National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for zealand melanesia micronesia

  1. Climate Information for Development Needs: An Action Plan for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property. Climate Information for Development...

  2. Low-Emission Development Strategies and National Appropriate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Europe, Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property. Low-Emission Development Strategies...

  3. Africa - CCS capacity building | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property. References CCS Africa1 Funded by the...

  4. Federated States of Micronesia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Profile Name Federated States of Micronesia Population 106,104 GDP 277,000,000 Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code FM 3-letter ISO code FSM Numeric ISO code...

  5. Accelerated sea level rise on Yap (Federated States of Micronesia): Cause for concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stahl, M.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Army Corps of Engineers, Pacific Ocean Division, participated in the interagency case study of sea level rise for Yap State in the Federated States of Micronesia. The study, on behalf of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, was in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Engineering and environmental analyses indicate that resources within Yap State at risk from a 1.0 meter rise in sea level by the year 2100 are substantial, including coral reefs, sea grass beds, wetlands, native mangrove forests, groundwater, archaeological and cultural resources, and shoreline infrastructure. Severe constraints associated with land ownership patterns have helped prevent the potential for greater impact. Yet these same constraints will likely hinder future decisions regarding retreat, accommodation, or protection strategies. As a result, there are special institutional and cultural challenges that face Yap in developing and implementing appropriate responses to accelerated sea level rise. These are made more difficult with the many uncertainties associated with current predictions regarding the greenhouse effect.

  6. Wave Energy Technology New Zealand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zealand Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wave Energy Technology New Zealand Address: PO Box 25456 Panama St Place: Wellington Zip: 6146 Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and...

  7. Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Australia and New Zealand) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand) Name: Renewable Energy Systems (RES Australia and New Zealand)...

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Federated States of Micronesia; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Federated States of Micronesia, a sovereign nation and U.S.-associated state in the western Pacific Ocean. The Federated States of Micronesia’s electricity rates for residential customers exceed $0.48 U.S. dollars (USD)/per kilowatt-hour (kWh), nearly four times the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  9. New Zealand Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home New Zealand Geothermal Region Details Areas (2) Power Plants (2) Projects (0) Techniques (0) References Geothermal Region Data Area USGS Resource...

  10. Electric power generation expansion and integration, Micronesia (Yap, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Chuuk) power plants project. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The State of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia is now entirely dependent on oil for electric power generation. The present high costs and limited capacity for electric power generation are major disincentives to the economic development of Yap. Preliminary proposals from two U.S. companies regarding waste-to-energy plants might furnish electricity to Yap below present costs. Yap and its sister state of Kosrae have agreed to jointly seek a grant from the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) to cover three areas: An assessment of projected power generating requirements; A review of generating alternatives with emphasis on waste to energy generation; and An environmental analysis of the waste to energy alternatives. The government in Yap has two objectives: reduce the amount of money spent for diesel fuel now and in the future and make sufficient electricity available at a reasonable price to attract development for the economy of Yap. Officials on both Pohnpei and Kosrae echoed these objectives.

  11. New Zealand Clean Energy Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Energy Centre Jump to: navigation, search Name: New Zealand Clean Energy Centre Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Government ...

  12. New Zealand Joins International Carbon Storage Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zealand Joins International Carbon Storage Group New Zealand Joins International Carbon Storage Group June 29, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis San Francisco, CA - The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) today announced that New Zealand has become the newest member of the international carbon storage body. CSLF members approved New Zealand's bid for membership during a meeting of the Forum's Policy Group held here. With today's action, New Zealand becomes the 23rd member of CSLF. The other members

  13. New Zealand: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name New Zealand Population 4,242,048 GDP Unavailable Energy Consumption Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code NZ 3-letter ISO code NZL Numeric ISO code...

  14. Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Exploration...

  15. New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: New Zealand Interactive Electricity Generation Cost Model 2010 Agency...

  16. New Zealand-Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zealand-Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New...

  17. Geotechnical Drilling in New-Zealand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Geotechnical Drilling in New-Zealand Citation SonicSampDrill. Geotechnical...

  18. New Zealand: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil firms may choose to leave for countries with friendlier tax climates, perhaps Southeast Asia or Papua New Guinea. New tax reform legislation became effective in October 1990 enraging the Petroleum Exploration Association of New Zealand (PEANZ) and disappointing petroleum explorers. Oil companies like Arco are already considering pulling out of future prospecting. Taxation Reform Bill 7 allows tax deductions only after prospects in a license are exhausted without success or allows costs to be written off over 10 years when a well comes on production. Exploration cost has to be capitalized, and farm-outs are taxed under the new regime.

  19. Validation of hydrogeochemical codes using the New Zealand geothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We have initiated such a test of geochemical and hydrological simulation codes, using the ... The Lake Rotokawa region, New Zealand, has been used in our first test effort, since it ...

  20. Establishing radiation therapy advanced practice in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Karen; Jasperse, Marieke; Herst, Patries; Yielder, Jill

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Advanced practice (AP) is of increasing interest to many radiation therapists (RTs) both nationally and internationally. In New Zealand, initial research (2005–2008) showed strong support for the development of an AP role for medical radiation technologists (MRTs). Here, we report on a nationwide survey in which RTs validated and prioritised nine AP profiles for future development. Methods: All registered RTs in New Zealand (n = 260) were invited to take part in a survey in December 2011; 73 of whom returned a complete response. Results: RTs supported the implementation of AP roles in New Zealand and the requirement of a Master's degree qualification to underpin clinical knowledge. Most RTs endorsed the criteria attributed to each of the nine proposed AP profiles. The study identified that activities may qualify as either advanced practice or standard practice depending on the department. All participants agreed that an advanced practitioner should be a leader in the field, able to initiate and facilitate future developments within as well as outside this specific role. Acceptance of the AP roles by RTs and other health professionals as well as the availability of resources for successful implementation, were concerns expressed by some RTs. Conclusion: The authors recommend (1) the development of one scope of practice titled ‘advanced practitioner’ with generic and specialist criteria for each profile as the future career pathway, (2) promotion and support for the AP pathway by the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology and the New Zealand Medical Radiation Technologists Board.

  1. New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1981-10-01

    In New Zealand, new incentives by the government have greatly stimulated interest in exploration. On land, four wells were completed during 1980 at a total depth of 10,120 m. One well was a commercial oil and gas discovery. Offshore, the first exploratory well since 1978 was spudded shortly before the end of 1980. Offshore concession areas have increased over ten-fold, to 107,044 km/sup 2/; on-land licenses, which are all owned by the government company Petrocorp, decreased to 11,591 km/sup 2/. During 1980, the combined output of Kapuni and Maui gas was 1,069,049 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3/, a decrease of 18.23%. This reflects the new gas-recycling operation at the Kapuni field, which started in April. Combined condensate production was down only 12.15%, amounting to 418,941 m/sup 3/. Natural gasoline was down 17.44%, to 7093 m/sup 3/, whereas LPG production went up 39.44%, to 27,301 m/sup 3/. In Tonga, 925 km of offshore multichannel seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys run in 1979 have been processed and interpreted. In Fiji, the first two exploratory wells ever drilled were dry. In Vanuatu, the newly independent republic of the former New Hebrides Condominium, no petroleum legislation has so far been introduced. CCOP/SOPAC and ORSTOM jointly ran a 4000-km single-channel reflection seismic survey between the northern islands. Several sedimentary basins with over 2500 m of slightly deformed sediments of Miocene-Pliocene age have been delineated. In the Solomon Islands, there is still no petroleum legislation, but the draft of the Petroleum (Exploration and Development) Act has been completed and will go before Parliament during 1981. In Papua New Guinea, one well was drilled to 3027 m and abandoned as dry. It confirmed the regional stratigraphic interpretation and had encouraging hydrocarbon indications in the Mesozoic part of the sequence. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  2. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  3. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  4. A guidebook to alternative energy projects on American Samoa, The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, The Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, and The Republics of the Marshall Islands and Palau. [Contains bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Case, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of this guidebook is to help transfer information concerning alternative energy projects that have been tried on the Pacific islands affiliated with the US. These islands include those in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap), Guam, and the Republics of the Marshall Islands and Palau. Distances are long between islands and populations are sparse, making communication and the transfer of information particularly difficult. A project that works on American Samoa might be appropriate for Yap, but to get this information to the proper people on Yap in a reasonable period of time is extremely difficult. This book describes 100 alternative energy projects that have been tried on the islands since the mid-1970's. This description and record of what has been done to date should be a source of ideas for energy workers, reduce duplication of work, and help encourage successes by describing other successes and failures. Alternative energy projects are projects that use indigenous, renewable resources in order to reduce local dependency on imported petroleum for electricity or liquid fuels. The islands have an apparent abundance of natural resources for this purpose such as the sun, rivers, vegetation, the ocean, and wind; and, ideally, it should be relatively simple to convert these resources to electricity or fuel. However, there are problems unique to the remote, tropical Pacific that often appear insurmountable, and successes to date are the results of unusual persistence, hard work, and ingenuity of those on the islands. Projects are confined to those that actually develop or demonstrate hardware. These projects use the complete spectrum of alternative technologies such as biomass conversion, wind electric, solar water heating, photovoltaics, wind water pumping, hydroelectric, water desalination, and integrated systems. 381 refs., 85 figs.

  5. Establishing advanced practice for medical imaging in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yielder, Jill; Young, Adrienne; Park, Shelley; Coleman, Karen

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: This article presents the outcome and recommendations following the second stage of a role development project conducted on behalf of the New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology (NZIMRT). The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that may be used to formulate Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession. It commenced in 2011, following on from initial research that occurred between 2005 and 2008 investigating role development and a possible career structure for medical radiation technologists (MRTs) in New Zealand (NZ). Methods: The study sought to support the development of profiles and criteria that could be used to develop Advanced Scopes of Practice for the profession through inviting 12 specialist medical imaging groups in NZ to participate in a survey. Results: Findings showed strong agreement on potential profiles and on generic criteria within them; however, there was less agreement on specific skills criteria within specialist areas. Conclusions: The authors recommend that one Advanced Scope of Practice be developed for Medical Imaging, with the establishment of generic and specialist criteria. Systems for approval of the overall criteria package for any individual Advanced Practitioner (AP) profile, audit and continuing professional development requirements need to be established by the Medical Radiation Technologists Board (MRTB) to meet the local needs of clinical departments. It is further recommended that the NZIMRT and MRTB promote and support the need for an AP pathway for medical imaging in NZ.

  6. New Zealand and Australia wind energy in a non subsidised market environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieshout, P. van

    1996-12-31

    Significant preliminary work has been undertaken by New Zealand and Australian Power/Generation Companies regarding Wind Power. Turbines are installed in Australia and New Zealand to test the wind and the technical applicability in the Australian wind diesel and the New Zealand high wind speed environment. Projects in Esperance, Thursday Island and King Island illustrate hybrid wind diesel applications. A single Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) has been successfully operated in New Zealand for the last 3 years. A new 3.5 MW wind farm is operational and Resource Consent has been granted for a 65 MW wind farm in New Zealand. Design Power is very proud to be involved in many of the New Zealand and Australian projects. It is obvious that wind power is just starting here, however the start has been promising and it is expected that wind power is here to stay. This paper will address some of the issues associated with wind power in New Zealand and Australia, particularly those that are different from Europe and America. It shows the opportunities and challenges regarding the operation of WTGs in these countries. It addresses the non subsidized electrical pricing structure and the influence of the economically necessary high wind speeds or diesel systems on the choice of technology, particularly the control algorithm of WTGs and the subsystems. It reviews several of the issues associated with predicting the amount of energy that a WTG can generate, again taking into account the high wind speed control algorithms. It further addresses the issue of embedded generation and the influence that a wind farm might have on the electrical network. It continues to address issues associated with wind diesel systems. The paper concludes that wind power will be viable in the near future both in New Zealand and Australia, but also that care should be taken with data analysis and hardware choices during the next phase of implementation of wind power in New Zealand and Australia. 7 figs.

  7. U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations | Department of Energy New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership to Further the Development of Clean Energy on Island Nations July 24, 2008 - 2:14pm Addthis U.S. to Work with New Zealand to Encourage Utilization of Natural Renewable Energy Resources NASSAU, BAHAMAS - The U.S. Department of

  8. Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North Island Of New Zealand | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North Island Of New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Terrestrial Heat Flow In The North...

  9. DE-AI26-06NT42878 - New Zealand Task | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zealand Task Gas Hydrate Research in Deep Sea Sediments - New Zealand Task DE-AI26-06NT42878 Project Goal The objective of this research is to determine the extent and dynamics of gas hydrate deposits and their relation to areas of focused fluid flux at and beneath the seafloor. Specific objectives include: a). Refine geophysical, geochemical and microbiological technologies for prospecting hydrate distribution and content; b). Contribute to establishing high-priority geographical regions of

  10. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herzer, R.H.; Katz, H.R.

    1987-10-01

    In New Zealand, 5 new licenses were granted in offshore Taranaki and 4 licenses were relinquished in other parts of the country. Seismic survey activity increased, partly due to a dense survey over Maui field. Sniffer surveys were used for the first time in New Zealand in 5 licensees. Onshore seismic totaled 717 line-km, and offshore seismic totaled 3693 line-km. Drilling continued at a high level for New Zealand with 12 onshore and 5 offshore wells totaling 57,147 m. Two gas and condensate discoveries, Tariki-1A and Ahuroa-2A, were made in the overthrust play of eastern Taranaki, and a gas and condensate (possible oil) discovery was made off the south Taranaki coast at Kupe South-1. Total petroleum production increased to 4546 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1208 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, 186.7 thousand m/sup 3/ of LPG, and 501 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. Early depletion of the D-sand reservoir in Maui-A field led Shell BP Todd to shoot 1598 km of seismic over the field and to drill 3 appraisal wells. Tonga has released a new license map with 119 blocks offered. Significant changes in legislation include increased royalties, a reduction of exploration license duration to 11 years (but 25 years for development of a discovery), and replacement of expenditure commitments by license work programs. In Papua New Guinea, Iagifu-2X discovery was confirmed with the drilling of Iagifu-3X, which established 4 oil pay zones in the field. The Papuan foldbelt is now considered a very attractive oil province, and most of the basin is under license. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    In New Zealand, a moratorium on petroleum exploration licensing was in effect throughout 1985. Seismic surveying activity was greatly reduced, with 960 km shot offshore and 780 km shot onshore. Drilling continued at a high rate, with 25 wells drilled, 5 offshore and 20 onshore. Total meterage exceeded 41,000 m. Although there were good indications of hydrocarbons, no major discoveries were made. At the end of 1985, the government lifted the licensing moratorium with the announcement of an offer of 50 blocks in the offshore Taranaki basin. Total petroleum production figures for New Zealand were 3802 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1095 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, and 452 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. The entire production is from fields in the Taranaki basin. In 1985, production of synthetic gasoline began at the Motunui synfuels plant using Maui and Kapuni gas and condensate as feedstock. Tonga introduced new petroleum legislation and is offering license blocks for exploration. No activity was reported from Fiji, Vanuatu, and Solomon Islands. License holdings in Papua New Guinea increased 78.3% to 16 petroleum prospecting licenses with a total of 1894 blocks. Seismic surveys amounts to 1500 km on land and 500 km offshore in 1985, after virtually no seismic in 1984. Drilling was up 23.9%. 3 figures, 6 tables.

  12. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  13. Biosafety assessment protocols for new organisms in New Zealand: Can they apply internationally to emerging technologies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barratt, B.I.P. . E-mail: barbara.barratt@agresearch.co.nz; Moeed, A.; Malone, L.A.

    2006-05-15

    An analysis of established biosafety protocols for release into the environment of exotic plants and biological control agents for weeds and arthropod pests has been carried out to determine whether such protocols can be applied to relatively new and emerging technologies intended for the primary production industries, such as transgenic plants. Example case studies are described to indicate the scope of issues considered by regulators who make decisions on new organism releases. No transgenic plants have been released to date in New Zealand, but two field test approvals are described as examples. An analysis of the biosafety protocols has shown that, while many of the risk criteria considered for decision-making by regulators are similar for all new organisms, a case-by-case examination of risks and potential impacts is required in order to fully assess risk. The value of post-release monitoring and validation of decisions made by regulators is emphasised.

  14. Drainage capture and discharge variations driven by glaciation in the Southern Alps, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann V. Rowan; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Merren A. Jones; David M. Schultz

    2013-02-01

    Sediment flux in proglacial fluvial settings is primarily controlled by discharge, which usually varies predictably over a glacial–interglacial cycle. However, glaciers can flow against the topographic gradient to cross drainage divides, reshaping fluvial drainage networks and dramatically altering discharge. In turn, these variations in discharge will be recorded by proglacial stratigraphy. Glacial-drainage capture often occurs in alpine environments where ice caps straddle range divides, and more subtly where shallow drainage divides cross valley floors. We investigate discharge variations resulting from glacial-drainage capture over the past 40 k.y. for the adjacent Ashburton, Rangitata, and Rakaia basins in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Although glacial-drainage capture has previously been inferred in the range, our numerical glacier model provides the first quantitative demonstration that this process drives larger variations in discharge for a longer duration than those that occur due to climate change alone. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the effective drainage area of the Ashburton catchment increased to 160% of the interglacial value with drainage capture, driving an increase in discharge exceeding that resulting from glacier recession. Glacial-drainage capture is distinct from traditional (base level–driven) drainage capture and is often unrecognized in proglacial deposits, complicating interpretation of the sedimentary record of climate change.

  15. Geochemical characteristics of oils from New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung-Nan, Oung; Philp, P.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Oils from a number of convergent margin settings of the Pacific and Philippine plates have been characterized by geochemical techniques including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and carbon isotopic analysis. The oils, collected from New Zealand, New Guinea, and Taiwan, are described in terms of their biomarker compositions, and these distributions are used to evaluate the nature of the source material responsible for the oils. For the most part these oils are of Tertiary age and the source materials were derived predominantly from higher plants. The authors describe the effects of a convergent margin on the relative maturity of the oils as reflected by their biomarker distributions. In other words, do any of the oils from these regions have anomalous maturity values that can be attributed to additional heating resulting from plate movement in the area. The results will also be compared with oils from similar source materials but not in convergent margin settings (for example, the Gippsland basin, Australia) to further evaluate the effects of the convergent margin setting on the biomarker distributions.

  16. Isolation of cellulolytic anaerobic extreme thermophiles from New Zealand thermal sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sissons, C.H.; Sharrock, K.R.; Daniel, R.M.; Morgan, H.W.

    1987-04-01

    Avicel enrichment cultures from 47 thermal-pool sites in the New Zealand Rotorua-Taupo region were screened for growth and carboxymethyl cellulase activity at 75/sup 0/C. Eight anaerobic cellulolytic cultures were obtained. The effect of temperature on carboxymethyl cellulase activity was measured, and bacteria were isolated from the five best cultures. Bacteria from two sources designated TP8 and TP10 grew at 75/sup 0/C, accumulated reducing sugar in the growth medium and gave free cellulases with avicelase activity. Bacteria from sources designated Tok4, Tok8, and Wai21 grew at 75/sup 0/C, accumulated no free sugars in the medium, and gave free carboxymethyl cellulases with virtually no avicelase activity. All were obligate anaerobic nonsporeforming rods which stained gram pentoses as well as hexoses, and gave ethanol and acetate as major fermentation end products. The isolated strain which produced the most active and stable cellulases had lower rates of free endocellulase accumulation at 75/sup 0/C than did Clostridium thermocellum at 60/sup 0/C, but its cellulase activity against avicel and filter paper in culture supernatants was comparable. Tested at 85/sup 0/C, TP8.T carboxymethyl cellulases included components which were very stable, whereas C. thermocellum carboxymethyl cellulases were all rapidly inactivated. The TP8.T avicelase activity was relatively unaffected by Triton X-100, EDTA, and dithiothreitol. Evidence was obtained for the existence of unisolated, cellulolytic extreme thermophiles producing cellulases which were more stable and active than those from TP8.T.

  17. The Federated States of Micronesia - Renewable Energy Target...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kosrae) put in place an energy policy, which calls for a 30 percent reduction in use of fossil fuels and 50 percent increase in energy efficiency by 2020. In addition, it sets...

  18. Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

  19. Sequence stratigraphy of the Miocene, Pohokura field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalid, Nur Zulfa Abdul; Hamzah, Umar

    2014-09-03

    A sequence stratigraphic study of the Miocene age was conducted in the Pohokura field, that is located offshore from the northern coast of Taranaki Penisula, New Zealand. It is a low-relief, north-south elongated anticline approximately 16 km long and 5 km wide. The study was carried out with two objectives which are to identify the Miocene seismic facies and to identify the sequence stratigraphic parameters. One seismic line and Pohokura-2 well was use in the study. Various seismic facies were observed in the seismic section including parallel, subparallel, continuous, subcontinuous, wavy, free reflection, subchaotic, high amplitude-high frequency and high amplitude-low frequency reflection. The interpreted seismic line showed three chronostratigraphic units which is sequence boundary 1 (SB1) represent top Manganui, sequence boundary 2 (SB2) represent top Mount Messenger and sequence boundary 3 (SB3) represent top Urenui. SB1, was separated by two distinct seismic facies namely sub-parallel and sub-chaotic. Parallel and sub-parallel reflection was observed on top of the sequence boundary SB2 while sub-chaotic and wavy seismic facies is found below the sequence boundary. SB3 is characterize by erosional truncation as shown by the present of toplap and downlap terminations in the western part of the seismic section. It is also supported by the clear difference of very high amplitud-high frequency reflection on top of SB3 overlying low amplitud-low frequency reflection of Urenui Formation. A complete depositional system including highstand, lowstand and transgressive system tracts are observed in the incised valley within the Urenui Formation.

  20. Developments in New Zealand and Southwest Pacific island region in 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1980-11-01

    Exploration in New Zealand in 1979 reached one of the lowest levels recorded. Offshore, there was no drilling or seismic work, and the remaining concession area amounts to a mere 9088 sq km. Onland concession areas, all owned by the government company Petrocorp, are 14,771.4 sq km; 2 important areas were relinquished and others were enlarged. One rig was drilling throughout the year, totaling 6230 m. Seismic surveys amounted to 7 party-months and 554.55 km, which is 66% of 1978. Platform A of the Maui field started production in June. Despite this, the combined production of the Kapuni and Maui fields decreased to 61.5% for gas and 64.3% for condensate - or 1,307.464 x 10/sup 6/ cu m of gas and 476,893 cu m of condensate. LPG was obtained at some higher rates, that is, 19,577.93 cu m or 128.8% of last year's production, and natural gasoline at 8,591.61 cu m or 102.1%. In Tonga, last year's unsuccessful drilling of 3 dry holes was followed by marine seismic surveys north and east of Tongatapu Island. In Fiji, offshore seismic surveys of 6000 line-km were completed, as well as geochemical surveys looking for sea-bottom anomalies. With the farm-in of Chevron Overseas Inc., drilling is planned for at least 2 offshore wells early in 1980. In the New Hebrides, draft legislation is now underway for a petroleum act. Also, in the Solomon Islands, draft legislation was put before parliament near year end, and final arrangements are to be completed in 1980. In Papua New Guinea no seismic or geologic field surveys were conducted. No drilling was undertaken, but access and site preparations were carried out for Kiunga 1 well to be drilled by Niugini Gulf Oil Pty. Ltd. early in 1980. Minor concession changes have been made.

  1. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1982-11-01

    New Zealand has experienced a strong increase in exploration activity. Offshore license holdings are up to 164,015 km/sup 2/, an increase of 53%. Onshore licences are 20,467 km/sup 2/, an increase of 77%. Four offshore wells were drilled to a total depth of 13,690 m; they were all dry. Onshore drilling amounted to 8548 m and was concentrated around last year's oil discovery of McKee-2A. Onland seismic surveys covered 484 line-km, while marine seismic work amounted to 6561 km. Because of increased re-injection of gas in the Kapuni field, the saleable production slightly went down, but condensate production rose by nearly 50,000 m/sup 3/; 21% more than last year. With the strongly increased output from the offshore Maui field, total gas production for sale was 1286 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/, up 20.2%, while the total production of condensate was 550,101 m/sup 3/, up 31.3%. LPG production rose to 41,179 m/sup 3/, up 50.8%. In Papua New Guinea, the total concession areas increased to 72,600 km/sup 2/. Oil companies recorded 550 km of seismic lines onshore, and 1716 km offshore; aeromagnetic surveys covered 9779 line-km. Outside concession areas, CCOP/SOPAC conducted single-channel seismic surveys in the New Ireland basin between Bougainville and Manus Island, for a total length of 4964 km. Interpretation of these surveys has been completed and prepared for publication. An appraisal well, Barikewa-2, was spudded shortly before year-end; initial reserve estimates for this large anticline had run as high as 10 tcf of gas in place. Drilling depth will be about 2120 m. (JMT)

  2. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahill, J.P.; Katz, H.R.

    1988-10-01

    In New Zealand, 14 new licenses were granted: 6 in the East Coast region, 6 offshore Taranaki, and 2 in the South Island. Two licenses were relinquished, and the onshore Taranaki license held by petrocorp expired. Onshore seismic activity totaled 525 km; offshore seismic activity totaled 3,221 km (reconnaissance seismic surveys by TCPL accounted for much of the offshore activity). Drilling decreased slightly, with 18 wells drilled (13 onshore and 5 offshore) total 55,203 m. The drilling of Kora-1 on a volcanic structure in the North Taranaki basin has led to speculation about a possible oil discovery. Total petroleum production remained steady at 4,360 million m/sup 3/ of gas, 1,127 thousand m/sup 3/ of condensate, 190 thousand m/sup 3/ of LPG, and 509 thousand m/sup 3/ of oil. In Papua New Guinea, further discoveries in the overthrust belt of the Papuan basin have confirmed the highly prospective nature of this area. A major gas and condensate field with 4 pay zones was established in the Hides structure east of Juha field, and early in 1988 gas, condensate, and oil were found in the Hedinia structure south of the Iagifu oil field discovered in 1986. Total drilling amounted to 15,725.55 m during 1987. Seismic surveys covered 858 km onshore and 4,747 km offshore. There are 36 active Petroleum Prospecting Licenses: 32 in the Papuan basin and 4 in the North New Guinea basin. No new developments were reported in Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1,100 km of acquisition onshore and 4,300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2,978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5,200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S. P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licences with a total of 1,062 blocks (at 5-min graticules).

  4. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1984-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in exploration activity, particularly drilling. 30,876 m were drilled onshore (up 62%) and 14,034 m offshore. Concession holdings slightly increased offshore (to 230,665 km), but dropped to nearly half onshore (to 34,353 km). Seismic surveys decreased to 477.5 line-km onshore and 1128 km offshore, down 56% and 93%, respectively. Oil, gas, and condensate were found in several wells on small structures close to the recently discovered McKee field. Regular production from McKee began in April 1984, at an initial rate of 1000 BOPD. Production from Kapuni and Maui fields combined was 2,381.313 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 9.4%) and 845,286 m/sup 3/ of condensate (down 2.3%). Construction of a 1200-MT/day methanol plant, which uses natural gas from these fields, was completed. No exploration was carried out in Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. In Fiji, all prospecting licenses expired, but renewal terms on areas reduced by 50% were agreed on in principle. Papua New Guinea had 4 wells drilled to a combined depth of 9158 m (up 23.2%). The Juha-2X appraisal well confirmed the discovery of gas and condensate in the Juha anticline. In the Gulf of Papua, the offshore appraisal well, Pasca-A3, blew out and was abandoned. The total area of petroleum prospecting licenses slightly increased to 74,715 km. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific Islands in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.; Herzer, R.H.

    1985-10-01

    New Zealand had an increase in petroleum production, while exploration drilling continued at 1983's high level. Although there was an overall drop in licensed acreage, the amount of seismic exploration increased markedly, with 1100 km of acquisition onshore and 4300 km offshore. A new oil discovery, Toetoe-1A, was made near McKee field. Combined production from Kapuni, Maui, McKee, and Kaimiro fields was 2978.56 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ of gas (up 25%) and 962,323 m/sup 3/ of condensate (up 14%). The combined McKee and Pouri fields, which came on line in November, are producing oil at about 5200 b/d (830 m/sup 3//day). All licenses in Tonga have been relinquished, and all company data are on open file. New petroleum legislation will be in force in 1985. Fiji had no exploration activities. Three license blocks have been renewed at reduced acreage. Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands are still awaiting legislation for petroleum exploration. A second stage of a CCOP/SOPAC-sponsored tripartite project (S.P. Lee cruise) was carried out in both countries, and also in Tonga and the New Ireland basin of Papua New Guinea. On the mainland of Papua New Guinea, 5 wells were drilled to a combined depth of 10,158 m (up 10.9%). All were dry. Concession areas comprise 11 Petroleum Prospecting Licenses with a total of 1062 blocks (at 5-min graticules). 5 figures, 5 tables.

  6. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGimpsey, Paul; Morgan, Richard K.

    2013-11-15

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  7. Oil and gas developments in New Zealand and southwest Pacific islands in 1982. [Papua New Guinea; Fiji

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, H.R.

    1983-10-01

    New Zealand experienced a marked increase in activity. Concession holdings went up 205% onshore to 62,429 km/sup 2/, and 31% offshore to 215,439 km/sup 2/. Seismic coverage more than doubled both onshore and offshore, to 1,075 and 15,321 line-km, respectively. Several new targets have been delineated offshore, and 2 drillships are scheduled to arrive in the country and start drilling during 1983. Onshore, the total depth drilled more than doubled to 18,993 m. Drilling was concentrated in the recently discovered McKee field, where 2 additional oil producers were completed, and on 3 other structures nearby, where 1 well tested gas and condensate. Production of gas and condensate from the Kapuni and Maui fields combined was 2,177.122 X 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ (up 69.3%) and 865,454 m/sup 3/ (up 57.3%), respectively. Expansion of the only refinery in New Zealand and the realization of large petrochemical projects using natural gas are well under way. These projects include an ammonia-urea plant, which was completed by year end, a methanol plant, and a methanol-to-synthetic petrol plant now under construction.

  8. Estimation of total cloud cover from solar radiation observations at Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Liancong; Hamilton, David; Han, Boping

    2010-03-15

    The DYRESM-CAEDYM model is a valuable tool for simulating water temperature for biochemical studies in aquatic ecosystem. The model requires inputs of surface short-wave radiation and long-wave radiation or total cloud cover fraction (TC). Long-wave radiation is often not measured directly so a method to determine TC from commonly measured short-wave solar irradiance (E{sub 0}) and theoretical short-wave solar irradiance under a clear sky (E{sub c}) has broad application. A more than 17-year (15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009) hourly solar irradiance data set was used to estimate the peak solar irradiance for each ordinal date over one year, which was assumed to be representative of solar irradiance in the absence of cloud. Comparison between these daily observed values and the modelled clear-sky solar radiation over one year was in close agreement (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.995 and root mean squared error, RMSE = 12.54 W m{sup -2}). The downloaded hourly cloudiness measurements from 15 November 1991 to 20 February 2009 was used to calculate the daily values for this period and then the calculated daily values over the 17 years were used to calculate the average values for each ordinal date over one year. A regression equation between (1 - E{sub 0}/E{sub c}) and TC produced a correlation coefficient value of 0.99 (p > 0.01, n = 71). The validation of this cloud cover estimation model was conducted with observed short-wave solar radiation and TC at two sites. Values of TC derived from the model at the Lake Rotorua site gave a reasonable prediction of the observed values (RMSE = 0.10, r = 0.86, p > 0.01, n = 61). The model was also tested at Queenstown (South Island of New Zealand) and it provided satisfactory results compared to the measurements (RMSE = 0.16, r = 0.67, p > 0.01, n = 61). Therefore the model's good performance and broad applicability will contribute to the DYRESM-CAEDYM accuracy of water temperature simulation when long-wave radiation

  9. Construction of an in vitro primary lung co-culture platform derived from New Zealand white rabbits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Joshua D.; Hess, Becky M.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Straub, Tim M.

    2015-05-01

    We report the construction of an in vitro three dimensional (3D) co-culture platform consisting of differentiated lung epithelial cells and monocytes from New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit lung epithelial cells were successfully grown at air-liquid interface, produced mucus, and expressed both sialic acid alpha-2,3 and alpha-2,6. Blood-derived CD14+ monocytes were deposited above the epithelial layer resulting in the differentiation of a subset of monocytes into CD11c+ cells within the co-culture. These proof-of-concept findings provide a convenient means to comparatively study in vitro versus in vivo rabbit lung responses as they relate to inhalation or lung-challenge studies.

  10. Investigating the experiences of New Zealand MRI technologists: Exploring intra-orbital metallic foreign body safety practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Philippa K; Henwood, Suzanne

    2013-12-15

    Qualitative research is lacking regarding the experiences of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologists and their involvement in workplace safety practices. This article provides a gateway to explore, describe and document experiences of MRI technologists in New Zealand (NZ) pertaining to intra-orbital metallic foreign body (IMFB) safety practices. This phenomenological study describes the experiences of seven MRI technologists all with a minimum of 5 years' NZ work experience in MRI. The MRI technologists were interviewed face-to-face regarding their professional IMFB workplace experiences in order to explore historical, current and potential issues. Findings demonstrated that aspects of organization and administration are fundamentally important to MRI technologists. Varying levels of education and knowledge, as well as experience and skills gained, have significantly impacted on MRI technologists’ level of confidence and control in IMFB practices. Participants’ descriptions of their experiences in practice regarding decision-making capabilities further highlight the complexity of these themes. A model was developed to demonstrate the interrelated nature of the themes and the complexity of the situation in totality. Findings of this study have provided insight into the experiences of MRI technologists pertaining to IMFB safety practices and highlighted inconsistencies. It is hoped that these findings will contribute to and improve the level of understanding of MRI technologists and the practices and protocols involved in IMFB safety screening. The scarcity of available literature regarding IMFB safety practices highlights that more research is required to investigate additional aspects that could improve MRI technologists’ experiences.

  11. Warming and glacier recession in the Rakaia valley, Southern Alps of New Zealand, during Heinrich Stadial 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron E. Putnam; Joerg M. Schaefe; George H .Denton; DavidJ. A. Barrell; Bjørn G. Andersen; Tobias N.B. Koffman; Ann V. Rowan; Robert C. Finkel; Dylan H. Rood; Roseanne Schwartz; Marcus J. Vandergoes; Mitchell A. Plummer; Simon H. Brocklehurst; Samuel E. Kelley; Kathryn L. Ladig

    2013-11-01

    The termination of the last ice age featured a major reconfiguration of Earth's climate and cryosphere, yet the underlying causes of these massive changes continue to be debated. Documenting the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric temperature during deglaciation can help discriminate among potential drivers. Here, we present a 10Be surface-exposure chronology and glaciological reconstruction of ice recession following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the Rakaia valley, Southern Alps of New Zealand. Innermost LGM moraines at Big Ben have an age of 17,840 +/- 240 yrs, whereas ice-marginal moraines or ice-molded bedrock surfaces at distances up-valley from Big Ben of 12.5 km (Lake Coleridge), approximately 25 km (Castle Hill), approximately 28 km (Double Hill), approximately 43 km (Prospect Hill), and approximately 58 km (Reischek knob) have ages of 17,020 +/- 70 yrs, 17,100 +/- 110 yrs, 16,960 +/- 370 yrs, 16,250 +/- 340 yrs, and 15,660 +/- 160 yrs, respectively. These results indicate extensive recession of the Rakaia glacier, which we attribute primarily to the effects of climatic warming. In conjunction with geomorphological maps and a glaciological reconstruction for the Rakaia valley, we use our chronology to infer timing and magnitude of past atmospheric temperature changes. Compared to an overall temperature rise of approximately 4.65?degrees C between the end of the LGM and the start of the Holocene, the glacier recession between approximately 17,840 and approximately 15,660 yrs ago is attributable to a net temperature increase of approximately 4.0?degrees C (from -6.25 to -2.25?degrees C), accounting for approximately 86% of the overall warming. Approximately 3.75?degrees C (approximately 70%) of the warming occurred between approximately 17,840 and approximately 16,250 yrs ago, with a further 0.75?degrees C (approximately 16%) increase between approximately 16,250 and approximately 15,660 yrs ago. A sustained southward shift of the Subtropical

  12. Final report on the developmental toxicity of ethylenediamine (CAS No. 107-15-3) in New Zealand white rabbits. Report for November-February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Ethylenediamine (EDA) is a major industrial chemical with an estimated U.S. production of 64 million pounds in 1985. EDA is used as a chemical intermediate or solvent in manufacturing, as a paint thinner, and as a constituent of certain cosmetic, pharmaceutical and veterinary products. Based upon its widespread applications and the potential for exposure in pregnant women, EDA was evaluated for maternal and developmental toxicity using a laboratory animal model. Artificially-inseminated New Zealand White rabbits (26/group) were administered ethylenediamine (0, 10, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day) by gavage on gestational days (gd) 6 through 19. The doses administered were equivalent to 0, 22, 89 or 178 of EDA.2HC1. Maternal clinical signs, body weight, and food consumption were monitored at regular intervals throughout gestation. At termination (gd 30), the uterus was removed and examined to determine pregnancy status and to evaluate the number of resorptions, and dead or live fetuses. Dead or live fetuses were weighed, and live fetuses examined for external, visceral and skeletal defects.

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, on some of the larger islands of Melanesia (Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomons, and Papua New Guinea), the effect of land and sea on temperature is noticeable, particularly on fine ...

  14. US, New Zealand Collaborate to Combat Trafficking of Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    will help establish the capacity for mobile radiation detection operations with law enforcement and other internal security organizations, which will complement existing ...

  15. The New Zealand Hacker Case: A Post Mortem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovsky, Barbara; Ryan, Daniel J.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-10-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. The following is a discussion of selected computer crime cases, using publically available information, spanning a period of time of several years, that together demonstrate the need for a preventive and proactive response to malicious intrusion over a reactive one. It concludes with recommendations for how to "operationalize" organizational network forensic readiness.

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State All Alabama Alaska American Samoa Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Federal Federated States of Micronesia Florida Georgia Guam...

  17. A New Zealand Test Of The Track-Etch Method Of Prospecting For...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Track Etch radon cups with an improved type of detector were found to be usable in ground temperatures as high as 60C. There was no direct correlation of radon...

  18. U.S. and New Zealand Take Steps to Launch International Partnership...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    "Islands are often hit hardest by price volatility and dependency on oil," Assistant ... renewable resources, including wind, solar, geothermal, and ocean energy, while ...

  19. Electrical resistivity and magnetic investigations of the geothermal systems in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M. ); Dawson, G.B.; Rayner, H.H.; Bennie, S.L.; Bromley, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that electrical and magnetic data are used in an investigation of a 450 km{sup 2} region in order to delineate the Rotorua City Geothermal system and determine its relationship with other geothermal systems in the region. Three distinct regions of low ({lt}30 Omega m) apparent resistivity are delineated. The southern of these outlines the Rotorua City Geothermal System which has an area of about 18 km{sup 2}, with the northern third covered by Lake Rotorua. The boundary of the system is characterized by a rapid lateral change in apparent resistivity which can be modeled as a single, near vertical zone in which the distance between hot and cold water is very narrow. Magnetic properties also change in the vicinity of the discontinuity in some areas, consistent with hydrothermal alteration having destroyed the magnetite in the rocks of the geothermal system. Hot water is believed to be rising, driven by buoyancy forces across the whole of the low resistivity region. There is some indication, particularly in the south, that the boundary between hot and cold fluids dips away from the field. A second low resistivity zone (the East Lake Rotorua anomaly) with an area of about 8 km{sup 2}, is believed to outline a second independent geothermal system, with surface manifestations on Mokoia Island, and on the eastern shore of the lake. High heat flow in lake bottom sediments, and a reduction in magnetic signature over this region supports this conclusion. A third resistivity low under the west of Lake Rotorua has no associated thermal features and is believed to be a fossil hydrothermal system. There is no apparent relationship between the location of the geothermal systems and the Rotorua caldera. The aeromagnetic measurements have delineated several highly magnetic bodies which cannot be linked with surface geology. These are believed to be caused by buried rhyolite dome complexes at shallow depth.

  20. Comparison of subsidence at Wairakei, Broadlands and Kawerau fields, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allis, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Exploitation has caused over 9 m of subsidence at Wairakei since 1950, up to 30 cm at Broadlands between 1968 and 1974, and up to 25 cm at Kawerau since 1970. Despite these differences and large differences in the rate and amount of mass withdrawal, there are similarities in the pattern of subsidence at all 3 fields. In each field, pressure drawdown in the production zone can be identified as a nearly circular area of consolidation centered on the production borefield. The circular shape suggests that the predominant fault direction may not be the main factor controlling horizontal permeability. In addition to production zone consolidation, each field has a small area of relatively intense subsidence originating from shallow depth. The area of shallow consolidation is near to the natural outflow zone where geothermal water originally rose to near-surface and dispersed in highly compressible formations. Early identification of such areas in other fields is important because the high rate of consolidation at shallow depth can cause large horizontal strain and tilt of the ground surface. There is also evidence of cool groundwater inflow near the area of shallow consolidation in all three fields. Shallow reinjection into these areas may mitigate the effects of subsidence and groundwater invasion.

  1. Biogenicity of silica precipitation around geysers and hot-spring vents, North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before anthropogenic modifications, Ohaaki Pool (Broadlands-Ohaaki) and Dragon`s Mouth Geyser (Wairakei) emitted waters at temperatures of 93--98 C. The siliceous sinter that precipitated around their vents has the characteristics of geyserite, a dense laminated deposit of presumed abiogenic origin, that was precipitated from waters too hot (>73C) to support microbes other than thermophilic bacteria. Petrographic and SEM examinations of the sinters show that they incorporate columnar stromatolites and silicified, laminated stromatolitic mats that contain well-preserved filamentous microbes. At both localities the microbes lack evidence of desiccation or shrinkage, which implies that they were silicified rapidly at or shortly after their death. Although boiling and very hot (>90 C) waters were discharged, temperatures at many sites surrounding the vents remained sufficiently low and moist to support a microbial community that included thermophilic bacteria and cyanobacteria. In these cooler niches, the microbes and their biofilms served as highly favorable templates for the nucleation and growth of amorphous silica, and collectively provided a microbial framework for the laminated accretionary sinter. Some columnar, spicular, and stratiform geyserites are probably not abiotic precipitates, but are true silica stromatolites.

  2. The Occurrence of Pyrrhotite in the Ngawha Geothermal System, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, M.E.; Browne, P.R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Ngawha geothermal system is low in all sulfide minerals, but in comparison to systems in the Taupo Volcanic Zone it contains more widely distributed pyrrhotite which is currently depositing, mainly in fractures. This reflects the high proportion of vapor in the Ngawha system. Pyrrhotite is most common in the upper part of the reservoir and lower part of the aquitard. The Ngawha pyrrhotite is of monoclinic and monoclinic + hexagonal structure.

  3. DE-AI26-06NT42878 - New Zealand Task | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the formation of "sweet spots", or areas of highly concentrated gas hydrate. ... Titan" across several areas that may be candidates for the discovery of such sweet spots. ...

  4. U.S. Global Change Research Program Recommended Citation: Global...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... A billboard on Pohnpei, in the Fed- erated States of Micronesia, encour- ages water conservation in prepara- tion for the 1997 to 1998 El Nio. Extreme Sea-Level Days: Honolulu, ...

  5. Posters Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Radiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Takahashi, T., and K. Kuhara. 1993. Precipitation mechanisms of cumulonimbus clouds at Pohnpei, Micronesia. Meteor. Soc. Japan 71:21-31. Takano, Y., and K. N. Liou. 1989. Radiative ...

  6. CV-1b: Magmatic - Intrusive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone in New Zealand. A cross section view of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand (ref: Book: North New Zealand) According to Moeck and Beardsmore, magmatic-intrusive...

  7. Todd Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Todd Energy Place: New Zealand Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New Zealand energy company with operations in exploration, production and...

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  9. SREL Reprint #3088

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drawer E, Aiken, South Carolina, USA 4AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand 5AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel, New Zealand 6Department of ...

  10. Sola60 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Sola60 Place: New Zealand Sector: Solar Product: New Zealand-based solar water heating company, with about 600m square feet of solar panels installed. References:...

  11. 3atab.xlsx

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, ...

  12. Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (MARKAL) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Switzerland, Albania, Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, New Zealand, China, Philippines,...

  13. Geothermal Literature Review At International Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Ranalli & Rybach, 2005)...

  14. Vestas Asia Pacific A S | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Division of Danish wind turbine manufacturer Vestas, providing sales and service in Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, India and the rest of Asia. References: Vestas Asia...

  15. International Energy Agency (IEA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.2 Headlines IEA Deputy Executive Director explores...

  16. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States Mission OECD brings together the governments of...

  17. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Other countries with above-average stay rates include Iran, Romania, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. Thailand, Jordan, Brazil, South Africa, Chile, New Zealand and Indonesia all have the ...

  18. Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Station General Information Name Ohaaki Geothermal Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 20km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  19. Mokai Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Station General Information Name Mokai Geothermal Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates -38.530556,...

  20. Poihipi Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Poihipi Power Station General Information Name Poihipi Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Poihipi Road, Near Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand...

  1. Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plant General Information Name Rotokawa Geothermal Power Plant Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location 14km NE of Taupo, Waikato, New Zealand Coordinates...

  2. Kawerau Geothermal Power Station | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Station General Information Name Kawerau Geothermal Power Station Sector Geothermal energy Location Information Location Bay of Plenty Region, New Zealand Coordinates...

  3. 3dtab.xlsx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, ...

  4. Wastewater Reclamation and Biofuel Production Using Algae

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via digestion or hydrothermal liquefaction 8 Full-scale raceway systems in California, Israel, S. Africa, New Zealand (but not designed for nutrient removal). 9 Typical ...

  5. Property:Conference | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging + World Geothermal Congress A Review of Geothermal Resource Estimation Methodology + 35th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating...

  6. EERE Success Story—Advancing Technology Readiness: Wave Energy Testing and Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE’s support enabled Northwest Energy Innovations to verify the functionality of its Wave Energy Technology—New Zealand (WET-NZ) device.

  7. MHK Technologies/WET NZ | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to the MHK database homepage WET NZ.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wave Energy Technology New Zealand WET NZ Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology...

  8. Power Projects Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Power Projects Limited Address: PO Box 25456 Panama Street Place: Wellington Zip: 6146 Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic...

  9. U.S. and Iceland Sign Bilateral Agreement to Develop Clean Geothermal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nations represented in this week's events include Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Netherlands, ...

  10. Tongonan geothermal field Leyte, Philippines. Report on exploration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report Number(s): NP-24999 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: Kingston, Reynolds, Thom and Allardice Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand) Country of Publication: United States ...

  11. A Soil Gas Survey Over Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rotorua Geothermal Field, Rotorua, New Zealand Abstract Soil gases have been used as an exploration tool for minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy, through the detection...

  12. The mystery of milk: SAXS, anomalous SAXS, and resonant soft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Bridget Ingham, Callaghan Innovation (Wellington, New Zealand) Program Description Most of the dietary calcium in milk is contained...

  13. Industrial Research Ltd IRL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Research Ltd IRL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Industrial Research Ltd (IRL) Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( State-owned...

  14. Unraveling the mystery of San Marcos Pueblo

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participants come from a multitude of American and international educational institutions, ranging from New Mexico State University to universities as far away as New Zealand. ...

  15. Going completely renewable: is it possible (let alone desirable)?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Watts, Charmaine

    2009-05-15

    With the right mix of leadership and policy, a completely renewable electricity sector for New Zealand and the United States is feasible, achievable, and desirable. (author)

  16. The Importance of Traditional Knowledge in Science Education...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ARM has contracted with Hans Andersen from Tradewind Communications (New Zealand) for the design and development of this kiosk. Stand-alone interactive computer kiosks will be ...

  17. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Symposium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cellulose-matrix interactions (Chaired by Charlie Anderson and Jeffrey Catchmark) Roger Newman, Scion, New Zealand; Physical analysis of primary and secondary cell walls Mike ...

  18. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The ARM Facility will be supporting Australian agencies measuring cloud conditions from remote Macquarie Island between New Zealand and Antarctica. Image courtesy of M. Murphy, via ...

  19. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * SAVANNAH RIVER SITE * AIKEN * SC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It has also been recommended by an independent environmental consultant to protect groundwater resources in New Zealand. Partnering opportunities SRNS invites interested companies ...

  20. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More than 100 attendees, representing such countries as Jamaica, Taiwan, Mexico, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Korea, Russia, and Japan asked questions about the ARM and the ...

  1. Microsoft Word - fy09_annualtarget_climatemodeling1_Q1 _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This includes multiple domains in Africa, Europe, Asia, North America, Central and South America, Australia and New Zealand, Polar regions, and small islands. Large watersheds will ...

  2. SREL Reprint #3203

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA 4Bulmer and Associates, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: In 1957, Troughton described the wild dog of New Guinea, naming it Canis hallstromi. ...

  3. VZCOMML©, Version 4.0 - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It has also been recommended by an independent environmental consultant to protect groundwater resources in New Zealand. Technology Status Technology ID Development Stage ...

  4. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Thom and Allardice Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)","Not Available","15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; TONGONAN GEOTHERMAL FIELD; GEOTHERMAL EXPLORATION; GEOTHERMAL POWER...

  5. A U-Th Calcite Isochron Age From An Active Geothermal Field In...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more detailed studies of the evolution of the New Zealand geothermal systems. Authors Stephen Grimes, David Rickard, Chris Hawkesworth, Peter van Calsteren and Patrick Browne...

  6. Advancing Technology Readiness: Wave Energy Testing and Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EEREs support enabled Northwest Energy Innovations to verify the functionality of its Wave Energy TechnologyNew Zealand (WET-NZ) device.

  7. Clean Coal and Waste to Energy Session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Brazil Canada China European Union France Germany Greece India Italy Japan Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Saudi Arabia South Africa Korea United Kingdom United ...

  8. WWS_LorrieC157L_0915

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ireland Italy Japan Kenya Latvia Lesotho Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Mozambique Nepal The Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway ...

  9. WorldWide Science.org

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Libya Lithuania Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Mauritius Mexico Mozambique Nepal The Netherlands New Zealand Nicaragua Nigeria Norway Philippines Poland Portugal Russia Rwanda Saudi ...

  10. The Evolution of Host Specialization in the Vertebrate Gut Symbiont...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    University of Nebraska, Lincoln University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom U.S. Department of Energy,...

  11. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Puerto Rico Qatar Reunion Romania ...

  12. Western Pacific; Gas line plans continue to increase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarles, W.R.; Thiede, K.; Parent, L.

    1990-11-01

    The authors report on pipeline activity in the Western Pacific. They discuss projects underway in Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Singapore.

  13. WaikatoLink Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: WaikatoLink Limited Place: New Zealand Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Individual Angel network )...

  14. LEDSGP/about/members | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - logo.jpg Governmental Members Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Ministry of science, Technology and Environment Auckland New Zealand City Government Australian Agency...

  15. Meridian Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Meridian Energy Ltd Place: Wellington, New Zealand Zip: 6011 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Wellington-based electricity generator, generating only from renewable...

  16. UNFCCC-Global Map-Annex 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States Cost: Free Australia and New Zealand, Western...

  17. Radiological cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    For 8 years, from 1972 until 1980, the United States planned and carried out the radiological cleanup, rehabilitation, and resettlement of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands. This documentary records, from the perspective of DOD, the background, decisions, actions, and results of this major national and international effort. The documentary is designed: First, to provide a historical document which records with accuracy this major event in the history of Enewetak Atoll, the Marshall Islands, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Micronesia, the Pacific Basin, and the United States. Second, to provide a definitive record of the radiological contamination of the Atoll. Third, to provide a detailed record of the radiological exposure of the cleanup forces themselves. Fourth, to provide a useful guide for subsequent radiological cleanup efforts elsewhere.

  18. CrestEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CrestEnergy Jump to: navigation, search Name: CrestEnergy Region: New Zealand Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Website: www.crest-energy.com This company is listed in the Marine and...

  19. Channing Huntington

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... I've visited Cyprus, Israel, Jordan, Egypt, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, ... I've also worked in research centers in Italy, Israel, and Switzerland. Next, I'm hoping ...

  20. Manhattan Project: Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The road to the atomic bomb began in earnest in 1919 with the first artificial transmutation of an element. The New Zealander Ernest Rutherford, working in the Cavendish Laboratory ...

  1. doe_netl_completed_proj | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... University of Mississippi Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology (CMRET) DE-AI26-06NT42878 Gas Hydrate Research in Deep Sea Sediments - Chatham Rise, New Zealand ...

  2. ARM - Lesson Plans: When Land Ice Melts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Arctic and Antarctica are covered with large, heavy sheets of ice. Other islands like New Zealand have ice masses in the form of glaciers on them. When land-based ice melts, ...

  3. ARM - Lesson Plans: Your Own Greenhouse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    When you have a chance to visit some cold countries like New Zealand and some parts of Australia, try to visit a greenhouse and see how its environment is different to that ...

  4. EDIN Announces New Projects in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. pilot project participant will be the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI); Iceland's pilot project will be working with Dominica; and New Zealand will work to assess geothermal ...

  5. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turbulence characteristics of New Zealand gravel-bed rivers. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 123(9): p. 764-773. Table 1. Bulk flow properties of reviewed open channel flow data ...

  6. SREL Reprint #3062

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forensic Laboratory, Ashland, Oregon, 97520 U.S.A. 3Bulmer and Associates, Auckland, New Zealand 4The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29802 U.S.A. ...

  7. DE-AI26-06NT42878 - Alaminos Canyon Task | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Preliminary estimates of SMI depths for Alaminos Canyon are generally deeper than data collected in the Gulf of Mexico, mid Chilean Margin and off the coast of New Zealand. The ...

  8. ARM - Feature Stories and Releases Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM experiment to characterize unique properties of clouds in the Southern Ocean Macquarie Island is a remote grassy outcrop that lies about half-way between New Zealand and ...

  9. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A native of New Zealand, Lamb joined The University of Oklahoma in 1991 as a full Professor in its School of Meteorology, and Director of the NOAA Cooperative Institute for ...

  10. Inder\tMonga CTO,\tEnergy\tSciences\tNetwork Deputy,\tScienEfic\tNetworking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to New Zealand 2816 2 Image from NZ, Maori Design Pa:ern 2816 3 Talk 2816 4 ESnet and NRENs IntroducBon Established Design Pa:erns Emerging Design Pa:erns DOE's Energy ...

  11. CX-010213: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wave Energy Technology- New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 01/08/2013 Location(s): Hawaii, Oregon Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  12. CX-009134: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wave Energy Technology- New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08/20/2012 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  13. Uncertain tax policies will keep drilling flat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses how petroleum tax legislation under consideration in both New Zealand and Australia has operators biding time, but if events proceed as anticipated, next year could have a large increase of drilling.

  14. A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Field, New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New...

  15. Offshore finds inspire optimism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The author reviews the oil market in Australia and the Pacific. Some of the highlights are: Australia/Pacific drilling hit 308 in 1987; about 300 seen for 1988; Offshore holds action in New Zealand, while onshore Papua makes news; Reduced taxes, relaxed foreign investment rules aid Aussie development work; Four solid solid discoveries made in Papua's Southern Highlands in 18 months; and Austrialia and New Zealand enact industry degregulation measures.

  16. Are You Attending Solar Decathlon This Year? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attending Solar Decathlon This Year? Are You Attending Solar Decathlon This Year? September 22, 2011 - 6:45am Addthis Amanda Crosby, right, and Belinda Dods of New Zealand celebrate placing the final screw on the deck of their house at Solar Decathlon 2011. Amanda Crosby, right, and Belinda Dods of New Zealand celebrate placing the final screw on the deck of their house at Solar Decathlon 2011. This Friday marks the first day of Solar Decathlon 2011, an annual event that challenges collegiate

  17. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  18. CX-013472: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geochemical Evaluation of Double Layered BSR's on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1, B3.6Date: 03/16/2015 Location(s): District of ColumbiaOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. Energy Development in Island Nations (EDIN), Partnering to Increase Island Energy Security Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the international partnership for Energy Development in Island nations, including mission, goals, and organization. It also includes background on EDIN's three pilot projects: U.S. Virgin Islands, Iceland-Dominica Collaboration, and New Zealand-Geothermal Potential in the Pacific.

  20. CX-011096: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wave Energy Test - New Zealand Multi-Mode Technology Demonstration at the US Navy's Wave Energy Test Site CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 09/19/2013 Location(s): Oregon Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  1. CX-011412: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wave Energy Technology-New Zealand Multi-Mode Technology Demonstration at the United States Navy's Wave Energy Test Site CX(s) Applied: B5.25 Date: 11/26/2013 Location(s): Hawaii Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  2. CX-005540: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wave Energy Technology-New Zealand Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement ProjectCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 03/30/2011Location(s): Portland, OregonOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  3. South Pacific: Australia comes back strong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    Exploration and production action experienced mixed fortunes last year. Exploration improved markedly with increased Australian activity. Liquids output declined, but gas production was up overall. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, development, and production in Australia, the Zone of Cooperation, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea.

  4. JPRS report: Arms control, [July 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-07-15

    This report contains information concerning arms control of the following countries: (1) China, (2) Australia, (3) North Korea, (4) South Korea, (5) New Zealand, (6) Bulgaria, (7) Czechoslovakia, (8) Hungary, (9) Poland, (10) Iran, (11) Soviet Union, (12) France, and (13) Germany.

  5. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect presentation 32 at the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland. Authors: Louie, John ; Pullammanappallil, Honjas ; Honjas, Bill Publication Date: 2016-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111646 Report Number(s): DOE-Pyramid-2842-jl02

  6. 1996 hazardous waste management survey in selected Asian countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, D.; Christie, K.; Tao, Hong-lei

    1996-12-31

    This report documents the results of a 42-question survey submitted to countries in Asia concerning their hazardous waste management programs and other issues. The same survey questions were distributed in 1992. This report compares the 1992 and 1996 responses. The respondents were Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Philippines, Hong Kong, People`s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Indonesia. 7 figs.

  7. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  8. Example Batch Scripts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Examining Future Global Transportation Energy Demand For EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, DC By John Maples Outline * Model overview - Passenger travel - Freight travel - Energy consumption for 16 regions: * USA, Canada, Mexico/Chile, OECD Europe, Japan, S. Korea, Australia/New Zealand * Russia, Non-OECD Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Non-OECD Asia, Middle East, Africa, Brazil, Other South/Central * IEO2016 Reference case transportation projections * Preliminary scenario results

  9. Examining Future Global Energy Demand

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Examining Future Global Transportation Energy Demand For EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, DC By John Maples Outline * Model overview - Passenger travel - Freight travel - Energy consumption for 16 regions: * USA, Canada, Mexico/Chile, OECD Europe, Japan, S. Korea, Australia/New Zealand * Russia, Non-OECD Europe/Eurasia, China, India, Non-OECD Asia, Middle East, Africa, Brazil, Other South/Central * IEO2016 Reference case transportation projections * Preliminary scenario results

  10. DE-AI26-06NT42878 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Hydrate Research in Deep Sea Sediments - Chatham Rise, New Zealand Task Last Reviewed 5/13/2014 DE-AI26-06NT42878 Goal The goal of the Interagency Agreement between the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Naval Research Laboratory is to conduct research to enhance understanding of the extent and dynamics of gas hydrate deposits and their relation to areas of focused fluid flux at and beneath the seafloor. Performer Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Naval Research Laboratory,

  11. South Pacific: Another slow year is ahead. [Oil and gas industry outlook in the South Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, B. )

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the oil and gas exploration activities in Australia, Papua New Guinea, and New Zealand in the 1992--1993 period and projects the near-future market and development of these resources. It provides statistics on numbers of new wells drilled, footage involved, number or completions, and production information. The paper also describes the main geographical areas of exploration, types of exploration equipment involved.

  12. CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CyberShake3.0: Physics-Based Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis PI Name: Thomas Jordan PI Email: tjordan@usc.edu Institution: University of Southern California Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 2,000,000 Year: 2012 Research Domain: Earth Science Recent destructive earthquakes including Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand( 2011), and Japan (2011) highlight the national and international need for improved seismic hazard

  13. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf Authors: Louie, John [1] ; Pullammanappallil, Satish [2] ; Honjas, Bill [2] + Show Author Affiliations UNR Optim Publication Date: 2016-08-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111649 Report Number(s): DOE-Pyramid-2842-jl05

  14. Solar Decathlon 2013: Going the Distance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Solar Decathletes Inspire Today's Green Builders and Tomorrow's Innovations Richard King Richard King Director, Solar Decathlon An energetic group of university students from New Zealand to North Carolina are a huge draw at this year's International Builders' Show in Orlando, Florida. The students are preparing for the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon - a competition that challenges 20 collegiate teams to construct and operate solar-powered homes that

  15. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Elaine Santantonio-Creating an efficient cyber workplace March 11, 2014 Creating an efficient cyber workplace Having lived and worked all around the world managing networking-including Sweden, New Zealand, Oregon and Maryland-Elaine Santantonio may be the perfect person to improve mobility, communications and cyber security at Los Alamos National Lab. From desktop to teraflops A recipient of the Lab's 2014 Women Who Inspire awards, as the Network and Infrastructure Engineering (NIE) Division

  16. Federal Acquisition Regulation Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-86 Summary of Rules

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acquisition Regulation Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-86 Summary of Rules FAC 2005-86 Item Subject FAR Case I Definition of "Multiple-Award Contract" 2015-019 II Sole Source Contracts for Women-Owned Small Businesses (Interim) 2015-032 III New Designated Countries-Montenegro and New Zealand 2015-034 IV Trade Agreements Threshold 2016-001 Item I- Definition of "Multiple-Award Contract" (FAR Case 2015-019) This final rule amends the FAR to define ''multiple-award contract.''

  17. 1987 may mirror 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a survey of the Australian Pacific region and its oil activity. Highlights of the article include the fact that 1987 drilling rates should be approximately comparable to 1986 rates especially in Australia. Details of the activity include the fact that the Australian Government seems to be reducing taxes and that New Zealand has also changed its tax policy. Drilling remains successful in the Timor Sea and a new production has been opened in the Bass Strait. Activity is also beginning on the Papua New Guinea area.

  18. Max Schulze

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Max Schulze June 9, 2015 Extreme unicycling The unicycle that Los Alamos student intern Max Schulze and his brother had given their dad for Father's Day in 2005 did not get much use until Schulze tried it and got hooked. Today, he is a three-time unicycling world champion, with world wins in New Zealand in 2010, Italy in 2012 and Canada in 2014. "My main competitive unicycling event is 'trials,'" Schulze explains, "which requires riders to navigate technically challenging obstacle

  19. Design of HVDC converter station equipment subject to severe seismic performance requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enblom, R. ); Coad, J.N.O. ); Berggren, S. )

    1993-10-01

    Severe seismic design levels were specified for the upgrading of the HVDC link between the principal islands of New Zealand. A number of novel design solutions were required to fulfill the performance requirements for the electric equipment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of design solutions and verification methods in the light of a specification stating performance criteria rather than specific allowables. Modifications to items of high voltage electrical equipment are described that reduce the seismic loads in the equipment and enable standard equipment to be used in areas of high seismicity. The seismic performance is further improved by controlling the eventual collapse mechanism.

  20. Kiwis Take Home Engineering Win for Solar Home 'First Light' | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Kiwis Take Home Engineering Win for Solar Home 'First Light' Kiwis Take Home Engineering Win for Solar Home 'First Light' September 29, 2011 - 4:22pm Addthis “First Light,” the solar home from New Zealand, stands complete on the first day of the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The 25-student team from Victory University of Wellington won the Engineering Contest today, the fourth juried contest of the competition. "First Light," the solar home

  1. Inquiring Minds - Questions About Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feynman insists that ... Hello helpful physicist Since you seem to be a physics person I thought you could help me with a thing that bothered me for quite some time now. Nobody has been able to answer me yet. I read a series of lectures Feynman gave in New Zealand for the non-science student. In there he seems to insist that: 1) There is no need for an uncertainty principle 2) Photons can travel slower or faster than lightspeed (and indeed do) (I know they can go slower, but faster???) 3)

  2. DOE studies on coal-to-liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

  3. Legal nature of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liddell, G.

    1986-08-01

    The commercial exploitation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) in New Zealand has occurred without a particular and comprehensive concern for any legal implications. The paper in Part I examines definitional questions, assesses in Part II the ability of courts and quasi-courts to evaluate risks associated with the product, examines in Part III the utility of common law remedies for injuries or associated with or arising from LPG, analyzes in Part IV the statutory regulation of LPG, concentrating particularly on the Dangerous Goods (Class 2 - Gases) Regulations 1980, discusses in Part V recent planning case-law concerning LPG development, and concludes that some reform is necessary to produce a more-coherent and precise regulatory regime that takes into account both the needs of developers and those affected by the development of LPG.

  4. Behavior of Rare Earth Element In Geothermal Systems; A New Exploration/Exploitation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott A. Wood

    2002-01-28

    The goal of this four-year project was to provide a database by which to judge the utility of the rare earth elements (REE) in the exploration for and exploitation of geothermal fields in the United States. Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: (1) the North Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); (2) the Cascades of Oregon; (3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; (4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; (5) Palinpion, the Philippines: (6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and (7) the Dieng field in Central Java, Indonesia. We have analyzed the samples from all fields for REE except the last two.

  5. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  6. Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 167,595 0 1,923,434 6,671 7,636,614 2,038,774 19,646 205 718,149 0 0 1,212 0 238 0 1,450 0 85 12,512,623 2001 315,870 24,178 2,571,415 8,325 11,176,191 3,335,258 109,877 1,169 882,455 15,933 514,166 219,077 0 75,704 12 824,892 440,408 97,261 19,787,299 2002 821,280 0

  7. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Table 7.4 Coal Imports by Country of Origin, 2000-2011 (Million Short Tons) Year Australia New Zealand Canada Mexico Colombia Venezuela China India Indonesia Europe South Africa Other Total Norway Poland Russia Ukraine United Kingdom Other Total 2000 0.2 0.0 1.9 (s) 7.6 2.0 (s) (s) 0.7 0.0 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 0.0 (s) 12.5 2001 .3 (s) 2.6 (s) 11.2 3.3 .1 (s) .9 (s) .5 .2 .0 .1 (s) .8 .4 .1 19.8 2002 .8 .0 2.1 (s) 9.2 3.3 .1 (s) 1.0 .0 .1 .1 .0 (s) (s) .2 .1 (s) 16.9 2003 .3 .1 2.1 .0 15.5

  8. Calibration of erythemally weighted broadband instruments: A comparison between PMOD/WRC and MSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Neil; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John; Huelsen, Gregor; Groebner, Julian

    2013-05-10

    A Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) UVB-1 ultraviolet pyranometer, designed to measure erythemally weighted total solar irradiance, was calibrated by the Measurement Standards Laboratory (MSL) in Lower Hutt, New Zealand during August 2010. The calibration was then repeated during July and August 2011 by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Obervatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC) located in Davos, Switzerland. Calibration results show that measurements of the relative spectral and angular response functions at the two institutes are in excellent agreement, thus providing a good degree of confidence in these measurement facilities. However, measurements to convert the relative spectral response into an absolute calibration disagree significantly depending on whether an FEL lamp or solar spectra are used to perform this scaling. This is the first serious comparison of these scaling methods to formally explore the potential systematic errors which could explain the discrepancy.

  9. SOPAC marine geology atlases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, T.E.; Seekins, B.A.; Young, J.D.; Wahler, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    The US Geological Survey conducted a series of marine geologic and geophysical cruises in the southwest Pacific Ocean in 1982 and 1984 as part of a program with participation by Australia and New Zealand. These two SOPAC expeditions obtained various data, which have been compiled into a series of charts and thematic products for the offshore areas of Tonga, Fiji, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea. The maps and charts presently being compiled or revised combine previously collected data with information from the SOPAC expeditions. Regional charts at a scale of approximately 1:3 million are included, and more detailed coverage is available at 1:1 million. Additional geologic information-such as gravity, magnetics, and possibly sediment isopachs-is provided on overlays to the topographic base charts. Reproductions of the seismic reflection data are also included, and tracklines with both time marks and shotpoints will permit correlation with the analog and digital seismic records.

  10. International resources law

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  11. Australia/Pacific: Industry watchers expect the worst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This article presents the outlook for the Australia/Pacific area with respect to petroleum. The main observations are: ATEA forsees Australia drilling declining by nearly 50% this year compared to last; With no tax relief in sight for crude, major Aussie oil projects are delayed; New Zealand's leasing moratorium has ended, and licensing policies have improved; Australia's self-sufficiency dream vanishes as Bass Strait exports dwindle; Gulf has more finds onshore Papua/New Guinea, but well economics still questionable; Australian gas projects enjoy some insulation from poor crude markets; Jabiru find in Timor Sea due onstream, and Northwest Shelf LNG export plans continue; Australia's largest operators each announce budget cuts; rig count continues to plunge.

  12. High-Quality draft genome sequence of the Lotus spp. microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain CJ3Sym

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reeve, Wayne; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Munk, Christine; Han, Cliff; Reddy, T. B. K.; Seshadri, Rekha; Woyke, Tanja; Pati, Amrita; et al

    2015-08-14

    Mesorhizobium loti strain CJ3Sym was isolated in 1998 following transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICE Ml SymR7A , also known as the R7A symbiosis island, in a laboratory mating from the donor M. loti strain R7A to a nonsymbiotic recipient Mesorhizobium strain CJ3. Strain CJ3 was originally isolated from a field site in the Rocklands range in New Zealand in 1994. CJ3Sym is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. This report reveals the genome of M. loti strain CJ3Sym currently comprises 70 scaffolds totaling 7,563,725 bp. In conclusion, the high-quality draft genome is arranged in 70 scaffolds of 71more » contigs, contains 7,331 protein-coding genes and 70 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.« less

  13. High-Quality draft genome sequence of the Lotus spp. microsymbiont Mesorhizobium loti strain CJ3Sym

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeve, Wayne; Sullivan, John; Ronson, Clive; Tian, Rui; Munk, Christine; Han, Cliff; Reddy, T. B. K.; Seshadri, Rekha; Woyke, Tanja; Pati, Amrita; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2015-08-14

    Mesorhizobium loti strain CJ3Sym was isolated in 1998 following transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICE Ml SymR7A , also known as the R7A symbiosis island, in a laboratory mating from the donor M. loti strain R7A to a nonsymbiotic recipient Mesorhizobium strain CJ3. Strain CJ3 was originally isolated from a field site in the Rocklands range in New Zealand in 1994. CJ3Sym is an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod. This report reveals the genome of M. loti strain CJ3Sym currently comprises 70 scaffolds totaling 7,563,725 bp. In conclusion, the high-quality draft genome is arranged in 70 scaffolds of 71 contigs, contains 7,331 protein-coding genes and 70 RNA-only encoding genes, and is part of the GEBA-RNB project proposal.

  14. Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Volunteer Observing Ship (VOS) Program. The VOS project is coordinated by the UNESCO International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP). The international groups from 14 countries have been outfitting research ships and commercial vessels with automated CO2 sampling equipment to analyze the carbon exchange between the ocean and atmosphere. [copied from http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/genInfo.html] CDIAC provides a map interface with the shipping routes of the 14 countries involved marked in different colors. Clicking on the ship's name on that route brings up information about the vessel, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, and, most important, the links to the data files themselves. The 14 countries are: United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Australia, Canada, Spain, Norway, New Zealand, China (including Taiwan), Iceland, and the Netherlands. Both archived and current, underway data can be accessed from the CDIAC VOS page.

  15. International Energy Outlook 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2013 Reference case projections by end-use sector and country grouping Table F9. Delivered energy consumption in Australia/New Zealand by end-use sector and fuel, 2008-2035 (quadrillion Btu) Sector/fuel Projections Average annual percent change, 2010-2040 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Residential Liquids 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -- Natural gas 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.5 Coal 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 --

  16. Promoting energy efficiency in reforming electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clinton, J.; Kozloff, K.

    1998-07-01

    Many developing countries are initiating power sector reforms to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and recover the full costs of power. Reforms may include unbundling generation, transmission, distribution and retail services; commercial management; competition; and private ownership. This paper draws upon six country case studies--Argentina, Chile, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the US--to identify major models of power reforms and their implications for energy efficiency--both positive and negative. There are both structural and institutional features of reform that may discourage commercial offerings of end-use efficiency services. Valuable lessons are discussed regarding what reforms and policies have worked to promote energy efficiency and which have not. Several models are offered for how developing countries can promote energy efficiency under some of the more common forms of power sector restructuring. Conclusions and recommendations are directed at key decision-makers in developing countries contemplating power sector reforms.

  17. Efficiency, equity and the environment: Institutional challenges in the restructuring of the electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haeri, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    In the electric power industry, fundamental changes are underway in Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand and, more recently, in Asia. Rooted in increased deregulation and competition, these changes are likely to radically alter the structure of the industry. Liberalization of electric power markets in the United Kingdom is, for the most part, complete. The generation market in the United States began opening to competition following the 1987 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 set the stage for a much more dramatic change in the industry. The most far-reaching provision of the Act was its electricity title, which opened access to the electric transmission grid. With legal barriers now removed, the traditionally sheltered US electric utility market is becoming increasingly open to entry and competition. A number of important legislative, regulatory and governmental policy initiatives are underway in the Philippines that will have a profound effect on the electric power industry. In Thailand, the National Energy Planning Organization (NEPO) has undertaken a thorough investigation of industry restructuring. This paper summarizes recent international developments in the deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets in the U.K., U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. It focuses on the relevance of these experiences to development underway in the Philippines and Thailand, and presents alternative possible structures likely to emerge in these countries, drawing heavily on the authors' recent experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. The impact of these changes on the business environment for power generation and marketing will be discussed in detail, as will the opportunities these changes create for investment among private power producers.

  18. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J.

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting

  19. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  20. Test and demonstration of a 1-MW wellhead generator: helical screw expander power plant, Model 76-1. Final report to the International Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-07-04

    A 1-MW geothermal wellhead power plant incorporating a Lysholm or helical screw expander (HSE) was field tested between 1980 and 1983 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand with technical assistance from the United States. The objectives were to provide data on the reliability and performance of the HSE and to assess the costs and benefits of its use. The range of conditions under which the HSE was tested included loads up to 933 kW, mass flowrates of 14,600 to 395, 000 lbs/hr, inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0 to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, total dissolved solids up to 310,000 ppM, and noncondensible gases up to 38% of the vapor mass flow. Typical machine efficiencies of 40 to 50% were calculated. For most operations efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power, while inlet quality and rotor speed had only small effects. The HSE was designed with oversized internal clearances in the expectation that adherent scale would form during operation. Improvements in machine efficiency of 3.5 to 4 percentage points were observed over some test periods with some scale deposition. A comparison with a 1-MW back-pressure turbine showed that the HSE can compete favorably under certain conditions. The HSE was found to be a rugged energy conversion machine for geothermal applications, but some subsystems were found to require further development. 7 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. State-of-the-art of liquid waste disposal for geothermal energy systems: 1979. Report PNL-2404

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Defferding, L.J.

    1980-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of geothermal liquid waste disposal is reviewed and surface and subsurface disposal methods are evaluated with respect to technical, economic, legal, and environmental factors. Three disposal techniques are currently in use at numerous geothermal sites around the world: direct discharge into surface waters; deep-well injection; and ponding for evaporation. The review shows that effluents are directly discharged into surface waters at Wairakei, New Zealand; Larderello, Italy; and Ahuachapan, El Salvador. Ponding for evaporation is employed at Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Deep-well injection is being practiced at Larderello; Ahuachapan; Otake and Hatchobaru, Japan; and at The Geysers in California. All sites except Ahuachapan (which is injecting only 30% of total plant flow) have reported difficulties with their systems. Disposal techniques used in related industries are also reviewed. The oil industry's efforts at disposal of large quantities of liquid effluents have been quite successful as long as the effluents have been treated prior to injection. This study has determined that seven liquid disposal methods - four surface and three subsurface - are viable options for use in the geothermal energy industry. However, additional research and development is needed to reduce the uncertainties and to minimize the adverse environmental impacts of disposal. (MHR)

  2. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  3. Tilting at windmills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gipe, P.

    1995-05-01

    In the spring of 1994 an angry mob confronted a group touring proposed sites for a new wind power plant near Mojave, Calif. The armed vigilantes were responding to rumors that the U.S. Bureau of Land Management was planning to build a wind farm near their remote homesteads. Though there was no truth to the rumors and the incident was settled peacefully, the event illustrates the sometimes highly charged atmosphere around proposals for new wind plants, or for power plants of any kind, in the United States. Analysis of surveys by the British Broadcasting Corp (BBC) and the Department of Trade & Industry in the UNited Kingdom; MRL Research Group in New Zealand; and th Center for Design Research in California gives potential developers and investors useful insights into publi attitudes toward wind power. In genral, the surveys on both sides of the Atlantic reveal that those who favor renewable energy are more likely to find wind`s effect on the community acceptable, and those who are neutral will accept wind turbines in the landscape if they know they are beneficial.

  4. Emerging patterns in intercontinental air linkages and implications for international route allocation policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oum, Tae Hoon; Taylor, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of deregulation, or liberalization of the domestic airline market, in the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe have been described by many authors. It is generally acknowledged that deregulation fostored airline efficiency through the formation of domestic hub-and-spoke networks and established market conditions that encouraged the emergence of the mega-carriers (United, American, and Delta Airlines). Predictions have been made that similar effects will be observed in the intercontinental markets as liberalization is extended to these markets, and that globalized service networks will appear through strong alliances between major carriers based on different continents. These global service networks will be created by linking up the continental hubs of the partners` networks, in order to provide frequent and efficient services. A nation may be able to influence the formation of the global networks through the appropriate selection of policies for the industry structure and international route allocation. Sections of this paper review the important features of the imminent globalization of airline networks, and describe the emerging patterns of intercontinental linkages being adopted by some major carriers in the US and Europe. Later, alternative route allocation policies are defined, and the policies being followed by the US, Japan, Canada, and Korea are analyzed.

  5. International energy outlook 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    The International Energy Outlook 1998 (IEO98) presents an assessment by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the outlook for international energy markets through 2020. Projections in IEO98 are displaced according to six basic country groupings. The industrialized region includes projections for four individual countries -- the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Japan -- along with the subgroups Western Europe and Australasia (defined as Australia, New Zealand, and the US Territories). The developing countries are represented by four separate regional subgroups: developing Asia, Africa, Middle East, and Central and South America. China and India are represented in developing Asia. New to this year`s report, country-level projections are provided for Brazil -- which is represented in Central and South America. Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (EE/FSU) are considered as a separate country grouping. The report begins with a review of world trends in energy demand. Regional consumption projections for oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy (hydroelectricity, geothermal, wind, solar, and other renewables) are presented in five fuel chapters, with a review of the current status of each fuel on a worldwide basis. Summary tables of the IEO98 projections for world energy consumption, carbon emissions, oil production, and nuclear power generating capacity are provided in Appendix A. 88 figs., 77 tabs.

  6. Biomonitoring of heavy metals in the Pacific Basin using avian feathers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-07-01

    The authors used avian feathers to biomonitor heavy-metal distribution in several areas in the Pacific Basin including Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, China, Johnston Atoll, Hawaii, and Costa Rica. This paper is a preliminary synthesis of data gathered by the Pacific Basin Biomonitoring Project. They examined levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, chromium, and manganese. For sooty terns (Sterna fuscata) and brown noddy (Anous stolidus) mercury levels were lower in the Pacific than in Puerto Rico in the Atlantic, but his was reversed for lead and cadmium. Adult birds had higher metal levels in their feathers than did young birds of the same species from the same area. Cadmium levels were higher in terrestrial species; lead, chromium, and manganese were highest in coastal species; and mercury and selenium were highest in marine species. Mercury levels were lowest in forest species, intermediate in species that eat insects and small vertebrates, and highest in species that eat intermediate to large fish. Lead levels were highest in species feeding in industrialized estuaries of Hong Kong.

  7. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  8. Selenium intakes of children from rural Malawi and Papua New Guinea (PNG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, U.; Gibson, R.S.; Ferguson, E.L.; Ounpuu, S.; Heywood, P. Papua New Guinea Inst. of Medical Research, Medang )

    1991-03-11

    Selenium intakes of 66 rural Malawian children aged 4-6 y consuming maize-based diets were compared with those of 67 Papua New Guinea (PNG) children aged 6-10 y with diets based on bananas, sweet potatoes, and sago. Representative samples of all staple foods consumed were collected, dried, ground and subsequently analyzed for Se by instrumental neutron activation analysis using {sup 77}Se. Median Se intakes for the Malawian children determined by weighed 3-day records at 3 seasons of the year were: harvest 20 {mu}g/d, 1.24 {mu}g/kg; postharvest 21 {mu}g/d, 1.24 {mu}g/kg; preharvest 15 {mu}g/d, 0.96 {mu}g/kg. For the PNG children the median intake during the rainy season, assessed from two 24 hr interactive recalls, was 20 {mu}g/d, 0.89 {mu}g/kg. Four food groups contributed to {ge}95% of the total Se intake for both the Malawian and the PNG children. Of the children, 55% of the Malawian and 87% of the PNG had average Se intakes {lt} US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA); 16% and 48% respectively, had intakes {lt}66% US RDA. Average Se intakes were below those reported for US and Australian children but above those of children from New Zealand where Se intakes are low.

  9. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  10. Fuel farms: croplands of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive report is given of the use of farmlands for the production of fuel, particularly the production of alcohol to produce gasohol (10% alcohol; 90% petroleum products). Brought about by increasing costs of oil, production of gasohol is proceeding on a worldwide basis led by Brazil, USA, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. Trends are discussed as well as tax incentives for greater use of gasohol. Various crops are compared in terms of efficiency of conversion to alcohol and limits to production of alcohol by farmlands are considered. Worldwide interest and the competition between the affluent minority and the poorly nourished in developing countries for the products of farmlands are discussed (full tanks, empty stomachs). Economics of the alcohol fuel programs are considered as well as the by-products of the modified alcohol production process (which may be used for animal feed). It is concluded that an alcohol fuel industry is desirable, but many factors (economic, topsoil depletion, proper choice of crop, international communication and cooperation, priorities, uses of the fuel produced, political aspects, etc.) must be considered on a global scale. (MJJ)

  11. Encapsulated in silica: genome, proteome and physiology of the thermophilic bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Jimmy H; Mountain, Bruce W; Feng, Lu; Omelchenko, Marina V; Saito, Jennifer A; Stott, Matthew B; Li, Dan; Zhao, Guang; Wu, Junli; Galperin, Michael Y; Dunfield, Peter F; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.

  12. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  13. Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conferences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2013-11-25

    The 6th Pathways, Networks and Systems Medicine Conference was held at the Minoa Palace Conference Center, Chania, Crete, Greece (16-21 June 2008). The Organizing Committee was composed of Joe Nadeau (CWRU, Cleveland), Rudi Balling (German Research Centre, Brauschweig), David Galas (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Lee Hood (Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle), Diane Isonaka (Seattle), Fotis Kafatos (Imperial College, London), John Lambris (Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia),Harris Lewin (Univ. of Indiana, Urbana-Champaign), Edison Liu (Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore), and Shankar Subramaniam (Univ. California, San Diego). A total of 101 individuals from 21 countries participated in the conference: USA (48), Canada (5), France (5), Austria (4), Germany (3), Italy (3), UK (3), Greece (2), New Zealand (2), Singapore (2), Argentina (1), Australia (1), Cuba (1), Denmark (1), Japan (1), Mexico (1), Netherlands (1), Spain (1), Sweden (1), Switzerland (1). With respect to speakers, 29 were established faculty members and 13 were graduate students or postdoctoral fellows. With respect to gender representation, among speakers, 13 were female and 28 were male, and among all participants 43 were female and 58 were male. Program these included the following topics: Cancer Pathways and Networks (Day 1), Metabolic Disease Networks (Day 2), Day 3 ? Organs, Pathways and Stem Cells (Day 3), and Day 4 ? Inflammation, Immunity, Microbes and the Environment (Day 4). Proceedings of the Conference were not published.

  14. Update of the International Consensus on Palliative Radiotherapy Endpoints for Future Clinical Trials in Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Edward; Hoskin, Peter; Mitera, Gunita; Zeng Liang; Lutz, Stephen; Roos, Daniel; Hahn, Carol; Linden, Yvette van der; Hartsell, William; Kumar, Eshwar

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To update the international consensus on palliative radiotherapy endpoints for future clinical trials in bone metastases by surveying international experts regarding previous uncertainties within the 2002 consensus, changes that may be necessary based on practice pattern changes and research findings since that time. Methods and Materials: A two-phase survey was used to determine revisions and new additions to the 2002 consensus. A total of 49 experts from the American Society for Radiation Oncology, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology who are directly involved in the care of patients with bone metastases participated in this survey. Results: Consensus was established in areas involving response definitions, eligibility criteria for future trials, reirradiation, changes in systemic therapy, radiation techniques, parameters at follow-up, and timing of assessments. Conclusion: An outline for trials in bone metastases was updated based on survey and consensus. Investigators leading trials in bone metastases are encouraged to adopt the revised guideline to promote consistent reporting. Areas for future research were identified. It is intended for the consensus to be re-examined in the future on a regular basis.

  15. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  16. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1. World natural gas production by region and country in the Reference case, 2012-40 trillion cubic feet Region/country 2012 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 Average annual percent change, 2012-40 OECD United Statesa 24.0 28.7 30.4 32.9 34.0 35.3 1.4 Canada 6.1 5.8 6.6 7.2 7.9 8.6 1.2 Europe 10.3 8.7 9.1 10.1 11.1 11.9 0.5 Australia/New Zealand 2.1 3.3 4.2 5.0 5.9 7.0 4.4 Other OECD 1.9 1.4 1.7 2.2 2.8 3.6 2.3 Total OECD 44.4 47.9 52.0 57.4 61.9 66.4 1.4 Non-OECD Russia 21.8 21.9 23.4 25.9 29.3 31.8 1.4

  17. It`s slim with a plain green cover: Australia`s management plan for polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brotherton, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    In November 1995, the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC, the Council of State and National Environment Ministers) adopted a National Management Plan for PCBs. This was a significant milestone in the very long saga of Australian efforts to develop public policy and management structures for dealing with persistent organochlorine wastes. The author was part of a four-person consultation panel that carried out a public involvement program to assist and inform the process of developing the National Management Plan. The program involved, among other things, visiting every state and territory of Australia at least twice. This paper describes the development and delivery of the public involvement program, including ongoing interactions with Governments. The latter is often a complex (and many would say an unduly complex) matter in the federal system, where primary responsibility for waste management resides in the individual state/territory jurisdictions. The paper also attempts to draw lessons from the process. While some participants learned and acted upon some of these lessons quite early in the process, other participants (particularly governments) took longer to realize their importance and thus took longer to refrain from actions that might be regarded as not keeping faith with the activities they had set in process. Finally, the lessons learned here are contrasted with those drawn by participants in the process that led to the establishment and expansion of the Swan Hills facility in Alberta. While the outcomes of the Australian and Albertan processes appear to be very different, a number of the essential lessons to be drawn from the two processes are virtually identical. 13 refs.

  18. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  19. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gotman, Irena Gutmanas, Elazar Y.; Zaretzky, Asaph; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2015-10-27

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength “trabecular Nitinol” scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1–1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects.

  20. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  1. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  2. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  3. Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

    1982-10-01

    Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

  4. Total carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and nitrate measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 cruise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, M.F.; Feely, R.A.; Moore, L.

    1995-10-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) scientists have been measuring the growing burden of greenhouse gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. Collection of data at a series of hydrographic stations along longitude 170{degrees} W during austral autumn of 1990 was designed to enhance understanding of the increase in the column burden of chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the thermocline waters since the last expedition in 1984. This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and nitrate data during the NOAA/PMEL research vessel (R/V) Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise. Data were collected along two legs; sampling for Leg 1 began along 170{degrees} W from 15{degrees} S to 60{degrees} S, then angled northwest toward New Zealand across the Western Boundary Current. Leg 2 included a reoccupation of some stations between 30{degrees} S and 15{degrees} S on 170{degrees} W and measurements from 15{degrees} S to 5{degrees} N along 170{degrees} W. The following data report summarizes the TCO{sub 2}, salinity, temperature, and nitrate measurements from 63 stations. The TCO, concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometric/extraction system (Models 5011 and 5030, respectively) originated by Ken Johnson. The NOAA/PMEL R/V Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise data set is available without charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a {open_quotes}readme{close_quotes} file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of rabbit nasal airflows for the development of hybrid CFD/PBPK models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Richard A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; harkema, J. R.; Kimbell, Julia; Gargas, M. L.; Kinzell, John H.

    2009-06-01

    The percentages of total air?ows over the nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium of female rabbits were cal-culated from computational ?uid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady-state inhalation. These air?ow calcula-tions, along with nasal airway geometry determinations, are critical parameters for hybrid CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that describe the nasal dosimetry of water-soluble or reactive gases and vapors in rabbits. CFD simulations were based upon three-dimensional computational meshes derived from magnetic resonance images of three adult female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In the anterior portion of the nose, the maxillary turbinates of rabbits are considerably more complex than comparable regions in rats, mice, mon-keys, or humans. This leads to a greater surface area to volume ratio in this region and thus the potential for increased extraction of water soluble or reactive gases and vapors in the anterior portion of the nose compared to many other species. Although there was considerable interanimal variability in the ?ne structures of the nasal turbinates and air?ows in the anterior portions of the nose, there was remarkable consistency between rabbits in the percentage of total inspired air?ows that reached the ethmoid turbinate region (~50%) that is presumably lined with olfactory epithelium. These latter results (air?ows reaching the ethmoid turbinate region) were higher than previous published estimates for the male F344 rat (19%) and human (7%). These di?erences in regional air?ows can have signi?cant implications in interspecies extrapolations of nasal dosimetry.

  6. Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

  7. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/Vs Roger Revelle and Thomas Thompson repeat hydrography cruises in the Pacific Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 sections P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February, 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, Alex; Feely, R. A.; Sabine, C. L.; Millero, F. J.; Langdon, C.; Dickson, A. G.; Fine, R. A.; Bullister, J. L.; Hansell, D. A.; Carlson, C. A.; Sloyan, B. M.; McNichol, A. P.; Key, R. M.; Byrne, R. H.; Wanninkhof, R.

    2009-05-01

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, discrete CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), radiocarbon, δ13C, and underway carbon measurements performed during the P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006) cruises in the Pacific Ocean. The research vessel (R/V) Roger Revelle departed Papeete, Tahiti, on January 9, 2005 for the Repeat Section P16S, nominally along 150°W, ending in Wellington, New Zealand, on February 19. During this cruise, samples were taken from 36 depths at 111 CTD stations between 16°S and 71°S. The Repeat Section P16N, nominally along 152°W, consisted of two legs. Leg 1 started on February 13, 2006 in Papeete, Tahiti, and finished on March 3, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The R/V Thomas G. Thompson departed Honolulu for Leg 2 on March 10, 2006 and arrived in Kodiak, Alaska, on March 30. During the P16N cruises, samples were taken from 34 or 36 depths at 84 stations between 17°S and 56.28°N. The research conducted on these cruises was part of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. The P16S and P16N data sets are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  8. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Richard K.; Hart, Andrew; Freeman, Claire; Coutts, Brian; Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  9. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2012 NOVEMBER 13/14 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rušin, V.; Saniga, M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Davis, A. B. E-mail: vrusin@ta3.sk; and others

    2015-02-20

    Continuing our series of observations of coronal motion and dynamics over the solar-activity cycle, we observed from sites in Queensland, Australia, during the 2012 November 13 (UT)/14 (local time) total solar eclipse. The corona took the low-ellipticity shape typical of solar maximum (flattening index ε = 0.01), a change from the composite coronal images we observed and analyzed in this journal and elsewhere for the 2006 and 2008-2010 eclipses. After crossing the northeast Australian coast, the path of totality was over the ocean, so further totality was seen only by shipborne observers. Our results include velocities of a coronal mass ejection (CME; during the 36 minutes of passage from the Queensland coast to a ship north of New Zealand, we measured 413 km s{sup –1}) and we analyze its dynamics. We discuss the shapes and positions of several types of coronal features seen on our higher-resolution composite Queensland coronal images, including many helmet streamers, very faint bright and dark loops at the bases of helmet streamers, voids, and radially oriented thin streamers. We compare our eclipse observations with models of the magnetic field, confirming the validity of the predictions, and relate the eclipse phenomenology seen with the near-simultaneous images from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA), NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, ESA/Royal Observatory of Belgium's Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) on PROBA2, and Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. For example, the southeastern CME is related to the solar flare whose origin we trace with a SWAP series of images.

  10. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R.

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  11. Pulmonary metabolism of dibenz(a,j)acridine: a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic. Technical progress report, September 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warshawsky, D.

    1983-10-31

    Dibenz(a,j)acridine (D(a,j)A) is metabolized by rat liver microsomes which results in the formation of seven major metabolites. Under the present conditions of the microsomal assay, 55% of D(a,j)A is metabolized by corn oil induced microsomes in 30 minutes, whereas 80% of D(a,j)A is metabolized by 3MC induced microsomes in 60 minutes. In the presence of the 3MC induced microsomes, a metabolite in fraction 19 is produced very rapidly and disappears linearly over 60 minutes. Of the major metabolites of D(a,j)A produced by microsomal incubations metabolites in fractions 11-12, 13 and 19 are possibly the 5,6-dihydrodiol of D(a,j)A, definitely the 3,4-dihydrodiol of D(a,j)A and a phenol or epoxide respectively. BaP pretreatment of the New Zealand white rabbits doubles the rate of appearance of the metabolites of D(a,j)A in the blood in the IPL. With or without pretreatment, the major metabolites are found in fractions 13 and 19 with 70 to 80% of the activity present in the nonextractable fraction. At the end of the perfusion 50% of the D(a,j)A remains in the IPL following BaP pretreatment as compared to 72% without pretreatment. This increased rate of metabolism due to BaP pretreatment results in the appearance of more conjugated metabolites at the end of the perfusion in the mercaptan fraction.

  12. Species differences in methanol and formic acid pharmacokinetics in mice, rabbits and primates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeting, J. Nicole; Siu, Michelle; McCallum, Gordon P.; Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2010-08-15

    Methanol (MeOH) is metabolized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase in humans, but by catalase in rodents, with species variations in the pharmacokinetics of its formic acid (FA) metabolite. The teratogenic potential of MeOH in humans is unknown, and its teratogenicity in rodents may not accurately reflect human developmental risk due to differential species metabolism, as for some other teratogens. To determine if human MeOH metabolism might be better reflected in rabbits than rodents, the plasma pharmacokinetics of MeOH and FA were compared in male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys over time (24, 48 and 6 h, respectively) following a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 or 2 g/kg MeOH or its saline vehicle. Following the high dose, MeOH exhibited saturated elimination kinetics in all 3 species, with similar peak concentrations and a 2.5-fold higher clearance in mice than rabbits. FA accumulation within 6 h in primates was 5-fold and 43-fold higher than in rabbits and mice respectively, with accumulation being 10-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Over 48 h, FA accumulation was nearly 5-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Low-dose MeOH in mice and rabbits resulted in similarly saturated MeOH elimination in both species, but with approximately 2-fold higher clearance rates in mice. FA accumulation was 3.8-fold higher in rabbits than mice. Rabbits more closely than mice reflected primates for in vivo MeOH metabolism, and particularly FA accumulation, suggesting that developmental studies in rabbits may be useful for assessing potential human teratological risk.

  13. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual

  14. PLASMA SPRAYED Ni-Al COATINGS FOR SAFE ENDING HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.L.; OTTERSON,D.; BERNDT,C.C.

    1998-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed thermally conductive composite liners for corrosion and scale protection in heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The liners cannot withstand roller expansion to connect the tubes to the tubesheet. It is not possible to line the ends of the tubes with the same material after roller expansion due to the nature of the current liner application process. It was requested that BNL evaluate plasma sprayed Ni-Al coatings for safe ending heat exchanger tubes exposed to geothermal brine. The tubes of interest had an internal diameter of 0.875 inches. It is not typical to thermal spray small diameter components or use such small standoff distances. In this project a nozzle extension was developed by Zatorski Coating Company to spray the tube ends as well as flat coupons for testing. Four different Ni-Al coatings were investigated. One of these was a ductilized Ni-AIB material developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The coatings were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and subjected to corrosion, tensile adhesion, microhardness and field tests in a volcanic pool in New Zealand. It was determined that the Ni-Al coatings could be applied to a depth of two inches on the tube ends. When sprayed on flat coupons the coatings exhibited relatively high adhesion strength and microhardness. Polarization curves showed that the coating performance was variable. Measured corrosion potentials indicated that the Ni-Al coatings are active towards steel coated with thermally conductive polymers, thereby suggesting preferential corrosion. Corrosion also occurred on the coated coupons tested in the volcanic pool. This may have been exacerbated by the difficulty in applying a uniform coating to the coupon edges. The Ni-Al coatings applied to the tubes had significant porosity and did not provide adequate corrosion protection. This is associated with

  15. Genetic algorithms and their use in Geophysical Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Paul B.

    1999-04-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs), global optimization methods that mimic Darwinian evolution are well suited to the nonlinear inverse problems of geophysics. A standard genetic algorithm selects the best or ''fittest'' models from a ''population'' and then applies operators such as crossover and mutation in order to combine the most successful characteristics of each model and produce fitter models. More sophisticated operators have been developed, but the standard GA usually provides a robust and efficient search. Although the choice of parameter settings such as crossover and mutation rate may depend largely on the type of problem being solved, numerous results show that certain parameter settings produce optimal performance for a wide range of problems and difficulties. In particular, a low (about half of the inverse of the population size) mutation rate is crucial for optimal results, but the choice of crossover method and rate do not seem to affect performance appreciably. Optimal efficiency is usually achieved with smaller (< 50) populations. Lastly, tournament selection appears to be the best choice of selection methods due to its simplicity and its autoscaling properties. However, if a proportional selection method is used such as roulette wheel selection, fitness scaling is a necessity, and a high scaling factor (> 2.0) should be used for the best performance. Three case studies are presented in which genetic algorithms are used to invert for crustal parameters. The first is an inversion for basement depth at Yucca mountain using gravity data, the second an inversion for velocity structure in the crust of the south island of New Zealand using receiver functions derived from teleseismic events, and the third is a similar receiver function inversion for crustal velocities beneath the Mendocino Triple Junction region of Northern California. The inversions demonstrate that genetic algorithms are effective in solving problems with reasonably large numbers of free

  16. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman

  17. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total