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Sample records for year coal natural

  1. Coal cars - the first three hundred years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Robert Karig III

    2007-12-15

    This is the comprehensive study of the freight cars that conveyed coal across broad swaths of land that had been impassible before the invention of the steam engine. This volume traces the history and evolution of coal cars from their earliest use in England to the construction of major railways for the purpose of coal hauling and the end of the steam era on American railroads. In addition to contextualizing coal cars in the annals of industrial history, the book features extensive design specifications and drawings as well as a complete history of the various safety and mechanical innovations employed on these freight cars. It concludes with a photographic essay illustrating the development of the coal car over its first 300 years of use. 608 photos.

  2. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to view larger. Natural gas from coal, courtesy of microbes November 20, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint The key to extracting usable energy from deep coal seams and depleted oil reservoirs ...

  3. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  4. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  5. Coal operators prepare for a prosperous new year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-01-15

    Results are given of the Coal Age 2008 annual Forecast Survey of 17 coal mining executives which reinforces that 2008 could be a very good year. Coal operators are planning to invest in new equipment, development and new coal mine start-ups, based on a number of demand- and supply-side fundamentals. 71% of those surveyed thought coal production in 2008 would increase from 2007 levels and US exports are expected to climb due to the weak dollar. If the tax credit on synfuels expires on 31 December 2007 production of coal synfuel will likely cease. Asked about expensive planned purchases, companies answers ranged from $80,000 for an underground scoop to $500 m for a new mine installation. However, most producers admit they will not be able to operate at full capacity. 7 figs.

  6. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  7. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper estimates the quantity of hydrogen that could be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power by county in the United States. The study estimates that more than 72 million tonnes of hydrogen can be produced from coal, natural gas, nuclear, and hydro power per year in the country (considering only 30% of their total annual production). The United States consumed about 396 million tonnes of gasoline in 2007; therefore, the report suggests the amount of hydrogen from these sources could displace about 80% of this consumption.

  9. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  10. Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This document comprises the Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan, and is a follow-up to the `Natural Gas Strategic Plan and Program Crosscut Plans,` dated July 1995. DOE`s natural gas programs are aimed at simultaneously meeting our national energy needs, reducing oil imports, protecting our environment, and improving our economy. The Natural Gas Multi-Year Program Plan represents a Department-wide effort on expanded development and use of natural gas and defines Federal government and US industry roles in partnering to accomplish defined strategic goals. The four overarching goals of the Natural Gas Program are to: (1) foster development of advanced natural gas technologies, (2) encourage adoption of advanced natural gas technologies in new and existing markets, (3) support removal of policy impediments to natural gas use in new and existing markets, and (4) foster technologies and policies to maximize environmental benefits of natural gas use.

  11. Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology | Department of Energy Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology December 16, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative project demonstrating DryFining™ technology, a more cost-effective way to control coal-based power plant emissions while improving fuel

  12. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  13. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    Report comparing the impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal.

  14. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

  15. U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review - Energy Information

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Administration U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Introduction Coal production in the United States in 2010 increased to a level of 1,085.3 million short tons according to preliminary data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), an increase of 1.0 percent, or 10.4 million short tons above the 2009 level of 1,074.9 million short tons (Table 1). In 2010 U.S. coal consumption increased in all

  16. Reducing GHG emissions by co-utilization of coal with natural gas or biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, I.M.

    2004-07-01

    Energy reserves price and security of supply issues are discussed in the context of the prospects for coal and policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Coal is projected to remain a major source of energy, with most of the demand growth in developing countries. Currently available power-generating technologies, deploying coal with natural gas or biomass, are examined. Examples of successful, partial substitution of coal by other fuels in power stations are highlighted, including the GHG emissions reductions achieved as well as the costs where available. Among various options, hybrid gasification and parallel cofiring of coal with biomass and natural gas appear to have the greatest potential to reduce GHG emissions. Much may also be achieved by cofiring, reburning, and repowering with gas turbines. The best method differs between different power systems. Co-utilization of biomass with coal is a least-cost option to reduce GHG emissions where the fuel prices are comparable, usually due to subsidies or taxes. The role of biomass is likely to increase due to greater use of subsidies, carbon taxes, and emissions trading within the context of the Kyoto Protocol. This should provide opportunities for clean coal technology transfer and diffusion, including biomass co-utilization. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  18. A Perspective of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane on the energy security of India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, M.K.; Paul, B.

    2008-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenal rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This article focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy in the foreseeable future. It examines energy requirement perspectives for India and demands of petroleum, natural gas, and coal bed methane in the foreseeable future. It discusses the state of present day petroleum and petrochemical industries in the country and the latest advances in them to take over in the next few years. The regional pattern of consumption of primary energy sources shows that oil remains as the largest single source of primary energy in most parts of the world. However, gas dominates as the prime source in some parts of the world. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and for the country's energy security; it is necessary to adopt the latest technological advances in petroleum and petrochemical industries by supportive government policies. But such energy is very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively. Environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that energy security leading to energy independence is certainly possible and can be achieved through a planned manner.

  19. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.

  20. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  1. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been

  2. Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis Presented by B&W Technical Services, Pantex and Pro2Serve October, 2011 PDF icon Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis More Documents & Publications DOE-STD-1020-2012 DOE Standard 1020 - Natural Phenomena Hazard analysis and Design Criteria for DOE

  3. STEO November 2012 - coal supplies

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Despite drop in domestic coal production, U.S. coal exports to reach record high in 2012. While U.S. coal production is down 7 percent this year due in part to utilities switching to low-priced natural gas to generate electricity, American coal is still finding plenty of buyers in overseas markets. U.S. coal exports are expected to hit a record 125 million tons in 2012, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says in its new monthly short-term energy outlook. Coal exports are expected to

  4. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

    2012-08-07

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  5. Comparing Statewide Economic Impacts of New Generation from Wind, Coal, and Natural Gas in Arizona, Colorado, and Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tegen, S.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing concerns about energy independence, job outsourcing, and risks of global climate change, it is important for policy makers to understand all impacts from their decisions about energy resources. This paper assesses one aspect of the impacts: direct economic effects. The paper compares impacts to states from equivalent new electrical generation from wind, natural gas, and coal. Economic impacts include materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, and fuel transport, as well as project financing, property tax, and landowner revenues. We examine spending on plant construction during construction years, in addition to all other operational expenditures over a 20-year span. Initial results indicate that adding new wind power can be more economically effective than adding new gas or coal power and that a higher percentage of dollars spent on coal and gas will leave the state. For this report, we interviewed industry representatives and energy experts, in addition to consulting government documents, models, and existing literature. The methodology for this research can be adapted to other contexts for determining economic effects of new power generation in other states and regions.

  6. Study on systems based on coal and natural gas for producing dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, L.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, D.J.; Li, Y.R.; Zhu, B.; Jin, Y.

    2009-04-15

    China is a coal-dependent country and will remain so for a long time. Dimethyl ether (DME), a potential substitute for liquid fuel, is a kind of clean diesel motor fuel. The production of DME from coal is meaningful and is studied in this article. Considering the C/H ratios of coal and natural gas (NG), the cofeed (coal and NG) system (CFS), which does not contain the water gas shift process, is studied. It can reduce CO{sub 2} emission and increase the conversion rate of carbon, producing more DME. The CFS is simulated and compared with the coal-based and NG-based systems with different recycling ratios. The part of the exhaust gas that is not recycled is burned, producing electricity. On the basis of the simulation results, the thermal efficiency, economic index, and CO{sub 2} emission ratio are calculated separately. The CFS with a 100% recycling ratio has the best comprehensive evaluation index, while the energy, economy, and environment were considered at the same time.

  7. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  8. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination

  9. Sustainable Transportation Fuels from Natural Gas (H{sub 2}), Coal and Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, Gerald

    2012-12-31

    This research program is focused primarily on the conversion of coal, natural gas (i.e., methane), and biomass to liquid fuels by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), with minimum production of carbon dioxide. A complementary topic also under investigation is the development of novel processes for the production of hydrogen with very low to zero production of CO{sub 2}. This is in response to the nation?s urgent need for a secure and environmentally friendly domestic source of liquid fuels. The carbon neutrality of biomass is beneficial in meeting this goal. Several additional novel approaches to limiting carbon dioxide emissions are also being explored.

  10. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  12. Natural Gas Year-in-Review - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Production lookback 2013 Released: January 16, 2014 U.S. natural gas production increases by 1% in 2013 Average dry natural gas production grew modestly in 2013, despite a 35% year-on-year rise in prices. Production grew from 65.7 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) in 2012 to 66.5 Bcf/d in 2013, a 1% increase and the lowest annual growth since 2005. This production growth was essentially flat when compared to the 5% growth in 2012 and the 7% growth in 2011. Average wholesale (spot) prices for

  13. STEO December 2012 - coal demand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    coal demand seen below 1 billion tons in 2012 for fourth year in a row Coal consumption by U.S. power plants to generate electricity is expected to fall below 1 billion tons in 2012 for the fourth year in a row. Domestic coal consumption is on track to total 829 million tons this year. That's the lowest level since 1992, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new monthly energy forecast. Utilities and power plant operators are choosing to burn more lower-priced natural gas

  14. Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pantex Facility 10-Year Natural Phenomena Flood Hazard Analysis Presented by and October, 2011 Presentation Outline I. Introductions II. Pantex III. 10 Year Update IV. Final Results V. July 2010 Event VI. Emergency Planning VII.What's Next Pantex The Pantex Plant, located 17 miles northeast of Amarillo, Texas, in Carson County, is charged with maintaining the safety, security and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Worked performed at Pantex supports three core missions. *

  15. Smoking cessation among coal miners as predicted by baseline respiratory function and symptoms: a 5-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, R.G.; Hall, D.S.

    1985-03-01

    A prospective analysis was used to test whether respiratory impairment or the presence of respiratory symptoms predicts 5-year cigarette smoking cessation in a sample of 1,118 U.S. white, male, underground coal miners. Miners were examined in 1977 and re-examined in 1982 by NIOSH, and all miners with test abnormalities were so informed by letter. Respiratory impairment was measured by an index of airways obstruction combining the spirometric measures of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1). Bronchitis symptoms were measured by an index that combined chronic cough (3+ months/year) and chronic phlegm (3 + months/year). Among these coal miners, the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms initially was inversely associated with cigarette smoking cessation. Respiratory impairment, however, was positively associated with cigarette smoking cessation but did not reach statistical significance.

  16. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  17. SSAB/MEFOS oxy-coal system -- 3 years of industrial experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wikstroem, J.O.; Skoeld, B.E.; Kaersrud, K.

    1996-12-31

    SSAB, Swedish Steel AB, is the main steel producer in Sweden. MEFOS is a foundation for metallurgical research. The principals include 35 Nordic companies. SSAB and MEFOS have, in cooperation, developed a swirl type, coaxial, oxy-coal lance, that drastically improves the combustion of pulverized coal in the Blast Furnace tuyere and race way. The development was made through an extensive test work in a highly instrumented single tuyere on an industrial Blast Furnace. The technology has been in commercial use since early 1993, with excellent result.

  18. Coal handling, five years after PLC conversion, Centerior Energy, Avon Lake Generating Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olix, G.J.; Vollweiler, F.D.

    1997-09-01

    From 1969 until 1991, Coal conveyors, splitters, and trippers at Avon Lake had been controlled by a General Electric static logic system. During the 1991 scheduled shutdown of the plant`s largest unit (640 MWatt Unit 9), the controls were replaced with a programmable logic controller (PLC) system. The conversion went smoothly, and the system has performed flawlessly. This paper will describe the overall project as well as the control system itself.

  19. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  20. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  1. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with China's economy in its current mode of growth. Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on its current growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Broadening awareness of the environmental costs of coal mining, transport, and combustion is raising the pressure on Chinese policy makers to find alternative energy sources. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China is short of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport. Transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transport oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 mt by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets. The looming coal gap threatens to derail China's growth path, possibly undermining political, economic, and social stability. High coal prices and domestic shortages will have regional and global effects. Regarding China's role as a global manufacturing center, a domestic coal gap will increase prices and constrain growth. Within the Asia-Pacific region, China's coal gap is likely to bring about increased competition with other coal-importing countries including Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and India. As with petroleum, China may respond with a government-supported 'going-out' strategy of resource acquisition and vertical integration. Given its population and growing resource constraints, China may favor energy security, competitiveness, and local environmental protection over global climate change mitigation. The possibility of a large coal gap suggests that Chinese and international policy makers should maximize institutional and financial support to moderate demand and improve energy efficiency.

  2. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    markets. The global recession reduced demand, softened prices, and slowed investment. During the year, natural gas prices moved closer to parity with coal prices. As a...

  4. Natural Gas Market Digest (formerly Year in Review) - U.S. Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Natural Gas Reports Market Digest: Natural Gas (2013-2014) Updated: June 12, 2014 For prior report data see Natural Gas Year-in-Review archives EIA's Natural Gas Market Digest highlights the latest information and analyses on all aspects of the natural gas markets. Storage Record winter withdrawals create summer storage challenges, June 12, 2014 Natural gas storage working capacity grows 2% in 2012 - Today in Energy, July 24, 2013 High natural gas inventory last

  5. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribes CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  6. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",0,0,1.73,1.48,1.41,2.03," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","

  7. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.07,2.08,1.98,1.8,1.81,1.74,1.59,1.44,1.41,1.3,1.27,1.26,1.25,1.24,1.33,1.33,1.42,1.44,1.39,1.37,1.35,1.37,1.41,1.43 "Average heat value (Btu per

  8. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.39,3.35,3.14,3.05,2.87,2.83,2.58,2.02,2,1.88,1.73,1.8," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " "Average heat value (Btu per

  9. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.91,1.84,1.74,1.59,1.6,1.47,1.26,1.28,1.06,0.97,0.97,0.95,0.92,0.93,0.98,0.99,1.01,1.03,1.05,1.06,1.09,1.09,1.09,1.06 "Average heat value (Btu per

  10. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Delaware" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.2,3.94,4.04,3.55,3.34,3.52,2.86,3.08,2.81,2.2,1.9,1.78,2.17,1.52,1.59,1.56,1.57,1.59,1.62,1.62,1.69,1.73,1.78,1.81 "Average heat value (Btu per

  11. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)"," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ",1.44," "," "," "," ","

  12. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.47,3.55,3.59,3.47,3.39,2.97,2.56,2.56,2.31,1.92,1.76,1.76,1.72,1.57,1.59,1.65,1.73,1.74,1.79,1.78,1.77,1.82,1.86,1.85 "Average heat value (Btu per

  13. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.2,3.49,3.76,3.9,3.62,3.07,2.61,2.4,2.18,1.8,1.72,1.68,1.66,1.54,1.55,1.55,1.59,1.58,1.67,1.69,1.78,1.8,1.8,1.79 "Average heat value (Btu per

  14. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.91,3.78,3.37,2.79,2.97,3.58,3.09,2.81,1.75,1.88,2.96,3.03," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " "Average heat value (Btu per

  15. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",0,0,2.71,2.95,2.55,2.51," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "

  16. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.9,1.94,1.76,1.7,1.65,1.58,1.34,1.26,1.19,1.15,1.16,1.19,1.19,1.15,1.44,1.56,1.55,1.63,1.63,1.61,1.7,1.74,1.71,1.75 "Average heat value (Btu per

  17. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.5,2.56,2.46,2.14,2.02,1.93,1.61,1.52,1.4,1.21,1.2,1.17,1.14,1.08,1.11,1.12,1.16,1.19,1.25,1.27,1.27,1.31,1.34,1.36 "Average heat value (Btu per

  18. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.77,1.54,1.52,1.42,1.34,1.27,1.08,1.05,0.98,0.93,0.89,0.89,0.81,0.82,0.82,0.88,0.94,0.94,0.99,0.99,1.01,1.1,1.1,1.12 "Average heat value (Btu per

  19. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.77,1.83,1.75,1.51,1.43,1.41,1.23,1.19,1.12,1.03,1.01,0.98,1.05,0.98,0.95,0.98,1.02,0.99,1.02,1.02,1.02,1.18,1.23,1.24 "Average heat value (Btu per

  20. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.36,2.42,2.34,2.26,2.17,2.14,1.75,1.7,1.52,1.37,1.23,1.19,1.1,1.02,1.06,1.06,1.05,1.06,1.11,1.16,1.17,1.16,1.18,1.19 "Average heat value (Btu per

  1. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.56,2.49,2.39,2.16,2.04,2.1,1.85,1.66,1.51,1.38,1.34,1.27,1.31,1.32,1.4,1.43,1.48,1.51,1.55,1.54,1.58,1.53,1.65,1.7 "Average heat value (Btu per

  2. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",5.09,7,6.09,6.19,5.06,3.67,3.19,3.27,2.66,2.62,2.37,2.41," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," " "Average heat value (Btu per

  3. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.68,2.79,2.68,2.12,2.07,1.97,1.72,1.68,1.58,1.39,1.34,1.32,1.27,1.3,1.31,1.33,1.37,1.4,1.45,1.51,1.53,1.56,1.59,1.6 "Average heat value (Btu per

  4. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.03,1.99,1.93,1.74,1.64,1.69,1.5,1.22,1.13,1.07,1.08,1.06,1.02,1.11,1.1,1.07,1.09,1.07,1.14,1.14,1.13,1.19,1.26,1.25 "Average heat value (Btu per

  5. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.24,3.52,3.45,2.89,3.01,3.01,2.71,2.31,2.1,1.69,1.54,1.59,1.63,1.52,1.55,1.54,1.55,1.51,1.53,1.57,1.64,1.6,1.67,1.65 "Average heat value (Btu per

  6. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.9,1.85,1.73,1.59,1.53,1.51,1.33,1.11,1.01,0.93,0.92,0.9,0.96,0.92,0.93,0.92,0.93,0.95,0.98,1.1,1.24,1.34,1.34,1.35 "Average heat value (Btu per

  7. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.57,1.38,1.33,1.11,1.07,1.02,0.93,0.85,0.71,0.64,0.62,0.61,0.95,0.92,0.73,0.67,0.68,0.71,0.67,0.69,0.69,0.71,0.67,0.67 "Average heat value (Btu per

  8. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.42,1.55,1.51,1.42,1.33,0.9,0.88,0.8,0.71,0.66,0.6,0.58,0.57,0.56,0.55,0.59,0.59,0.72,0.75,0.77,0.75,0.75,0.75,0.75 "Average heat value (Btu per

  9. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.64,2.57,2.58,2.44,2.22,2.2,1.88,1.73,1.54,1.36,1.42,1.34,1.26,1.26,1.29,1.3,1.39,1.37,1.31,1.43,1.47,1.46,1.41,1.49 "Average heat value (Btu per

  10. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",4.21,4.07,3.55,3.8,3.66,3.53,2.9,2.56,2.44,2.02,1.7,1.8,1.67,1.48,1.52,1.61,1.63,1.61,1.59,1.52,1.61,1.69,1.74,1.78 "Average heat value (Btu per

  11. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.87,4.05,4.18,4.16,4.01,3.33,2.89,2.73,2.18,2.05,1.8,1.87,2.27,1.39,1.45,1.59,1.76,1.75,1.78,1.82,1.77,1.73,1.78,1.8 "Average heat value (Btu per

  12. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.31,2.18,2.05,2.06,1.9,1.99,1.79,1.56,1.51,1.48,1.43,1.53,1.47,1.38,1.33,1.31,1.34,1.43,1.42,1.41,1.37,1.32,1.38,1.32 "Average heat value (Btu per

  13. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.13,3.26,3.32,3.05,2.73,2.57,2.41,2.4,2.13,1.76,1.59,1.55,1.42,1.49,1.45,1.43,1.42,1.43,1.41,1.45,1.5,1.49,1.59,1.61 "Average heat value (Btu per

  14. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.8,3.77,3.63,3.52,3.59,3.26,2.74,2.69,2.4,2,1.78,1.76,1.59,1.43,1.44,1.44,1.43,1.48,1.63,1.68,1.7,1.73,1.78,1.78 "Average heat value (Btu per

  15. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.55,1.49,1.34,1.26,1.14,1.1,0.98,0.88,0.82,0.77,0.74,0.74,0.74,0.72,0.73,0.76,0.78,0.74,0.73,0.7,0.71,0.72,0.71,0.69 "Average heat value (Btu per

  16. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.28,2.48,2.48,2.24,2.39,2.05,1.71,1.7,1.54,1.33,1.21,1.23,1.31,1.46,1.36,1.36,1.32,1.34,1.42,1.44,1.41,1.44,1.48,1.52 "Average heat value (Btu per

  17. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.03,2,1.82,1.72,1.65,1.35,1.19,1.12,1.04,1.04,0.99,0.96,0.91,0.94,0.91,0.91,0.92,0.98,0.99,1.02,1.24,1.23,1.32,1.4 "Average heat value (Btu per

  18. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.96,1.89,1.79,1.67,1.76,1.45,1.38,1.3,1.28,1.18,1.25,1.33,1.11,1.07,1.08,1.09,1.14,1.07,1.06,1.07,1.12,1.1,1.08,1.08 "Average heat value (Btu per

  19. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.48,2.43,2.56,2.41,2.3,2.1,1.75,1.72,1.59,1.37,1.22,1.25,1.21,1.15,1.3,1.35,1.36,1.38,1.36,1.43,1.44,1.48,1.55,1.52 "Average heat value (Btu per

  20. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)"," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","

  1. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.76,3.98,3.85,3.71,3.66,2.89,2.34,2.33,2.17,1.91,1.62,1.59,1.57,1.39,1.42,1.45,1.45,1.47,1.51,1.56,1.57,1.53,1.63,1.72 "Average heat value (Btu per

  2. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2,2.19,2.09,1.95,1.76,1.74,1.56,1.51,1.42,1.39,1.34,1.3,1.03,0.99,0.94,0.93,0.92,0.94,1.03,1.08,1.1,1.13,1.13,1.15 "Average heat value (Btu per

  3. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.49,2.72,2.88,2.69,2.57,2.28,1.94,1.73,1.57,1.36,1.26,1.22,1.22,1.11,1.13,1.12,1.12,1.15,1.15,1.26,1.26,1.27,1.25,1.34 "Average heat value (Btu per

  4. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.97,1.88,1.87,1.84,1.68,1.62,1.49,1.39,1.29,1.31,1.25,1.26,1.33,1.23,1.2,1.24,1.26,1.29,1.34,1.35,1.44,1.49,1.5,1.45 "Average heat value (Btu per

  5. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.05,1.94,1.78,1.7,1.55,1.39,1.36,1.25,1.14,1.13,1.04,0.98,1.12,1.01,1.03,1.15,1.11,1.07,1.09,1.14,1.19,1.21,1.19,1.17 "Average heat value (Btu per

  6. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)"," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","

  7. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.35,3.67,3.52,3.28,3.08,2.77,2.49,2.45,2.33,1.95,1.67,1.69,1.59,1.33,1.34,1.38,1.39,1.42,1.45,1.45,1.47,1.47,1.52,1.55 "Average heat value (Btu per

  8. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.49,2.55,2.47,2.39,2.54,2.22,1.73,1.67,1.53,1.35,1.25,1.21,1.25,1.2,1.18,1.22,1.24,1.25,1.27,1.39,1.42,1.47,1.52,1.47 "Average heat value (Btu per

  9. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wisconsin" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.37,2.42,2.56,2.18,2.06,1.98,1.7,1.5,1.29,1.18,1.12,1.12,1.05,1.02,1.02,1.07,1.09,1.06,1.14,1.21,1.21,1.33,1.36,1.36 "Average heat value (Btu per

  10. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",1.51,1.43,1.54,1.32,1.2,1.17,1.05,1,0.95,0.87,0.82,0.79,0.77,0.78,0.76,0.79,0.81,0.82,0.82,0.8,0.8,0.76,0.83,0.84 "Average heat value (Btu per

  11. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.34,2.38,2.39,2.27,2.21,2.07,1.77,1.69,1.54,1.36,1.28,1.25,1.23,1.2,1.22,1.25,1.27,1.29,1.32,1.36,1.39,1.41,1.45,1.45 "Average heat value (Btu per

  12. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.77,4.35,3.7,3.75,3.58,3.15,2.95,2.67,2.46,2.38,2.41,2.45," "," ",1.69,1.81,1.9,1.91,1.88,1.77,1.7,1.95,2.17,2.13 "Average heat value (Btu per pound)",9205,9205,9373,10706,11038,10215,10286,10056,10139,10423,10565,11439,"

  13. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.39,3.57,3.65,3.41,3.01,3.66,2.12,2.27,1.92,1.74,1.63,1.63," ",1.33,1.38,1.46,1.5,1.49,1.5,1.55,1.6,1.59,1.63,1.65 "Average heat value (Btu per pound)",12336,12359,12245,12288,12510,12361,12501,12504,12638,12653,12708,12799,"

  14. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",3.4,3.12,3.68,3.18,3.38,2.94,2.78,2.78,2.94,1.97,1.75,1.92," ",1.75,1.73,1.68,1.7,1.69,1.68,1.68,1.68,1.69,1.72,1.73 "Average heat value (Btu per pound)",11746,12130,11794,11985,11735,11517,11595,11546,11728,11793,12200,12482,"

  15. Table 6. Electric power delivered fuel prices and quality for coal, petroleum, natural gas, 1990 - 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Fuel, quality", 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Coal (dollars per million Btu)",2.15,2.29,2.25,2.27,2.16,2.17,1.73,1.54,1.33,1.43,1.4,1.46," ",1.69,1.56,1.49,1.63,1.57,1.44,1.36,1.36,1.37,1.55,1.58 "Average heat value (Btu per pound)",8517,8477,8413,8391,8403,8366,9211,8532,8131,8151,8052,8014,"

  16. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  17. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, pH, Photosynthetically Activate Radiation (PAR) and dissolved oxygen (DO); and a ~2 gallons per minute (gpm) algae culture dewatering system. Among the three algae strains, Scenedesmus showed the most tolerance to temperature and irradiance conditions in Phoenix and the best self-settling characteristics. Experimental findings and operational strategies determined through these tests guided the operation of the algae cultivation system for the scale-up study. Effect of power plant flue gas, especially heavy metals, on algae growth and biomass adsorption were evaluated as well.

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2 .1 .1 Offset of Coal and Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  19. Pelletization of fine coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

  20. Savannah River Site Retires Coal-Fired D-Area Powerhouse after Nearly 60 Years of Service

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – The Savannah River Site (SRS) has shut down the massive, coal-powered D-Area powerhouse as the site turns to new, clean and highly efficient power generation technology.

  1. Applications for Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants in a Smart Grid Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics and Benefits Analysis for Smart Grid Field Projects Steve Bossart Energy Tech 2011 Cleveland, Ohio 2 Smart Grid Metrics & Benefits Topics * Value proposition * Field projects * Functions & applications * Metrics * Benefits * Metrics and benefits methodology * Non-metric results * Challenges 3 Value Proposition Cost to Modernize * $338-$476B over 20 years - $ 82-90 B for transmission - $232-$339 B for distribution - $24-46 B for consumer * $17-24 B per year Benefit of

  2. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current Coal Distribution Report Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: January 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Archive Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  4. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  5. Nuclear economics 2000: Deterministic and probabilistic projections of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.A.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1987-06-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base-load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 2000. For the Midwest region a complete data set that specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results is supplied. When based on the reference set of input variables, the comparison of power generation costs is found to favor nuclear in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is most favored in the northeast and western regions where coal must be transported over long distances; however, coal-fired generation is most competitive in the north central region where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. In several regions small changes in the reference variables could cause either option to be preferred. The reference data set reflects the better of recent electric utility construction cost experience (BE) for nuclear plants. This study assumes as its reference case a stable regulatory environment and improved planning and construction practices, resulting in nuclear plants typically built at the present BE costs. Today's BE nuclear-plant capital investment cost model is then being used as a surrogate for projected costs for the next generation of light-water reactor plants. An alternative analysis based on today's median experience (ME) nuclear-plant construction cost experience is also included. In this case, coal is favored in all ten regions, implying that typical nuclear capital investment costs must improve for nuclear to be competitive.

  6. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.1;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," ","

  7. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.2;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Total",,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Wood Residues",,,," " " "," ","

  8. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  9. System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

    2004-12-01

    Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

  10. Coal in a changing climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lashof, D.A.; Delano, D.; Devine, J.

    2007-02-15

    The NRDC analysis examines the changing climate for coal production and use in the United States and China, the world's two largest producers and consumers of coal. The authors say that the current coal fuel cycle is among the most destructive activities on earth, placing an unacceptable burden on public health and the environment. There is no such thing as 'clean coal.' Our highest priorities must be to avoid increased reliance on coal and to accelerate the transition to an energy future based on efficient use of renewable resources. Energy efficiency and renewable energy resources are technically capable of meeting the demands for energy services in countries that rely on coal. However, more than 500 conventional coal-fired power plants are expected in China in the next eight years alone, and more than 100 are under development in the United States. Because it is very likely that significant coal use will continue during the transition to renewables, it is important that we also take the necessary steps to minimize the destructive effects of coal use. That requires the U.S. and China to take steps now to end destructive mining practices and to apply state of the art pollution controls, including CO{sub 2} control systems, to sources that use coal. Contents of the report are: Introduction; Background (Coal Production; Coal Use); The Toll from Coal (Environmental Effects of Coal Production; Environmental Effects of Coal Transportation); Environmental Effects of Coal Use (Air Pollutants; Other Pollutants; Environmental Effects of Coal Use in China); What Is the Future for Coal? (Reducing Fossil Fuel Dependence; Reducing the Impacts of Coal Production; Reducing Damage From Coal Use; Global Warming and Coal); and Conclusion. 2 tabs.

  11. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  12. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - ... Title: Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - ...

  13. Quarterly Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Quarterly Coal Distribution Report Release Date: March 9, 2016 | Next Release Date: May 2016 | full report The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed U.S. domestic coal distribution data by coal origin state, coal destination state, mode of transportation, and consuming sector. Quarterly data for all years are preliminary and will be superseded by the release of the corresponding "Annual Coal Distribution Report." Highlights for the fourth quarter 2014: Total

  14. Coal Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal Markets Release date: February 8, 2016 | Next release date: February 16, 2016 | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly...

  15. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown Fact 844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while ...

  16. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of the CO{sub 2} in the original process as converted to methane. The process could under another option avoid emissions following the conversion to SNG through an adjunct algae conversion process. The algae would then be converted to fuels or other products. An additional application of the algae process at the end use natural gas fired plant could further reduce emissions. The APS team fully recognizes the competition facing the process from natural gas and imported liquid natural gas. While we expect those resources to set the price for methane in the near-term, the team's work to date indicates that the AHP process can be commercially competitive, with the added benefit of assuring long-term energy supplies from North American resources. Conversion of coal to a more readily transportable fuel that can be employed near load centers with an overall reduction of greenhouses gases is edging closer to reality.

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Deo, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.; Gueishen, K.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.; Mandalaparty, P.; Zhang, H.

    2012-01-11

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coal's carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO2 sequestration.

  18. Monitoring Results for Natural Gas Wells Near Project Rulison, 2nd Quarter, Fiscal Year 2015

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    2nd Quarter FY 2015, Rulison Site October 2015 Doc. No. S13368 Page 1 of 6 Monitoring Results for Natural Gas Wells Near Project Rulison, 2nd Quarter, Fiscal Year 2015 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Grand Junction, Colorado Date Sampled: March 31, 2015 Background Project Rulison was the second Plowshare Program test to stimulate natural gas recovery from deep, low-permeability formations. On September 10, 1969, a 40-kiloton-yield nuclear device was detonated 8,426 feet

  19. A perspective on syngas from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rath, L.K.; Longanbach, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, has been produced from coal for more than 100 years. But today most syngas is produced from noncoal feedstocks, by catalytic steam reforming of natural gas and naphtha or partial oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons such as petroleum resid. Three types of syngas, characterized by their H{sub 2}/CO ratio, are needed. Low ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.4-0.8, syngas can be used in recently developed processes such as the Liquid Phase Methanol synthesis and the Shell Fischer-Tropsch wax synthesis; moderate ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 0.8-1.5, syngas is used in the Tennessee Eastman coal based synthesis of methanol and acetic anhydride; high ratio, H{sub 2}/CO = 1.8-2.5, syngas is used in traditional methanol synthesis and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at Sasol. Different types of gasifiers are available for the production of syngas. These include Lurgi fixed-bed dry bottom and slagging gasifiers, agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifiers, single and two-stage entrained slurry feed gasifiers, and single-stage entrained dry feed gasifiers. The cost of syngas from subbituminous coal is shown to be relatively insensitive to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio produced and may soon be competitive with natural gas-based syngas in some parts of the country due to the increasing demand for and cost of natural gas. Recent in this paper, DOE sponsored research on three topics on the production of syngas from coal, coal gasifiers for the direct production of high hydrogen content syngas, advanced methods to separate hydrogen from syngas at elevated temperatures and biological conversion of coal to syngas, are also discussed.

  20. Coal within a revised energy perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmstadter, J.

    2006-07-15

    The author considers the use of coal within a revised energy perspective, focusing on the factors that will drive which fuels are used to generate electricity going forward. He looks at the world markets for fossil fuels and the difficulties of predicting oil and natural gas supply and prices, as demonstrated by the variability in projections from one year to another in the EIA's Annual Energy Outlook. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  4. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal underground in this country to provide energy for the next 200 to 300 years. But coal is not a perfect fuel. Trapped inside coal are traces of impurities like sulfur and nitrogen. When coal burns, these impurities are released into the air. While floating in the air, these substances can combine with water vapor (for

  5. Converting coal to liquid fuels. [US DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Liquid fuels play a vital role in the US economy. Oil represents about 40 percent of the energy consumed each year in this country. In many cases, it fills needs for which other energy forms cannot substitute efficiently or economically - in transportation, for example. Despite a current world-wide surplus of oil, conventional petroleum is a depletable resource. It inevitably will become harder and more expensive to extract. Already in the US, most of the cheap, easily reached oil has been found and extracted. Even under optimistic projections of new discoveries, domestic oil production, particularly in the lower 48 states, will most likely continue to drop. A future alternative to conventional petroleum could be liquid fuels made from coal. The technique is called coal liquefaction. From 1 to 3 barrels of oil can be made from each ton of coal. The basic technology is known; the major obstacles in the US have been the high costs of the synthetic oil and the risks of building large, multi-billion dollar first-of-a-kind plants. Yet, as natural petroleum becomes less plentiful and more expensive, oil made from abundant coal could someday become an increasingly important energy option. To prepare for that day, the US government is working with private industries and universities to establish a sound base of technical knowledge in coal liquefaction.

  6. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  7. Environmentally conscious coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Brown, L.F.; Currier, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to evaluate the environmental impacts of home-scale coal combustion on the Navajo Reservation and develop strategies to reduce adverse health effects associated with home-scale coal combustion. Principal accomplishments of this project were: (1) determination of the metal and gaseous emissions of a representative stove on the Navajo Reservation; (2) recognition of cyclic gaseous emissions in combustion in home-scale combustors; (3) `back of the envelope` calculation that home-scale coal combustion may impact Navajo health; and (4) identification that improved coal stoves require the ability to burn diverse feedstocks (coal, wood, biomass). Ultimately the results of Navajo home-scale coal combustion studies will be extended to the Developing World, particularly China, where a significant number (> 150 million) of households continue to heat their homes with low-grade coal.

  8. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

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    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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  13. Coal Data Publication Revision Policy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Publication Revision Policy IF this occurs: THEN Survey Manager determines impact: WHAT happens next to the database and in our coal reports: Respondent provides data that are clearly incorrect or revised data for any period in the current reporting year. If National level percentage is > 1%, or If Regional level percentage is > 5%, or If State level percentage is > 10%. Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) and Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) will be reposted no further back than the

  14. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal In response to concerns of climate change, the United States is contemplating a complete and rapid transformation of the way it both produces and consumes energy to significantly reduce its carbon emissions. The integrated Coal Program focuses on retaining the benefits of continuing to use coal to produce electric power. This strategy can help us depend less on foreign sources of energy, respond to the world's growing climate concerns, and compete economically. It also will ensure that our

  15. Coal Markets

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Markets Release date: March 14, 2016 | Next release date: March 21, 2016 | Archive Coal Markets Weekly production Dollars per short ton Dollars per mmbtu Average weekly coal commodity spot prices dollars per short ton Week ending Week ago change Central Appalachia 12,500 Btu, 1.2 SO2 Northern Appalachia 13,000 Btu, < 3.0 SO2 Illinois Basin 11,800 Btu, 5.0 SO2 Powder River Basin 8,800 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Uinta Basin 11,700 Btu, 0.8 SO2 Source: With permission, SNL Energy Note: Coal prices shown

  16. U.S. coal outlook in Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-02-01

    Coal exports from the US to Asia are declining over time as a result of (1) increased competition from coal suppliers within the Asia-Pacific region, (2) changing steel making technologies, (3) decreased emphasis on security of coal supplies, and (4) deregulation of the energy industry--particularly electric utilities. There are no major changes on the horizon that are likely to alter the role of the US as a modest coal supplier to the Asia-Pacific region. The downward trend in US coal exports to Asia is expected to continue over the 1997--2010 period. But economic and policy changes underway in Asia are likely to result in periodic coal shortages, lasting a few months to a year, and short term increased export opportunities for US coal. US coal exports to Asia are projected to fluctuate within the following ranges over the 2000--2010 period: 10--17 million tons in total exports, 6--12 million tons in thermal coal exports, and 4--9 million tons in coking coal exports. The most important role for US coal, from the perspective of Asian coal importing countries, is to ensure a major alternative source of coal supplies that can be turned to in the event of unforeseen disruptions in coal supplies from the Asia-Pacific region or South Africa. However, the willingness of consumers to pay a premium to ensure US export capacity is declining, with increased emphasis on obtaining the lowest cost coal supplies.

  17. Summary of coal export project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Through the international coal project and related activities, SSEB has called attention to the problems and potential of the US coal industry. The program has provided an excellent format for frank discussions on the problems facing US coal exports. Every effort must be made to promote coal and its role in the southern economy. Coal is enjoying its best years in the domestic market. While the export market is holding its own, there is increased competition in the world market from Australia, Columbia, China and, to a lesser extent, Russia. This is coming at a time when the US has enacted legislation and plans are underway to deepen ports. In addition there is concern that increased US coal and electricity imports are having a negative impact on coal production. These limiting factors suggest the US will remain the swing supplier of coal on the world market in the near future. This presents a challenge to the US coal and related industry to maintain the present market and seek new markets as well as devote research to new ways to use coal more cleanly and efficiently.

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  7. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Energy Production Over the Years | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Production Over the Years Energy Production Over the Years US Energy Production Through the Years Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it produces Pick an energy source Total Energy Produced Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Total Renewable Energy Non-Biofuel Renewable Energy Biofuels Nuclear Power Source: EIA State Energy Data Systems

  9. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coblentz, B.

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  10. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2014 | Release Date: February 23, 2016 | Next Release Date: January 2017 | Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data in the tables are based on primary data collected by EIA from plant owners and operators on the Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report" (EIA-923 Data) and supplement data and analysis of coal transportation costs released by EIA in June

  11. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  12. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  13. Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change resulting from the use of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global Warming and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.

  14. Fact #816: February 10, 2014 Natural Gas Refueling Stations Grow Over the Last Ten Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2003 there were 1,097 natural gas refueling stations nationwide. By 2013, that number increased by about 25% to a total of 1,374 natural gas refueling stations. In 2003, there were six states...

  15. U.S. monthly coal production increases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    monthly coal production increases U.S. coal production in July totaled 88.9 million short tons, the highest level since August 2012, according to preliminary data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Total production during July 2013 was up 3 percent from the previous July's output. The turnaround comes as power plants are using more coal to generate electricity, reflecting higher electricity demand....and the fact that coal prices this year are more competitive with higher-priced

  16. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2012 Males 149 Females 115 YEAR 2012 SES 17 EX 1 EJEK 7 EN 05 2 EN 04 9 EN 03 2 NN (Engineering) 56 NQ (ProfTechAdmin) 165 NU (TechAdmin Support) 4 GS 13 1 YEAR 2012 American...

  17. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.5;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  18. Coal production, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    Coal production in the United States in 1991 declined to a total of 996 million short tons, ending the 6-year upward trend in coal production that began in 1985. The 1991 figure is 33 million short tons below the record level of 1.029 billion short tons produced in 1990 (Table 1). Tables 2 through 33 in this report include data from mining operations that produced, prepared, and processed 10,000 or more short tons during the year. These mines yielded 993 million short tons, or 99.7 percent of the total coal production in 1991, and their summary statistics are discussed below. The majority of US coal (587 million short tons) was produced by surface mining (Table 2). Over half of all US surface mine production occurred in the Western Region, though the 60 surface mines in this area accounted for only 5 percent of the total US surface mines. The high share of production was due to the very large surface mines in Wyoming, Texas and Montana. Nearly three quarters of underground production was in the Appalachian Region, which accounted for 92 percent of underground mines. Continuous mining methods produced the most coal among those underground operations that responded. Of the 406 million short tons, 59 percent (239 million short tons) was produced by continuous mining methods, followed by longwall (29 percent, or 119 million short tons), and conventional methods (11 percent, or 46 million short tons).

  19. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5 YEAR 2014 Males 61 Females 24 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EJ/EK 8 EN 04 22 NN (Engineering) 23 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 28 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 3 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 2 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 3 African American Male (AA M) 0 African American Female (AA F) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 3 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 13 Hispanic Female (H F) 10 White Male (W M) 43 White Female (W F) 11

  20. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2 YEAR 2014 Males 57 Females 25 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 3 EJ/EK 4 EN 04 2 NN (Engineering) 20 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 53 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 0 African American Male (AA M) 9 African American Female (AA F) 9 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 1 Hispanic Male (H M) 3 Hispanic Female (H F) 5 White Male (W M) 43 White Female (W F) 10 DIVERSITY TOTAL WORKFORCE

  1. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    93 YEAR 2014 Males 50 Females 43 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 EJ/EK 3 NN (Engineering) 13 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 74 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 3 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 2 African American Male (AA M) 5 African American Female (AA F) 6 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 6 Hispanic Female (H F) 14 White Male (W M) 39 White Female (W F) 21 DIVERSITY

  2. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    YEAR 2014 Males 11 Females 2 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 2 EJ/EK 1 EN 04 1 NN (Engineering) 5 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 4 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 0 African American Male (AA M) 0 African American Female (AA F) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 0 Hispanic Female (H F) 0 White Male (W M) 10 White Female (W F) 2 DIVERSITY TOTAL WORKFORCE GENDER

  3. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9 YEAR 2014 Males 9 Females 10 YEAR 2014 SES 7 ED 1 EJ/EK 1 EN 05 1 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 8 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 1 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 1 African American Female (AA F) 5 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 0 Hispanic Female (H F) 3 White Male (W M) 7 White Female (W F) 1 PAY PLAN DIVERSITY TOTAL

  4. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    5 YEAR 2014 Males 92 Females 43 YEAR 2014 SES 8 EX 1 EJ/EK 4 EN 05 9 EN 04 12 EN 03 2 NN (Engineering) 57 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 42 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 1 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 9 African American Female (AA F) 11 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 4 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 2 Hispanic Male (H M) 12 Hispanic Female (H F) 7 White Male (W M) 66 White Female (W F) 22 PAY PLAN

  5. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    563 YEAR 2014 Males 517 Females 46 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 2 EJ/EK 2 EN 04 1 NN (Engineering) 11 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 218 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 2 NV (Nuc Mat Courier) 327 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 14 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 2 African American Male (AA M) 18 African American Female (AA F) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 8 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 2 Hispanic Male (H M) 76 Hispanic Female (H F) 21 White Male

  6. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    89 YEAR 2014 Males 98 Females 91 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 14 EX 1 EJ/EK 3 EN 05 1 EN 04 4 EN 03 1 NN (Engineering) 32 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 130 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 2 GS 15 1 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 1 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 0 African American Male (AA M) 5 African American Female (AA F) 14 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 3 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 7 Hispanic Male (H M) 7 Hispanic Female (H F) 10 White Male

  7. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    43 YEAR 2014 Males 162 Females 81 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 26 EJ/EK 3 EN 05 7 NN (Engineering) 77 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 108 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 22 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 5 African American Female (AA F) 9 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 2 Hispanic Female (H F) 0 White Male (W M) 154 White Female (W F)

  8. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    74 YEAR 2014 Males 96 Females 78 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 8 EJ/EK 4 EN 04 11 EN 03 1 NN (Engineering) 34 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 113 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 3 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 2 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 3 African American Female (AA F) 11 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 5 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 25 Hispanic Female (H F) 25 White Male (W M) 61 White

  9. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4 YEAR 2014 Males 7 Females 7 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 7 GS 15 1 GS 14 2 GS 13 2 GS 10 1 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 0 African American Male (AA M) 3 African American Female (AA F) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 0 Hispanic Female (H F) 0 White Male (W M) 4 White Female (W F) 5 DIVERSITY TOTAL WORKFORCE GENDER

  10. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    16 YEAR 2014 Males 72 Females 144 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 8 EJ/EK 1 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 198 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 9 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 2 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 2 African American Male (AA M) 10 African American Female (AA F) 38 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 3 Hispanic Male (H M) 15 Hispanic Female (H F) 33 White Male (W M) 44 White Female (W F) 68 DIVERSITY TOTAL

  11. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    26 YEAR 2014 Males 81 Females 45 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 SL 1 EJ/EK 25 EN 04 26 EN 03 2 NN (Engineering) 23 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 44 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 4 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 3 African American Female (AA F) 7 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 4 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 1 Hispanic Male (H M) 6 Hispanic Female (H F) 6 White Male (W M) 68 White

  12. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    1 YEAR 2014 Males 48 Females 33 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EJ/EK 8 EN 04 10 EN 03 1 NN (Engineering) 27 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 29 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 5 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 3 African American Male (AA M) 0 African American Female (AA F) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 12 Hispanic Female (H F) 12 White Male (W M) 34 White Female

  13. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 YEAR 2014 Males 18 Females 10 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EN 05 1 EN 04 4 NN (Engineering) 12 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 9 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 1 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 4 African American Female (AA F) 4 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 0 Hispanic Female (H F) 0 White Male (W M) 13 White Female (W F) 5

  14. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 YEAR 2014 Males 18 Females 20 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 3 EJ/EK 1 EN 03 1 NN (Engineering) 3 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 28 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 2 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 0 African American Male (AA M) 1 African American Female (AA F) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 1 Hispanic Male (H M) 4 Hispanic Female (H F) 7 White Male (W M) 13 White Female (W F) 11

  15. Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coalbed Methane (CBM) is natural gas found in coal deposits. It was once considered a nuisance and mine safety hazard, but today has become a valuable part of the U.S. energy portfolio. A major reason for this is resource characterization and the establishment of efficient recovery methods pioneered by Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research and development. CBM proved reserves and production have grown nearly every year since 1989. Today it accounts for 9 percent of total domestic natural gas

  16. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal Users" and Form EIA-7A, "Coal Production and Preparation Report." Appendix A Assigning Missing Data to EIA-923...

  17. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  18. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  19. Natural gas will account for biggest share of U.S. electricity for first time in 2016

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural gas will account for biggest share of U.S. electricity for first time in 2016 For the first time on an annual basis, the amount of U.S. electricity generated by natural gas- fired power plants is expected to exceed coal-fired generation. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said 33% of U.S. electricity will come from natural gas this year while 32% will come from coal. The electric power sector's use of coal this year is expected to decline by 29

  20. Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney

    2007-07-15

    The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    25 Females 10 YEAR 2014 SES 1 EN 04 11 NN (Engineering) 8 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 13 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 2 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 0 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 1 African American Female (AA F) 3 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 0 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 0 Hispanic Female (H F) 0 White Male (W M) 24 White Female (W F) 6 TOTAL WORKFORCE GENDER Kansas City

  2. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9 Females 24 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EJ/EK 4 EN 05 3 EN 04 22 EN 03 8 NN (Engineering) 15 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 27 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 3 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 2 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 5 African American Female (AA F) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 21 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 2 Hispanic Male (H M) 5 Hispanic Female (H F) 3 White Male (W M) 26 White Female (W F) 16

  3. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    17 Females 18 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EJ/EK 3 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 30 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 1 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 1 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 2 African American Male (AA M) 3 African American Female (AA F) 7 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 1 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 0 Hispanic Male (H M) 2 Hispanic Female (H F) 6 White Male (W M) 10 White Female (W F) 3 DIVERSITY TOTAL WORKFORCE GENDER Associate

  4. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    8 Females 25 PAY PLAN YEAR 2014 SES 1 EJ/EK 3 EN 05 1 EN 04 25 EN 03 1 NN (Engineering) 25 NQ (Prof/Tech/Admin) 25 NU (Tech/Admin Support) 2 YEAR 2014 American Indian Alaska Native Male (AIAN M) 1 American Indian Alaskan Native Female (AIAN F) 1 African American Male (AA M) 3 African American Female (AA F) 3 Asian American Pacific Islander Male (AAPI M) 2 Asian American Pacific Islander Female (AAPI F) 2 Hispanic Male (H M) 6 Hispanic Female (H F) 6 White Male (W M) 46 White Female (W F) 13

  5. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  6. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    -9.09% YEAR 2012 2013 SES 1 1 0.00% EN 05 1 1 0.00% EN 04 11 11 0.00% NN (Engineering) 8 8 0.00% NQ (ProfTechAdmin) 17 14 -17.65% NU (TechAdmin Support) 2 2...

  7. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Females 863 YEAR 2013 SES 102 EX 3 SL 1 EJEK 89 EN 05 41 EN 04 170 EN 03 18 NN (Engineering) 448 NQ (ProfTechAdmin) 1249 NU (TechAdmin Support) 76 NV (Nuc Mat Courier) 321...

  8. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Females 942 YEAR 2012 SES 108 EX 4 SL 1 EJEK 96 EN 05 45 EN 04 196 EN 03 20 NN (Engineering) 452 NQ (ProfTechAdmin) 1291 NU (TechAdmin Support) 106 NV (Nuc Mat Courier) 335...

  9. YEAR

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    YEAR 2012 2013 SES 2 1 -50.00% EN 05 0 1 100.00% EN 04 4 4 0.00% NN (Engineering) 13 12 -7.69% NQ (ProfTechAdmin) 13 9 -30.77% NU (TechAdmin Support) 1 1...

  10. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution Report 2010 Alabama ...

  12. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL & POWER SYSTEMS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM PLANS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY * OFFICE OF FOSSIL ENERGY GREENER, SOONER... THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INTRODUCTION .......... i-1 STRATEGIC PLAN ........ 1-1 PROGRAM PLANS Vision 21 .......................... 2-1 Central Power Systems ...... 3-1 Distributed Generation ..... 4-1 Fuels ................................ 5-1 Carbon Sequestration ....... 6-1 Advanced Research ........... 7-1 TABLE OF CONTENTS STRATEGIC & MULTI-YEAR PROGRAM

  13. PFBC presents its clean coal credentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    2005-12-01

    Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) combined cycle deserves as much consideration as integrated gasification combined cycle as a foundation technology for advanced, clean coal-fired power generation. Although corporate issues and low natural gas prices stalled PFBC development for a time, technology at full scale has proved quite worthy in several respects in Europe and Japan over the past 10 years. The article describes how the PFBC system power cycle works, describes its competitive features and reports progress on development. 4 figs.

  14. Annual Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Report Release Date: April 23, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Correction Previous Reports (pdf) Data year: 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 see all Go The Annual Coal Report (ACR) provides annual data on U.S. coal production, number of mines, productive capacity, recoverable reserves, employment, productivity, consumption, stocks, and prices. All data for 2013 and prior years are final. Highlights for 2013: For the first time in two decades, U.S. coal

  15. Washington delivers for the coal industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-08-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 sets the course for better use of America's largest natural resource. Approximately $62 billion were authorised for coal related projects and nearly $2.9 million directed at coal projects in the tax portion of the bill. The article summarises some key points of the bill that affect the coal mining, processing and utilization sectors. The background for the article was provided courtesy of the National Mining Association. 4 tabs.

  16. DOE Announces Restructured FutureGen Approach to Demonstrate CCS Technology at Multiple Clean Coal Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Affirms Commitment to Clean Coal Technology Investments; Requests $648 Million for Coal Research, Development and Deployment for FY09 Budget - Largest Coal Budget Request in more than 25 years...

  17. Interest in coal chemistry intensifies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggin, J.

    1982-08-09

    Research on coal structure has increased greatly in recent years as the future role of coal as a source of gaseous and liquid fuels, as well as chemicals, becomes more apparent. This paper reviews in some detail work being carried out in the US, particularly in the laboratories of Mobil and Exxon, and in the universities. New ideas on the chemical and physical structure of coal are put forward, and a proposal for a new classification system based on the fundamental properties of the vitrinite macerals is introduced.

  18. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  19. Coals and coal requirements for the COREX process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckmann, H.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of non met coals for production of liquid hot metal was the motivation for the development of the COREX Process by VAI/DVAI during the 70`s. Like the conventional ironmaking route (coke oven/blast furnace) it is based on coal as source of energy and reduction medium. However, in difference to blast furnace, coal can be used directly without the necessary prestep of cokemaking. Coking ability of coals therefore is no prerequisite of suitability. Meanwhile the COREX Process is on its way to become established in ironmaking industry. COREX Plants at ISCOR, Pretoria/South Africa and POSCO Pohang/Korea, being in operation and those which will be started up during the next years comprise already an annual coal consumption capacity of approx. 5 Mio. tonnes mtr., which is a magnitude attracting the interest of industrial coal suppliers. The increasing importance of COREX as a comparable new technology forms also a demand for information regarding process requirements for raw material, especially coal, which is intended to be met here.

  20. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 7.4;" " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","(gallons)","(1000 cu

  1. STEO December 2012 - natural gas production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2012 natural gas production seen at record 69 billion cubic feet per day U.S. natural gas production is expected to increase 4.5 percent this year to a record 69 billion cubic feet per day, according to the new monthly energy forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A big portion of that natural gas is going to the U.S. electric power sector, which is generating more electricity from gas in place of coal. Consumption of natural gas for power generation this year is forecast to

  2. Mechanism of instantaneous coal outbursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, P.; Wang, H.Y.; Zhang, Y.X.

    2009-10-15

    Thousands of mine workers die every year from mining accidents, and instantaneous coal outbursts in underground coal mines are one of the major killers. Various models for these outbursts have been proposed, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesize that the mechanism of coal outbursts is similar to magma fragmentation during explosive volcanic eruptions; i.e., it is caused by high gas pressure inside coal but low ambient pressure on it, breaking coal into pieces and releasing the high-pressure gas in a shock wave. Hence, coal outbursts may be regarded as another type of gas-driven eruption, in addition to explosive volcanic, lake, and possible ocean eruptions. We verify the hypothesis by experiments using a shock-tube apparatus. Knowing the mechanism of coal outbursts is the first step in developing prediction and mitigation measures. The new concept of gas-driven solid eruption is also important to a better understanding of salt-gas outbursts, rock-gas outbursts, and mud volcano eruptions.

  3. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  4. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  5. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  6. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  7. Quantification of the Potential Impact on Commercial Markets of DOE's Transfer of Natural Uranium Hexaflouride During Calendar Years 2011, 2012, and 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quantification of the Potential Impact on Commercial Markets of DOE's Transfer of Natural Uranium Hexaflouride During Calendar Years 2011, 2012, and 2013

  8. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  9. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Year-End Coal Stocks by Sector, Census Division, and State, 2013 and 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 27. Year-End Coal Stocks by Sector, Census Division, and State, 2013 and 2012 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 2013 2012 Total Census Division and State Electric Power 1 Other Industrial Coke Commercial and Institutional Producer and Distributor Electric Power 1 Other Industrial

  10. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  11. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  12. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  13. By Coal Destination State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Destination State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table DS-1. Domestic coal

  14. By Coal Origin State

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Origin State ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Distribution Report 1st Quarter 2012 Alabama ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Table OS-1. Domestic coal

  15. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids program. The program also aims to reduce the cost of these low-emission fuels, and will take advantage of carbon capture and sequestration technologies to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Other Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids (C&CBTL) Program Activities: The C&CBTL Program

  16. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Coal Research FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Research FAQs faq-header-big.jpg COAL RESEARCH Q: Why is coal research needed? A: The energy resources that currently fuel the Nation's economy are approximately 82 percent fossil-based, with coal playing a significant role. All segments of U.S. society rely on America's existing multibillion-dollar investment in its highly reliable and affordable coal-based energy infrastructure. In the power-generation industry, coal is affordably producing approximately 40 percent of U.S. electricity.

  18. Coal-Producing Region

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change Alabama 3,192 3,504 4,331 10,718 12,345 -13.2 Alaska 255 345 372 866 1,178 -26.5 Arizona 1,762 1,912 2,165 5,429 5,979 -9.2 Arkansas 26 27 18 74 58 27.4 Colorado 5,123 5,078 6,574 15,464 18,367 -15.8 Illinois 13,967 13,360 14,816 44,105 42,575 3.6 Indiana 9,124 8,577 9,805 27,164 29,328 -7.4 Kansas 42 49 5 144 16 NM

  19. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  20. Coal conversion. 1979 technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    Individual reports are made on research programs which are being conducted by various organizations and institutions for the commercial development of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for these derived from oil and natural gas. Gasification, liquefaction, and demonstration processes and plants are covered. (DLC)

  1. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification Systems Coal Gasification is a process that can turn coal into clean power, chemicals, hydrogen and transportation fuels, and can be used to capture the carbon from ...

  2. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  3. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  4. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  5. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  6. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  7. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  8. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 4th Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  9. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  10. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 3rd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  11. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 4th Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  12. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 1st Quarter 2011 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  13. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  14. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  15. By Coal Origin State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table OS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by origin State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Origin: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Destination State...

  16. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 1st Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  17. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2010 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  18. By Coal Destination State

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table DS-1. Domestic coal distribution, by destination State, 2nd Quarter 2011 Destination: Alabama (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State...

  19. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  20. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

  2. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  3. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Coal Coal Coal is the largest domestically produced source of energy in America and is used to generate a significant chunk of our nation's electricity. The Energy Department is working to develop technologies that make coal cleaner, so we can ensure it plays a part in our clean energy future. The Department is also investing in development of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technologies, also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration. Featured Energy

  4. NREL: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Models - About JEDI Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Coal Model The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Coal model allows the user to estimate economic development impacts from coal power generation projects. Applying a similar user interface as the JEDI Wind model, JEDI Coal requires a few additional user inputs. JEDI Coal user inputs include: Capacity Factor Heat Rate Fuel Costs Fuel Produced Locally (Percent)* Results are presented in the same manner as those in the JEDI Wind and Natural Gas models. This allows

  5. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  6. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  7. Table 10. Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 10. Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Rank Controlling Company Name Production (thousand short tons) Percent of Total Production 1 Peabody Energy Corp 183,275 18.6 2 Arch Coal Inc 130,235 13.2 3 Cloud Peak Energy 85,694 8.7 4 Alpha Natural Resources LLC 84,937 8.6 5 Rio Tinto Group 61,899 6.3 6 Murray Energy Corp 58,522 5.9 7

  8. Status of DOE's Clean Coal Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    coal research and development activities, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). ... Act), which provided 3.4 billion for CCS. This followed over 15 years of ...

  9. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  10. Coal feed lock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, I. Irving (Fairview Park, OH)

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  11. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  12. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  13. Quarterly Coal Report, April-June 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-18

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks in the United States. The data presented in this report were collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-275) as amended. This issue shows detailed quarterly data for April-June 1985, aggregated quarterly historical and projected data for 1980 through 1986, and aggregated annual historical and projected data for 1960 through 1995. All data for 1984 and previous years are final. All 1985 data are preliminary and subject to revision. During the first and second quarters of 1985, the US coal industry continued to return to normal operations after the threat of a strike by US coal miners in 1984. For the first 6 months of 1985 the industry showed the following developments: Coal production was only 2.4% less than in the same period of 1984, when it reached a record January-June total. Coal exports were 10.0% higher than their 1984 level for the same time period. The United States imported 52.3% more coal than it did in the first 6 months of 1984, chiefly from Colombia. Domestic coal consumption reached a record-setting level for January-June, 3.6% greater than the previous record in 1984.

  14. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  15. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  16. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  18. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage.

  19. Annual Coal Report

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  2. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  3. Method for fluorinating coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, John L. (Skokie, IL); Scott, Robert G. (Westmont, IL); Studier, Martin H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-01-01

    Coal is fluorinated by contact with fluorine gas at low pressure. After pial fluorination, when the reaction rate has slowed, the pressure is slowly increased until fluorination is complete, forming a solid fluorinated coal of approximate composition CF.sub.1.55 H.sub.0.15. The fluorinated coal and a solid distillate resulting from vacuum pyrolysis of the fluorinated coal are useful as an internal standard for mass spectrometric unit mass assignments from about 100 to over 1500.

  4. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013 data The 2013 Annual Coal Distribution Report has been republished to include final 2013 electric power sector data as well as domestic and foreign distribution data. Contact:

  6. Coal Combustion Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge.

  7. Usibelli Coal Mine - Cleaner Energy, Brighter Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bureau of Indian Affairs Providers Conference The History of UCM Emil Usibelli started Usibelli Coal Mine in 1943 with used equipment and a contract for 10,000 tons of coal to the Army's Ladd Airfield. Three Generations of Usibelli Leadership Emil Usibelli founded the mine in 1943. Joe Usibelli Jr. has been president since 1987. Joe Usibelli became president in 1964. The People of Usibelli Coal Mine * About 112 Full-time employees * Average years of service: 12 * Average age in the workforce: 45

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  9. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  10. Clean and Secure Energy from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Philip; Davies, Lincoln; Kelly, Kerry; Lighty, JoAnn; Reitze, Arnold; Silcox, Geoffrey; Uchitel, Kirsten; Wendt, Jost; Whitty, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    The University of Utah, through their Institute for Clean and Secure Energy (ICSE), performed research to utilize the vast energy stored in our domestic coal resources and to do so in a manner that will capture CO2 from combustion from stationary power generation. The research was organized around the theme of validation and uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) through tightly coupled simulation and experimental designs and through the integration of legal, environment, economics and policy issues. The project included the following tasks: • Oxy-Coal Combustion – To ultimately produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. • High-Pressure, Entrained-Flow Coal Gasification – To ultimately provide a simulation tool for industrial entrained-flow integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasifier with quantified uncertainty. • Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) – To develop a new carbon-capture technology for coal through CLC and to transfer this technology to industry through a numerical simulation tool with quantified uncertainty bounds. • Underground Coal Thermal Treatment – To explore the potential for creating new in-situ technologies for production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from deep coal deposits and to demonstrate this in a new laboratory-scale reactor. • Mercury Control – To understand the effect of oxy-firing on the fate of mercury. • Environmental, Legal, and Policy Issues – To address the legal and policy issues associated with carbon management strategies in order to assess the appropriate role of these technologies in our evolving national energy portfolio. • Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the Heat Flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility – To produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers.

  11. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  12. Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Title Coal-by-Rail: A Business-as-Usual Reference Case Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2015 Authors Mintz, MM, Saricks,...

  13. Ten Years of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Operations at SunLine Transit Agency: April 2003--December 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the lesson learned at the SunLine Transit Agency after it converted in 1994 its entire operating transit bus fleet to compressed natural gas (CNG).

  14. U.S. Energy Production Through the Years | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Through the Years U.S. Energy Production Through the Years December 10, 2014 - 1:00pm Addthis US Energy Production Through the Years Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it produces Pick an energy source Total Energy Produced Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Total Renewable Energy Non-Biofuel Renewable Energy Biofuels Nuclear Power Source: EIA State Energy Data Systems Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs More

  15. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  16. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  17. Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at the Portsmouth site much more efficiently than the old coal-fired steam plant. A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at

  18. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  19. Coal combustion products (CCPs

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Coal combustion products (CCPs) are solid materials produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. Since coal provides the largest segment of U.S. electricity generation (45 percent in 2010), finding a sustainable solution for CCPs is an important environmental challenge. When properly managed, CCPs offer society environmental and economic benefits without harm to public health and safety. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) has made an

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  1. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assuming no additional constraints on CO2 emissions, coal remains the largest source of electricity generation in the AEO2011 Reference case because of continued reliance on...

  2. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The use of coals with sub- optimal characteristics carries with it penalties in operating efficiency, maintenance cost, and system reliability. Such penalties range from the...

  3. British coal privatization procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The form in which British Coal is to be privatized has finally been announced. Offers are to be invited for the operating underground and opencast mines which will be grouped into five regionally based companies. Additionally, offers will be invited for a number of collieries which are currently under care and maintenance. The five Regional Coal Companies to be formed are Central North, which will comprise the assets in the Yorkshire and Durham coalfields, including the five collieries in the Selby Complex; Central South, which will contain the assets located in the Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Warwickshire coalfields; North East, which has four opencast sites, Scotland, which has nine operating open-cast sites and a single underground mine, Longannet; and South Wales with its nine operating opencast sites. Tower colliery, the last underground mine in South Wales, was finally put on care and maintenance on April 20, 1994. Details of the five Regional Coal Companies are given. A new public sector body, the Coal Authority will be set up to which all British Coal's title to unworked coal and coal mines will be transferred. All the relevant property rights and liabilities of British Coal will be transferred into the Regional Coal Companies prior to their sun.

  4. Balancing coal pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earley, D.; Kirkenir, B.

    2009-11-15

    Balancing coal flow to the burners to optimise combustion by using real-time measurement systems (such as microwave mass measurement) is discussed. 3 figs.

  5. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  6. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    California (thousand short tons) Coal Origin State Transportation Mode Electric Power Sector Coke Plants Industrial Plants (excluding Coke) Commercial & Institutional Total...

  7. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  9. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Data For: 2001 Next Release Date: October 2003 U. S. Coal-Producing Districts...

  10. Rail Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    modes, the Coal Waybill Data is based only on rail shipments. Due to the different nature of the data sources, users should exercise caution when attempting to combine the two...

  11. http://wwwdev/cneaf/coal/special/waybill/waybill.html

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    modes, the Coal Waybill Database is based only on rail shipments. Due to the different nature of the data sources, users should exercise caution when attempting to combine the two...

  12. U.S. Coal Reserves

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Reserves

  13. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This Quarterly Report on coal liquefaction research includes discussion in the areas of (1) Iron Based Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction; (2) Exploratory Research on Coal Conversion; (3) Novel Coal Liquefaction Concepts; (4) Novel Catalysts for Coal Liquefaction. (VC)

  14. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  15. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  16. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  18. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  19. Coal. [Great Plains Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The status of various research projects related to coal is considered: gasification (approximately 30 processes) and in-situ gasification. Methanol production, retrofitting internal combustion engines to stratified charge engines, methanation (Conoco), direct reduction of iron ores, water resources, etc. Approximately 200 specific projects related to coal are considered with respect to present status. (LTN)

  20. DOE Award Results in Several Patents, Potential Increased Coal Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A $13 million cooperative effort with the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) over the past seven years has resulted in the successful demonstration of a novel technology that addresses a problem plaguing coal operators and environmentalists alike: separating fine coal particles from water and their ultimate use as a significant energy resource.

  1. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec's coal gasification facility. Destec's plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  2. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amick, P.; Mann, G.J.; Cook, J.J.; Fisackerly, R.; Spears, R.C.

    1992-11-01

    The Destec gasification process features an oxygen-blown, two stage entrained flow gasifier. PSI will procure coal for the Project consistent with the design specification ranges of Destec`s coal gasification facility. Destec`s plant will be designed to accept coal with a maximum sulfur content of 5.9% (dry basis) and a minimum energy content of 13,5000 BTU/pound (moisture and ash free basis). PSI and Destec will test at least two other coals for significant periods during the demonstration period. In the Destec process, coal is ground with water to form a slurry. It is then pumped into a gasification vessel where oxygen is added to form a hot raw gas through partial combustion. Most of the noncarbon material in the coal melts and flows out the bottom of the vessel forming slag -- a black, glassy, non-leaching, sand-like material. Particulates, sulfur and other impurities are removed from the gas before combustion to make it acceptable fuel for the gas turbine. The synthetic fuel gas (syngas) is piped to a General Electric MS 7001F high temperature combustion turbine generator. A heat recovery steam generator recovers gas turbine exhaust heat to produce high pressure steam. This steam and the steam generated in the gasification process supply an existing steam turbine-generator. The plant will be designed to outperform air emission standards established by the Clean Air Act Amendments for the year 2000.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  4. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J.

    2005-07-01

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  6. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  7. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  8. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Air Products and

  9. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology × You are accessing a

  10. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  11. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.

    1985-06-19

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20 to 120 minutes at a temperature of 250 to 750/sup 0/C, preferably 350 to 450/sup 0/C, pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000 to 2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50 to 100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0 to 100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems. 1 fig.

  12. Direct use of methane in coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sundaram, Muthu S. (Shoreham, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for converting solid carbonaceous material, such as coal, to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons utilizing methane, generally at a residence time of about 20-120 minutes at a temperature of 250.degree.-750.degree. C., preferably 350.degree.-450.degree. C., pressurized up to 6000 psi, and preferably in the 1000-2500 psi range, preferably directly utilizing methane 50-100% by volume in a mix of methane and hydrogen. A hydrogen donor solvent or liquid vehicle such as tetralin, tetrahydroquinoline, piperidine, and pyrolidine may be used in a slurry mix where the solvent feed is 0-100% by weight of the coal or carbonaceous feed. Carbonaceous feed material can either be natural, such as coal, wood, oil shale, petroleum, tar sands, etc., or man-made residual oils, tars, and heavy hydrocarbon residues from other processing systems.

  13. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  14. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  15. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  16. Aqueous coal slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Smit, F.J.; Swanson, W.W.

    1989-10-30

    A principal object of the invention is the provision of an aqueous coal slurry containing a dispersant, which is of low-cost and which contains very low or no levels of sodium, potassium, sulfur and other contaminants. In connection with the foregoing object, it is an object of the invention to provide an aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant and to provide a method of preparing an aqueous coal slurry which includes the step of adding an effective amount of dextrin as a dispersant. The invention consists of certain novel features and a combination of parts hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 6 tabs.

  17. Coal Distribution and Utilization Act of 1987. Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session on S. 801, September 10, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to review Senate bill S.801 which would provide Federal eminent domain authority for coal slurry pipelines to facilitate the national distribution and utilization of coal. Obtaining rights-of-way for the pipelines, particularly across railroad lands, has been a major stumbling lock to construction in the US. Testimony was heard from 9 witnesses, representing the Building and Construction Trade Department of AFL-CIO, Snamprogetti USA, Association of American Railroads, Railway Labor Executives Association, Coal and Slurry Technology Association, American Mining Congress, Edison Electric Institute, and the state of Louisiana. An attorney at law also gave testimony. Additional material was submitted by the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, the American Farm Bureau Federation, American Public Power Association, several union representatives, and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association.

  18. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  19. Method for increasing the calorific value of gas produced by the in situ combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of relatively high Btu gas by the in situ combustion of subterranean coal. The coal bed is penetrated with a horizontally-extending borehole and combustion is initiated in the coal bed contiguous to the borehole. The absolute pressure within the resulting combustion zone is then regulated at a desired value near the pore pressure within the coal bed so that selected quantities of water naturally present in the coal will flow into the combustion zone to effect a hydrogen and carbon monoxide-producing steam-carbon reaction with the hot carbon in the combustion zone for increasing the calorific value of the product gas.

  20. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  1. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other ...

  2. Puda Coal Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Puda Coal Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Puda Coal, Inc Place: Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, China Product: Specializes in coal preparation by applying a water jig washing...

  3. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  4. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  5. Clean Coal Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  6. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  7. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  8. 1,"Victor J Daniel Jr","Coal","Mississippi Power Co",1992 2,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Inc",1408.5 3,"Baxter Wilson","Natural gas","Entergy Mississippi Inc",1143.2 4,"Jack Watson","Coal","Mississippi Power Co",998 5,"Magnolia Power Plant","Natural gas","Tennessee ...

  9. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  10. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  11. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  12. JEDI II: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts from Coal, Naural...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    new coal, gas, or wind plant: * Year of installation * Size of the project * Location * Cost (kW) * Any other site-specific information The more information the user provides,...

  13. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  15. Proposed coal product valuation rules. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Mineral Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, November 16, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The hearing was called to discuss the proposed rules issued by the Department of the Interior relating to the valuation of coal production from Federal and Indian leases for royalty purposes. The rules would base the value of coal on the gross proceeds obtained under a contract. The rules would exclude Federal black lung excise tax payments and abandoned mine payments from value, but would include state severance taxes. Considerable controversy arose such that Congress imposed a moratorium on implementation to allow further public comment. An alternative proposal from a joint industry group would base value on the depletable income provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. However, several western governors have voiced concerns over this alternative which analysis shows would result in significantly lower revenues to the Federal government, the states, and to the Tribes. Testimony was heard from eight witnesses, representing the DOI Land and Minerals Management, electric power associations, Western Organization of Resource Councils, the Navajo nation, National Coal Association, and Montana. Additional materials were submitted by the Energy Information Administration, the Western Coal Traffic League, the Western Fuels Association, and the States of Wyoming, North Dakota, Colorado, and New Mexico.

  16. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  17. Coal-fueled diesels for modular power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, R.P.; Rao, A.K.; Smith, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    Interest in coal-fueled heat engines revived after the sharp increase in the prices of natural gas and petroleum in the 1970`s. Based on the success of micronized coal water slurry combustion tests in an engine in the 1980`s, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy. initiated several programs for the development of advanced coal-fueled diesel and gas turbine engines for use in cogeneration, small utilities, industrial applications and transportation. Cooper-Bessemer and Arthur D. Little have been developing technology since 1985, under the sponsor of METC, to enable coal water slurry (CWS) to be utilized in large bore, medium-speed diesel engines. Modular power generation applications in the 10--100 MW size (each plant typically using from two to eight engines) are the target applications for the late 1990`s and beyond when, according to the US DOE and other projections, oil and natural gas prices are expected to escalate much more rapidly compared to the price of coal. As part of this program over 7.50 hours of prototype engine operation has been achieved on coal water slurry (CWS), including over 100 hours operation of a six-cylinder full scale engine with Integrated Emissions Control System in 1993. In this paper, the authors described the project cost of the CWS fuel used, the heat rate of the engine operating on CWS, the projected maintenance cost for various engine components, and the demonstrated low emissions characteristics of the coal diesel system.

  18. Solar at the cost of coal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the cost of coal 1 Domestic shale gas 2 US shale gas enables solar g SunShot: towards $1 / Watt SunShot: towards $1 / Watt Silicon PV can reach coal parity p y *LCOE calculated assuming 5.75kWh/m 2 /day (17% capacity factor), a 7% discount rate, and a 30-year project life. Solar at the cost of coal 0 8 Half of PV manufacturing cost is making wafers, but currently wasteful and slow 40% 50% uring 0.6 0.7 0.8 $0.73/W Saw wafer 3x wafers per kg Si 20% 30% 40% Global Manufactu Direct Wafer Locate

  19. Coal waste materials applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niel, E.M.M.G.

    1997-12-31

    European countries have built up a tradition of coal burning activities. It is a well known fact that in the past twenty five years economic and technological growth was accompanied by more awareness for the protection of the environment. Therefore, increasing attention was paid to emission of hazardous gases, dust disposal and the proper reuse of coal residues. Both government and industry were searching for reasonable solutions to fight the rising environmental threats. It is noticed that the utilization situation in the different European countries varies considerably due to different historical, geographic and economic conditions. Nevertheless about 45% of the nearly 60 million tonnes of coal combustion by-products produced in European power plants are utilized, mainly in construction, civil engineering and the mining industry. In all European countries where electric energy is provided by coal fired power plants three parties are involved: (1) the power plants, as producers and owners of the coal fly ashes; (2) the consumers, which use the ashes in building products and construction; and (3) the government, mainly in watching over environmental and health aspects. This paper describes the use of fly ash in cements and concretes in European countries and the regulations on the use of fly ash.

  20. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-10-23

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion.

  1. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large,more » almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.« less

  2. Coal-fueled diesel locomotive test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, B.D.; McDowell, R.E.; Confer, G.L.; Basic, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The biggest challenges to the development of a commercially-acceptable coal-fueled diesel-electric locomotive are integrating all systems into a working unit that can be operated in railroad service. This involves mainly the following three systems: (1) the multi-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine, (2) the locomotive and engine controls, and (3) the CWS fuel supply system. Consequently, a workable 12-cylinder coal-fueled diesel engine was considered necessary at this stage to evolve the required locomotive support systems, in addition to gaining valuable multi-cylinder engine operating experience. The CWS fuel used during this project was obtained from Otisca, Inc. (Syracuse, NY). It was prepared from micronized and deashed Kentucky Blue Gem coal to 49.0% coal loading by weight, with less than 1% ash and 5 micron mean diameter particle size. Its higher heating value was analyzed at approximately 34630 kJ/k. Anti-agglomerating additive Triton X-114 was added to the CWS at GE Transportation Systems at 2% of coal weight. The nature of the Otisca CWS fuel makes it inherently more difficult to store, pump, and inject than diesel fuel, since concepts which govern Newtonian or normally viscous liquids do not apply entirely to CWS. Otisca CWS tends to be unstable and to settle in tanks and lines after a period of time, making it necessary to provide a means of agitation during storage. To avoid long term settling problems and to minimize losses, piping velocities were designed to be in the 60-90 m/min range.

  3. ZERO EMISSION COAL POWER, A NEW CONCEPT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. -J. ZIOCK; K. S. LACKNER; D. P. HARRISON

    2001-04-01

    The Zero Emission Coal Alliance (ZECA) is developing an integrated zero emission process that generates clean energy carriers (electricity or hydrogen) from coal. The process exothermically gasifies coal using hydrogen to produce a methane rich intermediate state. The methane is subsequently reformed using water and a CaO based sorbent. The sorbent supplies the energy needed to drive the reforming reaction and simultaneously removes the generated CO{sub 2} by producing CaCO{sub 3}. The resulting hydrogen product stream is split, approximately 1/2 going to gasify the next unit of coal, and the other half being the product. This product stream could then be split a second time, part being cleaned up with a high temperature hydrogen separation membrane to produce pure hydrogen, and the remainder used to generate electricity via a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The inevitable high temperature waste heat produced by the SOFC would in turn be used to regenerate the CaO by calcining the CaCO{sub 3} product of the reforming stage thereby generating a pure stream of CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} will be dealt with a mineral sequestration process discussed in other papers presented at this conference. The SOFC has the added advantage of doubling as an oxygen separation membrane, thereby keeping its exhaust stream, which is predominantly steam, free of any air. This exhaust stream is largely recycled back to the reforming stage to generate more hydrogen, with a slipstream being extracted and condensed. The slipstream carries with it the other initial contaminants present in the starting coal. Overall the process is effectively closed loop with zero gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. The process also achieves very high conversion efficiency from coal energy to electrical energy ({approximately} 70%) and naturally generates a pure stream of CO{sub 2} ready for disposal via the mineral sequestration process.

  4. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  5. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Dewart, Jean Marie; Deola, Regina

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (19902014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  6. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  7. Blackout: coal, climate and the last energy crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinberg, R. [Post Carbon Institute in California, CA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Coal fuels more than 30 per cent of UK electricity production, and about 50 per cent in the US, providing a significant portion of total energy output. China and India's recent ferocious economic growth has been based almost entirely on coal-generated electricity. Coal currently looks like a solution to many of our fast-growing energy problems. However, while coal advocates are urging us full steam ahead, the increasing reliance on this dirtiest of all fossil fuels has crucial implications for energy policy, pollution levels, the global climate, world economy and geopolitics. Drawbacks to a coal-based energy strategy include: Scarcity - new studies suggest that the peak of world coal production may actually be less than two decades away; Cost - the quality of produced coal is declining, while the expense of transportation is rising, leading to spiralling costs and increasing shortages; and, Climate impacts - our ability to deal with the historic challenge of climate change may hinge on reducing coal consumption in future years.

  8. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  9. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  10. 2008 Coal Age buyers guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-15

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  11. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  12. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P.; Bair, Wilford G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  13. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  14. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  15. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  16. Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009 November 2010 U.S. Energy Information Administration Office of Oil, Gas, and Coal Supply...

  17. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  18. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  19. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids FAQs faq-header-big.jpg BASICS Q: How are gasoline and diesel fuel made from coal? A: Gasoline and diesel fuels can be produced from coal in two distinct processes: Indirect Liquefaction and Direct Liquefaction. In Indirect Liquefaction, coal is first gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas for short), which is a mixture containing primarily hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) gases. The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a commercial process that can be used

  20. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  1. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  2. Research Without Borders: NETL Pens MOU with Brazilian Coal Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Brazilian Coal Association signed a Memorandum of Understanding on carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Florianópolis, Brazil. By signing the MOU, both parties agreed to work together over the next 5 years to assess the potential of CCS in fossil fuel–based systems, as well as the development of clean coal technologies applicable to Brazilian coals. The memorandum also covers the development of other technologies to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuel production and use.

  3. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in Alabama emit approximately 31 MMst (2.4 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} annually. The total sequestration capacity of the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway at 350 psi is about 189 MMst (14.9 Tcf), which is equivalent to 6.1 years of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal-fired power plants. Applying the geologic screening model indicates that significant parts of the coalbed methane fairway are not accessible because of fault zones, coal mines, coal reserves, and formation water with TDS content less than 3,000 mg/L. Excluding these areas leaves a sequestration potential of 60 MMst (4.7 Tcf), which is equivalent to 1.9 years of emissions. Therefore, if about10 percent of the flue gas stream from nearby power plants is dedicated to enhanced coalbed methane recovery, a meaningful reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions can be realized for nearly two decades. If the fresh-water restriction were removed for the purposes of CO{sub 2} sequestration, an additional 10 MMst (0.9 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} could feasibly be sequestered. The amount of unswept coalbed methane in the fairway is estimated to be 1.49 Tcf at a pressure of 50 psi. Applying the screening model results in an accessible unswept gas resource of 0.44 Tcf. Removal of the fresh-water restriction would elevate this number to 0.57 Tcf. If a recovery factor of 80 percent can be realized, then enhanced recovery activities can result in an 18 percent expansion of coalbed methane reserves in the Black Warrior basin.

  4. Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 35. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Year to Date NAICS Code April - June 2014 January - March 2014

  5. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  6. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  7. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  8. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  9. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  10. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  11. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  12. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  13. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Sunder, Swaminathan (Allentown, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids.

  14. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  15. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  16. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maa, Peter S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for liquefying a particulate coal feed to produce useful petroleum-like liquid products which comprises contacting; in a series of two or more coal liquefaction zones, or stages, graded with respect to temperature, an admixture of a polar compound; or compounds, a hydrogen donor solvent and particulate coal, the total effluent being passed in each instance from a low temperature zone, or stage to the next succeeding higher temperature zone, or stage, of the series. The temperature within the initial zone, or stage, of the series is maintained about 70.degree. F and 750.degree. F and the temperature within the final zone, or stage, is maintained between about 750.degree. F and 950.degree. F. The residence time within the first zone, or stage, ranges, generally, from about 20 to about 150 minutes and residence time within each of the remaining zones, or stages, of the series ranges, generally, from about 10 minutes to about 70 minutes. Further steps of the process include: separating the product from the liquefaction zone into fractions inclusive of a liquid solvent fraction; hydrotreating said liquid solvent fraction in a hydrogenation zone; and recycling the hydrogenated liquid solvent mixture to said coal liquefaction zones.

  18. Natural resources law handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers legal topics ranging from ownership-related issues (including disposition, use and management of privately and publicly-owned lands, resources, minerals and waters) to the protection and maintenance of our nation's natural resources. It contains chapters on oil and gas resources, coal resources, and minerals and mining.

  19. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1991-12-01

    The goals of this program include developing a system for the analysis of the chemical forms of organic sulfur in coal and for study of coal particle surfaces by multifrequency EPR spectroscopy, ENDOR, and ESE spectroscopy and Applying it to coals, to the effects of treatment upon their sulfur-containing organic components, and to related carbonaceous materials (chars and the like). The approach is to utilize the naturally-occurring unpaired electrons in the organic structures of coals as spies to provide molecular structure information, reading out the information with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Several forms of EPR are employed: Multifrequency continuous-wave (CW) EPR, from 1 GHz to 240 GHz source frequency; electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), in which NMR spectra at paramagnetic centers are obtained by EPR detection; and pulsed EPR, including ESE (Electron Spin Echo) spectroscopy.

  20. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalvani, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous research has shown that addition of lignin-derived liquids to coal stirred in tetralin under mild reaction conditions (375{degree}C and 300--500 psig) results in a marked enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization. A mathematical model was developed to study the kinetics of coal depolymerization in the presence of liquid-derived liquids. In the present study, a reaction pathway was formulated to explain the enhancement in coal depolymerization due to lignin (solid) addition. The model postulated assumes that the products of lignin obtained during thermolysis interact with the reactive moieties present in coal while simultaneous depolymerization of coal occurs. A good fit between the experimental data and the kinetic model was found. The results show that in addition to the enhancement in the rate of coal depolymerization, lignin also reacts (and enhances the extent of depolymerization of coal) with those reaction sites in coal that are not susceptible to depolymerization when coal alone is reacted in tetralin under identical reaction conditions. Additional work is being carried out to determine a thorough materials balance on the lignin-assisted coal depolymerization process. A number of liquid samples have been obtained which are being studied for their stability in various environments. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  2. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Gasification Site - 045 Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Hoe Creek Underground Gasification site occupies 80 acres of land located in Campbell County, Wyoming. The site was used to

  4. Appalachian recapitalization: United Coal comes full circle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-05-15

    The article recounts the recent history of the United Coal Co. which exited from the coal business between 1992 and 1997 and has recently returned. More coal reserves have been added by its four companies Sapphire Coal, Carter Roag Coal, Pocahontas Coal and Wellmore, bringing the grand total to 222.6 Mtons. United Coal's developments and investment strategy are discussed. The company headquarters are in Bristol, Va., USA. 1 tab., 7 photos.

  5. Outside the rate-base umbrella: can IPPs play the coal game?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2005-07-01

    The high cost of coal plants has generally limited their development to US utilities with large rate-base markets. Will rising natural gas prices spark coal plant development by non-rate-base energy providers? The article looks at this possibility. It reports opinions of many industry professionals. 1 photo.

  6. Reforesting Appalachia`s coal lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopps, M.

    1994-11-01

    Currently, in those four states` primary coal counties, some 5,000 to 6,000 acres are surface-mined each year. Since 1977, when Congress passed the landmark Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), coal-mining companies have been required to refill the cuts they make and return the earth`s surface to approximately its original contours. Reclamation here means to aggressively-and literally-lay the groundwork for future cultivation of these lands. SMCRA calls for detailed reclamation plans before mining takes place, backed later by evaluations of how vegatation progresses up until the time of bond release-five years after mining ends. And though SMCRA has succeeded in improving the aesthetic appeal of post-mined sites, it does nothing to ensure that the most appropriate land use will be implemented for the long run.

  7. Resource recovery from coal residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G. Jr.; Canon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Several processes are being developed to recover metals from coal combustion and conversion residues. Methods to obtain substantial amounts of aluminum, iron, and titanium from these wastes are presented. The primary purpose of our investigation is to find a process that is economically sound or one that at least will partially defray the costs of waste processing. A cursory look at the content of fly ash enables one to see the merits of recovery of these huge quantities of valuable resources. The major constituents of fly ash of most interest are aluminum (14.8%), iron (7.5%), and titanium (1.0%). If these major elements could be recovered from the fly ash produced in the United States (60 million tons/year), bauxite would not have to be imported, iron ore production could be increased, and titanium production could be doubled.

  8. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  9. The foul side of 'clean coal'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.

    2009-02-15

    As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

  10. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  11. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  12. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-12-15

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  14. Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin Recovery Act Workers Accomplish Cleanup of Second Cold War Coal Ash Basin American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers recently cleaned up a second basin containing coal ash residues from Cold War operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). About $24 million from the Recovery Act funded the environmental restoration project, allowing SRS to complete the project at least five years ahead of schedule. The work is part

  15. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-31

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  16. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  17. Environmental development plan: coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This Environmental Development plan (EDP) examines environmental concerns that are being evaluated for the technologies in DOE's Coal Liquefaction Program. It identifies the actions that are planned or underway to resolve these concerns while the technologies are being developed. Research is scheduled on the evaluation and mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This EDP updates the FY 1977 Coal Liquefaction Program EDP. Chapter II describes the DOE Coal Liquefaction Program and focuses on the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC), H-Coal, and Exxon donor solvent (EDS) processes because of their relatively advanced R and D stages. The major unresolved environmental concerns associated with the coal liquefaction subactivities and projects are summarized. The concerns were identified in the 1977 EDP's and research was scheduled to lead to the resolution of the concerns. Much of this research is currently underway. The status of ongoing and planned research is shown in Table 4-1.

  18. Coal companies hope to receive carbon credits for methane reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-09-30

    Each year, underground coal mining in the USA liberates 2.4 million tonnes of coal mine methane (CMM), of which less than 30% is recovered and used. One barrier to CMM recovery is cost. Drainage, collection, and utilization systems are complex and expensive to install. Two coal mines have improved the cost equation, however, by signing on to earn money for CMM emissions they are keeping out of the atmosphere. Jim Walter Resources and PinnOak Resources have joined a voluntary greenhouse gas reduction trading program called the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) to turn their avoided emissions into carbon credits. The example they set may encourage other coal mining companies to follow suit, and may bring new projects on the line that would otherwise have not gone forward. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  19. "Annual Coal Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Report Data Released: January 20, 2015 Data for: 2013 Re-Release Date: April 23, 2015 (CORRECTION) Annual Coal Report 2013 Correction/Update April 23, 2015 The Annual Coal Report (ACR) 2013 has been republished in order to update electric power sector data with finalized data. Contact: JenAlyse Arena Phone: 202-586-4866 Email: JenAlyse Arena Fax: 202-287-1944

  20. Quality characteristics of Kentucky coal from a utility perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eble, C.F.; Hoover, J.C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal in Kentucky has been, and continues to be, a valuable energy source, especially for the electric utility industry. However, Federal mandates in Titles III and IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and more recently proposed ``greenhouse gas'' emission reductions, have placed increasingly stringent demands on the type and grade of coal that can be burned in an environmentally-accepted manner. Therefore, a greater understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of thickness and quality parameters, and the geological factors that control their distribution, is critical if Kentucky will continue to be a major producer of high quality coal. Information from the Kentucky Geological Survey's Coal Resource Information System data base (KCRIS) is used in this paper to document the geological and stratigraphic distribution of important factors such as bed thickness, calorific value, ash yield, and total sulfur content. The distribution of major and minor elements that naturally occur in Kentucky coal is also discussed as some of these elements contribute to slagging and fouling in coal-fired furnaces; others may require monitoring with passage of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  1. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  2. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  3. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  4. Clean Coal Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of harmful pollutants from coal, including mercury, sulfur and coal tars. References: Clean Coal Technologies1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it....

  5. Coal underlying Federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex W. Karlsen; John R. SanFilipo; Peter D. Warwick

    2002-09-01

    About 6% of the total coa resource was selected for assessment in the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain region of the NCRA project underlies federally proclaimed management areas. Of the approximately 11 billion short tons of coal in this category, approximately 37 percent are estimated to be federally owned. Much of the coal in these categories may not be available for mining, and much of it is probably not economically recoverable. The dispersed nature of Federal holdings, the complicated nature of surface and mineral estate ownership, and the existence of various legal and technological restrictions may remove a significant portion of this coal resource from consideration for development. Continuing work by USGS scientists suggests that potentially viable energy resources of coal-bed methane are present within both Federal and non-Federal areas of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain coal-bearing region. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. 1,"General James M Gavin","Coal","AEP Generation Resources Inc...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rock Energy Facility","Natural gas","Duke Energy Commercial Asset Management",1252 9,"Perry","Nuclear","FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company",1240 10,"Miami Fort","Coal","Duke ...

  7. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean Coal News FE Clean Coal News RSS December 2, 2015 DOE Selects Projects To Enhance Its Research into Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected 10 projects to receive funding for research in support of the lab's program on Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal Byproducts. The selected research projects will further program goals by focusing on the development of

  8. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 3 (Apr 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1,

  9. Quarterly Coal Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud ‹ See all Coal Reports Quarterly Coal

  10. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Coal Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Coal Data Browser new! Summary Prices Reserves Consumption Production Stocks Imports, exports & distribution Coal transportation rates International All coal data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption Environment Imports & exports Industry characteristics Prices Production Projections Recurring Reserves Stocks All reports Browse by Tag Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Weekly U.S. Coal Production Coal producing

  11. EPRI's coal combustion product use research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladwig, K.

    2008-07-01

    For more than 20 years, EPRI's Coal Combustion Product Use Program has been a leader in providing research to demonstrate the value of using coal combustion products (CCPs) in construction and manufacturing. Work is concentrated on large-volume uses, increasing use in traditional applications, uses in light of changes in CCP quality resulting form increased and new air emissions controls for nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and mercury. Currently, EPRI is investigating opportunities for using higher volumes of Class C ash in concrete; approaches for ensuring that mercury controls do not adversely affect the use of CCPs; agricultural uses for products from flue gas desulfurization; possible markets for spray dryer absorber byproducts; and issues involved with the presence of ammonia in ash. Some recent results and future work is described in this article. 4 photos.

  12. Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S.

    1995-12-01

    Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood, softwood, and sludge as potential reburning fuels and compared the results with coal and natural gas. The results of this program showed that a reduction of 50-60% NO was obtained with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The reduction was strongly dependent on initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature. The stoker program investigated barriers to the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties; parameters evaluated included blend firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrated that NO emissions could be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel blends, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs, and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

  13. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  14. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  15. coal contacts | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coal contacts Strategic Center for Coal Director: Sean Plasynski 412-386-4867 Senior Management & Technical Advisor: Gregory Kawalkin 412-386-6135 Senior Management & Technical ...

  16. FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity from Innovative DOE-Supported Clean Coal Project An innovative clean coal technology project in Texas will supply electricity to the largest municipally owned...

  17. FMI NewCoal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    developer focused on upgrading low rank coals to improve combustion efficiency and reduce production of greenhouse emissions for coal fired utility and industrial power generation...

  18. American Clean Coal Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    American Clean Coal Fuels Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAmericanCleanCoalFuels&oldid768408" Categories: Organizations Energy Generation Organizations...

  19. Jamestown Oxy Coal Alliance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxy Coal Alliance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jamestown Oxy-Coal Alliance Place: New York Product: The Jamestown Alliance has been formed to develop a CCS demonstration...

  20. EIA - Weekly U.S. Coal Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rounding. Bituminous and Lignite Total includes bituminous coal, subbituminous coal, and lignite, and Anthracite Total includes Pennsylvania anthracite. The States in...

  1. SciTech Connect: "clean coal"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clean coal" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "clean coal" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  2. Table 1.14 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and American Indian Lands, Fiscal Years 2003-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and American Indian Lands, Fiscal Years 2003-2011 Fiscal Year 7 Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Natural Gas Plant Liquids 1 Natural Gas 2 Coal 3 Total Fossil Fuels 4 Sales 5,6 Sales as Share of Total U.S. Production Sales 5,6 Sales as Share of Total U.S. Production Sales 5,6 Sales as Share of Total U.S. Production Sales 5,6 Sales as Share of Total U.S. Production Sales 5,6 Sales as Share of Total U.S. Production Million Barrels Trillion Btu Percent

  3. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2008 - 2014 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 32. U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2008 - 2014 (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Other Industrial Commercial and Institutional Year and Quarter Electric Power Sector 1 Coke Plants CHP 2 Non- CHP 3 Total CHP 4 Non- CHP 5 Total Total 2008 January - March

  4. Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Analysis & Projections ‹ See all Coal Reports U.S. Coal Supply and Demand: 2010 Year in Review Release Date: June 1, 2011 | Next Release Date: Periodically | full report Exports and Imports Exports Total U.S. coal exports for 2010 increased by 38.3 percent to 81.7 million short tons (Figure 8). Figure Data This increase was largely due to two factors. First, heavy rains and flooding in Australia, Indonesia, and Colombia reduced world coal supply and

  5. The Wyodak-Anderson coal assessment, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana -- An ArcView project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flores, R.M.; Gunther, G.; Ochs, A.; Ellis, M.E.; Stricker, G.D.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    In 1997, more than 305 million short tons of clean and compliant coal were produced from the Wyodak-Anderson and associated coal beds and zones of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. To date, all coal produced from the Wyodak-Anderson, which averages 0.47 percent sulfur and 6.44 percent ash, has met regulatory compliance standards. Twenty-eight percent of the total US coal production in 1997 was from the Wyodak-Anderson coal. Based on the current consumption rates and forecast by the Energy Information Administration (1996), the Wyodak-Anderson coal is projected to produce 413 million short tons by the year 2016. In addition, this coal deposit as well as other Fort Union coals have recently been targeted for exploration and development of methane gas. New US Geological Survey (USGS) digital products could provide valuable assistance in future mining and gas development in the Powder River Basin. An interactive format, with querying tools, using ArcView software will display the digital products of the resource assessment of Wyodak-Anderson coal, a part of the USGS National Coal Resource Assessment of the Powder River Basin. This ArcView project includes coverages of the data point distribution; land use; surface and subsurface ownerships; coal geology, stratigraphy, quality and geochemistry; and preliminary coal resource calculations. These coverages are displayed as map views, cross sections, tables, and charts.

  6. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Natural Gas and Power Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Electricity Generation Forecast: 25% Growth in Next 20 Years EIA, AEO 2015: Reference Case 37% Coal ... a clearinghouse of information on technologies, ...

  7. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  8. Coal Age buyers guide 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The buyers guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  9. Coal Age buyers guide 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-07-01

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  10. Coal Age buyers guide 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-07-15

    The Buyers Guide provides a comprehensive list of more than 1,200 suppliers that provide equipment and services to US coal mine and coal preparation plants, mainly based in the USA. Telephone numbers of companies are provided for each product category.

  11. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N.

    1994-12-31

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  12. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  13. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a probiotic from coal fly ash effluent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babitha, S; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Metal resistant probiotic species was isolated from coal fly ash effluent site. Uniform sized anatase form of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using Propionibacterium jensenii. Diffraction patterns confirmed the anatase TiO{sub 2} NPs with average size <80 nm. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle incorporated wound dressing exhibits better wound healing. - Abstract: The synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO{sub 2} NP) has gained importance in the recent years owing to its wide range of potential biological applications. The present study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs by a metal resistant bacterium isolated from the coal fly ash effluent. This bacterial strain was identified on the basis of morphology and 16s rDNA gene sequence [KC545833]. The physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is completely elucidated by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM). The crystalline nature of the nanoparticles was confirmed by X-RD pattern. Further, cell viability and haemolytic assays confirmed the biocompatible and non toxic nature of the NPs. The TiO{sub 2} NPs was found to enhance the collagen stabilization and thereby enabling the preparation of collagen based biological wound dressing. The paper essentially provides scope for an easy bioprocess for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} NPs from the metal oxide enriched effluent sample for future biological applications.

  14. Coal Reserves Data Base report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Glass, G.B.

    1991-12-05

    The Coal Reserves Data Base (CRDB) Program is a cooperative data base development program sponsored by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The objective of the CRDB Program is to involve knowledgeable coal resource authorities from the major coal-bearing regions in EIA's effort to update the Nation's coal reserves data. This report describes one of two prototype studies to update State-level reserve estimates. The CRDB data are intended for use in coal supply analyses and to support analyses of policy and legislative issues. They will be available to both Government and non-Government analysts. The data also will be part of the information used to supply United States energy data for international data bases and for inquiries from private industry and the public. (VC)

  15. Investigation of the carbon dioxide sorption capacity and structural deformation of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Fazio, James; Romanov, Vyacheslav; Harbert, William

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations causing the global energy and environmental crises, geological sequestration of carbon dioxide is now being actively considered as an attractive option to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One of the important strategies is to use deep unminable coal seams, for those generally contain significant quantities of coal bed methane that can be recovered by CO2 injection through enhanced coal bed natural gas production, as a method to safely store CO2. It has been well known that the adsorbing CO2 molecules introduce structural deformation, such as distortion, shrinkage, or swelling, of the adsorbent of coal organic matrix. The accurate investigations of CO2 sorption capacity as well as of adsorption behavior need to be performed under the conditions that coals deform. The U.S. Department of Energy-National Energy Technology Laboratory and Regional University Alliance are conducting carbon dioxide sorption isotherm experiments by using manometric analysis method for estimation of CO2 sorption capacity of various coal samples and are constructing a gravimetric apparatus which has a visual window cell. The gravimetric apparatus improves the accuracy of carbon dioxide sorption capacity and provides feasibility for the observation of structural deformation of coal sample while carbon dioxide molecules interact with coal organic matrix. The CO2 sorption isotherm measurements have been conducted for moist and dried samples of the Central Appalachian Basin (Russell County, VA) coal seam, received from the SECARB partnership, at the temperature of 55 C.

  16. Correlation between the critical viscosity and ash fusion temperatures of coal gasifier ashes*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsieh, Peter

    2015-07-02

    Coal gasification yields synthesis gas, an important intermediate in chemical manufacturing. It is also vital to the production of liquid fuels through the Fischer-Tropsch process and electricity in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power generation. Minerals naturally present in coal become molten in entrained-flow slagging gasifiers. Molten coal ash slag penetrates and dissolves refractory bricks, leading to costly plant shutdowns. The extent of coal ash slag penetration and refractory brick dissolution depends on the slag viscosity, the gasification temperature, and the composition of slag and bricks. We measured the viscosity of several synthetic coal ash slags with a high-temperature rotary viscometer and their ash fusion temperatures through optical image analysis. All measurements were made in a carbon monoxide-carbon dioxide reducing atmosphere that approximates coal gasification conditions. Empirical correlation models based on ash fusion temperatures were used to calculate critical viscosity temperatures based on the coal ash compositions. These values were then compared with those obtained from thermodynamic phase-transition models. An understanding of slag viscosity as a function of ash composition is important to reducing refractory wear in slagging coal gasifiers, which would help to reduce the cost and environmental impact of coal for chemical and electricity production.

  17. Coal Technology '80. Volume 5. Synthetic fuels from coal. Volume 6. Industrial/utility applications for coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The 3rd international coal utilization exhibition and conference Coal Technology '80 was held at the Astrohall, Houston, Texas, November 18-20, 1980. Volume 5 deals with coal gasification and coal liquefaction. Volume 6 deals with fluidized-bed combustion of coal, cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants, coal-fuel oil mixtures (COM), chemical feedstocks via coal gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thirty-six papers have been entered individually into EDB and seven also into ERA; three had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  18. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center

  19. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  20. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  1. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  2. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  3. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  5. Coal Study Guide for Elementary School | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Elementary School Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Focuses on the basics of coal, history of coal use, conversion of coal into electricity, and climate change concerns. PDF icon Fossil Energy Study Guide: Coal (for Elementary School) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide - Middle School Coal Study Guide - High School Secondary Energy Infobook and Secondary Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

  6. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  7. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  8. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  9. Texas Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processed (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Processed (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 7,018,237...

  10. Should we transport coal, gas, or electricity: cost, efficiency, and environmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2005-08-15

    The authors examine the life cycle costs, environmental discharges, and deaths of moving coal via rail, coal to synthetic natural gas via pipeline, and electricity via wire from the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming to Texas. Which method has least social cost depends on how much additional investment in rail line, transmission, or pipeline infrastructure is required, as well as how much and how far energy is transported. If the existing rail lines have unused capacity, coal by rail is the cheapest method (up to 200 miles of additional track could be added). If no infrastructure exists, greater distances and larger amounts of energy favor coal by rail and gasified coal by pipeline over electricity transmission. For 1,000 miles and 9 gigawatts of power, a gas pipeline is cheapest, has less environmental discharges, uses less land, and is least obtrusive. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  12. Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FE-0514 Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007 Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) Projects As of September 2007 U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Washington, DC 20585 January 2008 T E C H N O L O G Y DOE/FE-0514 Clean Coal Technology Programs: Program Update 2007 Includes Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP), Power Plant

  13. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for 2013 are final and this report supersedes the 2013 quarterly coal distribution reports. Highlights

  14. Sustainable Coal Use | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sustainable Coal Use Sustainable Coal Use Coal is a vital energy resource, not only for the United States, but also for many developed and developing economies around the world. Finding ways to use coal cleanly and more efficiently at lower costs is a major R&D challenge, and an ongoing focus of activities by the DOE's Office of Fossil Energy. PDF icon Fossil Energy Research Benefits - Sustainable Coal Use More Documents & Publications Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

  15. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  16. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data, much of the information had to be withheld for confidentiality...

  17. Southern Coal finds value in the met market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-11-15

    The Justice family launches a new coal company (Southern Coal Corp.) to serve metallurgical and steam coal markets. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  18. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  19. Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-exporting State. This Final 2008 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the Preliminary...

  20. U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Distribution...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Institutional: Form EIA-3, "Quarterly Coal Consumption and Quality Report, Manufacturing and TransformationProcessing Coal Plants and Commercial and Institutional Coal...

  1. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  2. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  3. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  4. Coal - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coal made up more than 80% of retired electricity generating capacity in 2015 electricitystatesgenerationcapacityretirements U.S. coal exports declined 23% in 2015, as coal imports ...

  5. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  6. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  7. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  8. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  9. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  10. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  11. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neuworth, Martin B. (Chevy Chase, MD)

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  12. Which route to coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nene, R.G.

    1981-11-01

    Two main methods for producing liquid fuels from coal are currently undergoing intensive evaluation. One, direct liquefaction (e.g., SRC-II, Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), and H-Coal) produces liquid fuels directly from coal; the other, indirect liquefaction (e.g., Lurgi gasifier followed by Fischer-Tropsch, and Shell-Koppers gasifier followed by methanol synthesis and Mobil's MTG process) first gasifies coal and then converts the gaseous material into liquid products. This paper compares both routes basing its assessment on yields, thermal efficiencies, elemental balances, investment, complexity, and state of development. It is shown that direct liquefaction is more efficient and produces more product per investment dollar. Higher efficiency for direct liquefaction is verified bY stoichiometric and thermodynamic analysis. All approaches require about the same capital investment per unit of feed. Indirect liquefaction can be either more or less complex than direct liquefaction, depending upon the process. Direct liquefaction is least developed. 8 refs.

  13. Upgrading coal plant damper drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, N.R.; Simmons, K. [Alamaba Power (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The replacement of damper drives on two coal-fired units at the James H. Miller Jr. electric generating plant by Intelligent Contrac electric rotary actuators is discussed. 2 figs.

  14. Coal and Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Over the last several decades, the Office of Fossil Energy performed RD&D activities that made significant advancements in the areas of coal conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. Technology...

  15. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the ninth quarter, electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were done to characterize the morphology and composition of the surface of as-received coal, oxidized coal and coal pyrite. In addition, electrokinetic tests were done on Upper Freeport coal pyrite.

  16. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  17. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  18. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  19. Coal liquefaction and gasification technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangold, E.C.; Muradaz, M.A.; Ouellette, R.P.; Farah, O.G.; Cheremisinoff, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of selected coal liquefaction and gasification processes developed with support from the United States are reviewed. The Exxon Donor Solvent, H-Coal, SRC-I, SRC-II, Mobile Gasoline Synthesis, Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, and Zinc Halide Hydrocracking liquefaction processes and the Slagging Lurgi, Texaco, Combustion Engineering, COGAS, and Shell-Koppers gasification processes are covered. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 chapters.

  20. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).