and reactive media, and monitor wells are located immediately adjacent to the up- and down-gradient perimeter of the engineered structure. Groundwater sampling upgradient, within, and downgradient of the PRB took place from May through August 2003. Concentrations of strontium-90 have diminished by 80% and 40% within the central portion of the phosphate rock (apatite) and bio-barrier cells, respectively. Higher concentrations of this radionuclide occur in groundwater near the north and south perimeters of the two cells. The non-uniform distribution of strontium-90 may result from varying residence time and saturated thickness of pore water. Initial concentrations of nitrate (8-12 parts per million or ppm as nitrate) and perchlorate (0.035 ppm) have been reduced in the phosphate rock and bio-barrier cells to concentrations that are less than method detection limits (0.01 and 0.002 ppm, respectively). Initial microbial analyses suggest the presence of both dissimilatory perchlorate- and nitrate-reducing bacterial populations, along with production of acetate and propionate, and decreasing dissolved oxygen and pH. The dominant group of perchlorate reducers consists of members of the previously described Dechloromonas genus, in the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria, which together with the Dechlorosoma genus are considered to be the dominant genera in circum-neutral mesophilic environments. Groundwater flow through the multiple PRB is taking place at a very slow rate based on similar concentrations of nitrate, perchlorate, chlorate, and chlorite in the upgradient well MCO-4B and downgradient well MCO-5. Concentrations of these constituents also increase within the limestone cell. Decreased precipitation due to extreme drought is probably responsible for decreasing saturated thickness within both the alluvium and PRB, resulting in stagnant conditions. Varying distributions of ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, iron, and manganese within the phosphate rock, bio-barrier, and limestone cells also support this hypothesis.

  4. A comparative simulation study of coupled THM processes and their effect on fractured rock permeability around nuclear waste repositories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrothermomechanical design of nuclear waste repositories.Associated with Nuclear Waste Repositories, Academic Press,rock permeability around nuclear waste repositories Jonny

  5. Characterizing two-phase flow relative permeabilities in chemical flooding using a pore-scale network model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Qingjie; Shen, Pingping; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relative permeability curves, J. Petrol. Technol . , 249-260waterflooding, J. Canada. Petrol. Technol . , Oct. , 54-62.saturations, Canad. Petrol. Technol . , 62-69. Mugan N. :

  6. Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Canon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill (April 2005)

  7. MOSSBAUER STUDIES ON THE STATE OF TIN ATOMS SEGREGATED AT THE GRAIN BOUNDARY OF IRON AND IRON ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MOSSBAUER STUDIES ON THE STATE OF TIN ATOMS SEGREGATED AT THE GRAIN BOUNDARY OF IRON AND IRON iron and iron alloys is investigated by Mossbauer source experiments. It is found that the electronic. The Mossbauer effect should be potentially a powerful technique to investigate the binding state of individual

  8. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  9. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

  10. Iron and the ecology of marine microbes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ventouras, Laure-Anne

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron is a cofactor of a number biochemical reactions that are essential for life. In the marine environment, this micronutrient is a scarce resource that limits processes of global importance such as photosynthesis and ...

  11. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, April 11, 1997--April 10, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.J.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program focused on five areas: Gel treatment in fractured systems; Gel treatment in carbonate rocks; In-depth placement of gels; Gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and Gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed toward improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the second 12 month period of a 28 month program is described.

  12. In situ permeability modification using gelled polymer systems. Topical report, June 10, 1996--April 10, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; McCool, C.S.; Heppert, J.A.; Vossoughi, S.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from a research program on the application of gelled polymer technology for in situ permeability modification are presented in this report. The objective of this technology when used with displacement processes such as waterflooding is to reduce the permeability in fractures and/or high permeability matrix zones to improve volumetric sweep efficiency of the displacement process. In production wells, the objective is to reduce water influx. The research program is focused on five areas: gel treatment in fractured systems; gel treatment in carbonate rocks; in-depth placement of gels; gel systems for application in carbon dioxide flooding; and gel treatment in production wells. The research program is primarily an experimental program directed at improving the understanding of gelled polymer systems and how these systems can be used to increase oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. A summary of progress for research conducted in the first 10 months of a 28 month program is described in the following sections.

  13. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  14. Permeability-dependent propagation of polyacrylamides under near-wellbore flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitha, P.; Chauveteau, G.; Zaitoun, A. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of polyacrylamide flow-induced retention has been observed in core experiments simulating near-wellbore flow conditions. The retention is due to the bridging of pore throats by adsorbed macromolecules previously stretched under elongational flow. It occurs in low-to-medium permeability granular packs (up to k = 1,000 mD in the test conditions) and leads to progressive but severe plugging. The present paper shows that polymer placement in the reservoir surrounding the wellbore can be very different from what is predicted from stable values of polymer mobility. In heterogeneous reservoirs, polymer penetration in low-permeability layers is expected to be strongly reduced, thus allowing a deeper penetration into higher permeability zones. The polymer can thus improve reservoir conformance around the wellbore when injected directly through the entire opened interval. Near-wellbore polymer or gel treatments may thus not require zone isolation to be efficient.

  15. Effects of stress-dependent permeability on methane production from deep coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, C.R.; Bell, G.J.; Bumb, A.C.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane resources are frequently associated with deeply buried coal seams which are also saturated with water; therefore, knowledge of their hydrologic properties is essential. As the formation pressure is lowered during dewatering, permeability may decline by one to two orders of magnitude. Theoretical relationships have been developed which fit laboratory data well for porosity and permeability as a function of effective stress. It was discovered that for practical purposes permeability is a function only of effective stress and the ratio of initial fracture porosity to matrix compressibility (fracture closure pressure). An approximate analytical solution for well testing has been obtained using the model developed. A new method for pump test analysis is then proposed.

  16. Effect of Lamination Conditions on the Gas Permeability and Adhesion Strength of Green Ceramic Tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Krueger

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas permeability and adhesion strength of laminated green ceramic tapes were determined for samples comprised of barium titanate as the dielectric, and poly(vinyl butyral) and dioctyl phthalate as the main components of the binder mixture. The green tapes were laminated for times of 2-10 min, pressures of 1.8-7 MPa, and temperatures of 35-85?C. The adhesion strength, which was measured by a peel test, increased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The permeability, which was determined from gas flux measurements, decreased with increasing lamination time, temperature, and pressure. The dependence of the permeability and adhesion strength on lamination time, temperature, and pressure is qualitatively consistent with a mechanistic description of the lamination process as one of binder flow in porous media

  17. Fracture permeability and seismic wave scattering--Poroelastic linear-slip interface model for heterogeneous fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Schoenberg's Linear-slip Interface (LSI) model for single, compliant, viscoelastic fractures has been extended to poroelastic fractures for predicting seismic wave scattering. However, this extended model results in no impact of the in-plane fracture permeability on the scattering. Recently, we proposed a variant of the LSI model considering the heterogeneity in the in-plane fracture properties. This modified model considers wave-induced, fracture-parallel fluid flow induced by passing seismic waves. The research discussed in this paper applies this new LSI model to heterogeneous fractures to examine when and how the permeability of a fracture is reflected in the scattering of seismic waves. From numerical simulations, we conclude that the heterogeneity in the fracture properties is essential for the scattering of seismic waves to be sensitive to the permeability of a fracture.

  18. Dechlorination of TCE with palladized iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Q.; Muftikian, R.; Korte, N.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to various methods, such as an above-ground method and an in-ground method, of using a palladized iron bimetallic system for the dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds from various effluents or contaminated soil containing the same. The use of palladized iron bimetallic system results in the dechlorination of the chlorinated organic compound into environmentally safe reaction products. 10 figs.

  19. Mineralogical characteristics and transformations during long-term operation of a zerovalent iron reactive barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Debra Helen [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Roh, Yul [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design and operation of Fe{sup 0} permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) can be improved by understanding the long-term mineralogical transformations that occur within PRBs. Changes in mineral precipitates, cementation, and corrosion of Fe{sup 0} filings within an in situ pilot-scale PRB were examined after the first 30 months of operation and compared with results of a previous study of the PRB conducted 15 months earlier using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy employing energy dispersive X-ray and backscatter electron analyses. Iron (oxy)hydroxides, aragonite, and maghemite and/or magnetite occurred throughout the cores collected 30 mo after installation. Goethite, lepidocrocite, mackinawite, aragonite, calcite, and siderite were associated with oxidized and cemented areas, while green rusts were detected in more reduced zones. Basic differences from our last detailed investigation include (i) mackinawite crystallized from amorphous FeS, (ii) aragonite transformed into calcite, (iii) akaganeite transformed to goethite and lepidocrocite, (iv) iron (oxy)hydroxides and calcium and iron carbonate minerals increased, (v) cementation was greater in the more recent study, and (vi) oxidation, corrosion, and disintegration of Fe{sup 0} filings were greater, especially in cemented areas, in the more recent study. If the degree of corrosion and cementation that was observed from 15 to 30 mo after installation continues, certain portions of the PRB (i.e., up-gradient entrance of the ground water to the Fe{sup 0} section of the PRB) may last less than five more years, thus reducing the effectiveness of the PRB to mitigate contaminants.

  20. Permeability Change of Crystalline Silicate Mineral-Packed Bed Column by Highly Alkaline Plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo Usui; Yuichi Niibori; Hitoshi Mimura [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-6-01-2, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Osamu Tochiyama [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the construction of the geological disposal system, the use of the cementitious material may change the permeability of the natural barrier around the repository. Cementitious materials may alter the pH of ground water to highly alkaline. Also, the potential permeability change of the natural barrier is one of the notable factors for performance assessments of geological disposal systems. In the high pH region, the solubility of silica is very high compared to that in the natural pH (around 8). Therefore, highly alkaline groundwater would dissolve and alter a part of rock surface. Usui et al. (2005) reported that the change of mineral pore structure due to chemical reaction is the key factor to consider the change of the permeability [5-6]. Moreover, such a change of the pore structure was considered to be the result of the spatial heterogeneity of chemical composition. Since such spatial heterogeneity exists also in the sedimentary rocks consisting of crystalline minerals such as quartz and feldspar, we need to examine natural rock, in order to obtain more reliable understanding about the change of permeability induced by highly alkaline groundwater (plume). In this study, silica sand as crystalline mineral was packed in the column, and the effect of dissolution induced by the highly alkaline plume on the permeability-change was examined. The silica sand particles mainly consist of SiO{sub 2} and include Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, and K{sub 2}O. The volumetric flow rate and the pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the column were measured, and the permeability was calculated. At the same time, the concentrations of elements in the fluid were measured by ICP-AES. The experimental result showed that permeability decreased gradually, although the silica sand was continuously dissolved in the column. The behavior of the permeability is considered to be the result from the rearrangement of the particles, or precipitation of secondary mineral. In the column test using the silica sand as packed mineral, the flow-path seems to be clogged by the rearrangement of the particles rather than the increase of the pore space between the particles. (authors)

  1. Device and method for the measurement of gas permeability through membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Ackerman, John; Borgialli, Ron; Hamann, Jerry; Muknahalliptna, Suresh

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for the measuring membrane permeability in electrical/electrochemical/photo-electrochemical fields is provided. The device is a permeation cell and a tube mounted within the cell. An electrode is mounted at one end of the tube. A membrane is mounted within the cell wherein a corona is discharged from the electrode in a general direction toward the membrane thereby generating heated hydrogen atoms adjacent the membrane. A method for measuring the effects of temperature and pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity is also provided.

  2. Effect of different intravenous iron preparations on lymphocyte intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and subpopulation survival.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Ajay; Zhuo, Jiaying; Zha, Junli; Reddy, Srinivasa; Olp, Jonathan; Pai, Amy

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV iron compounds induced greater intracellular ROS generation,IV iron preparations on intracellular reactive oxygen species generationIV iron preparations on intracellular immune cell ROS generation

  3. Iron availability limits the ocean nitrogen inventory stabilizing feedbacks between marine denitrification and nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, J. Keith; Doney, Scott C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Falkowski (2001), Iron availability, cellular iron quotas,C. Doney (2007), Iron availability limits the ocean nitrogentemperature, P and Fe availability. Diazotrophs have higher

  4. Wood decomposition after five years in anaerobic nitrate rich groundwaters: Implications for lifetime of NitrexTM Permeable Reactive Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    decomposition at the WB barrier. Sulfate reduction: SO4 2- + 2CH2O + 2H+ 2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O 1.2. Questions 2 Abstract Permeable reactive barriers can benefit aquatic ecosystems by using wood chips to remove carbon was more important in the wood from the barriers. Keywords Nitrate removal, Permeable Reactive

  5. RESPONSE TO EPA COMMENT DATED JUNE 7, 2012: Review of Alternate Data Sets for Defining Permeability of Crushed Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Permeability of Crushed Salt EPA Comment Dated June 7, 2012: Please provide an explanation why DOE believes) on the salt permeability and density relationship. EPA-Provided Background DOE has elected to use the Brodsky and T3 times for the ROM salt panel closure. In addition to the Brodsky 1994 data, our review identified

  6. Iron speciation in urban dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzinga, E.J.; Fitts, J.; Gao, Y.; Tappero, R.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {mu}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity. Keywords - Urban dust; Iron; Speciation; Micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  7. 2D and 3D imaging resolution trade-offs in quantifying pore throats for prediction of permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingham, Lauren E.; Peters, Catherine A.; Um, Wooyong; Jones, Keith W.; Lindquist, W.Brent

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the impact of subsurface geochemical reactions on porosity is relatively well understood, changes in permeability remain difficult to estimate. In this work, pore-network modeling was used to predict permeability based on pore- and pore-throat size distributions determined from analysis of 2D scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of thin sections and 3D X-ray computed microtomography (CMT) data. The analyzed specimens were a Viking sandstone sample from the Alberta sedimentary basin and an experimental column of reacted Hanford sediments. For the column, a decrease in permeability due to mineral precipitation was estimated, but the permeability estimates were dependent on imaging technique and resolution. X-ray CT imaging has the advantage of reconstructing a 3D pore network while 2D SEM imaging can easily analyze sub-grain and intragranular variations in mineralogy. Pore network models informed by analyses of 2D and 3D images at comparable resolutions produced permeability esti- mates with relatively good agreement. Large discrepancies in predicted permeabilities resulted from small variations in image resolution. Images with resolutions 0.4 to 4 lm predicted permeabilities differ- ing by orders of magnitude. While lower-resolution scans can analyze larger specimens, small pore throats may be missed due to resolution limitations, which in turn overestimates permeability in a pore-network model in which pore-to-pore conductances are statistically assigned. Conversely, high-res- olution scans are capable of capturing small pore throats, but if they are not actually flow-conducting predicted permeabilities will be below expected values. In addition, permeability is underestimated due to misinterpreting surface-roughness features as small pore throats. Comparison of permeability pre- dictions with expected and measured permeability values showed that the largest discrepancies resulted from the highest resolution images and the best predictions of permeability will result from images between 2 and 4 lm resolution. To reduce permeability underestimation from analyses of high-resolu- tion images, a resolution threshold between 3 and 15 lm was found to be effective, but it is not known whether this range is applicable beyond the samples studied here.

  8. Cell-Permeable Near-Infrared Fluorogenic Substrates for Imaging -Lactamase Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Bengang

    proteins and nucleic acids, but their poor membrane permeability due to high molecular weights and multiple grafted copolymers and nanoparticles have been developed to assist their cellular delivery.14,15 Here, we site for adding any potential new functionality. The substrate should have little or no fluorescence

  9. A PERMEABLE ACTIVE AMENDMENT CONCRETE (PAAC) FOR CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION AND EROSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Dixon, K.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The final project report for SEED SERDP ER - 2134 describes the development of permeable active amendment concrete (PAAC), which was evaluated through four tasks: 1) development of PAAC; 2) assessment of PAAC for contaminant removal; 3) evaluation of promising PAAC formulations for potential environmental impacts; and 4) assessment of the hydraulic, physical, and structural properties of PAAC. Conventional permeable concrete (often referred to as pervious concrete) is concrete with high porosity as a result of an extensive and interconnected void content. It is made from carefully controlled amounts of water and cementitious materials used to create a paste that forms a coating around aggregate particles. The mixture has a substantial void content (e.g., 15% - 25%) that results in a highly permeable structure that drains quickly. In PAAC, the aggregate material is partly replaced by chemically-active amendments that precipitate or adsorb contaminants in water that flows through the concrete interstices. PAAC combines the relatively high structural strength, ample void space, and water permeability of pervious concrete with the contaminant sequestration ability of chemically-active amendments to produce a new material with superior durability and ability to control contaminant mobility. The high surface area provided by the concrete interstices in PAAC provides significant opportunity for contaminants to react with the amendments incorporated into the concrete matrix. PAAC has the potential to immobilize a large variety of organic and inorganic contaminants by incorporating different active sequestering agents including phosphate materials (rock phosphate), organoclays, zeolite, and lime individually or in combinations.

  10. Heteromeric, but Not Homomeric, Connexin Channels Are Selectively Permeable to Inositol Phosphates*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Andrew L.

    , New Jersey 07103 Previous work has shown that channels formed by both connexin (Cx)26 and Cx32 (heteromeric Cx26/Cx32 hemichannels) are selec- tively permeable to cAMP and cGMP. To further investigate- phate groups through homomeric Cx26, homomeric Cx32, and het- eromeric Cx26/Cx32 channels was examined

  11. Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    ) in deep saline aquifers is considered one of the most effective methods for carbon sequestration., 48, W09539, doi:10.1029/2012WR011939.* 1. Introduction [2] Carbon sequestration in deep salineEffect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

  12. Multi-scale Modeling of 1-D Permeability Fields Marco A. R. Ferreira1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    of contaminant plumes in aquifers and the production of petroleum from oil fields. In the particular case of production of petroleum from mature fields, part of the available information for the estimation of permeability fields is the production data. To incorporate such information in formal statistical analysis

  13. X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    tools for predicting reservoir properties changes triggered by CO2 underground injection. At reservoir­precipitation problem and of the feedback effects of these processes on the flow field is still challenging. The problem.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

  14. Upscaling permeability for fractured concrete: meso-macro numerical approach coupled to strong discontinuities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Métiers ParisTech, France Abstract A two scales numerical analysis is set up in order to upscale, in the spirit of sequential multi-scale methods [7]. The latter tend to build macroscopic models from a sequence discon- tinuities) representing fine scale cracks to the fine scale permeability tensor. The latter may

  15. Technique for Real-Time Measurements of Endothelial Permeability in a Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Craig A.

    Technique for Real-Time Measurements of Endothelial Permeability in a Microfluidic Membrane Chip microfluidic platform to measure real-time perme- ability of endothelial cell monolayers on porous mem- branes of cell-free and cell-bound mem- brane layers. This technique is a highly sensitive, novel microfluidic

  16. Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 28237 Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation and measuring their oldest practices for estimating the formation permeability. Coring every well in a large, especially in fields with hundreds of wells, requires a large amount of capital. In a heterogeneous field

  17. Improved materials characterization by pressure-dependent ultrasonic attenuation in air-filled permeable solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    -resolution slow wave imaging system was developed to study the inhomogeneous pore structure in permeable transmitted through thin plates of a few millimeter thickness can be used to assess the tortuosity and dynamic, electrical conductivity, and other measurements is that it can be used to study the heterogeneity of the pore

  18. Semi-Permeable Microcapsules for Use in Fluorescence-Based Glucose Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim, Elizabeth G.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ; and 2) evaluating the effects of different core formation methods on encapsulation. Results indicate that adding salt to the LbL solutions can decrease the permeability of the films to dextran and [PAH-GPTS/PSS]10 films made with salt had the lowest...

  19. Mapping permeability over the surface of the Earth Tom Gleeson,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jellinek, Mark

    picture of near surface permeability and will be of particular value for evaluating global water resources and Manga, 2010], the formation of metallic mineral deposits and oil resources [Garven, 1995; Person et al globally and over North America. The distribu- tion of each hydrolithology is generally scale independent

  20. 3.3 NUMERICAL MODELING OF SOLID DEFORMATION AND STRESS-DEPENDENT PERMEABILITY IN NATURALLY FRACTURED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schechter, David S.

    permeability. When the pore pressure depletes due to oil/gas production rates in highly stress FRACTURED RESERVOIRS During the first year of this project, we analyzed the productivity behavior was demonstrated. 3.3.1 Introduction Fractures are the main fluid flow paths in naturally fractured reservoirs

  1. Property measurement and correlation for homogeneous and naturally fractured low permeability cores 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Jin

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pulse method. The principles of pressure pulse test are reviewed and the new laboratory equipment is described in this thesis. The new laboratory technique can be used to determine (1) the porosity of the matrix, (2) the permeability of the matrix, (3...

  2. Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Airflow induced by pumping tests in unconfined aquifer with a low-permeability cap Jiu Jimmy Jiao1 October 2009. [1] Most analytical and numerical models developed to analyze pumping test data focus on saturated flow below the water table. Traditionally the soil above the initial water table prior to pumping

  3. Predicting the Permeability of Pervious Concretes from Planar Images M.S. Sumanasooriya1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    -dimensional material structures. Introduction Pervious concrete (also called Enhanced Porosity Concrete, or porous1 Predicting the Permeability of Pervious Concretes from Planar Images M.S. Sumanasooriya1 , D-dimensional material structures of pervious concretes using two-dimensional digital images obtained from actual

  4. Three-Phase Displacement Theory: An Improved Description of Relative Permeabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    bubble point and with movable water; in waterfloods, man-made and natural; immiscible CO2 floods; steam floods; in some gas condensate reservoirs; in gravity drainage of gas caps with oil and water; WAG permeabilities to water, oil and gas are perhaps the most important rock-fluid descriptors in reservoir en

  5. Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension at permeable interfaces such as the inner core boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jump conditions and dynamic surface tension at permeable interfaces such as the inner core boundary as the density and viscosity changes. Independently of any intrinsic surface tension, a dynamic surface tension, a possibly anisotropic surface tension and terms including an interface mass density. In pratice

  6. A study on the air permeability as affected by compression of three French soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and gas transports and thus affects the root and shoot growth. It changes also soil nitrogen and carbon management on a local scale and for environmental protection measures on a larger scale. The evaluation1 A study on the air permeability as affected by compression of three French soils Anh Minh Tang 1

  7. Gasliquid two-phase flow patterns in a miniature square channel with a gas permeable sidewall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    configuration considered in this work, the stratified flow and wavy flow were not found in horizontal flow by a mono small-gas-bubble layer existing adjacent to the surface of the permeable sidewall in vertical downward flows; and Kosterin [5] and Brigham et al. [6] discussed flow patterns in inclined

  8. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, M.; Yang, R.T.

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  9. In situ measurements of rock salt permeability changes due to nearby excavation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormont, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Howard, C.L. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States)); Daemen, J.J.K. (Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Small-Scale Mine-By was an in situ experiment to measure changes in brine and gas permeability of rock salt as a result of nearby excavation. A series of small-volume pressurized brine- and gas-filled test intervals were established 8 m beneath the floor of Room L1 in the WIPP underground. The test intervals were isolated in the bottom of the 4.8-cm diameter monitoring boreholes with inflatable rubber packers, and are initially pressurized to about 2 MPa. Both brine- and gas-filled test intervals were located 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 r from the center of a planned large-diameter hole, where r is the radius of the large-diameter hole. Prior to the drilling of the large-diameter borehole, the responses of both the brine- and gas-filled test intervals were consistent with the formation modeled as a very low permeability, low porosity porous medium with a significant pore (brine) pressure and no measurable gas permeability. The drilling of the mine-by borehole created a zone of dilated, partially saturated rock out to about 1.5 r. The formation pressure increases from near zero at 1.5 r to the pre-excavation value at 4 r. Injection tests reveal a gradient of brine permeabilities from 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} at 1.25 r to about the pre-excavation value (10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}) by 3 r. Gas-injection tests reveal measurable gas permeability is limited to within 1.5 r. 17 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Analytical and Numerical Solutions for the Case of a Horizontal Well with a Radial Power-Law Permeability Distribution--Comparison to the Multi-Fracture Horizontal Case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Ryan Sawyer

    2013-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    . The unstimulated outer region has homogeneous reservoir properties. The current norm for successful stimulation of low permeability reservoir rocks is multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The process of hydraulic fracturing creates thin, high permeability fractures...

  11. Quantifying the Permeability Heterogeneity of Sandstone Reservoirs in Boonsville Field, Texas by Integrating Core, Well Log and 3D Seismic Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Qian

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    the permeability heterogeneity of the target reservoir by integrating core, well log and 3D seismic data. A set of permeability coefficients, variation coefficient, dart coefficient, and contrast coefficient, was defined in this study to quantitatively identify...

  12. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  13. Iron and Manganese in Potable Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Clifford Caudy

    1911-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    none 22. Hays 469.0 1.0 none 23. Hays .55 24. Peabody 830.0 .5 trace 25. Caldwell 458.0 2.0 trace 26. Lyons 456.0 .1 trace 27. Osborne 377.0 .3 none 28. Herington 608,0 .1 trace 29. Sterling - - _ .1 .036 30. Waverly 546,0 .2 none 31. Clifton 350.... The occurence of a black peaty layer overlying white sand containing iron, the white sand in turn overlying red sand containing 10. oxidize^ iron, is a familiar sight to all engineers who have made excavations. Here the carbon dioxide produced...

  14. Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

  15. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruaryIronIron

  16. COLLINS, KELLY ALYSSA. A Field Evaluation of Four Types of Permeable Pavement with Respect to Water Quality Improvement and Flood Control. (Under the direction of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, William F.

    ABSTRACT COLLINS, KELLY ALYSSA. A Field Evaluation of Four Types of Permeable Pavement with Respect Carolina and several other U.S. states, all permeable pavements are currently considered to have similar the hydrologic and water quality responses of various permeable pavement designs, a 20-stall parking lot

  17. Permeable pavement is a system that allows rainwater and runoff to move through the pavement's porous surface to a storage layer below.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Permeable pavement is a system that allows rainwater and runoff to move through the pavement. It has been shown by decades of scientific research that permeable pavements reduce runoff volumes. Research has also shown that the stormwater that flows through the layers of a permeable pavement system

  18. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.

    1985-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  19. Candidate anode materials for iron production by molten oxide electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paramore, James D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) has been identified by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) as one of four possible breakthrough technologies to alleviate the environmental impact of iron and steel production. This ...

  20. Iron-based Superconductor Simulations Spin Out New Possibilities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 15 iron-based materials, including iron compounds that are high-temperature superconductors (images d-h). The x axis shows the momentum of the spin excitation in selected...

  1. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  2. arabian iron age: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron deficiency should be the goal of nutritional intervention programs. In the United States, approximately 5 % of children from 1-5 years of age suffer from iron deficiency...

  3. Permeability of laboratory-formed methane-hydrate-bearing sand: Measurements and observations using x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Seol, Y.; Gupta, A.; Tomutsa, L.

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane hydrate was formed in two moist sands and a sand/silt mixture under a confining stress in an X-ray-transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane-hydrate saturations in each medium. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas-permeability measurements in each test for the dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing states are presented. As expected, the effective permeabilities (intrinsic permeability of the medium multiplied by the relative permeability) of the moist sands decreased with increasing moisture content. In a series of tests on a single sample, the effective permeability typically decreased as the pore space became more filled, in the order of dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing. In each test, water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing medium and we observed the location-specific changes in water saturation using CT scanning. We compared our data to a number of models, and our relative permeability data compare most favorably with models in which hydrate occupies the pore bodies rather than the pore throats. Inverse modeling (using the data collected from the tests) will be performed to extend the relative permeability measurements.

  4. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for...

  5. Minnesota Jobs to Come with Efficient Iron Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New energy-efficient iron plant offers a ray of hope for workers after local mining company shuts down.

  6. PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

    2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a 98% probability that the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E saltstone is greater than that of the baseline simulant mix.

  7. Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Versatile ferrofluids based on polyethylene glycol coated iron oxide nanoparticles W. Brullot a coated iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained by a facile protocol and thoroughly characterized to chemical treatments and biocompatible [12]. An impression of an iron oxide nanoparticle coated with a PEG

  8. The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron Oxyhydroxide Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron Oxyhydroxide Columns Including Studies of Weakly. (photo: Mr. J. Mähler, image editing Dr. D. Lundberg) #12;The Adsorption of Arsenic Oxyacids to Iron of columns and iron content of the adsorbent material. Experiments have shown that adsorption does occur

  9. Bronze metallurgy in Iron Age central Europe : a metallurgical study of Early Iron Age bronzes from Sti?na, Slovenia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooney, Elizabeth Myers

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Early Iron Age (750-450 BCE) marks a time in the European Alpine Region in which cultural ideologies surrounding bronze objects and bronze production were changing. Iron was becoming the preferred material from which ...

  10. Iron distribution and phytoplankton iron limitation in the southern California Current System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Andrew Luke

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    layer density (sigma-theta) are shown for six CalCOFI surveysolution (Sigma-Aldrich) in 0.016 M ultrapure HCl every sixsigma-theta. Macronutrients, dissolved iron, and chl were elevated during all six

  11. Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    . The chemical must be in the water for at least 20 minutes for oxi- dation to take place, longer if the water contains colloidal iron/manganese. After solid particles have formed they are filtered, often with a sand filter. Adding aluminum sulfate (alum...

  12. Iron Air collision with high density QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans-Joachim Drescher

    2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The color glass condensate approach describes successfully heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We investigate Iron-air collisions within this approach and compare results to event generators commonly used in air shower simulations. We estimate uncertainties in the extrapolation to GZK energies and discuss implications for air shower simulations.

  13. Superconductivity in iron compounds G. R. Stewart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    of the superconductivity in this new class of compounds. These iron pnictide and chalcogenide (FePn/Ch) superconductors-phonon coupled ``conventional'' superconductors. Clearly, superconductivity and magnetism or magnetic of magnetism and superconductivity in FePn/Ch superconductors 1606 D. Tc and TS=TSDW versus pressure 1607 1

  14. Ligand effects on bioinspired iron complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mejia Rodriguez, Ma. del Rosario

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - phosphaadamantane, PTA, coordinates to the Fe centers forming the disubstituted complex (m-pdt)[Fe(CO)2PTA]2, which presents one PTA in each iron in a transoid arrangement. Substitution of one CO ligand in the (m-pdt)[Fe(CO)3]2 parent complex forms the asymmetric (m-pdt)[Fe...

  15. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  16. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Kansas City, MO)

    1981-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  17. Niobrara gas play: exploration and development of a low-pressure, low-permeability gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.A.; Crafton, J.W.; Golson, J.G.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated interdisciplinary exploration/exploitation strategy contributed to the successful economic development of the Niobrara gas play, located in eastern Colorado, northwestern Kansas, and western Nebraska. The exploration, development, production, and evaluation data suggest that (1) Niobrara chalk reservoirs have exceptionally high porosities but very low permeabilities, (2) individual reservoirs are low-relief, highly faulted structural traps characterized consistently by extensive water-transition zones, (3) the reservoirs contain biogenic gas (the Niobrara acts as its own source rock,) (4) an exploration fairway can be defined if porosity, permeability, and pressure are correlated with paleodepth, (5) optimal logging, completion, stimulation, and producing methods are readily definable, (6) reservoir performance is predicted adequately by numerical simulation, and (7) infill drilling on 160-acre spacing will allow better reservoir drainage.

  18. Core analysis in a low permeability sandstone reservoir: Results from the Multiwell Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, A.R.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 4100 ft (1100 ft oriented) of Mesaverde core was taken during the drilling of the three Multiwell Experiment (MWX) wells, for study in a comprehensive core analysis program. This core traversed five separate depositional environments (shoreline/marine, coastal, paludal, fluvial, and paralic), and almost every major sand in the Mesaverde at the site was sampled. This paper summarizes MWX core analysis and describes the petrophysical properties at the MWX site; reservoir parameters, including permeabilities of naturally fractured core; and mechanical rock properties including stress-related measurements. Some correlations are made between reservoir properties and mineralogy/petrology data. Comparisons are made between the properties of lenticular and blanket sandstone morphologies existing at the site. This paper provides an overview of a complete core analysis in a low-permeability sandstone reservoir. 66 refs., 17 figs. , 9 tabs.

  19. Impact of relative permeability models on fluid flow behavior for gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Arango, Jose? Francisco

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6 Integral from immiscible to miscible transition models for gas condensate relative permeability. 5 . 6 . . 8 9 . 10 . 12 . 16 . 18 . 20 . 23 CHAPTER III CASE STUDY. . . 27 3. 1 Tuning of the reservoir fluid model 3. 2 Relative... model . 5. 2. 2 Anisotropic model . 64 . 74 . 77 . 90 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY . 105 6. 1 Conclusions. . 6. 1. 1 Conclusions from the literature review and case study . . . . . . 6. 1. 2 Conclusions from the simulation study 6. 1. 3 Conclusions from...

  20. The effect of various mud filtrates on the permeability of sandstone cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfile, Robert Ambrose

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' or the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1954 MAJOR SUBJECT: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS MUD FILTRATES ON THE PERMEABILITY OF SANDSTONE CORES A Thesis By Robert A. Pfile Appr ved as to styIe and content by: (Chairman of mmittee... kind and amount of clay contained in the different cores. INTRODUCTION There is general agreement among members of the petroleum industry that the productive capacity of a well penetrating a clay- containing oil sand may be seriously impaired due...

  1. Estimation of vertical permeability from production data of wells in bottom water drive reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirek, Ali

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    test data. This method is applicable if the well is producing or infecting fluid at a constant mass rate of flow through one of the perforation intervals. Hirasaki proposed ver tical pulse testing to estimate vertical . 7 permeability. He described... to the perforation intervals. Practical application of the theoretical model proposed by Falade and Brigham was g1ven in a second paper by the same authors with special consideration of the boundary effects. Raghavan and Clark proposed a technique to estimate...

  2. TRANSVIP: a solute transport model based on the spatial variability of intrinsic permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeze, Geoffrey Allan

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    groundwater flow and solute transport in three dimensions in both saturated and unsaturated porous media. The model simulates mechanical dispersion using a spatially vari- able intrinsic permeability field. This approach provides a, more realistic physical.... TRANSVIP is a three-dimensional flow and transport model capable of simulating contaminant transport in both saturated and unsaturated porous me- dia and does not assume Fickian dispersion. In TRANSVIP, the flow deviations that cause mechanical...

  3. Scaling of Counter-Current Imbibition Process in Low-Permeability Porous Media, TR-121

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvoscek, A.R.; Zhou, D.; Jia, L.; Kamath, J.

    2001-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project presents the recent work on imaging imbibition in low permeability porous media (diatomite) with X-ray completed tomography. The viscosity ratio between nonwetting and wetting fluids is varied over several orders of magnitude yielding different levels of imbibition performance. Also performed is mathematical analysis of counter-current imbibition processes and development of a modified scaling group incorporating the mobility ratio. This modified group is physically based and appears to improve scaling accuracy of countercurrent imbibition significantly.

  4. Impact of relative permeability models on fluid flow behavior for gas condensate reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zapata Arango, Jose? Francisco

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 6 Integral from immiscible to miscible transition models for gas condensate relative permeability. 5 . 6 . . 8 9 . 10 . 12 . 16 . 18 . 20 . 23 CHAPTER III CASE STUDY. . . 27 3. 1 Tuning of the reservoir fluid model 3. 2 Relative... model . 5. 2. 2 Anisotropic model . 64 . 74 . 77 . 90 CHAPTER VI SUMMARY . 105 6. 1 Conclusions. . 6. 1. 1 Conclusions from the literature review and case study . . . . . . 6. 1. 2 Conclusions from the simulation study 6. 1. 3 Conclusions from...

  5. Estimating permeability from quasi-static deformation: Temporal variations and arrival time inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient pressure variations within a reservoir can be treated as a propagating front and analyzed using an asymptotic formulation. From this perspective one can define a pressure 'arrival time' and formulate solutions along trajectories, in the manner of ray theory. We combine this methodology and a technique for mapping overburden deformation into reservoir volume change as a means to estimate reservoir flow properties, such as permeability. Given the entire 'travel time' or phase field, obtained from the deformation data, we can construct the trajectories directly, there-by linearizing the inverse problem. A numerical study indicates that, using this approach, we can infer large-scale variations in flow properties. In an application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations associated with a CO{sub 2} injection at the Krechba field, Algeria, we image pressure propagation to the northwest. An inversion for flow properties indicates a linear trend of high permeability. The high permeability correlates with a northwest trending fault on the flank of the anticline which defines the field.

  6. Visualizing Iron Deposition in Multiple Sclerosis Cadaver Brains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Charbel A.; Zheng Weili; Mark Haacke, E. [Department Of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Webb, Sam [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford Linear Accelerator Complex National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (United States); Nichol, Helen [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Rd. Rm A302, Saskatoon, SK S7N5E5 (Canada)

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Aim: To visualize and validate iron deposition in two cases of multiple sclerosis using rapid scanning X-Ray Fluorescence (RS-XRF) and Susceptibility Weighted Imaging (SWI). Material and Methods: Two (2) coronal cadaver brain slices from patients clinically diagnosed with multiple sclerosis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically SWI to image iron content. To confirm the presence of iron deposits and the absence of zinc-rich myelin in lesions, iron and zinc were mapped using RS-XRF. Results: MS lesions were visualized using FLAIR and correlated with the absence of zinc by XRF. XRF and SWI showed that in the first MS case, there were large iron deposits proximal to the draining vein of the caudate nucleus as well as iron deposits associated with blood vessels throughout the globus pallidus. Less iron was seen in association with lesions than in the basal ganglia. The presence of larger amounts of iron correlated reasonably well between RS-XRF and SWI. In the second case, the basal ganglia appeared normal and acute perivascular iron deposition was absent. Conclusion: Perivascular iron deposition is seen in some but not all MS cases, giving credence to the use of SWI to assess iron involvement in MS pathology in vivo.

  7. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  8. The effect of surface active agents on the relative permeability of brine and gas in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conway, M.W. [STIM-LAB, Inc., Duncan, OK (United States); Schraufnagel, R.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, K.; Thomas, T.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All oil and gas producing wells produce hydrocarbon at some residual water saturation. Therefore, the relative permeability to the hydrocarbon at the effective water saturation dictates performance and not the absolute permeability of the formation. Surface active agents are included in most aqueous treating fluids to improve the compatibility of aqueous fluids with the hydrocarbon containing reservoir. A review of the literature indicates very little core flow data to describe the effects to be expected. Traditionally, it is believed that the reduced surface tension will reduce capillary pressure and enhance the recovery of water after the treatment. The reduced water saturation is then believed to result in higher effective gas saturation and higher relative permeability to gas after the treatment. The principal emphasis of this study has been the development of non-damaging stimulation fluids to improve the production of methane from coalbed methane and other low permeability gas reservoirs.

  9. Semi-Analytical Solutions of One-Dimensional Multispecies Reactive Transport in a Permeable Reactive Barrier-Aquifer System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mieles, John Michael

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At many sites it has become apparent that most chemicals of concern (COCs) in groundwater are persistent and not effectively treated by conventional remediation methods. In recent years, the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology has proven...

  10. Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable chelator for interception of biological mobile zinc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhen

    We report the characterization of tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable zinc chelator for intercepting biological mobile zinc. Compared to N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), TPA ...

  11. Fabrication methods and performance of low-permeability microfluidic components for a miniaturized wearable drug delivery system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mescher, Mark J.

    In this paper, we describe low-permeability components of a microfluidic drug delivery system fabricated with versatile micromilling and lamination techniques. The fabrication process uses laminate sheets which are machined ...

  12. Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    density Speci?c heat capacity of liquid phase Speci?c heatspeci?c heat capacity of the solid phase, the liquid phase,Heat capacity Heat conductivity Intrinsic permeability of liquid

  13. Modeling Mud-Filtrate Invasion Effects on Resistivity Logs to Estimate Permeability of Vuggy and Fractured Carbonate Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    measurements with conventional and non- conventional well logs to calculate static and dynamic petrophysical/or fractures in the displacement of hydrocarbons by mud filtrate. Introduction Permeability estimation is one

  14. Comparison of gleptoferron iron compound to two commonly used iron supplements for the prevention of baby pig anemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homann, Ervin R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    access to soil, the pigs become anemic if they are denied access to sources of iron other than the sow's milk. Even with the best management systems, supplemental iron is required because the pig is born with limited iron body stores ((50 mg). sow.... 1957. A parenteral hematinic for the control of iron- deficiency anemia in baby pigs. N, Am. Vet. 38:6. London, E. and G. D. Twigg. 1952. (Unpublished). Maner, J. H. , W. G. Pond and R. S. Lowrey. 1959. Effect of method and level of iron...

  15. A quantitative evaluation of effective shale content and its influence on electrical resistivity and permeability of reservoir rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Parayath Eravi Bhaskara

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS A Thesis By PARAYATH E. B. MENON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in Partial... fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, f965 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE SHALE CONTENT AND ITS INFLUENCE ON ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY AND PERMEABILITY OF RESERVOIR ROCKS...

  16. Multiple-shocks induced nanocrystallization in iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Tomoki; Hirose, Akio [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sano, Tomokazu [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST, CREST, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Arakawa, Kazuto [JST, CREST, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Material Science, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We found that multiple shots of femtosecond laser-driven shock pulses changed coarse crystalline iron grains with a size of 140??m into nanocrystals with a high density of dislocations, which had never been observed in conventional shock processes. We performed metallurgical microstructure observations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness measurements using nanoindentation on cross-sections of shocked iron. TEM images showed that grains with sizes from 10?nm through 1??m exist within 2??m of the surface, where the dislocation density reached 2?×?10{sup 15?}m{sup ?2}. Results of the hardness measurements showed a significant increase in hardness in the nanocrystallized region. We suggest that the formation of a high density of dislocations, which is produced by a single shock, induces local three-dimensional pile-up by the multiple-shocks, which causes grain refinement at the nanoscale.

  17. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  18. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  19. Role of microbial iron reduction in the dissolution of iron hydroxysulfate minerals - article no. G01012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.J.P.; Nadeau, T.L.; Voytek, M.A.; Landa, E.R. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of structural sulfate in the iron-hydroxysulfate mineral jarosite by sulfate-reducing bacteria has previously been demonstrated. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the potential for anaerobic dissolution of the iron-hydroxysulfate minerals jarosite and schwertmannite at neutral pH by iron-reducing bacteria. Mineral dissolution was tested using a long-term cultivar, Geobacter metallireducens strain GS-15, and a fresh isolate Geobacter sp. strain ENN1, previously undescribed. ENN1 was isolated from the discharge site of Shadle Mine, in the southern anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania, where schwertmannite was the predominant iron-hydroxysulfate mineral. When jarosite from Elizabeth Mine (Vermont) was provided as the sole terminal electron acceptor, resting cells of both G. metallireducens and ENN1 were able to reduce structural Fe(III), releasing Fe{sup +2}, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, and K{sup +} ions. A lithified jarosite sample from Utah was more resistant to microbial attack, but slow release of Fe{sup +2} was observed. Neither bacterium released Fe{sup +2} from poorly crystalline synthetic schwertmannite. Our results indicate that exposure of jarosite to iron-reducing conditions at neutral pH is likely to promote the mobility of hazardous constituents and should therefore be considered in evaluating waste disposal and/or reclamation options involving jarosite-bearing materials.

  20. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filippi, Arthur M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sprecace, Richard P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  1. Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sufi, A.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil-water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation (S/sub or/) and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in two parts. The first was to investigate changes in S/sub or/ with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. Runs were terminated when the water-cut exceeded 99.8%. For these experiments, S/sub or/ decreased from 0.31 at 70/sup 0/F to 0.09 at 250/sup 0/F. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in S/sub or/ was observed with temperature; (0.11 at 70/sup 0/F and 0.085 at 186/sup 0/F). Temperature effects on irreducible water saturations were studied. A small increase in irreducibile water saturation was observed upon increasing the temperature. However, the same magnitude of change was observed by changing the flowrate. Upon increasing the oil flowrate, immediate water production was observed from the core indicating a change in the capillary end effect. By comparing the change in irreducible water saturation with rate and temperature, it was determined that the change was caused mainly by a change in the viscous force across the core. A study on viscous instabilities was also performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It was also observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

  2. Mechanics of layered anisotropic poroelastic media with applications to effective stress for fluid permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanics of vertically layered porous media has some similarities to and some differences from the more typical layered analysis for purely elastic media. Assuming welded solid contact at the solid-solid interfaces implies the usual continuity conditions, which are continuity of the vertical (layering direction) stress components and the horizontal strain components. These conditions are valid for both elastic and poroelastic media. Differences arise through the conditions for the pore pressure and the increment of fluid content in the context of fluid-saturated porous media. The two distinct conditions most often considered between any pair of contiguous layers are: (1) an undrained fluid condition at the interface, meaning that the increment of fluid content is zero (i.e., {delta}{zeta} = 0), or (2) fluid pressure continuity at the interface, implying that the change in fluid pressure is zero across the interface (i.e., {delta}p{sub f} = 0). Depending on the types of measurements being made on the system and the pertinent boundary conditions for these measurements, either (or neither) of these two conditions might be directly pertinent. But these conditions are sufficient nevertheless to be used as thought experiments to determine the expected values of all the poroelastic coefficients. For quasi-static mechanical changes over long time periods, we expect drained conditions to hold, so the pressure must then be continuous. For high frequency wave propagation, the pore-fluid typically acts as if it were undrained (or very nearly so), with vanishing of the fluid increment at the boundaries being appropriate. Poroelastic analysis of both these end-member cases is discussed, and the general equations for a variety of applications to heterogeneous porous media are developed. In particular, effective stress for the fluid permeability of such poroelastic systems is considered; fluid permeabilities characteristic of granular media or tubular pore shapes are treated in some detail, as are permeabilities of some of the simpler types of fractured materials.

  3. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, D.E.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

  4. Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

  5. Iron Networks Microsoft Fast Track Architecture Reference Architecture Technical White Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Iron Networks Microsoft Fast Track Architecture Reference Architecture Technical White Paper Iron://www.ironnetworks.com #12;Iron Networks IronPOD Fast Track Hyper-V Private Cloud - 2 Copyright©2014 Iron-V Private Cloud - 3 Contents 1 Introduction

  6. An evaluation of Stones method to determinte pseudo-relative permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Permadi, Asep Kurnia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be evaluated to calculate the pseudo-relative permeability. The equation used for pseudo oil viscosity is given by Eq. 2-6. This equation is derived in Appendix A and is based on equations presented by Stone. 7 This equation will be discussed later. Kk Z (q... pressure. (4) Pseudo oil viscosity is calculated as the sum of the oil viscosities for each fine grid block at the outlet face of the upstream equivalent coarse grid block, using oil flow rates as the weighting factor. This oil flow rates are calculated...

  7. An experimental study of the permeability of fracture intersections in Sioux quartzite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juddo, Edward Paul

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) experiment (If26). 26 I. OO 0. 80 co IO V 0. 60 OAO Second Loading 0. 20 First Loading 26 (2) 24 0 0 20 40 60 80 IOO P (MPa) Figure 5. Normalized fracture permeability (kf/kf3 6) versus confin- ing pressure (PC) for fractured cohesive... specimens (FCS), second-loading cycle. (2) indicates two-intersecting-fractures (TIF) experiments (f26 5 38). 33 I. OO 0. 80 co ro 0. 60 0. 40 40 FCS 0. 20 1' FNCS 38 (2) 37 42 0 0 20 40 60 80 [00 Pc (MPa Figure 10. Normalized fracture...

  8. Hepcidin Is Involved in Iron Regulation in the Ischemic Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Hui; Yan, Cai-Zhen; Shi, Honglian; Zhao, Ya-Shuo; Chang, Shi-Yang; Yu, Peng; Wu, Wen_Shuang; Zhao, Chen-Yang; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Duan, Xiang-Lin

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    : #2; 2011 Ding et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source... an important role in the management of iron metabolism. Accumulated evidence suggests that the transferrin– transferrin receptor (Tf–TfR) pathway might be the major route of iron transport across the luminal membrane of the capillary endothelium and iron uptake...

  9. Reduction and carburization reactions in the iron bath smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uemura, Kenichiro

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Slag-metal-coal reactions in the iron-bath smelter were analyzed based on a reaction model. It was concluded that the productivity and carbon content of the hot metal produced in a smelter can be controlled by adjusting the slag volume and iron oxide content in slag. Furthermore, iron oxide content is determined by the slag volume and the stirring intensity of the slag.

  10. Iron acquisition and utilization by Rhodococcus equi: potential virulence factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnes, Misty Lee

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth of R. equi in minimal media (MM) and MM without iron 66 (MM-Fe) . . 67 12 13 Growth of R. equi in 100 ItM DIP + varying iron concentrations. . . . . . . . . 68 Effects of iron source (FeSO& or FeCls) onin vitro growth of R. equi. . . 69.... , virulence factors) against oxidative stress Three types of bacterial SODs have been described: those that contain either iron (Fe SOD), manganese (MnSOD), or copper-zinc (Cu-ZnSOD)(85). If the appropriate minerals are not available for production of SODs...

  11. Australian Mining carries rare-earth-like iron release | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Australian Mining carries rare-earth-like iron release Australian Mining, the leading news source for the mining industry in Australia, carried a story on research Ames Lab...

  12. Influence of Iron Redox Transformations on Plutonium Sorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Pu(V) reduction demonstrates the potential impact of changing iron mineralogy on plutonium subsurface transport through redox transition areas. These findings...

  13. Microstructural Modification of a Cast Iron by Magnetic Field Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study deals with the microstructural modification of a nodular cast iron during solidification under the influence of high magnetic fields (up to 18 tesla).

  14. Percolation Explains How Earth's Iron Core Formed | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    history. Earth's present layered structure with a metallic core and an overlying silicate mantle would have required mechanisms to separate iron alloy from a silicate phase....

  15. The Fate of Bioavailable Iron in Antarctic Coastal Seas | Advanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of iron mirrors the distribution of silicon. Science is exploring many options for carbon dioxide sequestration in order to mitigate the climatological impact of CO2. One of...

  16. approved iron nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thickness on magnetic interactions in self-assembled single domain iron nanoparticles Materials Science Websites Summary: of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, North Carolina...

  17. Argonne scientists discover new magnetic phase in iron-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    neutron diffraction image giving evidence for the new magnetic phase in iron-based superconductors discovered by Argonne scientists. It shows the scattering results from a sample...

  18. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA); Shi, Yao (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  19. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  20. Iron Speciation and Mixing in Single Aerosol Particles from the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    iron from atmospheric aerosol is an essential nutrient that can control oceanic productivity, thereby impacting the global carbon budget and climate. Particles collected on...

  1. Beyond iron: non-classical biological functions of bacterial siderophores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    Bacteria secrete small molecules known as siderophores to acquire iron from their surroundings. For over 60 years, investigations into the bioinorganic chemistry of these molecules, including fundamental coordination ...

  2. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publications The Industrial Technologies Program offers a wide array of publications, videos, software, and other information products for improving energy efficiency in the iron...

  3. The effects of copper and iron deficiencies in the chick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGhee, Flin Cameron

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was assimilated by the chick. Cunningham (1931) and Josephs (1932) found that rats fed a milk diet plus iron showed no significant difference from rats fed milk plus sources of copper and iron. Elvehjem and Sherman (1932) reported that when rats de- ficient.../or iron as follows: Group Group Group Group Group Group 1 ? no added copper or iron 2 - cupric sulfate added (5 ppm) 3 - cupric oxide added (5 ppm) 4 ? ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm) 5 - cupric sulfate (5 ppm) plus ferrous sulfate added (40 ppm...

  4. Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instead these ions are clusters of trifluoroacetic acid formed in association with acetonitrile, water and iron from the stainless steel union used to connect the column with the...

  5. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruaryIronIronIronIron

  6. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery: A Robust and Inexpensive Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRIDS Project: USC is developing an iron-air rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage that could help integrate renewable energy sources into the electric grid. Iron-air batteries have the potential to store large amounts of energy at low cost—iron is inexpensive and abundant, while oxygen is freely obtained from the air we breathe. However, current iron-air battery technologies have suffered from low efficiency and short life spans. USC is working to dramatically increase the efficiency of the battery by placing chemical additives on the battery’s iron-based electrode and restructuring the catalysts at the molecular level on the battery’s air-based electrode. This can help the battery resist degradation and increase life span. The goal of the project is to develop a prototype iron-air battery at significantly cost lower than today’s best commercial batteries.

  7. Simulation study of the effect of well spacing, effect of permeability anisotropy, and effect of Palmer and Mansoori model on coalbed methane production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zulkarnain, Ismail

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . This permeability anisotropy tends to create a preferential flow. In facts, the permeability has impacts on the coal bed methane production. One of the well known impacts is the drainage pattern shape. 1.4 Cleats Compression and Matrix Shrinkage Effect (Palmer.... This theory, in facts, has impacts on coal bed methane production. Because the matrix shrinkage phenomenon tends to develop permeability rebound at lower pressure. It might also have implications for enhanced coal bed methane recovery such as CO2...

  8. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  9. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin–Helmholtz instability of cylindrical flow with permeable boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh, E-mail: mukeshiitr.kumar@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun (India)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the linear magnetohydrodynamic Kelvin–Helmholtz instability of the interface between two viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting fluids. The phases are enclosed between two coaxial cylindrical porous layers with the interface through which mass and heat transfer takes place. The fluids are subjected to a constant magnetic field parallel to the streaming direction, and the suction/injection velocities for the fluids at the permeable boundaries are also taken into account. Here, we use an irrotational theory in which the motion and pressure are irrotational, and the viscosity enters through the jump in the viscous normal stress in the normal stress balance at the interface. We consider both asymmetric and axisymmetric disturbances in our analysis. A quadratic dispersion relation is deduced and stability criterion is given in terms of a critical value of relative velocity, as well as, magnetic field. It has been observed that in the case of permeable boundaries, heat and mass transfer phenomena play a dual in the stability analysis. The flow through porous medium is more stable than the pure flow.

  10. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  11. Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.

  12. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  13. Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic Feet)Iron and Steel

  14. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | NationalCurriculum IntroductionInvestor14,566 SiteIron

  15. Kumba Iron Ore | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMALTexas:Kuju Kanko Hotel GeothermalKumba Iron Ore

  16. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruary 9,JanuaryIron

  17. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruaryIron Availability

  18. Iron Availability in the Southern Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruaryIron

  19. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  20. Public good dynamics drive evolution of iron acquisition strategies in natural bacterioplankton populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordero, Otto X.

    A common strategy among microbes living in iron-limited environments is the secretion of siderophores, which can bind poorly soluble iron and make it available to cells via active transport mechanisms. Such siderophore–iron ...

  1. Electrically insulating phosphate coatings for iron powder based electromagnetic core applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, William Rane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powdered metals, such as iron, are a common building block for electromagnetic cores. An iron powder was reacted with phosphoric acid to create a layer of iron phosphate on each particle. This electrically insulating ...

  2. Moessbauer studies of iron hydride at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, I.; Ingalls, R. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Brown, J.M.; Sato-Sorensen, Y. (Geophysics Program, AK-50, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Mills, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured {ital in} {ital situ} Moessbauer spectra of iron hydride made in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure and room temperature. The spectra show a sudden change at 3.5{plus minus}0.5 GPa from a single hyperfine pattern to a superposition of three. The former pattern results from normal {alpha}-iron with negligible hydrogen content, and the latter from residual {alpha}-iron plus newly formed iron hydride. Between 3.5 and 10.4 GPa, the extra hydride pattern have hyperfine fields for one ranging from 276 to 263 kOe, and the other, from 317 to 309 kOe. Both have isomer shifts of about 0.4 mm/sec, and negligible quadrupole splittings. X-ray studies on quenched samples have shown that iron hydride is of double hexagonal close-packed structure, whose two nonequivalent iron sites may account for the observation of two different patterns. Even allowing for the effect of volume expansion, the observed isomer shifts for the hydride are considerably more positive than those of other metallic phases of iron. At the same time, the hyperfine fields are slightly smaller than that of {alpha}-iron. As a possible explanation, one may expect a bonding of hydrogen with iron, which would result in a small reduction of 4{ital s} electrons, possibly accompanied by a small increase of 3{ital d} electrons compared with the neutral atom in metallic iron. The difference between the hyperfine fields in the two spectra are presumably due to the different symmetry at the two iron sites.

  3. Investigation of Iron Aluminide Weld Overlays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.B.; Levin, B.F.; Marder, A.R.

    1999-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional fossil fired boilers have been retrofitted with low NO(sub)x burners in order for the power plants to comply with new clean air regulations. Due to the operating characteristics of these burners, boiler tube sulfidation corrosion typically has been enhanced resulting in premature tube failure. To protect the existing panels from accelerated attack, weld overlay coatings are typically being applied. By depositing an alloy that offers better corrosion resistance than the underlying tube material, the wastage rates can be reduced. While Ni-based and stainless steel compositions are presently providing protection, they are expensive and susceptible to failure via corrosion-fatigue due to microsegregation upon solidification. Another material system presently under consideration for use as a coating in the oxidation/sulfidation environments is iron-aluminum. These alloys are relatively inexpensive, exhibit little microsegregation, and show excellent corrosion resistance. However, their use is limited due to weldability issues and their lack of corrosion characterization in simulated low NO(sub)x gas compositions. Therefore a program was initiated in 1996 to evaluate the use of iron-aluminum weld overlay coatings for erosion/corrosion protection of boiler tubes in fossil fired boilers with low NO(sub)x burners. Investigated properties included weldability, corrosion behavior, erosion resistance, and erosion-corrosion performance.

  4. Complement receptor type 2conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    Complement receptor type 2­conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles [CR2-Fc-SPIO] Kam: Complement receptor type 2­conjugated gold/superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Abbreviated name: CR2, and oligodendroglial cells. SPIO nanoparticles are sometimes modified with dextran, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG

  5. Enhanced Superconducting Properties of Iron Chalcogenide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the newly discovered iron-based superconductor, FeSe with the simplest structure and a transition temperature (T_c) around 8 K arouses much research interest. Although its Tc is much lower than that of the cuprates, iron chalcogenide has low...

  6. atmospheric iron corrosion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric iron corrosion First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Atmospheric Iron Deposition:...

  7. Electrodeposition of hybrid organicinorganic films containing iron oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niewczas, Marek

    Electrodeposition of hybrid organic­inorganic films containing iron oxide I. Zhitomirsky *, M has been developed for the preparation of hybrid organic­inorganic films containing iron oxide properties could be varied. Magnetic measurements revealed that the nanocomposite films are superparamagnetic

  8. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  9. Trophic status of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii influences the impact of iron deficiency on photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terauchi, Aimee M.; Peers, Graham; Kobayashi, Marilyn C.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of iron de?ciency on photosynthesis Aimee M. Terauchi •rates by suppress- ing photosynthesis but increasing insteadal. 2007). In oxygenic photosynthesis, iron is a cofactor in

  10. Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconducto...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Disorder to Study How Electrons Pair in Iron-Based Superconductors Researchers introduced disorder to test electron pairing in iron-based superconductors and produced...

  11. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Lindgren, Andrew J. (Grand Rapids, MN); Kiesel, Richard F. (Hibbing, MN)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  12. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

  13. FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, Steven W.

    FeCycle: Attempting an iron biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment to ocean physics. In summer 2003 we conducted FeCycle, a 10-day mesoscale tracer release in HNLC waters SE biogeochemical budget from a mesoscale SF6 tracer experiment in unperturbed low iron waters, Global Biogeochem

  14. Selective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acidammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction method--I. Synthetic samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    for specific dissolution of magnetic minerals from soils and sediments. To prevent changes in the extractionSelective dissolution of magnetic iron oxides in the acid­ammonium oxalate/ferrous iron extraction the pedogenic magnetic fractions. Sequential extraction techniques have therefore been incorporated

  15. Simulation of EOR (enhanced oil recovery) processes in stochastically generated permeable media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, J.R.; Castillo, J.L.; Lake, L.W. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes involve injecting an agent, such as steam or CO{sub 2}, that is much more mobile than the resident oil. Other EOR processes attempt to improve sweep efficiency by adding polymer or surfactant to the injected water to create a favorable mobility ratio. This study examines the effect of statistically generated heterogeneity on miscible displacements at unfavorable and favorable mobility ratios. The principal goal is to delineate the effects of fingering, dispersion and channeling on volumetric sweep efficiency. Two-dimensional heterogeneous permeability fields are generated with variability (heterogeneity) and spatial correlation as characterizing parameters. Four levels of correlation and three of variability make up a 12 element matrix. At each element of the matrix, a miscible displacement simulation at unit mobility ratio shows the effect of the heterogeneity, and simulations at mobility ratios of 10 and 0.5 show the effect of viscous force differences combined with heterogeneity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Stimulation results in the low-permeability Wasatch formation - An evolution to foam fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.C.; Bailey, D.E.; Evertz, G.L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wasatch Formation of the Uinta Basin in eastern Utah is typical of many formations in the Rocky Mountains, having low permeability and high sensitivity to water. Stimulation treatments with several types of fracturing fluids, including oilwater emulsion fluids, complex gel fluids and foam fluids, have been generally successful. Production decline curves from twenty four wells in the field were used for comparison of the different stimulation methods. Although foam fracturing has been used for the shortest period of time, comparison of the production histories show the relatively higher efficiency of the foam fracturing treatments compared to other stimulation methods in the Wasatch formation. Foam fluids gave higher production rates and higher flowing pressures than offset wells fractured with complex gel fluids. A stimulation model for oil and gas production was used to match the production history from this reservoir. The model allowed a projection of gas production based on early production from the wells and knowledge of the reservoir.

  17. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  18. Fracture Propagation Driven by Fluid Outflow from a Low-permeability Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gor, Gennady Yu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fracturing of the caprock during CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers can lead to leakage. Estimation of the rate of fracture propagation allows one to assess the leakage risk. Here we propose an analytical model for calculating the length of the fracture, which propagates due to the fluid outflow from a low-permeability aquifer. We present a self-similar solution of the pressure diffusion equation in the system of reservoir and fracture, allowing us to get the analytical expression for the fracture length as a function of time. We calculate the evolution of the fracture length for a characteristic aquifer. We show that the analytical solution provides an estimate from below for the fracture length, since the driving force for propagation grows with elevation.

  19. Seismic imaging of reservoir flow properties: Resolving waterinflux and reservoir permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Keers, Henk

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for geophysical model assessment, in particuale thecomputation of model parameter resolution, indicate the value and thelimitations of time-lapse data in estimating reservoir flow properties. Atrajectory-based method for computing sensitivities provides an effectivemeans to compute model parameter resolutions. We examine the commonsituation in which water encroaches into a resrvoir from below, as due tothe upward movement of an oil-water contact. Using straight-forwardtechniques we find that, by inclusing reflections off the top and bottomof a reservoir tens of meters thick, we can infer reservoir permeabilitybased upon time-lapse data. We find that, for the caseof water influxfrom below, using multiple time-lapse 'snapshots' does not necessarilyimprove the resolution of reservoir permeability. An application totime-lapse data from the Norne field illustrates that we can resolve thepermeability near a producing well using reflections from threeinterfaces associated with the reservoir.

  20. Static magnetic field concentration and enhancement using magnetic materials with positive permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a novel compressor for static magnetic fields is proposed based on finite embedded transformation optics. When the DC magnetic field passes through the designed device, the magnetic field can be compressed inside the device. After it passes through the device, one can obtain an enhanced static magnetic field behind the output surface of the device (in a free space region). We can also combine our compressor with some other structures to get a higher static magnetic field enhancement in a free space region. In contrast with other devices based on transformation optics for enhancing static magnetic fields, our device is not a closed structure and thus has some special applications (e.g., for controlling magnetic nano-particles for gene and drag delivery). The designed compressor can be constructed by using currently available materials or DC meta-materials with positive permeability. Numerical simulation verifies good performance of our device.

  1. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  2. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  3. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christiansen, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Howarth, S.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  4. An Injectable Apatite Permeable Reactive Barrier for In Situ 90Sr Immobilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Szecsody, James E.; Fritz, Brad G.; Williams, Mark D.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An injectable permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology was developed to sequester 90Sr in groundwater through the in situ formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases, specifically apatite that incorporates 90Sr into the chemical structure. An integrated, multi-scale development and testing approach was used that included laboratory bench-scale experiments, an initial pilot-scale field test, and the emplacement and evaluation of a 300-ft-long treatability-test-scale PRB. Standard groundwater wells were used for emplacement of the treatment zone, allowing treatment of contaminants too deep below ground surface for trench-and-fill type PRB technologies. The apatite amendment formulation uses two separate precursor solutions, one containing a Ca-citrate complex and the other a Na-phosphate solution, to form apatite precipitate in situ. Citrate is needed to keep calcium in solution long enough to achieve a more uniform and areally extensive distribution of precipitate formation. In the summer of 2008, the apatite PRB technology was applied as a 91-m (300-ft) -long permeable reactive barrier on the downgradient edge of a 90Sr plume beneath the Hanford Site in Washington State. The technology was deployed to reduce 90Sr flux discharging to the Columbia River. Performance assessment monitoring data collected to date indicate the barrier is meeting performance objectives. The average reduction in 90Sr concentrations at four downgradient compliance monitoring locations was 95% relative to the high end of the baseline range approximately 1 year after treatment, and continues to meet remedial objectives more than 4 years after treatment.

  5. Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to tritium migration.

  6. Kinetics of dissolution and bio-availability of iron in amorphous siliceous iron oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seaman, John C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard H. Loeppert Amorphous iron (Fe) oxides are of interest because of their high reactivity, surface area, and influence on Fe availability in the soil environment. These materials may have... potential utilization as slow-release Fe amendments for calcareous soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of various concentrations of silicon (Si), present during precipitation, on the dissolution kinetics of amorphous Fe oxides...

  7. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  8. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  9. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Fosnacht, Donald R. (Hermantown, MN); Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  10. An experimental assessment of the saturated transverse permeability of Non-Crimped New Concept (NC2) multiaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    prior to cure, and more specifically resin infusion across the fabric thickness in the so-called Resin Infusion Processes. Therefore, in these growingly used processes the transverse permeability of the fabrics these processes, Resin Infusion Processes (RFI, RIFT, LRI, ...) [2], [3], [4], [5] have been identified as cost

  11. Diagenetic control on permeability baffles and barriers, Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit, Black Warrior basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugler, R.L. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mississippian (Chesterian) Carter sandstone is the most productive oil reservoir in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. In North Blowhorn Creek oil unit, very fine- to medium-grained quartzarenite and sublitharenite occur in an elongate, isolated northwest-southeast trending body, surrounded by shale. The sandstone was deposited in a beach-barrier environment. Most production is from ripple-laminated and horizontal- to low-angle-planar laminated shoreface and foreshore deposits in the central part of the reservoir body. Uneven distribution of diagenetic features creates permeability baffles and barriers at several scales within the reservoir, ranging from microscopic to macroscopic, and increases tortuosity of fluid flow. Early authigenic calcite and ferroan calcite occur only in shell lags deposited in channels within the reservoir body. These originally porous and permeable layers are completely cemented by calcite, ferroan calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Carbonate-cemented shell lags form discontinuous permeability barriers that may be laterally continuous between adjacent wells. Ferroan dolomite is the most abundant cement in Carter sandstone and occludes all pores near the margins of the reservoir body. The pore system within the high-quality portion of the reservoir consists of modified primary and secondary intergranular porosity and microporosity within patches of kaolinite. Porosity and permeability relationships are controlled by the distribution of quartz overgrowths, kaolinite, deformed mudstones fragments, intergranular pressure solution, and stylolite seams. The lateral extent of baffles and barriers created by these diagenetic features is related to depositional texture and ranges from micrometers to meters.

  12. State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 1-A Comparative Study, Model Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    and close-to-reality "image" of spatial distribution of rock properties. Among these, the most difficult area or new field. The main drawback of this method is that the distribution of the predicted values the network recog- nizes the pattern of permeability distribution and "adapts" itself in order to be able

  13. Analysis of HMA permeability through microstructure characterization and simulation of fluid flow in X-ray CT images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Omari, Aslam Ali Mufleh

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    that are not restricted by |Rec|?2. The validity of the numerical model is verified through comparisons with closed-form solutions for idealized microstructure. The numerical model was used to find the components of the three-dimensional (3-D) permeability tensor...

  14. Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot: implications for the heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Modeling the coupling between free and forced convection in a vertical permeable slot numerical study of the coupling between forced and free convective flows has been performed by considering: implications for the heat production of an Enhanced Geothermal System Arnaud Batailléa , Pierre Genthona

  15. Modelling of steady-state fluid flow in 3D fractured isotropic porous media: Application to effective permeability calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Est, Laboratoire Navier (ENPC-IFSTTAR-CNRS) 77455 Marne la Vallée, France 2 BRGM, Risks Division, F-45060 Orléans, geological CO2 storage, geothermal energy, etc. However, determining effective permeability for fractured reservoirs for a long time [1-4]. DFN is introduced in several commercial softwares as UDEC (Itasca) [5

  16. Iron and steel industry process model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparrow, F.T.; Pilati, D.; Dougherty, T.; McBreen, E.; Juang, L.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iron and steel industry process model depicts expected energy-consumption characteristics of the iron and steel industry and ancillary industries for the next 25 years by means of a process model of the major steps in steelmaking, from ore mining and scrap recycling to the final finishing of carbon, alloy, and stainless steel into steel products such as structural steel, slabs, plates, tubes, and bars. Two plant types are modeled: fully integrated mills and mini-mills. User-determined inputs into the model are as follows: projected energy and materials prices; projected costs of capacity expansion and replacement; energy-conserving options, both operating modes and investments; the internal rate of return required on investment; and projected demand for finished steel. Nominal input choices in the model for the inputs listed above are as follows: National Academy of Sciences Committee on Nuclear and Alternative Energy Systems Demand Panel nominal energy-price projections for oil, gas, distillates, residuals, and electricity and 1975 actual prices for materials; actual 1975 costs; new technologies added; 15% after taxes; and 1975 actual demand with 1.5%/y growth. The model reproduces the base-year (1975) actual performance of the industry; then, given the above nominal input choices, it projects modes of operation and capacity expansion that minimize the cost of meeting the given final demands for each of 5 years, each year being the midpoint of a 5-year interval. The output of the model includes the following: total energy use and intensity (Btu/ton) by type, by process, and by time period; energy conservation options chosen; utilization rates for existing capacity; capital-investment decisions for capacity expansion.

  17. Theoretical Investigation of Hydrogen Adsorption and Dissociation on Iron and Iron Carbide Surfaces Using the ReaxFF Reactive Force Field Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Chenyu; van Duin, Adri C.T.; Sorescu, Dan C.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a ReaxFF reactive force field to describe hydrogen adsorption and dissociation on iron and iron carbide surfaces relevant for simulation of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis on iron catalysts. This force field enables large system (>>1000 atoms) simulations of hydrogen related reactions with iron. The ReaxFF force field parameters are trained against a substantial amount of structural and energetic data including the equations of state and heats of formation of iron and iron carbide related materials, as well as hydrogen interaction with iron surfaces and different phases of bulk iron. We have validated the accuracy and applicability of ReaxFF force field by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen adsorption, dissociation and recombination on iron and iron carbide surfaces. The barriers and reaction energies for molecular dissociation on these two types of surfaces have been compared and the effect of subsurface carbon on hydrogen interaction with iron surface is evaluated. We found that existence of carbon atoms at subsurface iron sites tends to increase the hydrogen dissociation energy barrier on the surface, and also makes the corresponding hydrogen dissociative state relatively more stable compared to that on bare iron. These properties of iron carbide will affect the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} and will retain more surface hydride species, thus influencing the dynamics of the FT synthesis process.

  18. RUSTY OLD STARS: A SOURCE OF THE MISSING INTERSTELLAR IRON?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Markwick, A. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C.; Bernard-Salas, J. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Matsunaga, N. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Matsuura, M. [UCL-Institute of Origins, Astrophysics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kraemer, K. E., E-mail: iain.mcdonald-2@jb.man.ac.u, E-mail: albert.zijlstra@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: andrew.markwick@manchester.ac.u, E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.ed, E-mail: matsunaga@ioa.s.u-tokyo.ac.j, E-mail: mikako@star.ucl.ac.u [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States)

    2010-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron, the universe's most abundant refractory element, is highly depleted in both circumstellar and interstellar environments, meaning it exists in solid form. The nature of this solid is unknown. In this Letter, we provide evidence that metallic iron grains are present around oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, where it is observationally manifest as a featureless mid-infrared excess. This identification is made using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of evolved globular cluster stars, where iron dust production appears ubiquitous and in some cases can be modeled as the only observed dust product. In this context, FeO is examined as the likely carrier for the 20 {mu}m feature observed in some of these stars. Metallic iron appears to be an important part of the dust condensation sequence at low metallicity, and subsequently plays an influential role in the interstellar medium. We explore the stellar metallicities and luminosities at which iron formation is observed, and how the presence of iron affects the outflow and its chemistry. The conditions under which iron can provide sufficient opacity to drive a wind remain unclear.

  19. Iron/soot interaction in a laminar ethylene nonpremixed flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Megaridis, C.M. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laminar, coannular, ethylene/air nonpremixed flame doped with ferrocene additive is employed to address the fundamental question of how iron becomes incorporated into the carbonaceous soot phase, thus interfering with the soot formation processes. The structure and chemical composition of individual aggregates are characterized with respect to flame coordinates via a combination of thermophoretic sampling, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Soot aggregate microstructure clearly reveals iron occlusion, as well as stratification of soot layers over the occluded phase. The study provides physical evidence that the soot and iron compounds combine in the flame to form a hybrid (inhomogeneous) particulate phase. The reported observations are consistent with the hypothesis that ferrocene decomposes early in the combustion process and before the onset of soot particle inception, thus forming a fine aerosol for the subsequent deposition of carbonaceous substances. Examination of a series of inhomogeneous soot aggregates shows that the flame aerosol composition varies with flame coordinates. In particular, aggregates transported in the soot annulus near the luminous flame front are primarily composed of carbon and oxygen, with traces of iron finely dispersed through the aggregate matrix. On the other hand, carbonaceous soot transported at low heights and near the flame axis contains iron in its elemental form. Finally, soot aggregates in all other areas of the flame contain both iron and oxygen, thus implying the possible presence of iron oxides within the carbonaceous matrix.

  20. Iron aluminide alloy coatings and joints, and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, R.N.; Wright, J.K.; Moore, G.A.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of joining two bodies together, at least one of the bodies being predominantly composed of metal, the two bodies each having a respective joint surface for joining with the joint surface of the other body, the two bodies having a respective melting point, includes the following steps: (a) providing aluminum metal and iron metal on at least one of the joint surfaces of the two bodies; (b) after providing the aluminum metal and iron metal on the one joint surface, positioning the joint surfaces of the two bodies in juxtaposition against one another with the aluminum and iron positioned therebetween; (c) heating the aluminum and iron on the juxtaposed bodies to a temperature from greater than or equal to 600 C to less than the melting point of the lower melting point body; (d) applying pressure on the juxtaposed surfaces; and (e) maintaining the pressure and the temperature for a time period effective to form the aluminum and iron into an iron aluminide alloy joint which bonds the juxtaposed surfaces and correspondingly the two bodies together. The method can also effectively be used to coat a body with an iron aluminide coating.

  1. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

  2. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  3. Iron-carbon compacts and process for making them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes iron-carbon compacts and a process for making them. The process includes preparing a slurry comprising iron powder, furfuryl alcohol, and a polymerization catalyst for initiating the polymerization of the furfuryl alcohol into a resin, and heating the slurry to convert the alcohol into the resin. The resulting mixture is pressed into a green body and heated to form the iron-carbon compact. The compact can be used as, or machined into, a magnetic flux concentrator for an induction heating apparatus.

  4. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | NationalCurriculum IntroductionInvestor14,566 SiteIronIronIron

  5. Iron is the Key to Preserving Dinosaur Soft Tissue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 Investigation Peer Review 2012IowaFebruaryIronIronIron

  6. Snapshot of iron response in Shewanella oneidensis by gene network reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dissection of the Helicobacter pylori Fur regulatory circuitregulation of the Helicobacter pylori iron-cofactored

  7. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of iron-impregnated porous carbon spheres prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    applications for iron nanoparticles include Fischer­Tropsch catalysts, oxygen reduction catalysts in fuel cells

  9. Wintertime pytoplankton bloom in the Subarctic Pacific supported by continental margin iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Bishop, James K.B.; Henning, Cara C.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Fung, Inez

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of iron hydroxide (60% goethite) and amorphous irona linear combination of goethite (60%) and ferrihydrite (

  10. Decoupling of iron and phosphate in the global ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekh, Payal

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for marine phytoplankton often limiting phytoplankton growth due to its low concentration in the ocean and thus playing a role in modulating the ocean's biological pump. In order to ...

  11. Verification of Steelmaking Slags Iron Content Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The steel industry in the United States generates about 30 million tons of by-products each year, including 6 million tons of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slag. The recycling of BF (blast furnace) slag has made significant progress in past years with much of the material being utilized as construction aggregate and in cementitious applications. However, the recycling of desulfurization and BOF/BOP slags still faces many technical, economic, and environmental challenges. Previous efforts have focused on in-plant recycling of the by-products, achieving only limited success. As a result, large amounts of by-products of various qualities have been stockpiled at steel mills or disposed into landfills. After more than 50 years of stockpiling and landfilling, available mill site space has diminished and environmental constraints have increased. The prospect of conventionally landfilling of the material is a high cost option, a waste of true national resources, and an eternal material liability issue. The research effort has demonstrated that major inroads have been made in establishing the viability of recycling and reuse of the steelmaking slags. The research identified key components in the slags, developed technologies to separate the iron units and produce marketable products from the separation processes. Three products are generated from the technology developed in this research, including a high grade iron product containing about 90%Fe, a medium grade iron product containing about 60% Fe, and a low grade iron product containing less than 10% Fe. The high grade iron product contains primarily metallic iron and can be marketed as a replacement of pig iron or DRI (Direct Reduced Iron) for steel mills. The medium grade iron product contains both iron oxide and metallic iron and can be utilized as a substitute for the iron ore in the blast furnace. The low grade iron product is rich in calcium, magnesium and iron oxides and silicates. It has a sufficient lime value and can be utilized for acid mine drainage treatment. Economic analysis from this research demonstrates that the results are favorable. The strong demand and the increase of price of the DRI and pig iron in recent years are particularly beneficial to the economics. The favorable economics has brought commercial interests. ICAN Global has obtained license agreement on the technology from Michigan Tech. This right was later transferred to the Westwood Land, Inc. A demonstration pilot plant is under construction to evaluate the technology. Steel industry will benefit from the new supply of the iron units once the commercial plants are constructed. Environmental benefits to the public and the steel industry will be tremendous. Not only the old piles of the slag will be removed, but also the federal responsible abandoned mines from the old mining activities can be remediated with the favorable product generated from the process. Cost can be reduced and there will be no lime required, which can avoid the release of carbon dioxide from lime production process.

  12. Evidence for a Weak Iron Core at Earth's Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Core at Earth's Center Print Seismic waves that pass through the center of the Earth travel faster going from pole to pole than along the equatorial plane-why? One theory...

  13. Iron Cycling and Redox Evolution in the Precambrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planavsky, Noah John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a greater enrichment in the lighter Fe isotopes in theIron isotopes provide evidence that Fe enrichment in IF is2003). This enrichment in heavy Fe isotopes contrasts with

  14. In Situ Iron Oxide Emplacement for Groundwater Arsenic Remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abia, Thomas Sunday

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron oxide-bearing minerals have long been recognized as an effective reactive media for arsenic-contaminated groundwater remediation. This research aimed to develop a technique that could facilitate in situ oxidative precipitation of Fe3+ in a soil...

  15. Geologic evolution of Iron Mountain, central Mojave Desert, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Stefan S.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic mapping, structural analysis, petrologic study, and U-Pb geochronology at Iron Mountain, 20 km southwest of Barstow, California, place important constraints on the paleogeographic affinities of metasedimentary ...

  16. Iron limitation and the role of Siderophores in marine Synechococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, Adam R. (Adam Reid)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine cyanobacteria in the genus Synechococcus are widely distributed and contribute significantly to global primary productivity. In many parts of the ocean their growth is limited by a lack of iron, an essential nutrient ...

  17. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  18. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, James M. (Kingston, TN); Trowbridge, Lee D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  19. Iron and DHA in Relation to Early Cognitive Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Loran Marie

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for brain development. Negative effects of DHA supplementation when status of both nutrients is low have been shown on cognitive outcomes. We sought to determine ...

  20. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  1. anthropogenic iron cycles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tion in the average odds of each feature occurring within Sandercock, Brett K. 42 Solar Cycle Variations in the Elemental Abundance of Helium and Fractionation of Iron in the...

  2. Surface modifications of iron oxide nanoparticles for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insin, Numpon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) of high crystallinity, high magnetization, and size-monodispersity were synthesized with oleic acid as their native ligands. These hydrophobic and non-functionalized MPs have magnetic ...

  3. Iron-oxide catalyzed silicon photoanode for water splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Kimin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an integrated study of high efficiency photoanodes for water splitting using silicon and iron-oxide. The fundamental limitations of silicon to water splitting applications were overcome by an ultrathin ...

  4. The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

  5. Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetism and Superconductivity Compete in Iron-based Superconductors Wednesday, April 30, 2014 HTSC Figure 1 Fig. 1. Measured electronic structure of underdoped Ba1-xKxFe2As2 in...

  6. Simulation of iron impurity gettering in crystalline silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work discusses the Impurity-to-Efficiency (12E) simulation tool and applet. The 12E simulator models the physics of iron impurity gettering in silicon solar cells during high temperature processing. The tool also ...

  7. Modernization of the iron making plant at SOLLAC FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crayelynghe, M. van; Dufour, A.; Soland, J.; Feret, J.; Lebonvallet, J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When the blast furnaces at SOLLAC/FOS were relined, the objective being to ensure a worklife of 15 years, it was decided that the iron making plant would be modernized at the same time: the coking plant has been overhauled and renovated and its coking time increased to ensure a worklife of at least 34 years. The surface area of the sinter strand was increased from 400 to 520 m{sup 2}, the burden preparation circuit were simplified, and pig iron production capacity increased from 4.2 to 4.5 million metric tons per year. Coal injection was developed so as to obtain 170 kg/t of pig iron, an expert system was added to ensure more efficient blast furnace operation, and new measures have been carried out for environmental protection. Since these heavy investments have been completed, SOLLAC/FOS is a high-performance iron making plant, allowing it to face new challenges in the future.

  8. Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

  9. The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

  10. LIQUID PHASE SINTERING OF IRON WITH COPPER BASE ALLOY POWDERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, M.-H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Symposium on Powder Metallurgy - The Iron and Steel Inst.a Liquid Phase", Powder Metallurgy, 17 (33), 227 (1974). H.Other made by powder metallurgy techniques. ses to produce

  11. Metal Reduction and Iron Biomineralization by a Psychrotolerant...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sp. strain PV-4, from the microbial mat at a hydrothermal vent of Loihi Seamount in the Pacific Ocean has been further characterized, with emphases on metal reduction and iron...

  12. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P. (Intermet Corp., Lynchburg, VA)

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The automotive industry is seeking to replace current car parts made of aluminum and iron castings with thin wall (down to 2 mm) iron castings to reduce the cost and weight of automobiles. The mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings are affected strongly by the thickness of the castings. The thinner castings cool at a faster rate, and microstructural features that form during solidification, and subsequently, transform in the solid state, are strongly dependent on a geometrical parameter related to the ratio of surface area-to-volume of the casting. As this ratio becomes larger, castings cool faster. As a result, the nodule count on the observation plane of the specimens increases dramatically (>2000 nodules/mm2 in most specimens), i.e. as the thickness of castings decreases. Also, the matrix of the thin walled ductile iron castings becomes more ferritic as the ratio of surface area-to-volume decreases.

  13. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  14. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

  15. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  16. Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manne, Rama Krishna

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACTIVATION STUDIES WITH PROMOTED PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER ? TROPSCH CATALYSTS A Thesis by RAMA KRISHNA MANNE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A@M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering ACTIVATION STUDIES WITH PROMOTED PRECIPITATED IRON FISCHER ? TROPSCH CATALYSTS A Thesis by RAMA KRISHNA MANNE Approved as to style and content by: Dragomir B. Bukur (Charr...

  17. Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography column permeability and changes of the eluent properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritti, Fabrice [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of four similar liquid chromatography columns (2.1 mm i.d. x30, 50, 100, and 150 mm, all packed with fine particles, average d{sub p} {approx} 1.7 {micro}m, of bridged ethylsiloxane/silica hybrid-C{sub 18}, named BEH-C{sub 18}) was studied in wide ranges of temperature and pressure. The pressure and the temperature dependencies of the viscosity and the density of the eluent (pure acetonitrile) along the columns were also derived, using the column permeabilities and applying the Kozeny-Carman and the heat balance equations. The heat lost through the external surface area of the chromatographic column was directly derived from the wall temperature of the stainless steel tube measured with a precision of C in still air and C in the oven compartment. The variations of the density and viscosity of pure acetonitrile as a function of the temperature and pressure was derived from empirical correlations based on precise experimental data acquired between 298 and 373 K and at pressures up to 1.5 kbar. The measurements were made with the Acquity UPLC chromatograph that can deliver a maximum flow rate of 2 mL/min and apply a maximum column inlet pressure of 1038 bar. The average Kozeny-Carman permeability constant of the columns was 144 {+-} 3.5%. The temperature hence the viscosity and the density profiles of the eluent along the column deviate significantly from linear behavior under high-pressure gradients. For a 1000 bar pressure drop, we measured {Delta}T = 25-30 K, ({Delta}{eta}/{eta}) {approx_equal} 100%, and ({Delta}{rho}/{rho}) {approx_equal} 10%. These results show that the radial temperature profiles are never fully developed within 1% for any of the columns, even under still-air conditions. This represents a practical advantage regarding the apparent column efficiency at high flow rates, since the impact of the differential analyte velocity between the column center and the column wall is not maximum. The interpretation of the peak profiles recorded in UPLC is discussed.

  18. Synthesis of iron oxides and the influence of organic acids on the resolubilization of iron minerals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Eric Thacher

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Organ1c Acids on the Resolubi1 izat1on of Iron M1neral s. (May 1984) Er1c Thacher Clarke, B. A. , Southwestern University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Richard H. Loeppert Equilibrium Fe concentrat1ons of calcareous soil are readily... precipitated from soil solution owing to the high pH of calcareous soil and the low solubil1ty product of Fe(OH)3. Most plants respond to deficient Fe concentrations by development of chlorosis symptoms unless supplementary Fe is supplied to the plant...

  19. Electrodeposition of binary iron-group alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, K.Y.; Talbot, J.B. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of NiCo and CoFe have been galvanostatically electroplated onto a platinum rotating disk electrode from simple sulfate baths containing 0.5M of the more noble metal sulfate and 0.1M of the less noble metal sulfate. The experimental results are compared to those of previous studies of NiFe codeposition in order to study the anomalous codeposition behavior of the binary iron-group alloys. Comparison of the electrodeposition results indicates that codeposition of these binary alloys is not totally analogous. It was found that codeposition of NiCo and NiFe show more mass-transfer effects than does CoFe deposition within the range of current densities studied. A model of anomalous codeposition put forth previously for NiFe was applied to the electrodeposition of NiCo and CoFe to determine the extensibility of the model, which assumes metal mono hydroxides, MOH{sup +}, are the important charge-transfer species. This model was unable to characterize fully either NiCo or CoFe electrodeposition. However, with minor changes to the hydrolysis constants used in the model, the model predictions were found to agree with the data for CoFe codeposition and greatly, improve the fit for the NiCo results.

  20. Polymer/Silicate composites – New Materials for Subsurface Permeable Reactive Barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K. Harrup; Michael G. Jones; Linda Polson; Byron White

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations were performed into the suitability of novel nanocomposites to serve as materials for subsurface permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). These new materials are Type I nanocomposites – they are preformed organic polymers embedded in an inorganic matrix without significant covalent bonding between the components. The required properties for these materials to function efficiently are: 1) a tunable water passing rate to approximate the hydraulic conductivity of the subsurface environment where the PRB will be placed, 2) sufficient mechanical strength (both wet and dry) to maintain barrier integrity, 3) the ability to incorporate selective metal sequestration agents so that they remain active – yet do not leach from the barrier, and 4) to be deployable through direct injection methods such that trenching is not needed. Additionally, there is a need to keep the technology as low cost as possible, while remaining reliable. Results recently obtained in our laboratory show that our materials, remarkably, exhibit all of these properties and show great promise as vadose zone deployable PRBs.