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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

2

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- E/M 3 (1) ED3110 Plych. Found. Of Educ. 3 GE 2640 Atmos Obs & Meteorology 3 MA 1150/60 Calculus I 4 ED4700 3 MA 2150/60 Calculus II 4 GE 2310 Earth Materials II: R/M 3 MA 2720 Statistical Methods* ED Instructional Technology 2 MA 2720 Statistical Methods* GE2000 Understanding the Earth 3 PH 2200 Univ Physics II

3

BSc Computing Year 3 Graphics Programming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BSc Computing Year 3 Graphics Programming 3D Maze Room Assignment Two by Richard M. Mann: 20032144 .................................................................................7 Figure 4: Controls Key-Map ......................................................................8

Hill, Gary

4

YEAR4YEAR3YEAR2YEAR1 In 1997, UBC became Canada's first university to develop a sustainability policy. UBC's Sustainability Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on campus (sustain.ubc. ca/seeds). Jack does a Community Service Learning project at UBC Farm during Reading Sciences Building, which is LEED (Leadership in Energy and Design) Gold certified. Curious about green buildings, she reads www.sustain. ubc.ca/greenbuilding.html and tracks energy use of select buildings

Farrell, Anthony P.

5

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 4, November 2002 Gary A Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 4 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The University of Denver #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 4 2 by 5 years

Denver, University of

6

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 5,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 5, November 2004 Gary A, Suite 140 Alpharetta, Georgia 30022 Contract No. E-23-9 #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile campaigns.14 #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 5 2 INTRODUCTION

Denver, University of

7

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 5,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 5, January 2005 Gary A, Suite 140 Alpharetta, Georgia 30022 Contract No. E-23-9 #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile campaigns.13 #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 5 2 INTRODUCTION

Denver, University of

8

Year 5 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and other Contaminants in Marine Waters near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Marine sediment remediation at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was completed in April 1997. The Record of Decision included a requirement for five years of post-remediation monitoring be conducted in the waterways near the site. The present monitoring year, 2001? 2002, is the fifth and possibly final year of post-remediation monitoring. In March 2002, water and mussel tissues were collected from the four stations in and near Lauritzen Channel that have been routinely monitored since 1997-98. A fifth station in Parr Canal was sampled in Year 5 to document post-remediation water and tissue concentrations there. Dieldrin and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed in water samples and in tissue samples from resident (i.e., naturally occurring) mussels. As in Years 3 and 4, mussels were not transplanted to the study area in Year 5. Year 5 concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in water and total DDT in tissue were compared with those from Years 1 through 4 of post-remediation monitoring, and with preremediation data from the California State Mussel Watch Program and the Ecological Risk Assessment for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site. Year 5 water samples and mussel tissues were also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were detected in sediment samples during Year 2 monitoring and were added to the water and mussel tissue analyses in 1999. Contaminants of concern in Year 5 water samples were analyzed in both bulk (total) phase and dissolved phase, as were total suspended solids, to evaluate the contribution of particulates to the total contaminant concentration.

Kohn, Nancy P.; Kropp, Roy K.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants in the exhaust see Heywood2 . Properly operating modern for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel canOn-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 4 Sajal S. Pokharel, Gary

Denver, University of

10

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area: Year 3 Sajal S. Pokharel, Gary Alpharetta, Georgia 30022 Contract No. E-23-4 #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions a slight negative dependence on #12;On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Phoenix Area

Denver, University of

11

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

12

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

13

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

14

New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

15

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

16

New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

17

New Mexico--West Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - ...

18

West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

19

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 6...

20

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

22

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

23

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

24

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

25

New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - ...

26

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - ...

27

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

28

Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana--North Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

29

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

30

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

31

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

32

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

33

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

34

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

35

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

36

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

37

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

38

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

39

Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

40

Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

42

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

43

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

44

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

45

New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

46

Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

47

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

48

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

49

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

50

West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

51

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0 0 0 - ...

52

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

53

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

54

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

55

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

56

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

57

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

58

Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's...

59

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

60

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oklahoma Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's 0 0...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

62

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

63

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

64

Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

65

West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

66

Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0...

67

Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

68

Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's...

69

Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

70

Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0...

71

National radon database documentation. Volume 5. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: Years 5 and 6. Final report 1986-1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. The goals of the state radon surveys were twofold. Some measure of the distribution of radon levels among residences was desired for major geographic areas within each state and for each state as a whole. In addition, it was desired that each state survey would be able to identify areas of potentially high residential radon concentrations (hot spots) in the state, enabling the state to focus its attention on areas where indoor radon concentrations might pose a greater health threat. The document discusses year 5, 1990-91. The areas surveyed are: Arkansas; Illinois; Maryland; Eastern Cherokee Nation; Mississippi; Texas; and Washington.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 3 Work plans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IPM Program ­ Year 3 Work plans (October 1, 2011 ­ September 30, 2012) Project Management Dr. Karim and government institutions. 3. Build institutional capacity through education, training and human resource, and Uzbekistan). This work will include cultural practices, botanicals and biopesticides, biological control

73

Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Natural Gas Marketed Production...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5,206,023 5,076,496 5,029,704 2000's 4,934,387 5,027,623 4,511,942 4,406,450 3,969,450 3,132,089...

74

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by 2013 Priority to Benefit Square Feet Feet Project (Proj. Cost/ Recommended reference No Project Title Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 from Projects (NASF) (GSF) Cost GSF) Date/Rec No. 1 UTILITIES

Slatton, Clint

75

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by 2014 Priority to Benefit Square Feet Feet Project (Proj. Cost/ Recommended reference No Project Title Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 from Projects (NASF) (GSF) Cost GSF) Date/Rec No. 1 UTILITIES

Slatton, Clint

76

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PECO-ELIGIBLE PROJECT REQUESTS Academic or Net Gross Project Cost Educational Approved by 2015 Priority to Benefit Square Feet Feet Project (Proj. Cost/ Recommended reference No Project Title Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 from Projects (NASF) (GSF) Cost GSF) Date/Rec No. 1 UTILITIES

Slatton, Clint

77

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for savings. In some cases it may be economically beneficial to pay for a professional energy audit. SelectingRutgers, The State University of New Jersey 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 Phone: 732.932.5000 Energy Consumption Electric Petroleum Natural Gas Gas Year 1 Year 4Year 3Year 2 Year 5

Goodman, Robert M.

78

Colorado Natural Gas Marketed Production (Million Cubic Feet...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 116,857 121,424 118,754 1970's 105,804 108,537 116,949 137,725 144,629 171,629 183,972 188,792...

79

24 Fall 2011 Year 2 Year 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of south america, bahiagrass can be thought of as kudzu without the bad rap. since 1938, when a variety

Guo, Jing

80

Onboarding Year 3 | Argonne National Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002 WholesaleEnergy's 1000 acres of landJuneEMSL On23 Well

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Regmi Research Series ,Year 5, January 1, 1973  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pal" pp . 109-110; ChittarF!njEln N':'ppl1 J Shri 5 Rllna Bahedur 5hllh (Kfng Rana arjyal, - ' (EditJJd i,nd trmsht",dby' ' Dh~nClbajra B~jr a chary8 , 1), pp.142 [lOO 2}4, fl l so :' '"!1Aft-

Regmi, Mahesh C

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Regmi Research Series ,Year 4, January 1, 1972  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"ion : in th

Regmi, Mahesh C

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Year: 4 No.: 180 Thursday, November 20, 2003 Independent Opinion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with this he said that timber companies will be encouraged to employ some of the chainsaw operators to assist Fobih, has disclosed that a recent study has shown that out of the 2.7 million cubic metres of timber in the timber industry organised by Tropenbos International, a Netherlands based NGO. He said chainsaw operators

84

Regmi Research Series ,Year 3, December 1, 1971  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

!t the tlinrcrorf, l re4tionshipl1 bctl:eon the kine; and Kn-.til-.'olti would rot last long' and th,:t oither the Icing or tIc qtl()cn '1o!}ld dio 5oon. 6 At the 5EUOO tilOO J they spr.:l~d the rwoor that Girvanyuddha Dir Bitty'am Stah would dio of sll... in Octoh::r 1642: t" , -, , Kiq; Rajondra then besan to dance t o tho tune of the Junior Quwn, Rajyalaxmi Dlvi. Previously, Rajyaln;ani O(ni had felt afraid that th: eyv~ of her. infant 'Bons, Rapandra Bikram and Birendra nikr

Regmi, Mahesh C

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Food and Activity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study to explore the prevalence of, and many issues related to, food and activity in Scotland specifically in relation to young children....

Marryat, Louise; Valeria, Skafida; Webster, Catriona

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Non-resident Parents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore the prevalence of, and many issues related to, non-resident parenthood in Scotland specifically in relation to young and very young children. ...

Marryat, Louise; Reid, Susan; Wasoff, Fran

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

87

OutreachCommunicationPlanGeorgiaTech Year 3 Work Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/A Email if interested Recruited 3 new MBA Directors Clean Cities Partnership / October 15, 2010 Successful - EcoCAR competition overview - Build awareness of AFV and Alternative Technology Vehicles N/A Mailing and Alternative Technology Vehicles N/A Survey general public on overall views of AFV and Alternative Technology

Houston, Paul L.

88

New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

89

New York Natural Gas Vented and Flared (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Year

90

Oregon Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6

91

Oregon Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

92

Oregon Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Decade

93

U.S. Natural Gas Count of Underground Storage Capacity (Number of Elements)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007York"Hawaii" "Sector", (MillionDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5Year

94

Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007York"Hawaii" "Sector",Foot) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5

95

DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program year 5 first quarter report, July 1-- September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy` s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU now has two electric cars. Both are electric conversion vehicles from Soleq Corporation out of Chicago. KSU in conjunction with KEURP also initiated procurement for the purchase of four (4) Chevy S-10 pickup trucks. Since the supplier, GE-Spartan, canceled its effort concerning the production of vehicles other appropriate sources were sought. Today, K-State and the Kansas Utilities are working with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM), Redford, Michigan. TDM is working with Ford Motor Company and expects to become the first certified electric vehicle Quality Vehicle Modifier (QVM). Kansas State has entered into an agreement to assist TDM in supporting the infrastructure and technical manual development for these vehicles. The Soleq EVcorts have not been signed to illustrate to the public that it is an electric vehicle. Magnetic signs have been made for special functions to ensure sponsor support is recognized and acknowledged. As soon as TDM`s Ford Ranger electric vehicles are delivered they will be used throughout the state by utility companies that are participating with K-State`s Site Operator Program.

NONE

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 5,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can of CO, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

97

Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) - Year 5 : Annual Report for FY 2008.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Collaborative Systemwide Monitoring and Evaluation Project (CSMEP) is a coordinated effort to improve the quality, consistency, and focus of fish population and habitat data to answer key monitoring and evaluation questions relevant to major decisions in the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP was initiated by the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA) in October 2003. The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCC). CSMEP is a major effort of the federal state and Tribal fish and wildlife managers to develop regionally integrated monitoring and evaluation (M&E) across the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP has focused its work on five monitoring domains: status and trends monitoring of populations and action effectiveness monitoring of habitat, harvest, hatcheries, and the hydrosystem. CSMEP's specific goals are to: (1) interact with federal, state and tribal programmatic and technical entities responsible for M&E of fish and wildlife, to ensure that work plans developed and executed under this project are well integrated with ongoing work by these entities; (2) document, integrate, and make available existing monitoring data on listed salmon, steelhead, bull trout and other fish species of concern; (3) critically assess strengths and weaknesses of these data for answering key monitoring questions; and (4) collaboratively design, implement and evaluate improved M&E methods with other programmatic entities in the Pacific Northwest. During FY2008 CSMEP biologists continued their reviews of the strengths and weaknesses (S&W) of existing subbasin inventory data for addressing monitoring questions about population status and trends at different spatial and temporal scales. Work was focused on Lower Columbia Chinook and steelhead, Snake River fall Chinook, Upper Columbia Spring Chinook and steelhead, and Middle Columbia River Chinook and steelhead. These FY2008 data assessments and others assembled over the years of the CSMEP project can be accessed on the CBFWA public website. The CSMEP web database (http://csmep.streamnet.org/) houses metadata inventories from S&W assessments of Columbia River Basin watersheds that were completed prior to FY2008. These older S&W assessments are maintained by StreamNet, but budget cutbacks prevented us from adding the new FY2008 assessments into the database. Progress was made in FY2008 on CSMEP's goals of collaborative design of improved M&E methods. CSMEP convened two monitoring design workshops in Portland (December 5 and 6, 2007 and February 11 and 12, 2008) to continue exploration of how best to integrate the most robust features of existing M&E programs with new approaches. CSMEP continued to build on this information to develop improved designs and analytical tools for monitoring the status and trends of fish populations and the effectiveness of hatchery and hydrosystem recovery actions within the Columbia River Basin. CSMEP did not do any new work on habitat or harvest effectiveness monitoring designs in FY2008 due to budget cutbacks. CSMEP presented the results of the Snake Basin Pilot Study to the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP) in Portland on December 7, 2008. This study is the finalization of CSMEP's pilot exercise of developing design alternatives across different M&E domains within the Snake River Basin spring/summer Chinook ESU. This work has been summarized in two linked reports (CSMEP 2007a and CSMEP 2007b). CSMEP participants presented many of the analyses developed for the Snake Basin Pilot work at the Western Division American Fisheries Society (AFS) conference in Portland on May 4 to 7, 2008. For the AFS conference CSMEP organized a symposium on regional monitoring and evaluation approaches. A presentation on CSMEP's Cost Integration Database Tool and Salmon Viability Monitoring Simulation Model developed for the Snake Basin Pilot Study was also given to the Pacific Northwest Aquatic monitoring Partnership (PNAMP) stee

Marmorek, David R.; Porter, Marc; Pickard, Darcy; Wieckowski, Katherine

2008-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

98

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is capable of measuring the ratios of CO, HC and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected for water and excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass

Denver, University of

99

Tennessee health studies agreement. Annual report for year 4, January 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) has completed the fourth full year of the Oak Ridge Health Studies Agreement grant. This report summarizes the accomplishments and concerns of the State for the period January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1995. The focus of work during the fourth grant year was the actual work on the dose reconstruction. The final work plan for Task 5, Plan to Perform a Systematic Document Search was received in November 1994. Final work plans for Task 1, Investigation of Radioiodine from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing; Task 2, Investigation of Mercury Releases from Lithium Enrichment; Task 3, Investigation of Releases of PCBs from Oak Ridge Facilities; and Task 4, Investigation of Releases of Radionuclides from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River, were received in February 1995. Final work plans for Task 6, Investigation of the Quality of Historical Uranium Effluent Monitoring at Oak Ridge Facilities; and Task 7, Additional Screening of Materials Not Evaluated in the Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study, were received in April 1995. ChemRisk`s 4th Quarterly Report, for October through December 1995, is included in Attachment 1. Attachment 2 contains a study which developed a quality improvement program for data imported to the Tennessee Cancer Reporting System and Birth Defects Verification Program.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Arrow Lakes Reservoir Fertilization Experiment; Years 4 and 5, Technical Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the fourth and fifth year (2002 and 2003, respectively) of a five-year fertilization experiment on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The goal of the experiment was to increase kokanee populations impacted from hydroelectric development on the Arrow Lakes Reservoir. The impacts resulted in declining stocks of kokanee, a native land-locked sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), a key species of the ecosystem. Arrow Lakes Reservoir, located in southeastern British Columbia, has undergone experimental fertilization since 1999. It is modeled after the successful Kootenay Lake fertilization experiment. The amount of fertilizer added in 2002 and 2003 was similar to the previous three years. Phosphorus loading from fertilizer was 52.8 metric tons and nitrogen loading from fertilizer was 268 metric tons. As in previous years, fertilizer additions occurred between the end of April and the beginning of September. Surface temperatures were generally warmer in 2003 than in 2002 in the Arrow Lakes Reservoir from May to September. Local tributary flows to Arrow Lakes Reservoir in 2002 and 2003 were generally less than average, however not as low as had occurred in 2001. Water chemistry parameters in select rivers and streams were similar to previous years results, except for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations which were significantly less in 2001, 2002 and 2003. The reduced snow pack in 2001 and 2003 would explain the lower concentrations of DIN. The natural load of DIN to the Arrow system ranged from 7200 tonnes in 1997 to 4500 tonnes in 2003; these results coincide with the decrease in DIN measurements from water samples taken in the reservoir during this period. Water chemistry parameters in the reservoir were similar to previous years of study except for a few exceptions. Seasonal averages of total phosphorus ranged from 2.11 to 7.42 {micro}g/L from 1997 through 2003 in the entire reservoir which were indicative of oligo-mesotrophic conditions. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations have decreased in 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. These results indicate that the surface waters in Arrow Lakes Reservoir were approaching nitrogen limitation. Results from the 2003 discrete profile series indicate nitrate concentrations decreased significantly below 25 {micro}g/L (which is the concentration where nitrate is considered limiting to phytoplankton) between June and July at stations in Upper Arrow and Lower Arrow. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios (weight:weight) were also low during these months indicating that the surface waters were nitrogen deficient. These results indicated that the nitrogen to phosphorus blends of fertilizer added to the reservoir need to be fine tuned and closely monitored on a weekly basis in future years of nutrient addition. Phytoplankton results shifted during 2002 and 2003 compared to previous years. During 2002, there was a co-dominance of potentially 'inedible' diatoms (Fragilaria spp. and Diatoma) and 'greens' (Ulothrix). Large diatom populations occurred in 2003 and these results indicate it may be necessary to alter the frequency and amounts of weekly loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in future years to prevent the growth of inedible diatoms. Zooplankton density in 2002 and 2003, as in previous years, indicated higher densities in Lower Arrow than in Upper Arrow. Copepods and other Cladocera (mainly tiny specimens such as Bosmina sp.) had distinct peaks, higher than in previous years, while Daphnia was not present in higher numbers particularly in Upper Arrow. This density shift in favor to smaller cladocerans was mirrored in a weak biomass increase. In Upper Arrow, total zooplankton biomass decreased from 1999 to 2002, and in 2003 increased slightly, while in Lower Arrow the biomass decreased from 2000-2002. In Lower Arrow the majority of biomass was comprised of Daphnia throughout the study period except in 2002, while in Upper Arrow the total biomass was comprised of copepods from 2000-2003.

Schindler, E.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Microsoft PowerPoint - Lubin.ARM_Year4_Talk.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping Richland OperationsU.S. CommercialIn this paper, we

102

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in west Los Angeles: Year 4,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emission inventory.1 For a description of the internal combustion engine and causes of pollutants excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also (or completely) converting engine-out CO, HC and NO emissions to carbon dioxide (CO2), water

Denver, University of

103

Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Coalbed Methane Proved Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

104

Kansas State University DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 5 second quarter report, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kansas State University is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. Data collection and a historical perspective are maintained on vehicle requirements. Two vehicles are electric conversion vehicles from Soleq Corporation of Chicago, Illinois, and four Ford Ranger EVs were procured from Troy Design and manufacturing of Redford, Michigan.

Hague, J.R.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the La Brea Area: Year 3,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can of CO, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

106

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Chicago Area: Year 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for water and any excess oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can, HC, and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2, HC and NO in the exhaust that would be observed by a tailpipe probe, corrected

Denver, University of

107

On-Road Remote Sensing of Automobile Emissions in the Denver Area: Year 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygen not involved in combustion. Mass emissions per mass or volume of fuel can also be determined and NO to CO2 in motor vehicle exhaust. From these ratios, we calculate the percent concentrations of CO, CO2 measurements for CO and CO2, and 20,361 records contained valid measurements for HC and NO as well

Denver, University of

108

Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental fertilization of the lake has been conducted using an adaptive management approach in an effort to restore lake productivity lost as a result of nutrient uptake in upstream reservoirs. The primary objective of the experiment is to restore kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations, which are the main food source for Gerrard rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). The quantity of agricultural grade liquid fertilizer (10-34-0, ammonium polyphosphate and 28-0-0, urea ammonium nitrate) added to the North Arm in 2006 was 44.7 tonnes of P and 248.4 tonnes of N. The total fertilizer load added to the South Arm was 257 tonnes of nitrogen; no P was added. Kootenay Lake has an area of 395 km{sup 2}, a maximum depth of 150 m, a mean depth of 94 m, and a water renewal time of approximately two years. Kootenay Lake is a monomictic lake, generally mixing from late fall to early spring and stratifying during the summer. Surface water temperatures generally exceed 20 C for only a few weeks in July. Results of oxygen profiles were similar to previous years with the lake being well oxygenated from the surface to the bottom depths at all stations. Similar to past years, Secchi disc measurements at all stations in 2006 indicate a typical seasonal pattern of decreasing depths associated with the spring phytoplankton bloom, followed by increasing depths as the bloom gradually decreases by the late summer and fall. Total phosphorus (TP) ranged from 2-7 {micro}g/L and tended to decrease as summer advanced. Over the sampling season dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations decreased, with the decline corresponding to nitrate (the dominant component of DIN) being utilized by phytoplankton during summer stratification. Owing to the importance of epilimnetic nitrate that is required for optimal phytoplankton growth discrete depth water sampling occurred in 2006 to measure more accurately changes in the nitrate concentrations. As expected there was a seasonal decline in nitrate concentrations, thus supporting the strategy of increasing the nitrogen loading in both arms. These in-season changes emphasize the need for an adaptive management approach to ensure the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio does not decrease below 15:1 (weight:weight) during the fertilizer application period. Phytoplankton composition determined from the integrated samples (0-20m) was dominated by diatoms, followed by cryptophytes and chrysophytes. The contribution of cryptophytes to total biomass was higher in 2006 than in 2005. Cryptophytes, considered being edible biomass for zooplankton and Daphnia spp., increased in 2006. Phytoplankton in the discrete depth samples (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20m) demonstrated a clear north to south gradient in average phytoplankton density and biomass among the three stations sampled, with highest values at the North Arm station (KLF 2) and lowest values in the most southern station in the South Arm (KLF 7). Populations were dominated by flagellates at all stations and depths in June and July, then dominated by diatoms in August and September in the North and South arms of the lake. There were no large bluegreen (cyanobacteria) populations in either arm of the lake in 2006. Seasonal average zooplankton abundance and biomass in both the main body of the lake and in the West Arm increased in 2006 compared to 2005. Zooplankton density was numerically dominated by copepods and biomass was dominated by Daphnia spp. The annual average mysid biomass data at deep stations indicated that the North Arm of Kootenay Lake was more productive than the South Arm in 2006. Mysid densities increased through the summer and declined in the winter; mean whole lake values remain within prefertilization densities. Kokanee escapement to Meadow Creek declined in 2006 to approximately 400,000 spawners. The Lardeau River escapement also declined wit

Schindler, E.U.; Sebastian, D.; Andrusak, G.F. [Fish and Wildlife Science and Allocation, Ministry of Environment, Province of British Columbia

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

WTS Safe Project of the Year 3.9.12 FINAL1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500IIVasudhaSurface.Laboratory30,WP-07 power ratesFList ofJanuary

110

Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - The Impact of Children's Early Activities of Cognitive Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) is an important longitudinal research project aimed at tracking the lives of a cohort of Scottish children from the early years, through childhood and beyond. The study is funded by ...

Bradshaw, Paul; Wasoff, Fran

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

111

Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Multiple Childcare Provision and its Effects on Child Outcomes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report uses data from the first three waves of the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore families experiences of using childcare for children under the age of 5 years old. The report focuses particularly ...

Bradshaw, Paul; Wasoff, Fran

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

112

Growing Up in Scotland: Year 3 - Parenting and the Neighbourhood Context  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report uses data from the Growing Up in Scotland study (GUS) to explore families experiences of living in Scotlands neighbourhoods, to examine parents views on different aspects of their local area and to consider ...

Bradshaw, Paul; Sharp, Clare; Webster, Catriona; Jamieson, Lynn

2009-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

113

Kansas State University: DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 4, fourth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kansas State University, in support of a DOE and Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program subject contract, continues to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and develop electric vehicle and infrastructure technology. K-State is operating two Soleq EVcort vehicles. During this reporting period both vehicles were brought back to full operational status after warranty service was completed by Soleq. Vehicle failures occurred due to three unrelated battery cable failures in addition to the replacement of one battery. Both vehicles are being operated on a routine basis. K-State, along with York Technical College, has established a relationship with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM) Redford, Michigan. K-State has ordered no less than four Ford Ranger electric trucks from TDM. K-State is involved in the steering committee that is monitoring and refining information to direct the design and testing of these new technology vehicles. TDM should become the first automotive manufacturer certified by one of the Big Three under their Quality Vehicle Manufacturer program. Kansas State University and the Kansas Electric Utility Research Program look forward to working with TDM on their new EV program.

NONE

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Traditional and Accelerated Nursing Programs| A Comparison of Outcomes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Many avenues award nursing degrees, those being 2 year, 3 year, 4 year, accelerated or fast-track, and on-line. Using Knowles' adult learning theory as (more)

Branson, Regina M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

18 Characteristics of Texas Public Doctoral Programs Updated 7/16/12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Teaching Load Total number of semester credit hours in organized teaching courses taught per academic year.3 yrs. 7.0 yrs. years 4 Employment Profile (in field within one year of graduation) For each

Johnston, Daniel

116

Overview and Progress of the Batteries for Advanced Transportation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

processing Beyond Li-ion * Li-metal anode * Li-S * Li-air Beyond Lithium * Sodium? * Magnesium? 1-3 years 3-5 years 5-10 years Novel additives 6 | Vehicle Technologies...

117

Kansas State University DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 3, Third quarter report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formed on July 15, 1981, the goal of this program is to undertake applied research and development projects that may enhance reliability and minimize the cost of electric service in Kansas. The Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program (KEURP) is a contractual joint venture between six major electric utilities that serve the residents of the State of Kansas. The establishment of KEURP was made possible by the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC). The KCC allowed Kansas electric utilities to include research and development (R & D) costs in their operating expenses, including dues to the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Kansas universities play a unique role in KEURP with representation on the executive, technical and advisory committees of the program. The universities receive significant direct and indirect support from KEURP through direct funded projects as well as KEURP/EPRI co-funded projects. KEURP is working with EPRI researchers on projects to develop or expand Kansans knowledge and expertise in the fields of high technology and economic development. KEURP is a major source of funding in the electric/hybrid vehicle demonstration program.

Hague, J.R.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Concurrent Degrees Master of Community and Regional Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Sustainability http://olis.uoregon.edu/ Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Option1 OLISFirst Fall - Spring -OLIS Core Project Architecture http://architecture.uoregon.edu/ Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Option1 MArchFirst Summer - Spring -Architecture Core Fall - Spring -MCRP Core -Architecture Seminar -Community Planning

119

Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal reservoir simulation: final task report (year 4). Final report, 1 August 1979-31 July 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of the short-term production tests run on the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well are summarized. These tests were analyzed using conventional pressure test analysis methods. The effects of reservoir heterogeneties onm production behavior and, in particular, permeability distribution and faulting of reservoir sand were studied to determine the sensitivity of recovery to these parameters. A study on the effect of gas buildup around a producing well is reported. (MHR)

MacDonald, R.C.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Ohkuma, H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Year 4 Post-Remediation Biomonitoring of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in Marine Waters Near the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is fourth in a series of annual reports describing the results of biomonitoring following remediation of the United Heckathorn Superfund Site.

Kohn, Nancy P.; Kropp, Roy

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development and testing of an aerosol/stratus cloud parameterization scheme for middle and high latitudes. Year 3 technical progress report, November 1, 1996--August 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the present time, general circulation models (GCMs) poorly represent clouds, to the extent that they cannot be relied upon to simulate the climatic effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, or of anthropogenic perturbations to concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The net radiative forcing of clouds varies strongly with latitude. Poleward of 30 degrees in both hemispheres, low-level clouds create a net cooling effect corresponding to radiative divergences of {minus}50 to {minus}100 W/m{sup 2}. It is likely that a combination of fogs, boundary-layer stratocumulus, and stratus clouds are the main contributors to this forcing. Models of the response of the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds to changes in aerosol abundance, for a variety of large-scale meteorological forcings, are important additions to GCMs used for the study of the role of Arctic systems in global climate. The overall objective of this research is the development of an aerosol/cloud microphysics parameterization of mixed-phase stratus and boundary-layer clouds which responds to variations in CCN and IN. The parameterization is to be designed for ultimate use in GCM simulations as a tool in understanding the role of CCN, IN, and Arctic clouds in radiation budgets. Several versions of the CSU RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) will be used during the course of this work. The parameterizations developed in this research are intended for application in a single-column cloud model, designed as an adaptive grid model which can interface into a GCM vertical grid through distinct layers of the troposphere where the presence of layer clouds is expected.

Kreidenweis, S.M.; Cotton, W.R.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

122

FourYear Academic Plan 20122013 BA in Geology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FourYear Academic Plan 20122013 BA in Geology Internal Use Version Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4: Total UD Credits: 46 Total Credits: 120 3/19/12 #12;FourYear Academic Plan 20122013 BA in Geology

123

Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering School of Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering Architecture Course Civil and Environmental Engineering4 5 Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering 1st Year School of Engineering Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 1st Year of Master's Program 1st

Kourai, Kenichi

124

Analytical-Numerical Methodology to Measure Undamaged, Fracture and Healing Properties of Asphalt Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the stiffness gradient at 10C in year 2 ............................ 62? Table 10.Statistical summary of the stiffness gradient at 10C test in year 3 ................... 62? Table 11.Statistical summary of stiffness gradient at 10C in year 4...? APPENDIX C ................................................................................................................ 155? vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.Air void distribution in field asphalt layers...

Koohi, Yasser 1980-

2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Capex $MM NOx Reduction Tons/yr Net Cost NPV10 $MM Case 1 4 50 3.6 a. Defer 1 year 4.2 loss due to delay 0.6 b. Defer 2 years 5.4 loss due to delay 1.7 c. Defer 3 years 8.5 loss due to delay 4.8 Case 2 35 750 31.8 a. Defer 1 year 42...

Cascone, R.

126

New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

127

New York Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

128

New York Natural Gas Withdrawals from Gas Wells (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year Jan Feb

129

New York Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year Jan

130

New York Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year JanYear

131

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Base Gas) (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year

132

North Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

133

North Dakota Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year

134

Oregon Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

135

Oregon Natural Gas Input Supplemental Fuels (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Input

136

Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Additions (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4InputAdditions

137

Maryland Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

138

El Paso, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Exports to Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska NuclearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

139

Kansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam CoalReserves (MillionYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4

140

Whitlash, MT Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Canada (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007York"Hawaii" "Sector",Foot)VentedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4Year

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Singer, M. (Vitae) -1-Last updated December 10, 2014 MICHAEL SINGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Year 4, 2 ? 4 hr practical. · `Advanced Debates (Fracking)', ~35 students, Year 4, 1 ? 4 hr practical

Singer, Michael

142

Singer, M. (Vitae) -1-Last updated June 11, 2014 MICHAEL SINGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling)', ~5 students, Year 4, 2 ? 4 hr practical. · `Advanced Debates (Fracking)', ~35 students, Year 4

Singer, Michael

143

Slide 1  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

stationary storage for - one year of high value T&D upgrade deferral; - then wholesale electricity price arbitrage; - plus a generation capacity credit in all years 4....

144

Retro-Commissioning (RCx) Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: Program Year 5 is now in progress. Project implementation must begin by May 31, 2013. All measures must be implemented by March 31, 2014. '''''...

145

All Students Afghanistan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) (Rank) (Rank) (1 Year) (5 Years) #12;Bosnia-Herzegovina 3 2 0 +50.0 -(90) (100) - Botswana 0 3 4 -100

Barthelat, Francois

146

Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The target of this SciDAC Science Application was to develop a new capability based on high-order and high-resolution schemes to simulate shock-turbulence interactions and multi-material mixing in planar and spherical geometries, and to study Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov turbulent mixing. These fundamental problems have direct application in high-speed engineering flows, such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions and scramjet combustion, and also in the natural occurrence of supernovae explosions. Another component of this project was the development of subgrid-scale (SGS) models for large-eddy simulations of flows involving shock-turbulence interaction and multi-material mixing, that were to be validated with the DNS databases generated during the program. The numerical codes developed are designed for massively-parallel computer architectures, ensuring good scaling performance. Their algorithms were validated by means of a sequence of benchmark problems. The original multi-stage plan for this five-year project included the following milestones: 1) refinement of numerical algorithms for application to the shock-turbulence interaction problem and multi-material mixing (years 1-2); 2) direct numerical simulations (DNS) of canonical shock-turbulence interaction (years 2-3), targeted at improving our understanding of the physics behind the combined two phenomena and also at guiding the development of SGS models; 3) large-eddy simulations (LES) of shock-turbulence interaction (years 3-5), improving SGS models based on the DNS obtained in the previous phase; 4) DNS of planar/spherical RM multi-material mixing (years 3-5), also with the two-fold objective of gaining insight into the relevant physics of this instability and aiding in devising new modeling strategies for multi-material mixing; 5) LES of planar/spherical RM mixing (years 4-5), integrating the improved SGS and multi-material models developed in stages 3 and 5. This final report is outlined as follows. Section 2 shows an assessment of numerical algorithms that are best suited for the numerical simulation of compressible flows involving turbulence and shock phenomena. Sections 3 and 4 deal with the canonical shock-turbulence interaction problem, from the DNS and LES perspectives, respectively. Section 5 considers the shock-turbulence inter-action in spherical geometry, in particular, the interaction of a converging shock with isotropic turbulence as well as the problem of the blast wave. Section 6 describes the study of shock-accelerated mixing through planar and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov mixing as well as the shock-curtain interaction problem In section 7 we acknowledge the different interactions between Stanford and other institutions participating in this SciDAC project, as well as several external collaborations made possible through it. Section 8 presents a list of publications and presentations that have been generated during the course of this SciDAC project. Finally, section 9 concludes this report with the list of personnel at Stanford University funded by this SciDAC project.

Sanjiva Lele

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Management of Fleet Inventory  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

In fulfillment of Executive Order 13514, DOE began a 3-year, 3-phase strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and decrease petroleum use.

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

148

Academic Program College(s) Course(s) Topics Estimated Annual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of abuse across the lifespan. 210 NURS 113: Nursing Care During Childbearing Years (3) Domestic violence including child abuse- recognition; interventions. 240 NURS 114: Nursing Care During Childrearing Years (3) Child abuse-definitions; sign, symptoms; interventions; reporting. 245 NURS 214W: Nursing Care

Maroncelli, Mark

149

Research Start-up Request Form Please use this form for all start-up requests.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Start-up Request Form Please use this form for all start-up requests. All requests must: Department: College: Date of Offer: Start Date: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Fiscal Year: Equipment: Amount of Start-up of Start-up Provided by Dept. or College Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Amount: Planned Use: EVP/Provost Signature

Thomas, Andrew

150

A Resilient Real-Time Agent-Based System for a Reconfigurable Power Grid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outages and other power quality and reliability events to be 1% of GDP, or $100 billion per year [4 infrastructure that includes renewable or sustainable energy sources [1][2]. The existing energy management

Tolbert, Leon M.

151

18 Characteristics of Texas Public Doctoral Programs Updated 7/16/12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,342, 3) $706,737 13 Faculty Teaching Load Total number of semester credit hours in organized teaching.3 years 4 Employment Profile (in field within one year of graduation) For each of the three most recent

Johnston, Daniel

152

Quarterly Program Progress Report April 1, 2002-June 30, 2002  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Quarterly Program Progress Report The DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program continues to provide, on a year round basis, a broad spectrum of medical care to the DOE patient population. During the fourth quarter of Year 4, the following medical services were provided: (1) Annual medical examinations for the DOE patient population (see Exhibit 1 for details). (2) Medications for the DOE patient population. (3) Preventive and primary medical care to the DOE patient population in the RMI as time and resources permit. (4) Additional manpower for the outpatient clinics at Ebeye and Majuro Hospitals (see Exhibit 2 for details). (5) Ancillary services such as labs, radiology and pharmacy in coordination with Kwajalein Hospital, Majuro Hospital and the 177 Health Care Program (177 HCP). (6) Referrals to Ebeye Hospital, Majuro Hospital and Kwajalein Hospital as necessary. (7) Referrals to Straub Clinic and Hospital in Honolulu as necessary (for details see Exhibit 1). (8) Monitored and adjusted monthly annual examination schedules based on equipment failure at Kwajalein. In addition to the above, the program was also involved in the following activities during this quarter: (1) Organized and conducted continuing medical education (CME) talks for the program's RMI staff and other RMI healthcare workers. (2) Held meetings with RMI government officials and Local Atoll government officials. (3) Input past medical records into the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. (4) Made adjustments to and created more templates for the EMR system. (5) Coordinated with the Public Health Departments on Majuro and Ebeye. (6) Met with PEACESAT to discuss possible collaboration on high speed Internet access. (7) Looked for opportunities to expand the program's telehealth capabilities. (8) Participated in the DOE-RMI Meeting in Honolulu. (9) Finalized the agreement with the RMI Ministry of Health and Environment (MOHE) and Majuro Hospital to hire Dr. Marie Lanwi on a part-time basis. (10) Held a Community Advisory Group (CAG) Meeting and Community Meeting on Majuro. (11) Negotiated with Kwajalein with regards to the increase in laboratory and procedure costs and continuing Mammography services for the DOE patient population. (12) Met with DOE in Honolulu to discuss the next year's program and budget. (13) Trained new residents in the use of the electronic medical record system. (14) Conducted electronic medical record audits. (15) Participated in a training session for the appointment scheduler module by Physician Micro System, Inc. on the EMR system. (16) Worked on the Year 5 Continuation Application and Budget. (17) Finalized the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with 177. (18) Worked with DOE and Bechtel Nevada (BN) to reduce PHRI program costs to meet an increase in referral costs paid by Bechtel. This report details the additions and changes to the program for the April 1, 2002-June 30, 2002 period.

Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

153

Rank Project Name Directorate,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rank Project Name Directorate, Dept/Div and POC Cost Savings Payback (Years) Waste Reduction 1 NATIONAL LABORATORY FY02 Funded Pollution Prevention Projects 0.4 Years (~5 months) #12;

154

18 Characteristics of Texas Public Doctoral Programs Updated 7/16/12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

academic year.5 $195,938 $138,859 $113,172 13 Faculty Teaching Load Total number of semester credit hours Profile (in field within one year of graduation) For each of the three most recent years, the number

Johnston, Daniel

155

Student:______________________________ Advisor:_____________________________ ID #:________________________________  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ES 8 MATH 36 ES 9 MATH 42 ES 55 MATH 51 ES 56 PHYS 11 EM 51 CHEM 1 or 16 ES 18 PHYS 12 or CHEM 2 value: SoE-HASS Courses selected must include a minimum of one credit in each area of Humanities (H 12 or Chem 2 Math 51 ES 18 EM 51 HASS HASS Fall ­ 3rd Year (5.0 Credits) Spring ­ 3rd Year (5

Dennett, Daniel

156

Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5) the amount of production of cement by type and grade (in tonnes per year); (6) the electricity generated onsite; and, (7) the energy used by fuel type; and, the amount (in RMB per year) spent on energy. The tool offers the user the opportunity to do a quick assessment or a more detailed assessment--this choice will determine the level of detail of the energy input. The detailed assessment will require energy data for each stage of production while the quick assessment will require only total energy used at the entire facility (see Section 6 for more details on quick versus detailed assessments). The benchmarking tool provides two benchmarks--one for Chinese best practices and one for international best practices. Section 2 describes the differences between these two and how each benchmark was calculated. The tool also asks for a target input by the user for the user to set goals for the facility.

Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

18 Characteristics of Texas Public Doctoral Programs Updated 7/16/12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Load Total number of semester credit hours in organized teaching courses taught per academic year.3 6.8 4 Employment Profile (in field within one year of graduation) For each of the three most recent

Johnston, Daniel

158

A View of Manufacturing Through 3D Glasses | GE Global Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from machining and casting technologies to materials science, welding, and yes, 3D printing. In the past few years, 3D printing, or additive as we call it in our labs, has...

159

Solutions to Test 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

March 27, 2014. Math 373. Test 2. Fall 2013. October 17, 2013. 1. You are given the following table of interest rates: Year 1. Year 2. Year 3. Portfolio. Year. 2007.

jeffb_000

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

160

Adams, JM (Dr) TUTORIAL (YEAR 2) -UG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(YEA JMA 48 AZ 04 TUTX-PH00-GM1 Sem1: 01-06,08-14 SGT-Grp A1 TUTORIAL (YEAR 3) - UG SP, AL, JLK, PJM BB 03 Sem1: 09,11,13 UCAS JSA, JA, DB, WNC, AD, OH, JLK, PJM, BNM, PHR, RPS, PDS, JAT, PMW, AL, SP LTL EXAMPHY1022mm Sem1: 07, 15 Test TUTORIAL (YEAR 3) SP, AL, JLK, PJM, BNM, JM Room to be advised

Stevenson, Paul

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161

Kilachand Honors College Innovation, Culture, and Society  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the larger issue of innovation and its social and cultural impact in the context of an interdisciplinary Kilachand Honors College KHC HC 501 Innovation, Culture, and Society (Year 4, Fall semester questions: · What are the moral implications and social effects of technological, artistic, and scientific

Guenther, Frank

162

[Revised and posted 4/10/07] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for instructional purposes will be applied to the following academic year. 4. A reduced teaching load may be granted. In calculating teaching load, the equivalencies in the following section will be applied. Normally, a faculty load minimum. REVIEW: This OP will be reviewed in April of odd-numbered years by the Office

Rock, Chris

163

YEAR FOUR PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015 The project descriptions that follow are provided to help you to choose your Year  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

YEAR FOUR PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015 The project descriptions that follow are provided to help you to choose your Year 4 project. You will need, at a later stage, to list four choices of project is to be returned by Friday 6th June 2014. (Decisions about project allocations to individual students will be made

Davies, Christopher

164

Howard Alderson, P.E. Alderson Engineering, Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the year. 4. Net Zero Emissions: Produces (or purchases) enough emissions-free renewable energy to offset emissions from all energy used in the building annually. Carbon, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides are common emissions that ZEBs offset. To calculate a building's total emissions, imported and exported

165

Advanced Review High efficiency photovoltaics: on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and market electricity sales is often covered by substantial government subsidies. Using the United States PV and a substantial PV electricity share. It is found that--with considerable government support--PV's electricity.57% of the world electricity consumption in the same year.4 Although still in the early stages of its development

Delaware, University of

166

Decision Strategies and Susceptibility to Phishing Julie S. Downs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

how and why people fall for them. This study reports preliminary analysis of interviews with 20 non year [4]. Computer security attacks can be classified as physical, syntactic, or semantic. Physical attacks target the physical infrastructure of computer systems and networks, while syntactic attacks

Sadeh, Norman M.

167

October 27, 2008 1 Abstract--The use of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) within  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of MIP within the electric industry is growing. Recently, PJM switched from a Lagrangian Relaxation (LR look- ahead [5]. These changes are estimated to save PJM over 150 million dollars per year [4], [5]. Published in 2005, [9] discusses the tradeoffs between LR and MIP for PJM and a recent presentation, [10

Oren, Shmuel S.

168

Milestones in photosynthesis research 9Chapter 1 Milestones in photosynthesis research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

). For a profile of P. V. Sane, see S. K. Sinha, this volume. The primary source of energy for nearly all life energy on a global scale. Each year 4 ? 1018 kilojoules of free energy is stored in reduced carbon on Earth is the Sun. As early as 1845, Robert Mayer, who provided us with the Law of Conservation of Energy

Govindjee "Gov"

169

insight review articles 680 NATURE | VOL 415 | 7 FEBRUARY 2002 | www.nature.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term climate changes such as more pronounced El Niño cycles and global warming. Furthermore, resistance burden5 . This has been attributed to several causes, including population movements into malarious years4 . Global transmission patterns The malaria burden is not evenly distributed. The global pattern

170

State University of New York at Binghamton Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

General Ed Elective (A) Mus/Art/Thea/Cinema General Ed Elective (N) Any social science *Electrical and Applied Science BS in Computer Engineering-Four-Year Program Rockland Community College Elective (H) ENG/THEA/ART/PHIL/CINEMA EECE 382 EECE Seminar II Year 4 Fall Spring BU Course # Course Name

Suzuki, Masatsugu

171

State University of New York at Binghamton Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

203 Professional Elec II General Ed Elec A) Mus/Art/Thea/Cinema General Ed Elec (N) Any social science and Applied Science BS in Electrical Engineering-Four-Year Program Rockland Community College Communication Systems EECE 382 EECE Seminar II General Ed Elective (H) ENG/THEA/ART/PHIL/CINEMA Year 4 Fall

Suzuki, Masatsugu

172

State University of New York at Binghamton Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Economics & Project Management General Education Elective (H) Year 4 Fall ISE 420 Optimization and systems engineering is integral to American industry and economic growth. Its major focus is on the design8/27/2012 State University of New York at Binghamton Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering

Suzuki, Masatsugu

173

x0000 -xx xxxx 2006 metrologia Spectral Analysis of Clock Noise: A Primer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x0000 - xx xxxx 2006 metrologia Spectral Analysis of Clock Noise: A Primer Donald B Percival fifty years [4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 15, 18, 19, 23, 25, 26, 27, 35, 37, 41, 42, 49]. Given Metrologia of the major characterizations 2 Metrologia, submitted, xx xxxx 2006, 1-29 #12;Spectral Analysis of Clock Noise

Percival, Don

174

Select the "Bicycle, Motorbike Registration" on Web System for Select the [Web System for S&F] through the Tokyo Tech Portal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Select the "Bicycle, Motorbike Registration" on Web System for S&F Select the [Web System for S if you wish to continue using it the following year. 4. Do not use the University bicycle parking areas for your own personal garage. Motorbikes found to have been left in the bicycle parking areas for two days

Furui, Sadaoki

175

ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2013 to June 30, 2014 (Year 5) The University of California at Santa Cruz's Storm Water Management improvements are referred to as Best Management Practices (BMPs). BMPs will be updated as appropriate1 ANNUAL REPORT General Permit for the Discharger of Storm Water from Small Municipal Separate

California at Santa Cruz, University of

176

Joint Program Report 146 http://mit.edu/globalchange/www/ MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

billion and $500 billion per year (5% to 19% of Federal tax revenue) depending on the case. One use cost of the targets. This level of cost would not seriously affect GDP growth, but would imply large-scale changes in the U.S. energy system. For example, even with strong growth in wind, solar and other renewable

177

Journal of Membrane Science 343 (2009) 4252 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the estimated global energy production from all renewable sources is approaching 10,000 TWh per year [5 retarded osmosis (PRO) was investigated as a viable source of renewable energy. In PRO, water from a low of renewable energy [1,2]. In a PRO system, water from a low salin- ity feed solution (e.g., fresh water

178

Wave transport for a scalar model of the Love waves Guillaume Bal Leonid Ryzhik y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the wavelength. The transport equation accounts for the multiple scattering of the Love waves analyzed using radiative transfer equations for more than thirty years [5, 6, 7, 8, 14]. A systematic and e?cient way to obtain transport equations is presented in [16, 18]. The mathematics involved in this process

Ryzhik, Lenya

179

Wave transport for a scalar model of the Love waves Guillaume Bal Leonid Ryzhik \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the wavelength. The transport equation accounts for the multiple scattering of the Love waves using radiative transfer equations for more than thirty years [5, 6, 7, 8, 14]. A systematic and efficient way to obtain transport equations is presented in [16, 18]. The mathematics involved

Bal, Guillaume

180

Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foundation Year Aguideforinternationalstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 The-termcommitmentandabig investmentinyourfuture.OurFoundationYearsare designedtoprepareyouforundergraduatestudyandto

Molinari, Marc

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Foundation Year Aguideforstudents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foundation Year Aguideforstudents #12;2 Contents TheFoundationYears 5 Engineering/Physics/Geophysics FoundationYear 6 ScienceFoundationYear 7 EntryRequirements 8 Moneymatters 10 Universitylife 10 TheUniversity 10 Thecity 10 Accommodation 10 Studentaccommodation MontefioreHouse4.. #12;3 OurFoundation

Anderson, Jim

182

Why Does the Sun Shine? Is the Sun on Fire?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. · Total chemical potential would be 1045 ergs. · This is the solar luminosity for 4000 years. = 5 x 1044 A gigantic nuclear furnace where hydrogen is built into helium at a temperature of millions of degrees Yo ho of incandescent gas A gigantic nuclear furnace where hydrogen is built into helium at a temperature of millions

Walter, Frederick M.

183

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Renewable Energy Finance Solar--in the form of sunshine--than the country uses in an entire year.3 The ability to convert solar energy targeted an additional two-thirds cost reduction by 2020 and set a goal of solar energy production

184

TransForumNews from Argonne's Transportation Research Program www.transportation.anl.gov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

page 10 A revolutionary advance in our understanding of how diesel engines work may unlock new at the local and regional level. 16 How Might Increased Biofuel Production Affect Midwest Water Supplies Laboratory recently won a three-year, $3.44 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced

Kemner, Ken

185

Mean time to meaningless: MTTDL, Markov models, and storage system reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mean time to meaningless: MTTDL, Markov models, and storage system reliability Kevin M. Greenan Loss (MTTDL) has been the stan- dard reliability metric in storage systems for more than 20 years [3], the stan- dard metric of storage system reliability has been the Mean Time To Data Loss (MTTDL

Plank, Jim

186

Sent: Wednesday, October 02, 2002 1:43 AM To: comment@bpa.gov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to meet, with Bonneville ensuring quality control. The proposal includes the following conservation as approximately 175 average megawatts per year. 3. BPA will provide quality control to ensure that the program-income weatherization based on the total electric load of the region. Each utility is then given its share of the target

187

Sent: Wednesday, September 25, 2002 11:33 AM To: comment@bpa.gov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with Bonneville ensuring quality control. Specific Points Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resources 1 megawatts per year. 3. BPA will provide quality control to ensure that the program is run efficiently on the total electric load of the region. Each utility is then given its share of the target to meet

188

LBNL-48380, CBP Note-396 UPDATED ELECTRON-CLOUD SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-48380, CBP Note-396 UPDATED ELECTRON-CLOUD SIMULATION RESULTS FOR THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER LHC M. A. Furman and M. Pivi, LBNL, Berkeley, CA94720, USA Abstract This paper presents new simulation-cloud effect (ECE) code that has been developed at LBNL over the past five years [3]. We are particularly

Furman, Miguel

189

LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb Information for Graduate Students in the Langerhans Lab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, conduct research project, choose committee (advisor + 2 Biology faculty + 1 outside member) Year 2: apply for fellowships if applicable, Plan of Work, publish paper Year 3: prelims and candidacy, waist deep in research are expected to apply for extramural funding, including NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, EPA STAR Fellowship

Langerhans, Brian

190

Market Research Berkeley FIRST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between home size and energy use 3 Total Market potential in the next 3 years3.Total Market potential;4 Purchase factors (211 responses) In the recent past, when you have been offered services by solar electric for other reasons (please specify) 22.5% 45 Comments: Poor paybackComments: Poor payback Trees shades my

Kammen, Daniel M.

191

Network of Centers for Very Small Entities (VSEs)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-electric, wind, geothermal, solar or biomass-related energy.g gy · Company established 10 years ago, · Over 260 the ISO method to evaluate the Economic Benefits of Standards · Value chain · Costs and Benefits Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Cost to implement and maintain 59 600$ 50 100$ 50 100$ 159 800$ Net Benefits 255

Québec, Université du

192

July 28, 2013 Project Identification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.gov.my/eScience/Appli/frmApp_App_ProjId... 1 of 1 28/07/2013 14:12 #12;July 28, 2013 Project Cost project expenses are funded by ScienceFund. Expense Category Year 1 (2008) Year 2 (2009) Year 3 (2010July 28, 2013 Project Identification Project Identification Project Objectives Research Background

Bargiela, Andrzej

193

FIRE Diagnostics Kenneth M. Young  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FIRE Diagnostics Kenneth M. Young Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Workshop on Physics Issues. Young 5/2/00 #12;FIRE: Diagnostics Schedule 1 2YEAR 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 16151413 First Plasma Vac for FIRE PPPL May 1 - 3, 2000 #12;Role for the Plasma Measurements · 1) Provide data for physics studies

194

Purdue extension Overviewofthe2007USDAFarmBill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is that it is likely to become the Christmas tree for all bioenergy proposals, regardless of their cost effectiveness of Energy and what it does in the bioenergy area and what USDA sets out to do. During the late 1970s a four- year period. 2. Improve and expand the biobased products market ($18 million over 10 years). 3

195

Can Wind Turbines be Bad for You? Alec N. Salt, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Wind Turbines be Bad for You? Alec N. Salt, Ph.D. Department of Otolaryngology there happens to be a castle nearby). #12;Wind turbines haveWind turbines have been getting biggerbeen getting MegaWatts(MW) Total Installed Change by year 3% of US Energy Needs Wind turbines are "green" and areWind

Salt, Alec N.

196

Infrasound, the Ear and Wind Turbines Alec N. Salt, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrasound, the Ear and Wind Turbines Alec N. Salt, Ph.D. Department of Otolaryngology there happens to be a castle nearby). #12;Wind turbines haveWind turbines have been getting biggerbeen getting MegaWatts(MW) Total Installed Change by year 3% of US Energy Needs Wind turbines are "green" and areWind

Salt, Alec N.

197

Bilag 7.8 Solcelle litteratur Bilag 7.9 Gennemgang af PV-litteratur, Marts 2008 (se pointforklaring nederst)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Advances in Solar Energy series offers state- of-the-art information on all primary renewable energy is a 'must-have' reference on global developments in the field of renewable energy. New addition each year. 3.prisdk The renewable energy guide book. 2 3 9781844074426 Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems, 2nd Edition Dec

198

1254 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 48, NO. 4, AUGUST 2001 Implementation of a Serial Protocol for the Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in a radiation-free environment. It is connected through four unidirectional optical links (the number of fibers of the liquid argon calorimeters, located in an irradiated environment. After a technical description are located in an irradiated environment (20 Gray/year and neutrons/cm /year) [3]. The information is intended

199

Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 2008, 27 (2), 00-00 Predicted climate changes for the years to come  

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Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 2008, 27 (2), 00-00 Predicted climate changes for the years 3PU, United Kingdom. E-mail: stoned@atm.ox.ac.uk (2) Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research community to produce predictions of future climate change. Predictions for the next few decades

200

J U N E 2 0 0 7 Somebody is always doing what somebody else said couldn't be  

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on how high-temperature thermal spray conditions affected the quality of thermal barrier coatings $ Awarded Glenn Beer Establishing LaCAMPS-Year 3 DOE/LaSPACE 253,936 G. Beer/D.Basinger LaTech/LA GEAR UP

Selmic, Sandra

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Periodicals postage paid at Boston, MA, and at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Radiology, Ambul. Med., Surgery Sub- specialties or Elective 4 weeks Pediatrics 6 weeks Neurology, Radiology are approximate for years 3 & 4 due to variations of class schedules Neurology, Radiology, Ambul. Med., Surgery Sub- specialties or Elective 4 weeks Neurology, Radiology, Ambul. Med., Surgery Sub- specialties

202

The University of Auckland Undergraduate and Postgraduate Prospectus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and interpreted since then; explore different expressions of Christianity and the stories behind them; engage, counselling, community programmes, church ministry, prison and hospital chaplaincies, and librarianship. Staff 2 Year 3 Core Theology courses Theology courses BA courses General Education courses Courses from

Auckland, University of

203

Updated 7/2014Post-MS Program Plan DNP Program Course Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Health Informatics 3 Total 3 Total 3 Total 3 Year2 Advanced Practice Nursing Theory* (N722 or N741 or N751) 3 N761 Program Planning, Evaluation and Quality Improvement 3 N708 Ethics for Advanced Practice in Health Care 2 Elective (can be taken any semester) 3 Total 6 Total 3 Total 2 Year3 N828 Clinical

Sheridan, Jennifer

204

Updated 7/2014Post-BS Full-Time Program Plan DNP Program Course Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Application of Evidence- Based Practice 3 Total 12 Total 12 Total 6 Year2 N726 Foundations for APN Clinical761 Program Planning, Evaluation and Quality Improvement 3 N772 Leadership and Organizational Decision Making in Health Care 3 Elective (can be taken any semester) 3 Total 12 Total 12 Total 2 Year3 N826

Sheridan, Jennifer

205

UK Education Abroad 315 Bradley Hall (859) 257-4067 http://www.uky.edu/educationabroad Degree Requirements for the MAT Major  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, MAT 120 Year 2: US Citizenship, ACC 201, ECO 201, FAM 350, MAT 237, Arts & Creativity, ACC 202, STA 210, ECO 202, MAT 247 Year 3: MKT 300, MAT 340, MAT 315, MAT 350, Professional Support, MAT Elective- ship opportunities in areas such as Marketing, Business, Event Planning/PR, Fashion Business, Fashion

MacAdam, Keith

206

Vehicle Rental Procedure Outline the procedure for renting motor pool vehicles at University of Michigan (U-M).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vehicle Rental Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for renting motor pool vehicles at University of Michigan (U-M). Procedure 1. All policies pertaining to U-M vehicles also pertain to motor pool rental vehicles. 2. Motor pool vehicles can be reserved for a period of a few hours up to one year. 3

Kirschner, Denise

207

In A. Kuijper, K. Bredies, T. Pock, H. Bischof (Eds.): Scale-Space and Variational Methods in Computer Vision. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7893, pp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Computer Vision. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7893, pp. 319-330, Springer, Berlin, 2013 Image Analysis Group Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Campus E1.7 Saarland University, 66041 years, 3D cinema technology has become increasingly popular. In the corresponding so called multi

208

State University of New York at Binghamton Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science BS in Mechanical Engineering-Four-Year Program Rockland Community College-Application curriculum ENR 203 ME 274 Engineering Dynamics ENR 204* General Ed Elective (A) THEA/MUSIC/ART/CINEMA EECE 260 Circuits (with lab) ENR 206 General Ed Elective (N) ANY SOCIAL SCIENCE Year 3---Point of Transfer Fall

Suzuki, Masatsugu

209

Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of NiC Dale J. Brugh and Michael D. Morse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of work on other 3d transition metal carbides is also presented. © 2002 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1519257 I. INTRODUCTION The transition metal carbides provide an interesting and important of the diatomic transition metal carbides over the past five years.3­8 In this article we present the results

Morse, Michael D.

210

NEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Instructions to Complete the International Student Financial Statement Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology. This information must be submitted before a Certificate of Visa Eligibility (Form I-term annuities or certificates of deposit · New Jersey Institute of Technology reserves the right to require _______________________________________________________________ Family/Last Name First/Given Name Middle 2. Date of Birth ____________________ Month Day Year 3. Country

Gary, Dale E.

211

Advance Standing Reference Guide AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY TEMASEK POLYTECHNIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intelligent Building Technology Clean Energy Aerospace Electronics 4 yrs 2 yrs Provided students continue at ANU Pre-Requisites Bachelor of Information Technology Computer Engineering Internet Computing Info-Communication Information Technology Mobile and Wireless Computing Cyber and Digital Security 3 yrs 1.5 yrs 1.5 years 3

Zhou, Xiangyun "Sean"

212

MA 111 Review for Exam 5 Exam 5 (given in class on Monday, November 16) will cover Unit 5: The Mathematics of Money. Use  

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: The Mathematics of Money. Use Chapter 10 in the textbook and the class slides as study tools. Can you work each) If the interest is compounded yearly, how much money will be in the account in 20 years? (b) If the interest is compounded daily, how much money will be in the account in 20 years? 3. Use the APY to answer the following

Lee, Carl

213

PROJECT SUMMARY ITR: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH-(ASE)-(DMC-INT): NEW METHODS FOR EXPLORATION OF DEEP-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROJECT SUMMARY ITR: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH-(ASE)-(DMC-INT): NEW METHODS FOR EXPLORATION OF DEEP technology research problems which will advance the science and engineering of deep-ocean exploration-engineering as required based on field trial results. Expedition web site. Publications. Year 3: Expedition deploying

Whitcomb, Louis L.

214

Immobilized phage proteins for specific detection of staphylococci  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in hospitals are now due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which is resistant to b-lactams.2,3 It is estimated that at least 3.4 million hospital patients in the U.S. are infected by MRSA each year.4 Community-acquired MRSA is showing a very rapid rise and now accounts for 14% of MRSA infections;5 these infections

Peter, Yves-Alain

215

Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ought to be at least several years) 4. Have low installation costs. 5. Operate without being affected by waterhammer shocks. 6. Have ability to operate with pressures fluctuating on both the inlet and outlet side. 7. Be self draining for freeze... water seal obviously will present a freezing problem in severe climates during shutdown. The float itself is normally of delicate construction to improve its bouyancy but as such can be readily crushed by a waterhammer shock or pinholes may develop...

Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Tufts University --School of Engineering Class of 2016  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ES 8 MATH 36 ES 9 MATH 42 ES 55 MATH 51 ES 56 PHYS 11 EM 51 CHEM 1 or 16 Found Elect (a,b,c) PHYS 12 value: SoE-HASS Courses selected must include a minimum of one credit in each area of Humanities (H 5 ES 9 Math 42 CEE 1 Phy 12 or Chem 2 Math 51 Foundation Elective EM 51 HASS HASS Fall ­ 3rd Year (5

Dennett, Daniel

217

Application of Membranes to Treatment of Water Based Exploration and Production Wastes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Page 1. 1 Schematic of a rotary drilling rig??????????????????????????????. 4 1. 2 Subsurface reach and rig sizes in the last thirty years?????????????????? 5 1. 3 Waste disposal statistics??????????????????????????????????.. 12 1... equipment and rotary system equipment. A drilling rig is a machine used to drill the wellbore [2], it usually entails every equipment in the drilling process apart from the living quarters. Onshore drilling rig types includes the conventional rig...

Olatubi, Oluwaseun Alfred

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Militia of the Seas: a guide to the Confederate privateers of the American Civil War, 1861-1865  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carolina, and Georgia. . . . 64 66 12 Submarine Pioneer . . . 144 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 Home ports of Confederate privateers . . 2 Number of privateering commissions issued per year. . . 3 Number of prizes captured by privateers. . Page 59 60... descriptions of the vessels, prize records of privateers that succeeded in capturing Union craft, and other service they performed for the Confederacy or the United States. Whenever possible, names of the vessels prior to and after their privateering careers...

Buford, Valerie Samantha

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Optimization Measures for Sporting and Special Event Facilities: Design and Operation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

television, large video and scoreboard displays, varieties of restaurants and concessions, and large banquet facilities [4]. TV studios and production offices, ticket offices, facility and team offices, practice courts, and team stores are common as well... air quality (IAQ) requirements when thousands of people are in attendance, but this is likely to be the case only 500 to 800 hours a year [3]. In the design of the systems at the Alexander Memorial Coliseum at McDonald's Center, on the Georgia...

Giebler, T.; Wei, G.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

The Impact of Climate Change on The Bahamas a Review of Early Forecasts By Neil Sealey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. a rise in temperature of 3-50 F/2-30 C 2. a rise in sea level of 2-8", or a rate of 1.0 to 4.0 mm/year 3. Changes due to Sea Level Rise: Sea level will rise because more polar and glacial ice will melt than ­ and there will be a period when the sea level will not rise (Allen, Myles et al: 2001) (Wigley, 1999). Despite this, present

Sealey, Kathleen Sullivan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as well as the ice chronology. 10 Be (half-life 5 1.387 6 0.012 3 106 years3 ;) is mainly produced10 Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland Anna Sturevik-Storm1 of Geology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden, 5 Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr

Usoskin, Ilya G.

222

Class Entering 2012 University of Tennessee Health Science Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-7) NSG 642 CNL Seminar 1 (1-0) NSG 618 Quality Management 2 (2-0) Total for Spring Term Year 3 10 (3 (1-0) NSG 630 Transition to Professional Nursing 3 (3-0) Total for Summer Term Year 1 6 (6-0) Fall 1 NSG 621 Pathophysiology 3 (3-0) PHAR 699 Pharmacology 3 (3-0) Total for Fall Term Year 1 6 (6

Cui, Yan

223

Nanoscale Manipulation of Surfaces and Interfaces: Engineering Electrical Properties Through Nanofabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with me, and I dont really think Id be where I am today without her. Words cannot truly express how grateful I am to her for her love, support, and sacrifice. vii Table of Contents Abstract... scale plot of transistor count vs. date of introduction for commercially available microprocessors. The line indicates the Moores Law prediction, a doubling of transistors per microprocessor every two years. ........................................3...

Smith, Gregory J.

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

224

Physics Features of TRU-Fueled VHTRs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

composition that can be obtained for typical PWRs assuming burnup levels of 41.200 MWd/MTHM followed by cooling for 23 years. 4. Methodology The analysis is performed using the ORNL SCALE 5.1 code system, and MatLab tool boxes. The code systems and tools... model was performed using the ORNL SCALE code system [12]. The standard SCALE 5.1 TRITON sequence has been upgraded to allow fuel cycle modeling accounting for double heterogeneity effects. A combination of Matlab, Excel, and Perl was used to build...

Lewis, Tom G. III; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

Peltier, R. [DTE Energy Services (United States)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

U.S. Energy Information Administration State Energy Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8, 2012 |New York/New JerseyNumber ofYear5

227

Alcoa Can't Wait for Tomorrow: Taking Energy Efficiency to the Next Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alcoa Can?t Wait For Tomorrow Taking Energy Efficiency to the next level IETC May 23, 2013 ESL-IE-13-05-26 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Alcoa at a Glance ? Founded..., including the original aluminum process 2 ESL-IE-13-05-26 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 The Aluminum Leader for 125 Years 3 F Upstream Bauxite mining Alumina refining...

Brockway, W.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

New Jersey Natural Gas Residential Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

229

New Mexico Natural Gas Industrial Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

230

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

231

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Same Month Previous

232

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Same Month

233

New York Nonassociated Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Same

234

New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3SameNonhydrocarbon

235

North Dakota Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

236

North Dakota Natural Gas Residential Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Decade Year-0

237

North Dakota Natural Gas Total Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Decade

238

North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3DecadeVehicle

239

Oregon Natural Gas LNG Storage Withdrawals (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

240

Oregon Natural Gas Lease Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Fuel Consumption

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oregon Natural Gas Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Fuel Consumptionand

242

Oregon Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Fuel

243

Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3FuelElements) Gas

244

Oregon Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3FuelElements)

245

Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year Jan Feb% ofYear3.99 4.22

246

Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Net Withdrawals (Million Cubic  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year Jan Feb% ofYear3.99

247

Washington Natural Gas Underground Storage Volume (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYearFeet) Year Jan Feb% ofYear3.99Underground

248

South Dakota Natural Gas Price Sold to Electric Power Consumers (Dollars  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

249

Maryland Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

250

U.S. Liquefied Natural Gas Imports From Yemen (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinter 2013-14 WellsDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

251

Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Dollars per  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

252

District of Columbia Natural Gas Delivered for the Account of Others  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 4623and Commercial ConsumersYear3,132

253

California Natural Gas Repressuring (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,643 10,998Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

254

Montana Dry Natural Gas Production (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30 2013 Macroeconomic team: Kay6 KentuckyYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

255

Vermont - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

256

Vermont - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

257

Vermont - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

258

Virginia - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

259

Virginia - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

260

Virginia - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Washington - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting ofBOEWashington

262

Washington - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting ofBOEWashingtonWashington

263

Washington - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 Meeting

264

West Virginia - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOE ReserveDistillateWest

265

West Virginia - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOE

266

West Virginia - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOEWest Virginia West

267

Wisconsin - Compare - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOEWest4 PaulWisconsin

268

Wisconsin - Rankings - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOEWest4

269

Wisconsin - Search - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3 MeetingBOEWest4Wisconsin

270

Word Pro - S2.lwp  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data9c :0.17.1Year3

271

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3 Finish Line Event Ohio

272

Energy Blog | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3 Finish Line Event

273

Energy C  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3 Finish Line Event

274

Energy Center of Wisconsin's Better Buildings: Better Business Wisconsin  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3 Finish LineConference |

275

Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking Peer Review Report  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3 FinishAHRIexternal

276

Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking Peer Review Report  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3

277

Energy Cost Control: How the Money Works  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen13, 2014 Year 3Department of

278

Energy Department Announces $150 Million in Tax Credits to Invest in U.S.  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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279

Buildings Energy Data Book: 2.1 Residential Sector Energy Consumption  

Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterEnergyAuthorization for(EV) Road UserNatural U.S.41 Type (1)2 Year3

280

El Paso, TX Natural Gas Pipeline Imports From Mexico (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska NuclearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Electric Power Annual  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska NuclearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

282

California Natural Gas Delivered for the Account of Others  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 566 8021Production 0 0 1 4 2 2Year3,357

283

Natural Gas Citygate Price in New York (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3

284

Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007York"Hawaii" "Sector",Foot)VentedDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3Cubic

285

Investigation of electromagnetic launcher behavior for impact fusion. Annual report, May 1, 1984-April 30, 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The second year of a 4-year program to develop an ultra-high velocity electromagnetic launcher has been completed, with significant progress made in the key technical areas. This lays firmly the cornerstone for major progress in Year 3 of the program. The launcher instrumentation and diagnostics system was developed. More than 20 launcher experiments were conducted using the SUVAC-I augmented launcher system. We tested our novel plasma generation technique using a lithium seeded propellant with encouraging success. We accelerated a 1.4 g projectile to 5.3 km/s in 1.6 m in the series. Unaugmented barrels for SUVAC-II were fabricated. The barrels were tested and commissioned with a total of 8 firings in single-stage configurations. The tests verified the basic soundness of the barrel mechanical and electrical design. Velocity up to 4.4 km/s was achieved with a 1.1 g projectile. Concurrently, we completed the fabrication, assembly and installation of SUVAC-II power supply (1 MJ) and its expanded control system. Experimentation with the multi-stage SUVAC-II launcher is expected to take place in the early part of Year 3. In the meantime, fabrication of the SUVAC-III power supply (an additional 0.4 MJ) has also been initiated.

Thio, Y.C.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterization and Modeling, Interior Salt Basins, Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project is basin modeling and petroleum system identification, comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. In the first six (6) months of Year 3, the research focus is on basin modeling and petroleum system identification and the remainder of the year the emphasis is on the comparative basin evaluation and resource assessment. No major problems have been encountered to date, and the project is on schedule. The principal objectives of the project are to develop through basin analysis and modeling the concept that petroleum systems acting in a basin can be identified through basin modeling and to demonstrate that the information and analysis resulting from characterizing and modeling of these petroleum systems in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin can be used in providing a more reliable and advanced approach for targeting stratigraphic traps and specific reservoir facies within a geologic system and in providing a refined assessment of undiscovered and underdeveloped reservoirs and associated oil and gas resources.

Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

287

Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1987--31 March 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper contains a description of the research project at Argonne National Laboratory over the past year (4/11/87--3/31/88). The major sections of this report in nuclear physics are: research at ATLAS; operation and development of TLAS: medium-energy nuclear physics and weak interactions; and theoretical nuclei physics. The major sections in atomic physics are: high-resolution laser-rf spectroscopy with beams of atoms, molecules and ions; beam-foil research, ion-beam laser interactions, and collision dynamics of heavy ions; interactions of fast atomic and molecular ions with solid and gaseous target; theoretical atomic physics; atomic physics at ATLAS; atomic physics using a synchrotron light source; and molecular structures and dynamics from coulomb-explosion measurements. (LSP)

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Canadian Seismic Agreement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ECTN network has remained stable over the past year; progress on the new concentrator software has been slow. Major developments have taken place in the Ottawa Data Laboratory including the installation of a new VAX system and further development of the Seismic Analysis Monitor software. A new initiative has been the development of hardware and software for the Sudbury Local Telemetered Network, which can be considered a prototype for a smart outstation. The performance of the ECTN over the past year is described along with a summary of eastern Canadian seismicity during the reporting period and a list of EPB research publications on eastern Canadian seismicity during the past year. 4 figures, 3 tables.

Basham, P.W.; Lyons, J.A.; Drysdale, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Andersen, F.; Hayman, R.B.; Wetmiller, R.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Science and Technology Review March 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Honoring a Legacy of Service to the Nation - The nation pays tribute to George Miller, who retired in December 2011 as the Laboratory's tenth director; (2) Life-Extension Programs Encompass All Our Expertise - Commentary by Bruce T. Goodwin; (3) Extending the Life of an Aging Weapon - Stockpile stewards have begun work on a multiyear effort to extend the service life of the aging W78 warhead by 30 years; (4) Materials by Design - Material microstructures go three-dimensional with improved additive manufacturing techniques developed at Livermore; (5) Friendly Microbes Power Energy-Producing Devices - Livermore researchers are demonstrating how electrogenic bacteria and microbial fuel cell technologies can produce clean, renewable energy and purify water; and (6) Chemical Sensor Is All Wires, No Batteries - Livermore's 'batteryless' nanowire sensor could benefit applications in diverse fields such as homeland security and medicine.

Nikolic, R J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

An analysis of progress in breeding Sclerotinia blight resistant runner-type peanut  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/L) 23-Aug (2. 3L/ha) 23-Aug (2. 3L/ha) 1992 metplacNpr 8-Jul (1. 3L/ha) 8-Jul (1. 3L/ha) 8-Jul (1. 3L/ha) chlprpfhalonll 11-Aug (1 . 8L/ha) 2DAug (1. 8L/ha) 4-Sep (1. 8L/ha) 20-Sep (1. 8L/ha) 5-Oct (1. 8L/ha) 24-Oct (1. 8L/ha) bentazone 11-Aug.../L) 1993 metolachlor (2. 3L/ha) bentazone (22g/L) chlorothalonil (1. 8L/ha) 8-July 14-July 19-Aug. 6-Sept, 21-Sept, 5-Oct. 38 Table A3 Flagging dates among populations for 1991 and 1992 Year 5 population Dates flagged 1991 Backcross to mnner...

Goldman, Jason James

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Summary of Research through Phase II/Year 2 of Initially Approved 3 Phase/3 Year Project - Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final scientific/technical report covers the first 2 years (Phases I and II of an originally planned 3 Year/3 Phase program). The project was focused on evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin. The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs was the major focus of our efforts in Phases I and II of the project. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault-related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in these 2 studied intervals (based upon fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. In the Niagaran (Silurian), there is a general trend of increasing dolomitization shelfward, with limestone predominant in more basinward positions. A major finding is that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, are directly related to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites which increases the predictability of reservoir quality in these units. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that the results should be exportable throughout the basin. Much of the data synthesis and modeling for the project was scheduled to be part of Year 3/Phase III, but the discontinuation of funding after Year 2 precluded those efforts. Therefore, the results presented in this document are not final, and in many cases represent a report of 'progress to date' as numerous tasks were scheduled to extend into Year 3.

G. Grammer

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

293

Letting the Sun Shine on Solar Costs: An Empirical Investigation of Photovoltaic Cost Trends in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive analysis of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) cost trends in California, which is by far the largest PV market in the United States. The findings of this work may help stakeholders to understand important trends in the California PV market, and policymakers to design more effective solar incentive programs--a particularly important objective given the recent announcement from the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) to establish an 11-year, $3.2 billion incentive program for customer-sited solar. The study statistically analyzes the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems funded by the state's two largest solar rebate programs, overseen by the California Energy Commission (CEC) [operating since 1998] and the CPUC [operating since 2001].

Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Cappers, P.; Margolis, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

A Collaborative Proposal: Simulating and Understanding Abrupt Climate-Ecosystem Changes During Holocene with NCAR-CCSM3.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made significant progress in our proposed work in the last 4 years (3 years plus 1 year of no cost extension). In anticipation of the next phase of study, we have spent time on the abrupt changes since the last glacial maximum. First, we have performed further model-data comparison based on our baseline TRACE-21 simulation and made important progress towards the understanding of several major climate transitions. Second, we have made a significant effort in processing the model output of TRACE-21 and have put this output on a website for access by the community. Third, we have completed many additional sensitivity experiments. In addition, we have organized synthesis workshops to facilitate and promote transient model-data comparison for the international community. Finally, we have identified new areas of interest for Holocene climate changes.

Zhengyu Liu, Bette Otto-Bliesner

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Technical Report (Final): Development of Solid State Reagents for Preparing Radiolabeled Imaging Agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research was on the development of new, rapid, and efficient synthetic methods for incorporating short-lived radionuclides into agents of use in measuring dynamic processes. The initial project period (Year 1) was focused on the preparation of stable, solid state precursors that could be used to efficiently incorporate short-lived radioisotopes into small molecules of use in biological applications (environmental, plant, and animal). The investigation included development and evaluation of new methods for preparing carbon-carbon and carbon-halogen bonds for use in constructing the substrates to be radiolabeled. The second phase (Year 2) was focused on developing isotope incorporation techniques using the stable, boronated polymeric precursors. The final phase (Year 3), was focused on the preparation of specific radiolabeled agents and evaluation of their biodistribution using micro-PET and micro-SPECT. In addition, we began the development of a new series of polymeric borane reagents based on polyethylene glycol backbones.

Kabalka, George W

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the second quarterly progress report for Year-4 of the ACTS Project. It includes a review of progress made in: (1) Flow Loop construction and development and (2) research tasks during the period of time between October 1, 2002 and December 30, 2002. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks. (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility Task 3: Addition of a Cuttings Injection/Separation System, Task 4: Addition of a Pipe Rotation System. (b) New research project (Task 9b): ''Development of a Foam Generator/Viscometer for Elevated Pressure and Elevated Temperature (EPET) Conditions''. (d) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (e) Research on three instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), Foam texture while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), and Viscosity of Foam under EPET (Task 9b). (f) New Research project (Task 13): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions''. (g) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (h) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members.

Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

297

U.S. Council for Energy Awareness 1992-1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report of the US Council for Energy Awareness covers the following main topics. (1) Electricity and Economic growth: growth of these has been roughly parallel. New electric generating capacity will be needed if the US is to sustain economic growth. All resources - coal, oil, natural gas, renewables, energy efficiency, and nuclear energy - have a role to play. (2) Nuclear Energy and the Environment: Nuclear energy is one of the cleanest sources of electric power. (3) Nuclear Power and Energy Independence: Nuclear energy is partly responsible for the dramatic reduction in oil use by electric utilities over the past 20 years. (4) Nuclear Energy: Insurance for the future: As US utilities plan to meet the growing need for electric power, they face major uncertainties (increased competion; the extent that demand-side management and efficiency can reduce need; future price and supply of natural gas; impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments; possibility of increased fossil fuel restrictions) Nuclear energy represents prudent, strategic planning against these uncertainties.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Creation and destruction of C{sub 60} and other fullerene solids. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1990 announcement of the Huffman-Kratschmer fullerene-production technique set off a world-wide explosion of research into the properties and potential applications of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70}. In the last five years, 4,000+ fullerene articles have appeared in the scientific literature dealing with these fascinating molecules and their condensed phases. They possess a complex chemistry reminiscent of the alkenes, and this has led to the syntheses of numerous new compounds and fullerene-based materials, with suggested applications ranging from medicine to photo-conducting polymers to rocket fuel. The work summarized in this report focused on the creation and destruction of fullerene-based materials, for the purpose of producing new materials of interest. This three year project was supported by a grant from the Advanced Energy Projects Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG03-93ER12133). Following are outlines of the work completed in each of the three years, a section devoted to the professional and educational development of those involved, a brief section on the outlook for fullerene-based materials, and an appendix listing the publications resulting from this project.

Huffman, D.R.

1996-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

299

US DOE-AECL cooperative program for development of high-level radioactive waste container fabrication, closure, and inspection techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) plan to initiate a cooperative research program on development of manufacturing processes for high-level radioactive waste containers. This joint program will benefit both countries in the development of processes for the fabrication, final closure in a hot-cell, and certification of the containers. Program activity objectives can be summarized as follows: to support the selection of suitable container fabrication, final closure, and inspection techniques for the candidate materials and container designs that are under development or are being considered in the US and Canadian repository programs; and to investigate these techniques for alternate materials and/or container designs, to be determined in future optimization studies relating to long-term performance of the waste packages. The program participants will carry out this work in a conditional phased approach, and the scope of work for subsequent years will evolve subject to developments in earlier years. The overall term of this cooperative program is planned to run roughly three years. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Russell, E.W.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Embolization of Collateral Vessels Using Mechanically Detachable Coils in Young Children with Congenital Heart Disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of embolizing collateral vessels using mechanically detachable coils (MDCs) in children aged 3 years or younger with congenital heart disease. The subjects were 8 children with congenital heart disease featuring collateral vessels (age 18 days-3 years): 3 with a single ventricle, 2 with the tetralogy of Fallot, 2 with pulmonary atresia, and 1 with a ventricular septal defect. The embolized vessels were the major aortopulmonary collateral artery (MAPCA) in 5 patients, the persistent left superior vena cava in 2, and the coronary arteriovenous fistula in 1. A 4 or a 5 F catheter was used as the guiding device, and embolization was performed using MDCs and other conventional coils introduced through the microcatheter. One patient had growth of new MAPCAs after embolization, and these MAPCAs were also embolized with MDCs. Thus, a total of 9 embolization procedures were performed in 8 patients. Complete occlusion of the collateral vessels was achieved in 8 of 9 procedures (89%). Seven of 8 patients (88%) had uneventful courses after embolization, and MDC procedures appeared to play important roles in avoiding coil migration and achievement of safe coil embolization. One patient who underwent MAPCA embolization showed no improvement in heart function and died 2 months and 19 days later. Embolization of collateral vessels using MDCs in young children with congenital heart disease can be an effective procedure and a valuable adjunct to surgical management.

Sato, Y.; Ogino, H.; Hara, M.; Satake, M.; Oshima, H.; Banno, T. [Nagoya City University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Nagoya) (Japan); Mizuno, K. [Nagoya City University Medical School, Department of Pediatrics (Nagoya) (Japan); Mishima, A. [Nagoya City University Medical School, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery (Nagoya) (Japan); Shibamoto, Y. [Nagoya City University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Nagoya) (Japan)

2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "year-3 year-4 year-5" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Three-dimensional Analytical Description of Magnetised Winds from Oblique Pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rotating neutron stars, or pulsars, are plausibly the source of power behind many astrophysical systems, such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. In the past several years, 3D numerical simulations made it possible to compute pulsar spindown luminosity from first principles and revealed that oblique pulsar winds are more powerful than aligned ones. However, what causes this enhanced power output of oblique pulsars is not understood. In this work, using time-dependent 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and force-free simulations, we show that, contrary to the standard paradigm, the open magnetic flux, which carries the energy away from the pulsar, is laterally non-uniform. We argue that this non-uniformity is the primary reason for the increased luminosity of oblique pulsars. To demonstrate this, we construct simple analytic descriptions of aligned and orthogonal pulsar winds and combine them to obtain an accurate 3D description of the pulsar wind for any obliquity. Our appro...

Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Benefit/cost framework for evaluating modular energy storage : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work documented in this report represents another step in the ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study uses updated cost and performance information for modular energy storage (MES) developed for this study to evaluate four prospective value propositions for MES. The four potentially attractive value propositions are defined by a combination of well-known benefits that are associated with electricity generation, delivery, and use. The value propositions evaluated are: (1) transportable MES for electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment upgrade deferral and for improving local power quality, each in alternating years, (2) improving local power quality only, in all years, (3) electric utility T&D deferral in year 1, followed by electricity price arbitrage in following years; plus a generation capacity credit in all years, and (4) electric utility end-user cost management during times when peak and critical peak pricing prevail.

Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Inc., Menlo Park, CA)

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Reports.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest appears to be at an all-time high for riparian conservation programs in Gilliam County. With the recently added Herbaceous Buffer and the already established CREP program interest is booming. However, more and more people are turning towards the herbaceous buffer because of expense. The riparian forest buffer is becoming too expensive. Even with the excellent cost share and incentives landowners are having trouble with Farm Service Agency's payment limitation. Because of this payment limitation landowners are not receiving their full rental and incentive payments, usually in year one. This has cooled the installation of riparian forest buffers and peaked interest in the CP-29 (Herbaceous Buffer for Wildlife). Either way, riparian lands are being enhanced and water quality is being improved. Year three should be very similar to the accomplishments of year 2. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 3. I am currently working on three projects that are all over 2.5 miles long on each side and total anywhere from 60 to 250 acres in size. Along with these three projects there at least seven small projects being proposed. Four of those projects are riparian forest buffers and the remaining are herbaceous buffers.

Coiner, Josh (Gilliam Soil and Water Conservation District, Condon, OR)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

None

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Large-scale solar cycle features of solar photospheric magnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is well accepted that the solar cycle originates from a magnetohydrodynamics dynamo deep inside the Sun. Many dynamo models have long been proposed based on a lot of observational constraints. In this paper, using 342 NSO/Kitt Peak solar synoptic charts we study the solar cycle phases in different solar latitudinal zones to set further constraints. Our results can be summarized as follows. (1) The variability of solar polar regions' area has a correlation with total unsigned magnetic flux in advance of 5 years. (2) The high-latitude region mainly appears unipolar in the whole solar cycle and its flux peak time lags sunspot cycle for 3 years. (3) For the activity belt, it is not surprised that its phase be the same as sunspot's. (4) The flux peak time of the low-latitude region shifts forward with an average gradient of 32.2 $day/deg$. These typical characteristics may provide some hints for constructing an actual solar dynamo.

W. B. Song

2007-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC): Panel 7 report on Inertial Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The charge to FEAC Panel 7 on inertial fusion energy (IFE) is encompassed in the four articles of correspondence. To briefly summarize, the scope of the panel`s review and analysis adhered to the following guidelines. (1) Consistent with previous recommendations by the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) panel on inertial fusion, the principal focus of FEAC Panel 7`s review and planning activities for next-generation experimental facilities in IFE was limited to heavy ions. (2) The panel considered the three budget cases: $5M, $10M, and $15M annual funding at constant level-of-effort (FY92 dollars), with a time horizon of about five years. (3) While limiting the analysis of next-generation experimental facilities to heavy ions, the panel assessed both the induction and rf linac approaches, and factored European plans into its considerations as well. (4) Finally, the panel identified high-priority areas in system studies and supporting IFE technologies, taking into account how IFE can benefit from related activities funded by the Office of Fusion Energy and by Defense Programs. This report presents the technical assessment, findings, and recommendations on inertial fusion energy prepared by FEAC Panel 7.

Davidson, R.; Ripin, B.; Abdou, M.; Baldwin, D.E.; Commisso, R.; Dean, S.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.; Lee, E.; Lindl, J.; McCrory, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Final Scientific Report (FSR)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Flambeau River Papers â??Manufacturing Conversion for Energy Efficiencyâ? Project has identified the following goals and objectives: 1. A low pressure accumulator tank will be installed to capture low pressure gases for reuse. The estimated cost is $2.1 million with an energy savings of $500,000 annually or enough natural gas savings to heat 590 average Wisconsin homes. 2. Replace the steam turbine and upgrade Paper Machine #3, the largest of Flambeau River Papers machines, at a cost of $6.265 million. The result will save enough natural gas to heat 141 average homes, or about $1.2-million each year. 3. Install a new cyclonic and cell fracturing technology dryer to reduce moisture in both sludge and biomass wastes. The estimated cost of this task is $1.5-million with an annual energy savings of $700,000. It will also eliminate all coal burning at Flambeau River Papers (7,200 tons of coal annually).

Bill Granzin

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

308

Digging for Treasure - Unique Fate and Transport Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1970, scientists at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now called the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST), implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test for stainless steels in soil environments. This study had historic significance since the NBS 1957 landmark corrosion textbook compiled by Romanoff did not include stainless steels, and this 1970 research set forth to complete the missing body of knowledge. To conduct the test, NIST scientists buried 6,324 coupons from stainless steel types, specialty alloys, composite configurations, multiple material forms, and treatment conditions at six distinctive soil-type sites throughout the country. Between 1971 and 1980, four sets of coupons were removed from the six sites to establish 1-year, 2-year, 4-year, and 8- year corrosion rates data sets for different soil environments. The fifth and last set of coupons (approximately 200 at each site) remains undisturbed after 32-years, providing a virtual buried treasure of material and subsurface scientific data. These buried coupons and the surrounding soils represent an analog to the condition of buried waste and containers. Heretofore, the samples were simply pulled from the soil, measured for mass loss and the corrosion rate determined while the subsurface/fate and transport information was not considered nor gathered. Funded through an Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) proposal, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), is chartered to restart this corrosion test and concurrently capture the available subsurface/fate and transport information. Since the work of retrieving the buried metal coupons is still in the planning stage, this paper outlines the interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and defines the benefits of this research to long-term stewardship, subsurface science, and infrastructure protection programs.

Larry Zirker; M. K. Adler-Flitton; G. A. Beitel

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Digging for Treasure - Unique Fate and Transport Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1970, scientists at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), now called the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST), implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test for stainless steels in soil environments. This study had historic significance since the NBS 1957 landmark corrosion textbook compiled by Romanoff did not include stainless steels, and this 1970 research set forth to complete the missing body of knowledge. To conduct the test, NIST scientists buried 6,324 coupons from stainless steel types, specialty alloys, composite configurations, multiple material forms, and treatment conditions at six distinctive soil-type sites throughout the country. Between 1971 and 1980, four sets of coupons were removed from six sites to establish 1-year, 2-year, 4-year, and 8-year corrosion rates data sets for different soil environments. The fifth and last set of coupons (approximately 200 at each site) remains undisturbed after 32-years, providing a virtual buried treasure of material and subsurface scientific data. These buried coupons and the surrounding soils represent an analog to the condition of buried waste and containers. Heretofore, the samples were simply pulled from the soil, measured for mass loss and the corrosion rate determined while the subsurface/fate and transport information was not considered nor gathered. Funded through an Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) proposal, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), is chartered to restart this corrosion test and concurrently capture the available subsurface/fate and transport information. Since the work of retrieving the buried metal coupons is still in the planning stage, this paper outlines the interdisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and defines the benefits of this research to long-term stewardship, subsurface science, and infrastructure protection programs.

Zirker, L.R.; Adler-Flitton, M.K.; Beitel, G.A.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

310

SALTSTONE 4QCY11 TCLP RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. In the fourth quarter of the 2011 calendar year (4QCY11), Tank 50H accepted transfers of approximately 10 kgal from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), approximately 4 kgal from 211H, approximately 573 kgal from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT), and approximately 5 kgal from other sources. The Saltstone Grout Sampling plan provides the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with the chemical and physical characterization strategy for the salt solution which is to be disposed of in the Z-Area Solid Waste Landfill (SWLF). During operation, samples were collected from Tank 50H and grout samples prepared to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout to meet the requirements of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24(b) and R.61-79.268.48(a). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained Oct. 12, 2011 during 4QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) 2 and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the UHCs benzene, phenols and total and amenable cyanide.

Bannochie, C.

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

Sackinger, W. M.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Environmental data and analyses for the proposed management of spent nuclear fuel on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE needs to continue the safe and efficient management of SNF on ORR, based on the requirement for future SNF storage capacity and implementation of the ROD for the PEIS. DOE is proposing to implement the ROD through proper management of SNF on ORR, including the possible construction and operation of a dry cask storage facility. This report describes the potentially affected environment and analyzes impacts on various resources due to the proposed action. The information provided in this report is intended to support the Environmental Assessment being prepared for the proposed activities. Construction of the dry cask storage facility would result in minimal or no impacts on groundwater, surface water, and ecological resources. Contaminated soils excavated during construction would result in negligible risk to human health and to biota. Except for noise from trucks and equipment, operation of the dry cask storage facility would not be expected to have any impact on vegetation, wildlife, or rare plants or animals. Noise impacts would be minimal. Operation exposures to the average SNF storage facility worker would not exceed approximately 0.40 mSv/year (40 mrem/year). The off-site population dose within an 80-km (50-mile) radius of ORR from SNF operations would be less than 0.052 person-Sv/year (5.2 person-rem/year). Impacts from incident-free transportation on ORR would be less than 1.36 X 10{sup -4} occupational fatal cancers and 4.28 X 10{sup -6} public fatal cancers. Credible accident scenarios that would result in the greatest probable risks would cause less than one in a million cancer fatalities to workers and the public.

Socolof, M.L.; Curtis, A.H.; Blasing, T.J. [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the crude oil. A significant number of laboratory-scale tests were made to evaluate the solution gas drive potential of West Sak (AK) viscous oil. The West Sak sample has a low acid number, low asphaltene content, and does not appear foamy under laboratory conditions. Tests show primary recovery of about 22% of the original oil in place under a variety of conditions. The acid number of other Alaskan North Slope samples tests is greater, indicating a greater potential for recovery by heavy-oil solution gas drive. Effective cold production leads to reservoir pressure depletion that eases the implementation of thermal recovery processes. When viewed from a reservoir perspective, thermal recovery is the enhanced recovery method of choice for viscous and heavy oils because of the significant viscosity reduction that accompanies the heating of oil. One significant issue accompanying thermal recovery in cold environments is wellbore heat losses. Initial work on thermal recovery found that a technology base for delivering steam, other hot fluids, and electrical heat through cold subsurface environments, such as permafrost, was in place. No commercially available technologies are available, however. Nevertheless, the enabling technology of superinsulated wells appears to be realized. Thermal subtasks focused on a suite of enhanced recovery options tailored to various reservoir conditions. Generally, electrothermal, conventional steam-based, and thermal gravity drainage enhanced oil recovery techniques appear to be applicable to 'prime' Ugnu reservoir conditions to the extent that reservoir architecture and fluid conditions are modeled faithfully here. The extent of reservoir layering, vertical communication, and subsurface steam distribution are important factors affecting recovery. Distribution of steam throughout reservoir volume is a significant issue facing thermal recovery. Various activities addressed aspects of steam emplacement. Notably, hydraulic fracturing of horizontal steam injection wells and implementation of steam trap control that limits steam entry into hor

Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

Prognostic Impact of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With and Without Extended Surgery and Intraoperative Electrons for Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer: 16-Year Experience in a Single Institution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors associated with survival in patients after intraoperative electrons containing resective surgical rescue of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC). Methods and Materials: From January 1995 to December 2011, 60 patients with LRRC underwent extended surgery (n=38: multiorgan [43%], bone [28%], soft tissue [38%]) or nonextended (n=22) surgical resection, including a component of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) to the pelvic recurrence tumor bed. Twenty-eight (47%) of these patients also received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (range, 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 36 months (range, 2-189 months), and the 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year rates for locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) were 86%, 52%, and 44%; and 78%, 53%, 43%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, R1 resection, EBRT at the time of pelvic rerecurrence, no tumor fragmentation, and non-lymph node metastasis retained significance with regard to LRR. R1 resection and no tumor fragmentation showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. Conclusions: EBRT treatment integrated for rescue, resection radicality, and not involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Additionally, tumor fragmentation could be compensated by EBRT. Present results suggest that a significant group of patients with LRRC may benefit from EBRT treatment integrated with extended surgery and IOERT.

Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Alvarez de Sierra, Pedro [Service of General Surgery, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Gmez-Esp, Marina [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Jose [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); Institute of Research Investigation, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maran, Madrid (Spain); and others

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of MedicineWichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of MedicineWichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The mixed waste management facility. Project baseline revision 1.2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Revision 1.2 to the Project Baseline (PB) for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) is in response to DOE directives and verbal guidance to (1) Collocate the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) and MWMF into a single complex, integrate certain and overlapping functions as a cost-saving measure; (2) Meet certain fiscal year (FY) new-BA funding objectives ($15.3M in FY95) with lower and roughly balanced funding for out years; (3) Reduce Total Project Cost (TPC) for the MWMF Project; (4) Include costs for all appropriate permitting activities in the project TPC. This baseline revision also incorporates revisions in the technical baseline design for Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO). Changes in the WBS dictionary that are necessary as a result of this rebaseline, as well as minor title changes, at WBS Level 3 or above (DOE control level) are approved as a separate document. For completeness, the WBS dictionary that reflects these changes is contained in Appendix B. The PB, with revisions as described in this document, were also the basis for the FY97 Validation Process, presented to DOE and their reviewers on March 21-22, 1995. Appendix C lists information related to prior revisions to the PB. Several key changes relate to the integration of functions and sharing of facilities between the portion of the DWTF that will house the MWMF and those portions that are used by the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) Division at LLNL. This collocation has been directed by DOE as a cost-saving measure and has been implemented in a manner that maintains separate operational elements from a safety and permitting viewpoint. Appendix D provides background information on the decision and implications of collocating the two facilities.

Streit, R.D.; Throop, A.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

SALTSTONE 3QCY10 TCLP RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. In the third quarter of the 2010 calendar year (3QCY10), Tank 50H accepted transfers of approximately 76 kgal from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), approximately 7 kgal from Tank 710 - the HCanyon General Purpose Evaporator, approximately 57 kgal from the H-Canyon Super Kukla campaign, approximately 58 kgal from the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT), and approximately 6 kgal from other sources. The Saltstone Grout Sampling plan provides the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with the chemical and physical characterization strategy for the salt solution which is to be disposed of in the Z-Area Solid Waste Landfill (ISWLF). During operation, samples were collected from Tank 50H and grout samples prepared to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout to meet the requirements of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24(b) and R.61-79.268.48(a). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained July 1, 2010 during 3QCY10 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the UHCs benzene, phenols and total and amenable cyanide.

Reigel, M.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP-3y and first MINOS results  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and non-oscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m_beta); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m_2beta); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology (Sigma). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2-sigma) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses Sigma ranging from ~2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to ~0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2-sigma, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter sigma_8. We show how the partial degeneracy between Sigma and sigma_8 in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of sigma_8 pushes the upper bound of Sigma in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current Sigma and m_2beta constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Marrone; A. Melchiorri; A. Palazzo; P. Serra; J. Silk; A. Slosar

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

320

WEEE and portable batteries in residual household waste: Quantification and characterisation of misplaced waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: We analyse 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 Danish households. We quantify and characterise misplaced WEEE and portable batteries. We compare misplaced WEEE and batteries to collection through dedicated schemes. Characterisation showed that primarily small WEEE and light sources are misplaced. Significant amounts of misplaced batteries were discarded as built-in WEEE. - Abstract: A total of 26.1 Mg of residual waste from 3129 households in 12 Danish municipalities was analysed and revealed that 89.6 kg of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), 11 kg of batteries, 2.2 kg of toners and 16 kg of cables had been wrongfully discarded. This corresponds to a Danish household discarding 29 g of WEEE (7 items per year), 4 g of batteries (9 batteries per year), 1 g of toners and 7 g of unidentifiable cables on average per week, constituting 0.34% (w/w), 0.04% (w/w), 0.01% (w/w) and 0.09% (w/w), respectively, of residual waste. The study also found that misplaced WEEE and batteries in the residual waste constituted 16% and 39%, respectively, of what is being collected properly through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. This shows that a large amount of batteries are being discarded with the residual waste, whereas WEEE seems to be collected relatively successfully through the dedicated special waste collection schemes. Characterisation of the misplaced batteries showed that 20% (w/w) of the discarded batteries were discarded as part of WEEE (built-in). Primarily alkaline batteries, carbon zinc batteries and alkaline button cell batteries were found to be discarded with the residual household waste. Characterisation of WEEE showed that primarily small WEEE (WEEE directive categories 2, 5a, 6, 7 and 9) and light sources (WEEE directive category 5b) were misplaced. Electric tooth brushes, watches, clocks, headphones, flashlights, bicycle lights, and cables were items most frequently found. It is recommended that these findings are taken into account when designing new or improving existing special waste collection schemes. Improving the collection of WEEE is also recommended as one way to also improve the collection of batteries due to the large fraction of batteries found as built-in. The findings in this study were comparable to other western European studies, suggesting that the recommendations made in this study could apply to other western European countries as well.

Bigum, Marianne, E-mail: mkkb@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus, E-mail: claus_petersen@econet.dk [Econet A/S, Strandboulevarden 122, 5, 2100 Kbenhavn (Denmark); Christensen, Thomas H., E-mail: thho@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Miljvej 113, 2500 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

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321

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, April 18-21, 2005  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

World demand for energy is projected to more than double by 2050 and to more than triple by the end of the century. Incremental improvements in existing energy networks will not be adequate to supply this demand in a sustainable way. Finding sufficient supplies of clean energy for the future is one of society?s most daunting challenges. Sunlight provides by far the largest of all carbon-neutral energy sources. More energy from sunlight strikes the Earth in one hour (4.3 ? 1020 J) than all the energy consumed on the planet in a year (4.1 ? 1020 J). We currently exploit this solar resource through solar electricity ? a $7.5 billion industry growing at a rate of 35?40% per annum ? and solar-derived fuel from biomass, which provides the primary energy source for over a billion people. Yet, in 2001, solar electricity provided less than 0.1% of the world's electricity, and solar fuel from modern (sustainable) biomass provided less than 1.5% of the world's energy. The huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research. Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. It is readily available, secure from geopolitical tension, and poses no threat to our environment through pollution or to our climate through greenhouse gases. This report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization identifies the key scientific challenges and research directions that will enable efficient and economic use of the solar resource to provide a significant fraction of global primary energy by the mid 21st century. The report reflects the collective output of the workshop attendees, which included 200 scientists representing academia, national laboratories, and industry in the United States and abroad, and the U.S. Department of Energy?s Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

Lewis, N. S.; Crabtree, G.; Nozik, A. J.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Alivisatos, P.; Kung, H.; Tsao, J.; Chandler, E.; Walukiewicz, W.; Spitler, M.; Ellingson, R.; Overend, R.; Mazer, J.; Gress, M.; Horwitz, J.; Ashton, C.; Herndon, B.; Shapard, L.; Nault, R. M.

2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

CM Johnson

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

323

N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Plasma Levels as a Potential Biomarker for Cardiac Damage After Radiotherapy in Patients With Left-Sided Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery has been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Cardiac biomarkers may aid in identifying patients with radiation-mediated cardiac dysfunction. We evaluated the correlation between N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and troponin (TnI) and the dose of radiation to the heart in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: NT-proBNP and TnI plasma concentrations were measured in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 55.0 years) 5 to 22 months after RT (Group I) and in 30 left-sided breast cancer patients (median age, 57.0 years) before RT as control group (Group II). Dosimetric and geometric parameters of heart and left ventricle were determined in all patients of Group I. Seventeen patients underwent complete two-dimensional echocardiography. Results: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (p = 0.03) in Group I (median, 90.0 pg/ml; range, 16.7-333.1 pg/ml) than in Group II (median, 63.2 pg/ml; range, 11.0-172.5 pg/ml). TnI levels remained below the cutoff threshold of 0.07 ng/ml in both groups. In patients with NT-proBNP values above the upper limit of 125 pg/ml, there were significant correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 3Gy}(%) (p = 0.001), the ratios D{sub 15cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.01), the ratios D{sub 15cm}{sup 3}/D{sub 50%} (Gy) (p = 0.008) for the heart and correlations between plasma levels and V{sub 2Gy} (%) (p = 0.002), the ratios D{sub 1cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub mean}(Gy) (p = 0.03), and the ratios D{sub 0.5cm{sup 3}}(Gy)/D{sub 50%}(Gy) (p = 0.05) for the ventricle. Conclusions: Patients with left-sided breast cancer show higher values of NT-pro BNP after RT when compared with non-RT-treated matched patients, increasing in correlation with high doses in small volumes of heart and ventricle. The findings of this study show that the most important parameters are not the mean doses but instead the small percentage of organ volumes (heart or ventricle) receiving high dose levels, supporting the notion that the heart behaves as a serial organ.

D'Errico, Maria P., E-mail: patderrico@libero.it [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Grimaldi, Luca [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Petruzzelli, Maria F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Gianicolo, Emilio A.L. [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Tramacere, Francesco [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Monetti, Antonio; Placella, Roberto [Department of Laboratory Medicine, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Pili, Giorgio [Department of Medical Physics, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Sicari, Rosa; Picano, Eugenio [Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiation Oncology, 'A. Perrino' Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Clinical Physiology Institute, National Research Council (IFC-CNR), Pisa-Lecce (Italy)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research project was to create and develop fuel cell membranes having high proton conductivity at high temperatures and high chemical and mechanical durability. Poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) is of interest as an alternative polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) material due to its ring-like structure which is expected to impart superior mechanical and thermal properties, and due to the fact that PCHD can readily be incorporated into a range of homopolymer and copolymer structures. PCHD can be aromatized, sulfonated, or fluorinated, allowing for tuning of key performance structure and properties. These factors include good proton transport, hydrophilicity, permeability (including fuel gas impermeability), good mechanical properties, morphology, thermal stability, crystallinity, and cost. The basic building block, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, is a hydrocarbon monomer that could be inexpensively produced on a commercial scale (pricing typical of other hydrocarbon monomers). Optimal material properties will result in novel low cost PEM membranes engineered for high conductivity at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities, as well as good performance and durability. The primary objectives of this project were: (1) To design, synthesize and characterize new non-Nafion PEM materials that conduct protons at low (25-50%) RH and at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 C; and (2) To achieve these objectives, a range of homopolymer and copolymer materials incorporating poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) will be synthesized, derivatized, and characterized. These two objectives have been achieved. Sulfonated and crosslinked PCHD homopolymer membranes exhibit proton conductivities similar to Nafion in the mid-RH range, are superior to Nafion at higher RH, but are poorer than Nafion at RH < 50%. Thus to further improve proton conductivity, particularly at low RH, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the membrane by blending and by copolymerization. Conductivity measurements at 120 C over RH ranging from 20 to 100% using the BekkTech protocol showed much improved proton conductivities. Conductivities for the best of these new membranes exceed the DOE Year 3 milestone of 100 mS/cm at 50% RH at 120 C. Further optimization of these very promising low cost membranes could be pursued in the future.

Mays, Jimmy W.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

Energy Independence for North America - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. transportation sector is almost totally dependent on liquid hydrocarbon fuels, primarily gasoline and diesel fuel from conventional oil. In 2002, the transportation sector accounted for 69 percent of the U.S. oil use; highway vehicles accounted for 54 percent of the U.S. oil use. Of the total energy consumed in the U.S., more than 40 percent came from oil. More significantly, more than half of this oil is imported and is projected by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) to increase to 68 percent by 2025 [1]. The supply and price of oil have been dictated by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 2002, OPEC accounted for 39 percent of world oil production and this is projected by the EIA to increase to 50 percent in 2025. Of the world's oil reserves, about 80 percent is owned by OPEC members. Major oil price shocks have disrupted world energy markets four times in the past 30 years (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-1991, and 1999- 2000) and with each came either a recession or slowdown in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the United States. In addition, these market upheavals have cost the U.S. approximately $7 trillion (in 1998 dollars) in total economic costs [2]. Finally, it is estimated that military expenditures for defending oil supplies in the Middle East range from $6 billion to $60 billion per year [3] and do not take into account the costs of recent military operations in Iraq (i.e., Operation Iraqi Freedom, 2003). At the outset of his administration in 2001, President George W. Bush established the National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group to develop a national energy policy to promote dependable, affordable, and environmentally sound energy for the future in order to avert potential energy crises. In the National Energy Policy report [4], the NEPD Group urges action by the President to meet five specific national goals that America must meet--''modernize conservation, modernize our energy infrastructure, increase energy supplies, accelerate the protection and improvement of the environment, and increase our nation's energy security.'' It is generally recognized that energy security can be achieved partially by reducing importation of oil from sources that are less politically stable.

Eberhardt, J.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

326

Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared animally and presents summary environmental data to (1) characterize environmental performance, (2) summarize environmental occurrences reported during the year, (3) confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and (4) highlight significant program activities. The report fulfills the requirement contained in DOE Order 231.1 A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting (DOE 2004) that an integrated annual site environmental report be prepared. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2009. This report is not intended to nor does it present the results of all environmental monitoring associated with the ORR. Data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Appendix A to this report identifies corrections to the 2008 report. Appendix B contains a glossary of technical terms that may be useful for understanding the terminology used in this document. Environmental monitoring on the ORR consists primarily of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring involves the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid and gaseous effluents at the points of release to the environment; these measurements allow the quantification and official reporting of contaminant levels, assessment of radiation and chemical exposures to the public, and demonstration of compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements. Environmental surveillance consists of direct measurements and collection and analysis of samples taken from the site and its environs exclusive of effluents; these activities provide information on contaminant concentrations in air, water, groundwater, soil, foods, biota, and other media. Environmental surveillance data support determinations regarding environmental compliance and, when combined with data from effluent monitoring, support chemical and radiation dose and exposure assessments regarding the potential effects of ORR operations, if any, on the local environment.

Bechtel Jacobs

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

ADVANCING THE SCIENCE OF NATURAL AND ENHANCED ATTENUATION FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a three-year program that addressed key scientific and technical aspects related to natural and enhanced attenuation of chlorinated organics. The results from this coordinated three-year program support a variety of technical and regulatory advancements. Scientists, regulators, engineers, end-users and stakeholders participated in the program, which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). A key result of the recent effort was the general affirmation of the approaches and guidance in the original U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) chlorinated solvent MNA protocols and directives from 1998 and 1999, respectively. The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and journal articles, as well as in the technical and regulatory documents being developed within the ITRC. Natural attenuation processes occur in all soil and groundwater systems and act, to varying degrees, on all contaminants. Thus, a decision to rely on natural attenuation processes as part of a site-remediation strategy does not depend on the occurrence of natural attenuation, but on its effectiveness in meeting site-specific remediation goals. Meeting these goals typically requires low risk, plume stability, and documentation of accepted and sustainable attenuation processes. Plume stability and sustainability depend on the balance between contaminant loading into the plume and contaminant attenuation within the plume. This ''mass balance'' is a simple and powerful idea that developed into the central framework for all aspects of the DOE MNA/EA program. The centrality of mass balance has been advocated by Chapelle and others (e.g., 1995) for several years, and the concepts proved to be critical to conceptualizing natural attenuation remedies, designing enhancements, developing characterization and monitoring strategies, and developing regulatory decision frameworks that encourage broader use of MNA/EA with clarified technical responsibility.

Looney, B; TOM O. EARLY, T; TYLER GILMORE, T; FRANCIS H. CHAPELLE, F; NORMAN H. CUTSHALL, N; JEFF ROSS, J; MARK ANKENY, M; Michael Heitkamp, M; DAVID MAJOR, D; CHARLES J. NEWELL, C; W. JODY WAUGH, W; GARY WEIN, G; Karen Vangelas, K; Karen-M Adams, K; CLAIRE H. SINK, C

2006-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

328

REACTIVE MULTIPHASE BEHAVIOR OF CO2 IN SALINE AQUIFERS BENEATH THE COLORADO PLATEAU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas reservoirs developed within the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains region are natural laboratories for studying the factors that promote long-term storage of CO{sub 2}. They also provide sites for storing additional CO{sub 2} if it can be separated from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants in this part of the U.S.A. These natural reservoirs are developed primarily in sandstones and dolomites; shales, mudstones and anhydrite form seals. In many fields, stacked reservoirs are present, indicating that the gas has migrated up through the section. There are also geologically young travertine deposits at the surface, and CO{sub 2}-charged groundwater and springs in the vicinity of known CO{sub 2} occurrences. These near-surface geological and hydrological features also provide examples of the environmental effects of leakage of CO{sub 2} from reservoirs, and justify further study. During reporting period covered here (the first quarter of Year 3 of the project, i.e. October 1-December 31, 2002), the main achievements were: (1) Planning workshop for project participants as well as other Utah researchers involved in CO{sub 2} projects (22 October, 2002), and Utah Geological Survey, Salt Lake City; (2) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, 29 October, 2002; (3) Presentation of paper to special CO{sub 2} sequestration session at the Fall Meeting of American Geophysical Union, San Francisco, 10 December, 2002; (4) Identification of dawsonite (sodium-aluminum carbonate) as a late stage mineral deposited in CO{sub 2} feedzone at Springerville, Arizona; (5) Successful matching of known physical constraints to flow beneath the Hunter cross section being used to simulate the effects of CO{sub 2} injection. In about 1000 years, most injected CO{sub 2} may be lost to the surface from the three shallowest reservoirs considered, assuming no reactive processes; and (6) Inclusion of reactive processes in numerical simulations, and indication that CO{sub 2} is sequestered for at 1000 years in form of dissolved CO{sub 2} and carbonate mineral precipitation.

R.G. Allis; J. Moore; S. White

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This CESA - LBNL Case Study examines how much economic value do new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers, and what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs. The report begins with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. The report concludes with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state/utility PV programs. The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or 'buy-down' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). Since the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government has begun to play a much more significant role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, for an initial period of two years, and in late 2006 were extended for an additional year. Unless extended further, the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2009. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions.1 We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state/utility PV programs.

Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our undertaking this project, this system was the least understood in the Appalachian basin. We have made numerous presentations, convened a workshop, and are beginning to disseminate our results in print. This project, in contrast to many if not most programs undertaken in DOE laboratories, has a major educational component wherein three Ph.D. students have been partially supported by this grant, one M.S. student partially supported, and another M.S. student fully supported by the project. These students will be well prepared for professional careers in the oil and gas industry.

Robert D. Hatcher

2004-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Extended (5-year) Outcomes of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using MammoSite Balloon Brachytherapy: Patterns of Failure, Patient Selection, and Dosimetric Correlates for Late Toxicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with balloon and catheter-based brachytherapy has gained increasing popularity in recent years and is the subject of ongoing phase III trials. Initial data suggest promising local control and cosmetic results in appropriately selected patients. Long-term data continue to evolve but are limited outside of the context of the American Society of Breast Surgeons Registry Trial. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of 157 patients completing APBI after breast-conserving surgery and axillary staging via high-dose-rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy from June 2002 to December 2007 was made. APBI was delivered with a single-lumen MammoSite balloon-based applicator to a median dose of 34 Gy in 10 fractions over a 5-day period. Tumor coverage and critical organ dosimetry were retrospectively collected on the basis of computed tomography completed for conformance and symmetry. Results: At a median follow-up time of 5.5 years (range, 0-10.0 years), the 5-year and 7-year actuarial incidences of ipsilateral breast control were 98%/98%, of nodal control 99%/98%, and of distant control 99%/99%, respectively. The crude rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 2.5% (n=4); of nodal failure, 1.9% (n=3); and of distant failure, 0.6% (n=1). The 5-year and 7-year actuarial overall survival rates were 89%/86%, with breast cancerspecific survival of 100%/99%, respectively. Good to excellent cosmetic outcomes were achieved in 93.4% of patients. Telangiectasia developed in 27% of patients, with 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year actuarial incidence of 7%/24%/33%; skin dose >100% significantly predicted for the development of telangiectasia (50% vs 14%, P<.0001). Conclusions: Long-term single-institution outcomes suggest excellent tumor control, breast cosmesis, and minimal late toxicity. Skin toxicity is a function of skin dose, which may be ameliorated with dosimetric optimization afforded by newer multicatheter brachytherapy applicators and a more rigorous skin dose constraint of ?100%.

Vargo, John A.; Verma, Vivek; Kim, Hayeon; Kalash, Ronny; Heron, Dwight E.; Johnson, Ronald; Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

SALTSTONE 3QCY11 TCLP RESULTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Saltstone waste form was prepared in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from a Tank 50H sample and Z-Area premix material for the third quarter of calendar year 2011 (3QCY11). After the prescribed 32 day cure, samples of the saltstone were collected, and the waste form was shown to meet the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24 and R.61-79.268.48(a) requirements for a nonhazardous waste form with respect to RCRA metals and underlying hazardous constituents. These analyses met all quality assurance specifications of USEPA SW-846. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. In the third quarter of the 2011 calendar year (3QCY11), Tank 50H accepted transfers of approximately 20 kgal from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), approximately 236 kgal from the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT), and approximately 25 kgal from other sources. The Saltstone Grout Sampling plan provides the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with the chemical and physical characterization strategy for the salt solution which is to be disposed of in the Z-Area Solid Waste Landfill (SWLF). During operation, samples were collected from Tank 50H and grout samples prepared to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout to meet the requirements of the South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations (SCHWMR) R.61-79.261.24(b) and R.61-79.268.48(a). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained July 7, 2011 during 3QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the UHCs benzene, phenols and total and amenable cyanide.

Bannochie, C.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Technology for Increasing Geothermal Energy Productivity. Computer Models to Characterize the Chemical Interactions of Goethermal Fluids and Injectates with Reservoir Rocks, Wells, Surface Equiptment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology and parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (geotherm.ucsd.edu), which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum production systems, stripping towers for mineral production processes, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration strategies, global warming). Although funding decreases cut short completion of several research activities, we made significant progress on these abbreviated projects.

Nancy Moller Weare

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or ''buy-down'' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). With the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government is poised to play a much more significant future role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, and--absent an extension (for which the solar industry has already begun lobbying)--will last for a period of two years: the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2008. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions. We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for administrators of state/utility PV programs.

Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

335

Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

McKimpson, Marvin G.

2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Annual Site Environmental Report: 2003  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides information about environmental programs during 2003 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Seasonal activities that span calendar years are also included. Production of an annual site environmental report (ASER) is a requirement established by the DOE for all management and operating (M&O) contractors throughout the DOE complex. This summary demonstrates the effective application of SLAC environmental management to meet the site's integrated safety management system (ISMS) goals. For normal daily activities, all SLAC managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring proper procedures are followed so that worker safety and health are protected; the environment is protected; and compliance is ensured. Throughout 2003, SLAC focused on these activities through the SLAC management systems (described in Chapter 3). These systems were utilized by SLAC to implement such ''greening of the government'' initiatives like Executive Order 13148. The management systems at SLAC are effective, supporting compliance with all relevant statutory and regulatory requirements. There were no reportable releases to the environment from SLAC operations during 2003. In addition, many improvements were continued during 2003 in waste minimization, recycling, decreasing air emission rates, stormwater drain system, groundwater restoration, and planning for a system to better manage chemical use. Program-specific details discussed are: (1) Air Quality--SLAC operates its air quality management program in compliance with established permit conditions; 2003 was the sixth consecutive year the air quality management program operated without any NOVs issued by regulators. Nevertheless, SLAC has an active program to improve its environmental performance in air quality. (2) Hazardous Waste--The Environmental Health Division of the San Mateo County Health Services Agency is the California certified unified permitting agency (CUPA) responsible for overseeing hazardous materials and waste management at SLAC. The CUPA made facility enforcement inspections of SLAC in August and September of 2003. These inspections covered SLAC's hazardous materials and waste management, business plan, California Accidental Release Prevention Program (CalARP), and tiered permitting/permit-by-rule programs. No notices of violation were issued as a result of either inspection. (3) Stormwater and Industrial Wastewater--SLAC operates its industrial and sanitary wastewater management program in compliance with established permit conditions; 2003 was the seventh consecutive year the program operated without any NOVs issued by regulators. SLAC actively pursues projects to reduce flow to the wastewater system, and through a variety of measures, has managed to keep its facility-wide wastewater discharge constant during a period in which many new connections were made to the system. SLAC continues to make the transition to a new facility-wide sanitary sewer flow-monitoring scheme, and made substantial progress towards completing the project during 2003. SLAC discharges stormwater with the potential to come into contact with industrial activities. SLAC has an extensive monitoring program in place at the eight discharge locations where the greatest potential for contact exists. During the 2002-2003 wet season, SLAC met all the requirements of its monitoring plan, with the exception of consistent sample collection within the first hour of discharge. For the eleventh consecutive year, the surface water program operated in 2003 without receiving any NOVs from program regulators. After expenditures of more than $1 million, SLAC was nearly complete with its Unauthorized Stormwater Connection Project at year-end; only 32 connections (less than 10 percent of the original total) remained to be replumed. SLAC actively pursued several other BMP-related performance improvements during the year. (4) Hazardous Materials Program--Although SLAC has been successful in meeting regulatory requirements for managing hazardous materials, it has decided to pursue a more activ

Nuckolls, H.; /SLAC

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

337

Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 465: Hydronuclear Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1, Revision 0  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 465, Hydronuclear, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 465 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 27 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) 00-23-01, Hydronuclear Experiment; (2) 00-23-02, Hydronuclear Experiment; (3) 00-23-03, Hydronuclear Experiment; (4) 06-99-01, Hydronuclear. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 465. For CAU 465, two potential release components have been identified. The subsurface release component includes potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants from the subsurface hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes. The surface release component consists of other potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants to surface soils that may have occurred during the pre- and post-test activities. This plan provides the methodology for collection of the necessary information for closing each CAS component. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation, contaminant characteristics, existing regional and site groundwater models, and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 465 using the SAFER process. For potential subsurface releases, flow and transport models will be developed to integrate existing data into a conservative description of contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone from the hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes. For the potential surface releases, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS component. It is anticipated that results of the flow and transport models, the field investigation, and implementation of the corrective action of closure in place will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 465: (1) Perform site preparation activities (e.g., utilities clearances, and radiological and visual surveys). (2) Move or remove and dispose of debris at various CASs, as required. (3) Collect environmental samples from designated target populations (e.g., stained soil) to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern as necessary to supplement existing information. (4) Evaluate and analyze existing data to develop conservative flow and transport models to simulate the potential for contaminant migration from the hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes to the water table within 1,000 years. (5) Confirm the preferred closure option (closure in place with use restrictions) is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

Patrick Matthews

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Recovery Act - Demonstration of Sodium Ion Battery for Grid Level Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aquion Energy received a $5.179 million cooperative research agreement under the Department of Energy??s Smart Grid Demonstration Program ?? Demonstration of Promising Energy Storage Technologies (Program Area 2.5) of FOA DE-FOE-0000036. The main objective of this project was to demonstrate Aquion??s low cost, grid-scale, ambient temperature sodium ion energy storage device. The centerpiece of the technology is a novel hybrid energy storage chemistry that has been proven in a laboratory environment. The objective was to translate these groundbreaking results from the small-batch, small-cell test environment to the pilot scale to enable significant numbers of multiple ampere-hour cells to be manufactured and assembled into test batteries. Aquion developed a proof of concept demonstration unit that showed similar performance and major cost improvement over existing technologies. Beyond minimizing cell and system cost, Aquion built a technology that is safe, environmentally benign and durable over many thousands of cycles as used in a variety of grid support roles. As outlined in the Program documents, the original goals of the project were to demonstrate a unit that: 1. Has a projected capital cost of less than $250/kWh at the pack level 2. A deep discharge cycle life of > 10,000 cycles 3. A volumetric energy density of >20 kWh/m3 4. Projected calendar life of over 10 years 5. A device that contains no hazardous materials and retains best in class safety characteristics. Through the course of this project Aquion developed its aqueous electrolyte electrochemical energy storage device to the point where large demonstration units (> 10 kWh) were able to function in grid-supporting functions detailed by their collaborators. Aquion??s final deliverable was an ~15 kWh system that has the ability to perform medium to long duration (> 2 hours) charge and discharge functions approaching 95% DC-DC efficiency. The system has functioned, and continues to function as predicted with no indication that it will not tolerate well beyond 10 calendar years and 10,000 cycles. It has been in continuous operation for more than 1 year with 1,000 cycles (of varying depth of discharge, including 100% depth of discharge) and no identifiable degradation to the system. The final thick electrode cell structure has shown an energy density of 25 kWh/m3 at a five hour (or greater) discharge time. The primary chemistry has remained non-toxic, containing no acids or other corrosive chemicals, and the battery units have passed numerous safety tests, including flame resistance testing. These tests have verified the claim that the device is safe to use and contains no hazardous materials. Current projections show costs at the pack level to offer best in class value and are competitive with lead-acid batteries, factoring in LCOE.

Wiley, Ted; Whitacre, Jay; Eshoo, Michael; Noland, James; Campbell, Williams; Spears, Christopher

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

A feasibility study of reactor-based deep-burn concepts.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic assessment of the General Atomics (GA) proposed Deep-Burn concept based on the Modular Helium-Cooled Reactor design (DB-MHR) has been performed. Preliminary benchmarking of deterministic physics codes was done by comparing code results to those from MONTEBURNS (MCNP-ORIGEN) calculations. Detailed fuel cycle analyses were performed in order to provide an independent evaluation of the physics and transmutation performance of the one-pass and two-pass concepts. Key performance parameters such as transuranic consumption, reactor performance, and spent fuel characteristics were analyzed. This effort has been undertaken in close collaborations with the General Atomics design team and Brookhaven National Laboratory evaluation team. The study was performed primarily for a 600 MWt reference DB-MHR design having a power density of 4.7 MW/m{sup 3}. Based on parametric and sensitivity study, it was determined that the maximum burnup (TRU consumption) can be obtained using optimum values of 200 {micro}m and 20% for the fuel kernel diameter and fuel packing fraction, respectively. These values were retained for most of the one-pass and two-pass design calculations; variation to the packing fraction was necessary for the second stage of the two-pass concept. Using a four-batch fuel management scheme for the one-pass DB-MHR core, it was possible to obtain a TRU consumption of 58% and a cycle length of 286 EFPD. By increasing the core power to 800 MWt and the power density to 6.2 MW/m{sup 3}, it was possible to increase the TRU consumption to 60%, although the cycle length decreased by {approx}64 days. The higher TRU consumption (burnup) is due to the reduction of the in-core decay of fissile Pu-241 to Am-241 relative to fission, arising from the higher power density (specific power), which made the fuel more reactivity over time. It was also found that the TRU consumption can be improved by utilizing axial fuel shuffling or by operating with lower material temperatures (colder core). Results also showed that the transmutation performance of the one-pass deep-burn concept is sensitive to the initial TRU vector, primarily because longer cooling time reduces the fissile content (Pu-241 specifically.) With a cooling time of 5 years, the TRU consumption increases to 67%, while conversely, with 20-year cooling the TRU consumption is about 58%. For the two-pass DB-MHR (TRU recycling option), a fuel packing fraction of about 30% is required in the second pass (the recycled TRU). It was found that using a heterogeneous core (homogeneous fuel element) concept, the TRU consumption is dependent on the cooling interval before the 2nd pass, again due to Pu-241 decay during the time lag between the first pass fuel discharge and the second pass fuel charge. With a cooling interval of 7 years (5 and 2 years before and after reprocessing) a TRU consumption of 55% is obtained. With an assumed ''no cooling'' interval, the TRU consumption is 63%. By using a cylindrical core to reduce neutron leakage, TRU consumption of the case with 7-year cooling interval increases to 58%. For a two-pass concept using a heterogeneous fuel element (and homogeneous core) with first and second pass volume ratio of 2:1, the TRU consumption is 62.4%. Finally, the repository loading benefits arising from the deep-burn and Inert Matrix Fuel (IMF) concepts were estimated and compared, for the same initial TRU vector. The DB-MHR concept resulted in slightly higher TRU consumption and repository loading benefit compared to the IMF concept (58.1% versus 55.1% for TRU consumption and 2.0 versus 1.6 for estimated repository loading benefit).

Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.; Yang, W. S.

2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

340

Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Residential Downlights and Undercabinet Lights in the Lane County Tour of Homes, Eugene, Oregon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In August 2008 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted a light emitting diode (LED) residential lighting demonstration project for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies, as part of DOEs Solid State Lighting (SSL) Technology Demonstration Gateway Program. Two lighting technologies, an LED replacement for downlight lamps (bulbs) and an LED undercabinet lighting fixture, were tested in the demonstration which was conducted in two homes built for the 2008 Tour of Homes in Eugene, Oregon. The homes were built by the Lane County Home Builders Association (HBA), and Future B Homes. The Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO) also participated in the demonstration project. The LED downlight product, the LR6, made by Cree LED Lighting Solutions acts as a screw-in replacement for incandescent and halogen bulbs in recessed can downlights. The second product tested is Phillips/Color Kinetics eW Profile Powercore undercabinet fixture designed to mount under kitchen cabinets to illuminate the countertop and backsplash surfaces. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light performance and electrical power usage were taken at each site before and after initially installed halogen and incandescent lamps were replaced with the LED products. Energy savings and simple paybacks were also calculated and builders who toured the homes were surveyed for their responses to the LED products. The LED downlight product drew 12 Watts of power, cutting energy use by 82% compared to the 65W incandescent lamp and by 84% compared to the 75W halogen lamp. The LED undercabinet fixture drew 10 watts, cutting energy use by 83% to 90% compared to the halogen product, which was tested at two power settings: a low power 60W setting and a high power 105W setting. The LED downlight consistently provided more light than the halogen and incandescent lamps in horizontal measurements at counter height and floor level. It also outperformed in vertical illuminance measurements taken on the walls, indicating better lateral dispersion of the light. The undercabinet fixtures light output was midway between the low and high power halogen undercabinet fixture light outputs (35.8 foot candle versus 13.4 fc and 53.4 fc) but it produced a more uniform light (max/min ratio of 7.0 versus 10.8). The color correlated temperature (CCT, the blue or yellowness) of the LED light correlated well with the halogen and incandescent lights (2675 K vs 2700 K). The color rendering of the LED downlight also correlated well at 92 CRI compared to 100 CRI for the halogen and incandescent lamps. The LED undercabinet fixture had measures of 2880 K CCT and 71 CRI compared to the 2700 K and 100 CRI scores for the halogen undercabinet fixture. Builders who toured the homes were surveyed; they gave the LED downlight high marks for brightness, said the undercabinet improved shadows and glare and said both products improved overall visibility, home appearance, and home value. Paybacks on the LED downlight ranged from 7.6 years (assuming electricity cost of 11 c/kWh) to 13.5 years (at 5C/kWh). Paybacks on the LED undercabinet fixture in a new home ranged from 4.4 years (11c/kWh electricity) to 7.6 years (5c/kWh) based on product costs of $95 per LED downlight and $140 per LED undercabinet fixture at 3 hrs per day of usage for the downlight and 2 hrs per day for the undercabinet lighting.

Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for managing the R&D program elements; (2) Developing a specific work package for the R&D activities to be performed during each government fiscal year; (3) Reporting the status and progress of the work based on committed deliverables and milestones; (4) Developing collaboration in areas of materials R&D of benefit to the NGNP with countries that are a part of the Generation IV International Forum; and (5) Ensuring that the R&D work performed in support of the materials program is in conformance with established Quality Assurance and procurement requirements. The objective of the NGNP Materials R&D Program is to provide the essential materials R&D needed to support the design and licensing of the reactor and balance of plant, excluding the hydrogen plant. The materials R&D program is being initiated prior to the design effort to ensure that materials R&D activities are initiated early enough to support the design process and support the Project Integrator. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge; thus, new materials and approaches may be required.

G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work, BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. In the Year 2 scope of work, BNL carried out a research effort to identify and assess degradation models for the long-term behavior of dominant materials that are determined to be risk significant to NPPs. Multiple models have been identified for concrete, carbon and low-alloy steel, and stainless steel. These models are documented in the Annual Report for the Year 2 Task, identified as BNL Report-82249-2009 and also designated as KAERI/TR-3757/2009. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 3 scope of work. The objective is for BNL to develop the seismic fragility capacity for a condensate storage tank with various degradation scenarios. The conservative deterministic failure margin method has been utilized for the undegraded case and has been modified to accommodate the degraded cases. A total of five seismic fragility analysis cases have been described: (1) undegraded case, (2) degraded stainless tank shell, (3) degraded anchor bolts, (4) anchorage concrete cracking, and (5)a perfect combination of the three degradation scenarios. Insights from these fragility analyses are also presented.

Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Fuel Cycle Research & Development Technical Monthly - June 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics are: (1) MPACT Campaign - (a) Management and Integration - Coordination meetings between NE and NA-22, NA-24, and NA-82 were conducted the week of June 11th. Preparations are being made for the next MPACT working group meeting, scheduled for Aug 28-30 at Idaho Falls. In addition to covering accomplishments and discussing future plans, a site tour of INL facilities (MFC, EBR, ATR, INTEC) is being organized. (2) Accounting and Control Technologies - (a) Microcalorimetry - Now operating 256-pixel array at LANL. We are in the process of tuning detector parameters to improve and optimize performance. Preliminary measurements show approximate number of live pixels is similar to that observed previously at NIST. Continuing to study contribution to systematic error from uncertainties in tabulated gamma-ray energies. (b) Electrochemical Sensor - Testing of sensors fashioned from different precursor materials continued. SEM analysis of all used sensors has been or will be performed. (c) Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer - Ongoing perturbation calculations are providing information on the fundamental systematic error limits of LSDS. In order to achieve separating the contribution of Pu and 235U to the signal, there will need to be tight controls on systematic errors. Continuing to look into a He4 detector. Research into local construction of a He4 detector continued. We have started to apply the algorithm to test the LSDS using experimental data from previous RPI measurements. PNNL also developed a plan to address the lack of statistics in the MCNP modeling of the NGSI 64 assemblies. The ISU graduate student built and tested a fission chamber to gain experience with them. (d) Fast Neutron Imaging to Quantify Nuclear Materials - The imaging detector design was modified for each pixel to have an 8 x 8 pixel array. Quotations and purchasing process for components, including the new PSD scintillator are in progress. (e) Fast Neutron Multiplicity Analysis - The team submitted two papers to the upcoming INMM meeting that are related to the fast neutron multiplicity R&D effort. Progress was made on the project's main goal of designing a concept for a prototype fast-neutron multiplicity counter. We started laying out the outline for the final report. We have been working with our ORNL collaborators to develop a new digitizer system to support our experimental campaign planned for next year. (3) MPACT Analysis Tools - (a) Multi-isotope Process Monitor - Fuel characterization framework development continued during June. A report describing the methodologies is being completed. Kenneth Dayman, from University of Texas, spent a week at PNNL wrapping up his master's research and working on a journal submission covering that work. The target journal is the IEEE transactions on Nuclear Science; submission is planned for the end of July. A proposal to instrument H-Canyon is being prepared in conjunction with SRNL and the NNSA's NGSI program. The impact of gamma-ray spectrum counting statistics on the precision of relative radioisotope component intensities as reconstructed via Principal Component Regression (PCR) continued in June with Monte Carlo simulations of a two-component (i.e., two radioisotope) system. This work generalizes earlier studies in FY12 in which Poisson counting variations of only a single spectrum component were simulated. (b) Modeling and Simulation for Analysis of Safeguards Performance (Electrochemical) - Preliminary insights into safeguards challenges and the initial design for an electrochemical plant have been written up into an INMM paper and will be presented at the INMM Summer Meeting. Work is currently adding a new visualization capability for integrating materials accountancy with physical protection. (c) Material Control including Process Monitoring (Pattern Recognition, Sensors) - Fabrication of quartz chips continued at an external foundry. Awaiting delivery of the heat exchange manifold and chip holder. (d) MPACT System Integration and Technical Support - The initial report on cost-basis metrics for nucle

Miller, Michael C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

I-NERI Quarterly Technical Report (April 1 to June 30, 2005)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this Korean/United States/laboratory/university collaboration is to develop new advanced computational methods for safety analysis codes for very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTGRs) and numerical and experimental validation of these computer codes. This study consists of five tasks for FY-03: (1) development of computational methods for the VHTGR, (2) theoretical modification of aforementioned computer codes for molecular diffusion (RELAP5/ATHENA) and modeling CO and CO2 equilibrium (MELCOR), (3) development of a state-of-the-art methodology for VHTGR neutronic analysis and calculation of accurate power distributions and decay heat deposition rates, (4) reactor cavity cooling system experiment, and (5) graphite oxidation experiment. Second quarter of Year 3: (A) Prof. NO and Kim continued Task 1. As a further plant application of GAMMA code, we conducted two analyses: IAEA GT-MHR benchmark calculation for LPCC and air ingress analysis for PMR 600MWt. The GAMMA code shows comparable peak fuel temperature trend to those of other country codes. The analysis results for air ingress show much different trend from that of previous PBR analysis: later onset of natural circulation and less significant rise in graphite temperature. (B) Prof. Park continued Task 2. We have designed new separate effect test device having same heat transfer area and different diameter and total number of U-bands of air cooling pipe. New design has smaller pressure drop in the air cooling pipe than the previous one as designed with larger diameter and less number of U-bands. With the device, additional experiments have been performed to obtain temperature distributions of the water tank, the surface and the center of cooling pipe on axis. The results will be used to optimize the design of SNU-RCCS. (C) Prof. NO continued Task 3. The experimental work of air ingress is going on without any concern: With nuclear graphite IG-110, various kinetic parameters and reaction rates for the C/CO2 reaction were measured. Then, the rates of C/CO2 reaction were compared to the ones of C/O2 reaction. The rate equation for C/CO2 has been developed. (D) INL added models to RELAP5/ATHENA to cacilate the chemical reactions in a VHTR during an air ingress accident. Limited testing of the models indicate that they are calculating a correct special distribution in gas compositions. (E) INL benchmarked NACOK natural circulation data. (F) Professor Lee et al at the University of Michigan (UM) Task 5. The funding was received from the DOE Richland Office at the end of May and the subcontract paperwork was delivered to the UM on the sixth of June. The objective of this task is to develop a state of the art neutronics model for determining power distributions and decay heat deposition rates in a VHTGR core. Our effort during the reporting period covered reactor physics analysis of coated particles and coupled nuclear-thermal-hydraulic (TH) calculations, together with initial calculations for decay heat deposition rates in the core.

Chang Oh; Prof. Hee Cheon NO; Prof. John Lee; Prof. William Martin; Prof. James Holloway; Prof. Jong Kim; Prof. Goon Cherl Park

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

346

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the absorption measurements are less susceptible to the effects of transient fluctuations in the properties of the coal combustor exhaust stream. Gas cell measurements were performed using the NO sensor with the new ECDL, and a few spectra were acquired from the coal exhaust stream. However, the laser diode in the new ECDL failed during the coal combustor tests. In Year 3, however, we obtained a new GaN laser diode for our ECDL system, installed it, and completed an extensive series of measurements in the Texas A&M coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The combustor was operated with coal and coal/biomass as fuels, with and without reburn, and with and without ammonia injection. Several different fuel equivalence ratios were investigated for each operating condition. A series of spectral simulations was performed using the HITRAN code to investigate the potential sensitivity of absorption measurements of ammonia in different spectral regions. It was concluded that ammonia absorption features in the 3000-nm spectral region would be hard to measure due to water vapor interferences. We will concentrate on the spectral region near 1530 nm, where other researchers have had some success in measuring ammonia.

Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

Aging of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is a relatively sensitive explosive used in many electroexplosive devices as well as in medicine. Of primary interest to LLNL is its use in items such as exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonators and exploding bridge foil initiators (EFI). In these devices the crystalline powder is pressed into a granular, low-density compact that can be initiated by an exploding wire or foil. The long-term stability of this pressed compact is of interest to weapon stockpile lifetime prediction studies. Key points about potential aging mechanisms can be summarized as follows: (1) There are a number of factors that can contribute to PETN instability. These include particle size, polymorphic phase transitions, crystal structure, impurities, moisture, occlusions, chemical incompatibility and biological (microorganism) action. of these factors the most important for long-term aging of high surface area powders used in detonators appears to be that of particle size growth. (2) There is a great deal of literature on the thermal degradation kinetics of PETN, unfortunately much of it with little bearing on ambient temperature aging during long-term storage. PETN is very stable with respect to thermal decomposition. Low-temperature thermal studies have not revealed evidence of chemical degradation products in archived PETN. Data extrapolated to 30 C predicts a half-life of 12 million years. (3) Moisture seems to lower the activation energy for and accelerate the decomposition of PETN. (4) External drivers affecting stability include temperature, moisture, radiation fields, and stress, while internal drivers include residual solvents, and impurities. Temperature affects kinetic processes of crystal growth such as adsorption, desorption, and diffusion rates of molecules on the surface of PETN crystals. A low-level radiation field may induce unexpected changes in the chemical makeup of PETN and its homologue impurities. Stress at high pressure points caused by crystalline surface irregularities may cause a decrease in surface area over time due to smoothing of contact points and sintering. PETN has been found to contain a number of impurities, including homologues, pentaerythryl ethers with a mixture of hydroxyl and nitrate functional groups, and organic salts, that can alter its physical and chemical properties. (5) The processes of sublimation/recrystallization and surface diffusion are important processes that can cause changes in PETN crystal morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. Sublimation feeds a process called Ostwald ripening, which involves the spontaneous growth of larger crystals from those of smaller size. This process proceeds with age regardless of storage conditions unless the crystals are treated to retard growth. The coarsening mechanisms include Ostwald ripening, 'sintering', and surface diffusion. The latter has not been experimentally observed, but a molecular modeling approach has attempted to investigate this phenomenon theoretically. (6) Threshold test fire, particle size distribution, specific surface area, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, powder compact specific surface area and density are approaches that have been used in the attempt to assess changes attributable to aging of PETN, with varying results. The biggest problem lies in the aging mechanism itself, which likely influences small changes in morphology, both internal and external, and particle size distribution changes on a scale too small to reliably monitor. Other aspects, such as subtle changes in density profiles within pressed powder compacts, may be beyond the capability of current technology to assess. Crystal growth significant enough to affect the PETN particle size distribution is expected to impact detonator performance. (7) Factors relevant to stabilizing particle size growth include crystal morphology, powder surface area and particle size distribution; crystal density and internal defects; and powder compact density and density gradients.

Foltz, M F

2009-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

349

Atmospheric Dispersion at Spatial Resolutions Below Mesoscale for university of Tennessee SimCenter at Chattanooga: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Year 1 of this project, items 1.1 and 1.2 were addressed, as well as item 2.2. The baseline parallel computational simulation tool has been refined significantly over the timeline of this project for the purpose of atmospheric dispersion and transport problems; some of these refinements are documented in Chapter 3. The addition of a concentration transport capability (item 1.2) was completed, along with validation and usage in a highly complex urban environment. Multigrid capability (item 2.2) was a primary focus of Year 1 as well, regardless of the fact that it was scheduled for Year 2. It was determined by the authors that due to the very large nature of the meshes required for atmospheric simulations at mesoscale, multigrid was a key enabling technology for the rest of the project to be successful. Therefore, it was addressed early according to the schedule laid out in the original proposal. The technology behind the multigrid capability is discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Also in Year 1, the issue of ground topography specification is addressed. For simulations of pollutant transport in a given region, a key prerequisite is the specification of the detailed ground topography. The local topography must be placed into a form suitable for generating an unstructured grid both on the topography itself and the atmospheric volume above it; this effort is documented in Chapter 6. In Year 2 of this project, items 1.3 and 2.1 were addressed. Weather data in the form of wind speeds, relative humidity, and baseline pollution levels may be input into the code in order to improve the real-world fidelity of the solutions. Of course, the computational atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) boundary condition developed in Year 1 may still be used when necessary. Cloud cover may be simulated via the levels of actinic flux allowed in photochemical reactions in the atmospheric chemistry model. The primary focus of Year 2 was the formulation of a multispecies capability with included chemical reactions (item 2.1). This proved to be a very arduous task, taking the vast majority of the time and personnel allocation for Year Two. The addition of this capability and related verification is documented in Chapter 7. A discussion of available tropospheric chemistry models is located in Chapter 8; and, a technology demonstrator for the full multispecies capability is detailed in Chapter 9. Item 2.3 has been partially addressed, in that the computation of sensitivity derivatives have been incorporated in the Tenasi code [7]. However, it has not been utilized in this project in order to compute probability distribution functions for pollutant deposition. In order to completely address the integration of weather and sensor data into the code (item 1.3) and integrate with existing sensor networks (item 3.1), a customizable interface was established. Weather data is most commonly available via a real database, and as such, support for accessing these databases is present in the solver source code. For integration functionality, a method of dynamic code customization was developed in Year 3, which is documented in Chapter 11.

Dr. David Whitfield; Dr. Daniel Hyams

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

350

IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a 3-year research program conducted by the Engines & Energy Conversion Laboratory (EECL) at Colorado State University (CSU) to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. Research activities for the overall program were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios under laboratory conditions at the EECL. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system at the EECL for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system and prepare the technology for the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Development of Low-Cost Austenitic Stainless Gas-Turbine and Diesel Engine Components with Enhanced High-Temperature Reliability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In July of 1999, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Solar Turbines, Inc. and Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar Technical Center) to evaluate commercial cast stainless steels for gas turbine engine and diesel engine exhaust component applications relative to the materials currently being used. If appropriate, the goal was to develop cast stainless steels with improved performance and reliability rather than switch to more costly cast Ni-based superalloys for upgraded performance. The gas-turbine components considered for the Mercury-50 engine were the combustor housing and end-cover, and the center-frame hot-plate, both made from commercial CF8C cast austenitic stainless steel (Fe-l9Cr-12Ni-Nb,C), which is generally limited to use at below 650 C. The advanced diesel engine components considered for truck applications (C10, C12, 3300 and 3400) were the exhaust manifold and turbocharger housing made from commercial high SiMo ductile cast iron with uses limited to 700-750 C or below. Shortly after the start of the CRADA, the turbine materials emphasis changed to wrought 347H stainless steel (hot-plate) and after some initial baseline tensile and creep testing, it was confirmed that this material was typical of those comprising the abundant database; and by 2000, the emphasis of the CRADA was primarily on diesel engine materials. For the diesel applications, commercial SiMo cast iron and standard cast CN12 austenitic stainless steel (Fe-25Cr-13Ni-Nb,C,N,S) baseline materials were obtained commercially. Tensile and creep testing from room temperature to 900 C showed the CN12 austenitic stainless steel to have far superior strength compared to SiMo cast iron above 550 C, together with outstanding oxidation resistance. However, aging at 850 C reduced room-temperature ductility of the standard CN12, and creep-rupture resistance at 850 C was less than expected, which triggered a focused laboratory-scale alloy development effort on modified cast austenitic stainless steels at ORNL. Isothermal fatigue testing at 700 C also showed that standard CN12 was far superior to SiMo cast iron, but somewhat less than the desired behavior. During the first year, 3 new modified CF8C heats and 8 new modified CN12 heats were made, based on compositional changes specifically designed to change the nature, dispersion and stability of the as-cast and high-temperature aging-induced microstructures that consisted of carbides and other precipitate phases. Screening of the alloys at room-temperature and at 850 C (tensile and creep-rupture) showed -a ten-fold increase in rupture life of the best modified CN12 relative to the baseline material, better room-temperature ductility after aging, caused by less precipitation in the as-cast material and much less aging-induced precipitation. The best new modified CF8C steel showed strength at tensile and creep-rupture strength comparable to standard CN12 steel at 850 C, due to a unique and very stable microstructure. The CRADA was scheduled to end in July 2001, but was extended twice until July 2002. Based on the very positive results on the newly developed modified CF8C and CN12 cast austenitic stainless steels, a new CRADA with Caterpillar has been set up to commercially scale-up, test and evaluate, and make trial components from the new steels.

Maziasz, P.J.; Swindeman, R.W.; Browning, P.F. (Solar Turbines, Inc.); Frary, M.E. (Caterpillar, Inc.); Pollard, M.J.; Siebenaler, C.W.; McGreevy, T.E.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Monitoring Based Commissioning: Benchmarking Analysis of 24 UC/CSU/IOU Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Buildings rarely perform as intended, resulting in energy use that is higher than anticipated. Building commissioning has emerged as a strategy for remedying this problem in non-residential buildings. Complementing traditional hardware-based energy savings strategies, commissioning is a 'soft' process of verifying performance and design intent and correcting deficiencies. Through an evaluation of a series of field projects, this report explores the efficacy of an emerging refinement of this practice, known as monitoring-based commissioning (MBCx). MBCx can also be thought of as monitoring-enhanced building operation that incorporates three components: (1) Permanent energy information systems (EIS) and diagnostic tools at the whole-building and sub-system level; (2) Retro-commissioning based on the information from these tools and savings accounting emphasizing measurement as opposed to estimation or assumptions; and (3) On-going commissioning to ensure efficient building operations and measurement-based savings accounting. MBCx is thus a measurement-based paradigm which affords improved risk-management by identifying problems and opportunities that are missed with periodic commissioning. The analysis presented in this report is based on in-depth benchmarking of a portfolio of MBCx energy savings for 24 buildings located throughout the University of California and California State University systems. In the course of the analysis, we developed a quality-control/quality-assurance process for gathering and evaluating raw data from project sites and then selected a number of metrics to use for project benchmarking and evaluation, including appropriate normalizations for weather and climate, accounting for variations in central plant performance, and consideration of differences in building types. We performed a cost-benefit analysis of the resulting dataset, and provided comparisons to projects from a larger commissioning 'Meta-analysis' database. A total of 1120 deficiency-intervention combinations were identified in the course of commissioning the projects described in this report. The most common location of deficiencies was in HVAC equipment (65% of sites), followed by air-handling and distributions systems (59%), cooling plant (29%), heating plants (24%), and terminal units (24%). The most common interventions were adjusting setpoints, modifying sequences of operations, calibration, and various mechanical fixes (each done in about two-thirds of the sites). The normalized rate of occurrence of deficiencies and corresponding interventions ranged from about 0.1/100ksf to 10/100ksf, depending on the issue. From these interventions flowed significant and highly cost-effective energy savings For the MBCx cohort, source energy savings of 22 kBTU/sf-year (10%) were achieved, with a range of 2% to 25%. Median electricity savings were 1.9 kWh/sf-year (9%), with a range of 1% to 17%. Peak electrical demand savings were 0.2 W/sf-year (4%), with a range of 3% to 11%. The aggregate commissioning cost for the 24 projects was $2.9 million. We observed a range of normalized costs from $0.37 to 1.62/sf, with a median value of $1.00/sf for buildings that implemented MBCx projects. Per the program design, monitoring costs as a percentage of total costs are significantly higher in MBCx projects (median value 40%) than typical commissioning projects included in the Meta-analysis (median value of 2% in the commissioning database). Half of the projects were in buildings containing complex and energy-intensive laboratory space, with higher associated costs. Median energy cost savings were $0.25/sf-year, for a median simple payback time of 2.5 years. Significant and cost-effective energy savings were thus obtained. The greatest absolute energy savings and shortest payback times were achieved in laboratory-type facilities. While impacts varied from project to project, on a portfolio basis we find MBCx to be a highly cost-effective means of obtaining significant program-level energy savings across a variety of building types. Energy savings are ex

Mills, Evan; Mathew, Paul

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

PG&E WaveConnect Program Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PG&E WaveConnect project was intended to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of wave power in the open ocean adjacent to PG&E's service territory. WaveConnect was conceived as a multi-stage development process leading to long-term megawatt-scale wave power production. The first-stage tasks consisted of site selection, permitting, pilot plant design, and assessment of technology and commercial readiness. The second stage would have included development of infrastructure, undersea cabling, and deployment of wave energy conversion devices (WECs). In the third stage, the most promising WEC devices would have been deployed in larger quantities and connected to the grid. This report documents the findings of Stage One. Site Selection: After studying the wave energy potential, grid interconnection and other project infrastructure along the California coast, PG&E selected two sites: one near Eureka, called the Humboldt WaveConnect (HWC) project, and another near Vandenberg Air Force Base, called the Central Coast WaveConnect project (CCWC). Permitting: FERC issued PG&E preliminary permits for HWC in 2008 and for CCWC in 2010. PG&E chose to use FERC's Pilot Project Licensing Process, which was intended to streamline licensing to allow relatively quick and easy installation, operation, and environmental testing for pilot projects. Permitting, however, proved to be complicated, time-consuming and expensive, mainly because of the uncertain impacts of WEC devices. PG&E learned that even under the PPLP the project would still require a full analysis under CEQA, including an EIR, as well as Monitoring and Adaptive Management Programs and other requirements that had significant cost and scheduling implications. A majority of efforts were expended on permitting activities. Pilot Plant Design: PG&E prepared a conceptual design for a 5-MW pilot test facility at the Humboldt site, which consisted of an off-shore deployment area where WECs of different designs and from different device manufacturers could be tested. PG&E was to provide permitting, subsea cables, and on-shore facilities necessary to connect WaveConnect to an existing PG&E substation, while the WEC manufacturers would provide, operate and maintain their devices during the test period. Technology and Commercial Readiness: PG&E issued a Request for Information to the wave power industry to assess the technical and commercial capabilities of WEC manufacturers. Sixteen manufacturers responded, representing the four best-known and most mature designs. PG&E found that WECs are early-stage devices with evolving designs and little real-world operating experience. These characteristics made environmental impacts difficult to assess, which complicated permitting efforts. It also made a megawatt-scale demonstration project difficult to support because early stage WECs are costly and have limited track records for performance and reliability. Results: PG&E withdrew its FERC DPLA for HWC in November 2010 and surrendered its preliminary permit for CCWC in May 2011, effectively discontinuing the project for the following combination of reasons: Permitting issues were much more challenging than originally anticipated. Stage One project funding of $6 million proved insufficient to complete the necessary development and permitting work. During Stage One development, PG&E determined that permitting costs would be $2 million to $5 million greater than originally budgeted. The cost of developing a five-year, 5-MW pilot project at Humboldt Bay is much greater than the $15 million to $20 million originally estimated. Even assuming that vendors provide WEC devices at no cost to the utility, which was the proposed strategy with WaveConnect, PG&E concluded that a pilot project comparable to HWC would cost approximately $47 million. If WEC devices were purchased for such a project, its total cost would be on the order of $90 million. It is unclear when or if wave power will become competitive with renewable energy alternatives. Significant additional investment in design, testing and de

Brendan P. Dooher; Edward Cheslak; Robert Booth; Doug Davy; Annette Faraglia; Ian Caliendo; Gina Morimoto; Douglas Herman

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern predation. Cormorant predation rates in excess of 30%, however, were observed for some groups of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon released downstream of Bonneville Dam. Implementation of the federal plan 'Caspian Tern Management to Reduce Predation of Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia River Estuary' was initiated in 2008 with construction by the Corps of Engineers of two alternative colony sites for Caspian terns in interior Oregon: a 1-acre island on Crump Lake in the Warner Valley and a 1-acre island on Fern Ridge Reservoir near Eugene. We deployed Caspian tern social attraction (decoys and sound systems) on these two islands and monitored for Caspian tern nesting. Caspian terns quickly colonized the Crump Lake tern island; about 430 pairs nested there, including 5 terns that had been banded at the East Sand Island colony in the Columbia River estuary, over 500 km to the northwest. No Caspian terns nested at the Fern Ridge tern island in 2008, but up to 9 Caspian terns were recorded roosting on the island after the nesting season. There were two breeding colonies of Caspian terns on the mid-Columbia River in 2008: (1) about 388 pairs nested at the historical colony on Crescent Island in the McNary Pool and (2) about 100 pairs nested at a relatively new colony site on Rock Island in the John Day Pool. Nesting success at the Crescent Island tern colony was only 0.28 young fledged per breeding pair, the lowest nesting success recorded at that colony since monitoring began in 2000, while only three fledglings were raised at the Rock Island tern colony. The diet of Crescent Island Caspian terns consisted of 68% salmonid smolts; total smolt consumption was estimated at 330,000. Since 2004, total smolt consumption by Crescent Island terns has declined by 34%, due mostly to a decline in colony size, while steelhead consumption has increased 10% during this same period. In 2008, approximately 64,000 steelhead smolts were consumed by Caspian terns nesting at Crescent Island. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the Crescent Island Caspian tern colony, the average

Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

355

Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal energy extraction is typically achieved by use of long open-hole intervals in an attempt to connect the well with the greatest possible rock mass. This presents a problem for the development of Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS), owing to the challenge of obtaining uniform stimulation throughout the open-hole interval. Fluids are often injected in only a fraction of that interval, reducing heat transfer efficiency and increasing energy cost. Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. and GeothermEx, Inc. evaluated a variety of techniques and methods that are commonly used for hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells to increase and evaluate stimulation effectiveness in EGS wells. Headed by Leen Weijers, formerly Manager of Technical Development at Pinnacle Technologies, Inc., the project ran from August 1, 2004 to July 31, 2006 in two one-year periods to address the following tasks and milestones: 1) Analyze stimulation results from the closest oil-field equivalents for EGS applications in the United States (e.g., the Barnett Shale in North Texas) (section 3 on page 8). Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. has collected fracture growth data from thousands of stimulations (section 3.1 on page 12). This data was further evaluated in the context of: a) Identifying techniques best suited to developing a stimulated EGS fracture network (section 3.2 on page 29), and b) quantifying the growth of the network under various conditions to develop a calibrated model for fracture network growth (section 3.3 on page 30). The developed model can be used to design optimized EGS fracture networks that maximize contact with the heat source and minimize short-circuiting (section 3.4 on page 38). 2) Evaluate methods used in oil field applications to improve fluid diversion and penetration and determine their applicability to EGS (section 4 on page 50). These methods include, but are not limited to: a) Stimulation strategies (propped fracturing versus water fracturing versus injecting fluid below fracturing gradients) (section 4.1 on page 50); b) zonal isolation methods (by use of perforated casing or packers) (section 4.2 on page 57); c) fracture re-orientation and fracture network growth techniques (e.g., by use of alternating high- and low-rate injections) (section 4.4 on page 74); and d) fluid diversion methods (by use of the SurgiFrac technique, the StimGun perforation technique, or stress shadowing). This project task is to be completed in the first project year, enabling the most promising techniques to be field tested and evaluated in the second project year. 3) Study the applicability of the methods listed above by utilizing several techniques (section 5 on page 75) including, but not limited to: a) Hydraulic Impedance Testing (HIT) to determine the location of open hydraulic fractures along a open-hole interval; b) pressure transient testing to determine reservoir permeability, pore pressure, and closure stress; and c) treatment well tilt mapping or microseismic mapping to evaluate fracture coverage. These techniques were reviewed for their potential application for EGS in the first project year (section 5.1 on page 75). This study also includes further analysis of any field testing that will be conducted in the Desert Peak area in Nevada for ORMAT Nevada, Inc. (section 5.2 on page 86), with the aim to close the loop to provide reliable calibrated fracture model results. Developed through its hydraulic fracture consulting business, techniques of Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. for stimulating and analyzing fracture growth have helped the oil and gas industry to improve hydraulic fracturing from both a technical and economic perspective. In addition to more than 30 years of experience in the development of geothermal energy for commercial power generation throughout the world, GeothermEx, Inc. brings to the project: 1) Detailed information about specific developed and potential EGS reservoirs, 2) experience with geothermal well design, completion, and testing practices, and 3) a direct connection to the Desert Peak EGS project.

Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

356

Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in the understanding the origin of galactic {sup 26}Al, a target radioisotope for gamma ray astronomy; the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction in turn is the trigger reaction for the transition into the Hot-CNO cycles in novae and X-ray bursts. A graduate student of mine, who has been supported part-time by this grant, completed the evaluation of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction as part of his plans to measure this reaction at TRIUMF for his Ph.D. thesis project. I also hired a part-time undergraduate student for the 2004-05 academic year to assist with the evaluations, including that of the {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reaction. Year 3 (2005-06): The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions - This year's progress was closely coupled to new results coming from our collaboration on the DRAGON spectrometer team at TRIUMF. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti and {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reactions were both measured, and significant modifications to their respective reaction rates were required. Both are required input toward predicting the respective amounts of Titanium-44 and Aluminum-26 produced in our galaxy, in supernovae, massive stars, and nova explosions. The {sup 26}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 27}Si reaction rate was successfully completed. The {sup 40}Ca({alpha},{gamma}){sup 44}Ti reaction in particular served as the Ph.D. thesis for Christian Ouellet, and therefore the evaluation of this rate fell naturally within his thesis project. Christian successfully defended his thesis in 2007 and is now working for me on the McMaster DOE-funded Nuclear Data Project. In light of the recent data from his thesis, Christian is now putting the final touches on this evaluation, and will disseminate it through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory reaction rate database.

Alan A. Chen

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

357

Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April 1999, three identical superheater test sections were installed into the Niles Unit No.1 for the purpose of testing and ranking the coal ash corrosion resistance of candidate superheater alloys. The Niles boiler burns high sulfur coal (3% to 3.5%) that has a moderate alkali content (0.2% sodium equivalents), thus the constituents necessary for coal ash corrosion are present in the ash. The test sections were controlled to operate with an average surface metal temperature from approximately 1060 F to 1210 F which was within the temperature range over which coal ash corrosion occurs. Thus, this combination of aggressive environment and high temperature was appropriate for testing the performance of candidate corrosion-resistant tube materials. Analyses of the deposit and scale confirmed that aggressive alkali sulfate constituents were present at the metal surface and active in tube metal wastage. The test sections were constructed so that the response of twelve different candidate tube and/or coating materials could be studied. The plan was to remove and evaluate one of the three test sections at time intervals of 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. This would permit an assessment of performance of the candidate materials as a function of time. Test Section A was removed in November 2001 after about 24 months of service at the desired steam temperature set point, with about 15.5 months of exposure at full temperature. A progress report, issued in October 2002, was written to document the performance of the candidate alloys in that test section. The evaluation described the condition of each tube sample after exposure. It involved a determination of the rate of wall thickness loss for these samples. In cases where there was more than one sample of a candidate material in the test section, an assessment was made of the performance of the alloy as a function of temperature. Test Sections B and C were examined during the November 2001 outage, and it was decided that, due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also is intended to compare and summarize the results for all three test sections. The analysis of T

D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC03-99SF21902, Am. M004) Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK-B135 Research under this project addresses the barriers to long term use of nuclear-generated electricity in the United States. It was agreed that a very basic and significant change to the current method of design and regulation was needed. That is, it was believed that the cost reduction goal could not be met by fixing the current system (i.e., an evolutionary approach) and a new, more advanced approach for this project would be needed. It is believed that a completely new design and regulatory process would have to be developed--a ''clean sheet of paper'' approach. This new approach would start with risk-based methods, would establish probabilistic design criteria, and would implement defense-in-depth only when necessary (1) to meet public policy issues (e.g., use of a containment building no matter how low the probability of a large release is) and (2) to address uncertainties in probabilistic methods and equipment performance. This new approach is significantly different from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current risk-informed program for operating plants. For our new approach, risk-based methods are the primary means for assuring plant safety, whereas in the NRC's current approach, defense-in-depth remains the primary means of assuring safety. The primary accomplishments in the first year--Phase 1 were (1) the establishment of a new, highly risk-informed design and regulatory framework, (2) the establishment of the preliminary version of the new, highly risk-informed design process, (3) core damage frequency predictions showing that, based on new, lower pipe rupture probabilities, the design of the emergency core cooling system equipment can be simplified without reducing plant safety, and (4) the initial development of methods for including uncertainties in a new integrated structures-systems design model. Under the new regulatory framework, options for the use of ''design basis accidents'' were evaluated. It is expected that design basis accidents would be an inherent part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment for the plant and their evaluation would be probabilistic. Other first year accomplishments include (1) the conversion of an NRC database for cross-referencing NRC criteria and industry codes and standards to Microsoft 2000 software, (2) an assessment of the NRC's hearing process which concluded that the normal cross-examination during public hearings is not actually required by the U.S. Administrative Procedures Act, (3) the identification and listing of reliability data sources, and (4) interfacing with other industry groups (e.g., NEI and IAEA) and NRC at workshops for risk-informing regulations. The major accomplishments during the second year consisted of (1) issuance of the final report for Subtask 1.1, ''Identify Current Applicable Regulatory Requirements [and Industry Standards],'' (2) issuance of the final report for Subtask 1.2,'' Identify Structures, Systems, and Components and Their Associate d Costs for a Typical Plant,'' (3) extension of the new, highly risk-informed design and regulatory framework to non-light-water-reactor technology, (4) completion of more detailed thermal-hydraulic and probabilistic analyses of advanced conceptual reactor system/component designs, (6) initial evaluation and recommendations for improvement of the NRC design review process, and (7) initial development of the software format, procedures and statistical routines needed to store, analyze and retrieve the available reliability data. Final reports for Subtasks 1.1 (regulatory and design criteria) and 1.2 (costs for structures, systems, and components) were prepared and issued. A final report for Subtask 1.3 (Regulatory Framework) was drafted with the aim to issue it in Phase 3 (Year 3). One technical report was produced for Subtask 1.4 (methods development) and two technical reports were produced for Subtask 1.6 (sample problem analysis). An interim report on the NRC design review process (Subtask 1.7) was prepared and issued. Finally, a report on Subtask 2.2 (database weaknesses) addressed the i

Stanley E. Ritterbusch, et. al.

2003-01-29T23:59:59.000Z