National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for xe rn uuo

  1. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-08-07

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  2. Removal of I, Rn, Xe and Kr from off gas streams using PTFE membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siemer, Darryl D.; Lewis, Leroy C.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing I, R, Xe and Kr which involves the passage of the off gas stream through a tube-in-shell assembly, whereby the tubing is a PTFE membrane which permits the selective passages of the gases for removing and isolating the gases.

  3. Cray XE Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray XE and Cray XK Documentation Search Preferences | Advanced Search Home Browse Books Man Pages Glossary Platforms Cray XC Cray XE and Cray XK Cray XT Cray X2 Cray X1 Data...

  4. Intel® Advisor XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intel® Advisor XE 2013 Threading Assistant Copyright© 2012, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Simplify and Speed Threading Design Intel ® Advisor XE - Threading Assistant The Challenge of Parallel Design: * Need to implement to measure performance * Implementation is time consuming * Disrupts regular product development * Testing difficult without tools Intel Advisor XE Separates Design & Implementation * Fast

  5. Intel® Inspector XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inspector XE 2013 Memory Checker Thread Checker Static Analysis Pointer Checker Copyright© 2012, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Dynamic Analysis Memory Errors Static Analysis Code & Security Errors Deliver More Reliable Applications Intel ® Inspector XE and Intel ® Parallel Studio XE family of suites 2 Find errors earlier with less effort Threading Errors Static Analysis & Pointer Checker are only available

  6. Cray XE6 Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray XE6 Workshop February 7-8, 2011 Outline * About OpenMP * Parallel Regions * Using OpenMP on Hopper * Worksharing Constructs * Synchronization * Data Scope * Tasks * Hands-on Exercises 2 What is OpenMP * OpenMP is an industry standard API of C/C++ and Fortran for shared memory parallel programming. - OpenMP Architecture Review Board * Major compiler vendors: PGI, Cray, Intel, Oracle, HP, Fujitsu, Microsoft, AMD, IBM, NEC, Texas Instrument, ... * Research institutions: cOMPunity, DOE/NASA

  7. Intel® Advisor XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Then Implement Intel Advisor XE 2013 - Threading Assistant Intel Confidential 3 102413 Less Effort, Less Risk, More Impact Design Parallelism * No disruption ...

  8. Gold–superheavy-element interaction in diatomics and cluster adducts: A combined four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham/charge-displacement study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rampino, Sergio Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-07-14

    The chemistry of superheavy elements (Z ≥ 104) is actively investigated in atom-at-a-time experiments of volatility through adsorption on gold surfaces. In this context, common guidelines for interpretation based on group trends in the periodic table should be used cautiously, because relativistic effects play a central role and may cause predictions to fall short. In this paper, we present an all-electron four-component Dirac-Kohn-Sham comparative study of the interaction of gold with Cn (Z = 112), Fl (Z = 114), and Uuo (Z = 118) versus their lighter homologues of the 6th period, Hg, Pb, and Rn plus the noble gas Xe. Calculations were carried out for Au–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Xe, Rn, Uuo), Au{sub 7}– and Au{sub 20}–E (E = Hg, Cn, Pb, Fl, Rn) complexes, where Au{sub 7} (planar) and Au{sub 20} (pyramidal) are experimentally determined clusters having structures of increasing complexity. Results are analysed both in terms of the energetics of the complexes and of the electron charge rearrangement accompanying their formation. In line with the available experimental data, Cn and more markedly Fl are found to be less reactive than their lighter homologues. On the contrary, Uuo is found to be more reactive than Rn and Xe. Cn forms the weakest bond with the gold atom, compared to Fl and Uuo. The reactivity of Fl decreases with increasing gold-fragment size more rapidly than that of Cn and, as a consequence, the order of the reactivity of these two elements is inverted upon reaching the Au{sub 20}-cluster adduct. Density difference maps between adducts and fragments reveal similarities in the behaviour of Cn and Xe, and in that of Uuo and the more reactive species Hg and Pb. These findings are given a quantitative ground via charge-displacement analysis.

  9. Xe-135 Production from Cf-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. A. McGrath; T. P. Houghton; J. K. Pfeiffer; R. K. Hague

    2012-03-01

    135Xe is a good indicator that fission has occurred and is a valuable isotope that helps enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Due to its rather short half life and minimal commercial interest, there are no known sources where 135Xe can be purchased. Readily available standards of this isotope for calibrating collection and analytical techniques would be very useful. 135Xe can be produced in the fissioning of actinide isotopes, or by neutron capture on 134Xe. Since the neutron capture cross section of 134Xe is 3 mB, neutron capture is a low yield, though potentially useful, production route. 135Xe is also produced by spontaneous fission of 252Cf. 252Cf has a spontaneous fission rate of about 6 x 1011 s-1g-1. The cumulative yield from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf is 4.19%; and the competing neutron capture reaction that depletes 135Xe in thermal reactor systems is negligible because the neutron capture cross-section is low for fast fission neutrons. At the INL, scientists have previously transported fission products from an electroplated 252Cf thin source for the measurement of nuclear data of short-lived fission products using a technique called He-Jet collection. We have applied a similar system to the collection of gaseous 135Xe, in order to produce valuable standards of this isotope.

  10. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-selective Microporous Metal Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xianyin; Plonka, Anna M.; Banerjee, Debasis; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ghose, Sanjit; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Parise, John B.

    2015-05-22

    We found that the cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe–network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributed to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Our calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.

  11. Direct Observation of Xe and Kr Adsorption in a Xe-selective Microporous Metal Organic Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Xianyin; Plonka, Anna M.; Banerjee, Debasis; Krishna, Rajamani; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ghose, Sanjit; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Parise, John B.

    2015-05-22

    We found that the cryogenic separation of noble gases is energy-intensive and expensive, especially when low concentrations are involved. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) containing polarizing groups within their pore spaces are predicted to be efficient Xe/Kr solid-state adsorbents, but no experimental insights into the nature of the Xe–network interaction are available to date. Here we report a new microporous MOF (designated SBMOF-2) that is selective toward Xe over Kr under ambient conditions, with a Xe/Kr selectivity of about 10 and a Xe capacity of 27.07 wt % at 298 K. Single-crystal diffraction results show that the Xe selectivity may be attributedmore » to the specific geometry of the pores, forming cages built with phenyl rings and enriched with polar -OH groups, both of which serve as strong adsorption sites for polarizable Xe gas. The Xe/Kr separation in SBMOF-2 was investigated with experimental and computational breakthrough methods. These experiments showed that Kr broke through the column first, followed by Xe, which confirmed that SBMOF-2 has a real practical potential for separating Xe from Kr. Our calculations showed that the capacity and adsorption selectivity of SBMOF-2 are comparable to those of the best-performing unmodified MOFs such as NiMOF-74 or Co formate.« less

  12. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-12 and RN-19, Reykjanes, Iceland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-07-24

    Results for fluid rare earth elment analyses from Reykjanes wells RN-12 and RN-19. The data have not been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcetrated using chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using and Element magnetic sctor ICP-MS.

  13. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  14. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2013-08-27

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  16. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2014-07-22

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  17. Analysis of 125Xe electron–photon coincidence decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klingberg, Franziska J.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Prinke, Amanda; Haas, Derek A.; Lowrey, Justin D.

    2015-10-26

    In this study, as part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab’s TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style β–γ coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125Xe are also consideredmore » for relevance to the CTBT verification mission.« less

  18. Cray XE6 Architecture John Shalf NERSC XE6 User Training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XE6 Architecture John Shalf NERSC XE6 User Training Feb 7, 2011 2 NERSC-6 Grace "Hopper" Cray XE6 Performance 1.2 PF Peak 1.05 PF HPL (#5) Processor AMD MagnyCours 2.1 GHz 12-core 8.4 GFLOPs/core 24 cores/node 32-64 GB DDR3-1333 per node System Gemini Interconnect (3D torus) 6392 nodes 153,408 total cores I/O 2PB disk space 70GB/s peak I/O Bandwidth Potential System Architectures What is Possible Systems 2009 2015 +1/-0 2018 +1/-0 System peak 2 Peta 100-300 Peta 1 Exa Power 6 MW ~15 MW

  19. Xenon in the protoplanetary disk (PPD-XE)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J.

    2015-06-18

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind (SW), in planetary atmospheres and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the timemore » of incorporation into the interior of Mars, through times of regolith implantations to the present.« less

  20. The Effect of CO2 on the Measurement of 220Rn and 222Rn with Instruments Utilising Electrostatic Precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lane-Smith, Derek; Sims, Kenneth

    2013-06-09

    In some volcanic systems, thoron and radon activity and CO2 flux, in soil and fumaroles, show a relationship between (220Rn/222Rn) and CO2 efflux. It is theorized that deep, magmatic sources of gas are characterized by high 222Rn activity and high CO2 efflux, whereas shallow sources are indicated by high 220Rn activity and relatively low CO2 efflux. In this paper we evaluate whether the observed inverse relationship is a true geochemical signal, or potentially an analytical artifact of high CO2 concentrations. We report results from a laboratory experiment using the RAD7 radon detector, known 222Rn (radon) and 220Rn (thorn), and amore » controllable percentage of CO2 in the carrier gas. Our results show that for every percentage of CO2, the 220Rn reading should be multiplied by 1.019, the 222Rn radon should be multiplied by 1.003 and the 220Rn/222Rn ratio should be multiplied by 1.016 to correct for the presence of the CO2.« less

  1. Xe and Ar nanobubbles in Al studied by photoemission spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Xe and Ar bombardment is observed by low energy electron diffraction, but this does not ... Road, Indore 452001, Madhya Pradesh (India) (India) Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI ...

  2. Driving photochemistry by clustering: The ICl-Xe case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glodic, Pavle; Kartakoullis, Andreas; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.; Farnik, Michal; Samartzis, Peter C.

    2012-10-21

    We present slice imaging data demonstrating the influence of clustering on the photodissociation dynamics of a diatomic molecule: iodine monochloride (ICl) was dissociated at 235 nm in He and Xe seed gasses, probing both Cl and I photofragment energy and angular distributions. We observe that the kinetic energy releases of both Cl and I fragments change from He to Xe seeding. For Cl fragments, the seeding in Xe increases the kinetic energy release of some Cl fragments with a narrow kinetic energy distribution, and leads to some fragments with rather broad statistical distribution falling off exponentially from near-zero energies up to about 2.5 eV. Iodine fragment distribution changes even more dramatically from He to Xe seeding: sharp features essentially disappear and a broad distribution arises reaching to about 2.5 eV. Both these observations are rationalized by a simple qualitative cluster model assuming ICl dissociation inside larger xenon clusters and 'on surface' of smaller Xe species.

  3. Origin of anomalous Xe-H in nanodiamond stardust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kratz, K. L.; Farouqi, K.; Hallmann, O.; Pfeiffer, B.; Ott, U.

    2014-05-09

    Still today, the nucleosynthesis origin of Xe-H in presolar nanodiamonds is far from understood. Historically possible explanations were proposed by a secondary neutron-burst process occurring in the He- or C/O-shells of a type-II supernova (SN-II), which are, however, not fully convincing in terms of modern nucleosynthesis conditions. Therefore, we have investigated Xe isotopic abundance features that may be diagnostic for different versions of a classical, primary r-process in high-entropy-wind (HEW) ejecta of core-collapse SN-II. We report here on parameter tests for non-standard r-process variants, by varying electron abundances (Y{sub e}), ranges of entropies (S) and expansion velocities (V{sub exp}) with their correlated neutron-freezeout times (?(freeze)) and temperatures (T{sub 9}(freeze)). From this study, we conclude that a best fi to the measured Xe-H abundance ratios {sup i}Xe/{sup 136}Xe can be obtained with the high-S main component of a cold r-process variant.

  4. New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Features of the Hopper XE6 New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin While the Franklin and Hopper systems are both have similar programming environments and user software, there are some key architectural differences between the two systems. This page describes those differences and how they may improve your productivity. More Cores per Node and Multiple Sockets per Node Hopper has a total of 24 cores on each node. With more cores per node, you may want to explore adding

  5. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Authors: Auger, M. ;...

  6. Analysis of 125Xe electron–photon coincidence decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klingberg, Franziska J.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Prinke, Amanda; Haas, Derek A.; Lowrey, Justin D.

    2015-10-26

    In this study, as part of the verification component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), environmental gas samples originating from nuclear fission are analyzed for the presence of 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. In this work, the non-traditional radioxenon isotope 125Xe was investigated. The isotope was produced as an isotopically pure sample via neutron activation of 124Xe at the University of Texas at Austin Nuclear Engineering Teaching Lab’s TRIGA MARK II Reactor. The sample was then measured using a HPGe detector as well as an ARSA-style β–γ coincidence detector. Potential sources and sensitivities for production of 125Xe are also considered for relevance to the CTBT verification mission.

  7. Xe capillary target for laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Okino, Hideyasu; Nica, Petru Edward; Amano, Sho; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2007-10-15

    A cryogenic Xe jet system with an annular nozzle has been developed in order to continuously fast supply a Xe capillary target for generating a laser-plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The cooling power of the system was evaluated to be 54 W, and the temperature stability was {+-}0.5 K at a cooling temperature of about 180 K. We investigated experimentally the influence of pressure loss inside an annular nozzle on target formation by shortening the nozzle length. Spraying caused by cavitation was mostly suppressed by mitigating the pressure loss, and a focused jet was formed. Around a liquid-solid boundary, a solid-Xe capillary target (100/70 {mu}m {phi}) was formed with a velocity of {<=}0.01 m/s. Laser-plasma EUV generation was tested by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam on the target. The results suggested that an even thinner-walled capillary target is required to realize the inertial confinement effect.

  8. Luminescence characteristics of Xe{sub 2}Cl excimer molecules under pumping the dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a pulsed electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mis'kevich, A I; Jinbo, Guo

    2013-05-31

    Temporal and spectral characteristics of the luminescence of dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures of different composition, excited by a 5-ns pulsed electron beam, were measured. The energy of the electrons amounted to 150 keV and the electron beam current pulse amplitude was 5 A. The gas mixtures were used containing Xe (38-700 Torr) and CCl{sub 4} (0.03-0.3 Torr). The studies were performed within the wavelength range 200-1200 nm using a MAYA-2000Pro diffraction grating spectrometer and a RIGOL DS 5022 ME fast digital oscilloscope. The luminescence lifetimes of the excimer molecules XeCl* (band with {lambda}{sub max} = 308 nm) and Xe{sub 2}Cl* (band with {lambda}{sub max} = 486 nm) were measured, as well as the constants of quenching by the components of the gas mixture for Xe{sub 2}Cl* molecules. A model of plasma-chemical processes for dense Xe-CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a very low content of the CCl{sub 4} donor is proposed. It is shown that in such 'poor' mixtures Xe{sub 2}Cl* molecules are mainly produced as a result of recombination of the Xe{sub 2}{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions. (active media)

  9. Excess /sup 129/Xe in terrestrial samples: A non-primordial hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffee, M.W.; Hudson, G.B.

    1987-03-01

    Excesses of /sup 129/Xe relative to the isotopic composition in air are observed in some terrestrial samples. Traditionally these /sup 129/Xe excesses have been thought to be related to /sup 129/I that was present in abundance in the early solar system. We propose an alternative hypothesis to explain terrestrial /sup 129/Xe excesses based on the production of /sup 129/I from the spontaneous fission of /sup 238/U.

  10. NEUTRON REACTOR HAVING A Xe$sup 135$ SHIELD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stanton, H.E.

    1957-10-29

    Shielding for reactors of the type in which the fuel is a chain reacting liquid composition comprised essentially of a slurry of fissionable and fertile material suspended in a liquid moderator is discussed. The neutron reflector comprises a tank containing heavy water surrounding the reactor, a shield tank surrounding the reflector, a gamma ray shield surrounding said shield tank, and a means for conveying gaseous fission products, particularly Xe/sup 135/, from the reactor chamber to the shield tank, thereby serving as a neutron shield by capturing the thermalized neutrons that leak outwardly from the shield tank.

  11. Characterization and Modeling of Materials for Kr-Xe Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, Paul; Naduvalath, Balakrishnan; Czerwinski, Ken

    2015-11-16

    We sought to identify practical adsorbents for the separation of Kr from Xe through pressure swing adsorption. We spent appreciable efforts on two categories of materials: metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolites. MOFs represent a new and exciting sorbent with numerous new framework topologies and surface chemistries. Zeolites are widely used and available commercial adsorbents. We have employed a combination of gas sorption analysis to analyze gas – surface interactions, computational modelling to both aid in interpreting experimental results and to predict practical adsorbents, and in-situ crystallographic studies to confirm specific experimental results.

  12. CfRN-Developing a Low Carbon Growth Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics: GHG inventory, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Publications Website: www.rainforestcoalition.org CfRN Low...

  13. Xe/Kr Selectivity Measurements using AgZ-PAN at Various Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-05-01

    In preparation for planned FY-15 Xe/Kr multi-column testing, a series of experiments were performed to determine the selectivity of Xe over Kr using the silver converted mordenite-polyacrylonitrile (AgZ-PAN) sorbent. Results from these experiments will be used for parameter selection guidelines to define test conditions for Kr gas capture purity evaluations later this year. The currently configured experimental test bed was modified by installing a new cooling apparatus to permit future multi-column testing with independent column temperature control. The modified test bed will allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents. Selectivity experiments were run at temperatures of 295, 250 and 220 K. Two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv Xe, 150 ppmv Kr in either a He or an air balance were used. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivity was calculated using Xe and Kr capacity determinations. AgZ-PAN sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr of 72 were calculated at room temperature (295 K) using the feed gas with a He balance and 34 using the feed gas with an air balance. As the test temperatures were decreased the selectivity of Xe over Kr also decreased due to an increase in both Xe and Kr capacities. At 220 K, the sorbent selectivities for Xe over Kr were 22 using the feed gas with a He balance and 28 using the feed gas with an air balance. The selectivity results indicate that AgZ-PAN used in the first column of a multi-column configuration will provide adequate partitioning of Xe from Kr in the tested temperature range to produce a more pure Kr end product for collection.

  14. GraXe, graphene and xenon for neutrinoless double beta decay searches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martn-Albo, J.; Monrabal, F.; Vidal, J. Muoz [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia, Calle Catedrtico Jos Beltrn, 2, 46980 Valencia (Spain); Guinea, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), CSIC, Calle Sor Juana Ins de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Fogler, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Katsnelson, M.I., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: paco.guinea@icmm.csic.es, E-mail: mfogler@ucsd.edu, E-mail: katsnel@sci.kun.nl, E-mail: justo.martin-albo@ific.uv.es, E-mail: francesc.monrabal@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heijendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new detector concept, GraXe (to be pronounced as grace), to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}XE. GraXe combines a popular detection medium in rare-event searches, liquid xenon, with a new, background-free material, graphene. In our baseline design of GraXe, a sphere made of graphene-coated titanium mesh and filled with liquid xenon (LXe) enriched in the {sup 136}XE isotope is immersed in a large volume of natural LXe instrumented with photodetectors. Liquid xenon is an excellent scintillator, reasonably transparent to its own light. Graphene is transparent over a large frequency range, and impermeable to the xenon. Event position could be deduced from the light pattern detected in the photosensors. External backgrounds would be shielded by the buffer of natural LXe, leaving the ultra-radiopure internal volume virtually free of background. Industrial graphene can be manufactured at a competitive cost to produce the sphere. Enriching xenon in the isotope {sup 136}XE is easy and relatively cheap, and there is already near one ton of enriched xenon available in the world (currently being used by the EXO, KamLAND-Zen and NEXT experiments). All the cryogenic know-how is readily available from the numerous experiments using liquid xenon. An experiment using the GraXe concept appears realistic and affordable in a short time scale, and its physics potential is enormous.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-08-07

    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  16. Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 July 11, 2011 by Francesca Verdier Sandia National Laboratory and Cray Inc are hosting a Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on September 27 -28, 2011. The workshop will focus on: Node performance including how NUMA affects node performance, Hybrid OpenMP-MPI performance and Scaling to large core counts Attendance at the workshop is limited and you are

  17. XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.

    1981-01-01

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  18. XeCl avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.

    1979-10-10

    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: 0.2 to 0.4% chlorine donor/2.5% to 10% Xe/97.3% to 89.6% Ar) is provided. The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl/sub 4/ BCl/sub 3/. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  19. Microstructure evolution in Xe-irradiated UO2 at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.F. He; J. Pakarinen; M.A. Kirk; J. Gan; A.T. Nelson; X.-M. Bai; A. El-Azab; T.R. Allen

    2014-07-01

    In situ Transmission Electron Microscopy was conducted for single crystal UO2 to understand the microstructure evolution during 300 keV Xe irradiation at room temperature. The dislocation microstructure evolution was shown to occur as nucleation and growth of dislocation loops at low irradiation doses, followed by transformation to extended dislocation segments and tangles at higher doses. Xe bubbles with dimensions of 1-2 nm were observed after room-temperature irradiation. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that UO2 remained stoichiometric under room temperature Xe irradiation.

  20. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garn, Troy G.; Greenhalgh, Mitchell; Watson, Tony

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40 C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  1. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $^{136}$Xe with EXO-200

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $$^{136}$$Xe with EXO-200 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $$^{136}$$Xe with EXO-200 Authors: Auger, M. ; /Bern U. ; Auty, D.J. ; /Alabama U. ; Barbeau, P.S. ; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; /Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; /Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; /Colorado State U. ; Breidenbach, M. ; /SLAC ; Brunner, T. ; /Stanford

  2. Removal of {sup 222}Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M.; Majorovits, B.; Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P.

    2015-08-17

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove {sup 210}Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  3. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion into Ag-natrolite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seoung, Donghoon; Cynn, Hyunchae; Park, Changyong; Choi, Kwang -Yong; Blom, Douglas A.; Evans, William J.; Kao, Chi -Chang; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2011-12-27

    In this study, pressure can drastically alter chemical and physical properties of materials and allow structural phase transitions and chemical reactions to occur that defy much of our understanding gained at ambient conditions. The observation and prediction of new exotic binary phases of sodium chlorides (1) and the auto-dissociat ions of XeF2 and NO2 at high pressures suggests new chemistry is within reach (2). Particularly exciting is the high-pressure chemistry of Xenon, which has been found to react with ice (3) and hydrogen (4) and predicted to form stable Mg-Xe compounds (5) under pressure. We show that Ag16Al16Si24O80 · 16H2Omore » inserts Xe at 1.7 GPa and 250 ° C and Ag+ disproportionates to metallic Ag and Ag2+ which is retained together with Xe within the pores after pressure release. This represents the first case of Xe acting as a chemical mediator based on its adduct forming capabilities within small pores.« less

  4. A XeCl laser with a controlled radiation pulse shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, A I

    2009-04-30

    The pump parameters of a three-contour excitation system are studied in a gas-discharge excimer XeCl laser using a Ne-Xe-HCl mixture. A computation model is developed for finding the parameters of multi-contour excitation systems. A setup incorporating a three-contour system for excitation and automatic UV preionisation is designed, which provides multipulse generation of 65-ns, 26-mJ laser pulses at the laser efficiency of 1%. It is shown that generation of short radiation pulses of duration 7 ns and relatively long pulses of duration 65 ns in the multipulse generation regime is possible in the excitation system under study in Xe:HCl = 20:1 mixtures containing neon as buffer gas. (lasers)

  5. Switching Kr/Xe Selectivity with Temperature in a Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-05-16

    Krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe) adsorption on two partially fluorinated metal-organic frameworks (FMOFCu and FMOFZn) with different cavity size and topologies were reported. FMOFCu shows an inversion in sorption selectivity toward Kr at temperatures below 0 C while FMOFZn does not. The 1D microtubes packed along the (101) direction connected through small bottleneck windows in FMOFCu appear to be the reason for this peculiar behavior. The FMOFCu shows an estimated Kr/Xe selectivity of 36 at 0.1 bar.

  6. Influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of a XeCl exciplex lamp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Sosnin, E. A.; Saghi, B.; Panarin, V. A.; Rahmani, B.

    2013-09-15

    The influence of the chlorine concentration on the radiation efficiency of coaxial exciplex lamps (excilamps) excited by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures at pressures of 240–250 Torr is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.01–1%. The DBD characteristics were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model at Cl{sub 2} concentrations in the range of 0.1–5%. It is found that the radiation intensities of the emission bands of Xe*{sub 2}(172 nm) and XeCl* (308 nm) are comparable when the chlorine concentration in the mixture is in the range of 0.01–0.1%. In this case, in the mixture, the radiation intensity of the Xe*{sub 2} molecule rapidly decreases with increasing Cl{sub 2} concentration and, at a chlorine concentration of ≥0.2%, the radiation of the B → X band of XeCl* molecules with a peak at 308 nm dominates in the discharge radiation. The radiation efficiency of this band reaches its maximum value at chlorine concentrations in the range of 0.4–0.5%. The calculated efficiencies of DBD radiation exceed those obtained experimentally. This is due to limitations of the one-dimensional model, which assumes the discharge to be uniform in the transverse direction, whereas the actual excilamp discharge is highly inhomogeneous. The influence of the chlorine concentration on the properties of the DBD plasma in binary Xe-Cl{sub 2} mixtures is studied numerically. It is shown that an increase in the Cl{sub 2} concentration in the mixture leads to the attachment of electrons to chlorine atoms and a decrease in the electron density and discharge conductivity. As a result, the electric field and the voltage drop across the discharge gap increase, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the average electron energy and the probability of dissociation of Cl{sub 2} molecules and ionization of Xe atoms and Cl{sub 2} molecules

  7. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, R.K.; Balog, G.; Seegmiller, E.T.

    1980-03-04

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/ into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region.

  8. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, Robert K.; Balog, George; Seegmiller, Emma T.

    1982-01-01

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2 into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  9. Measurement of XeI and XeII velocity in the near exit plane of a low-power Hall effect thruster by light induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dancheva, Y.; Biancalana, V.; Pagano, D.; Scortecci, F.

    2013-06-15

    Near exit plane non-resonant light induced fluorescence spectroscopy is performed in a Hall effect low-power Xenon thruster at discharge voltage of 250 V and anode flow rate of 0.7 mg/s. Measurements of the axial and radial velocity components are performed, exciting the 6s{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o}{yields}6p{sup 2}[3/2]{sub 2} transition at 823.16 nm in XeI and the 5d[4]{sub 7/2}{yields}6p[3]{sub 5/2}{sup o} transition at 834.724 nm in XeII. No significant deviation from the thermal velocity is observed for XeI. Two most probable ion velocities are registered at a given position with respect to the thruster axis, which are mainly attributed to different areas of creation of ions inside the acceleration channel. The spatial resolution of the set-up is limited by the laser beam size (radius of the order of 0.5 mm) and the fluorescence collection optics, which have a view spot diameter of 8 mm.

  10. Residual Nuclei Production in the reaction {sup 136}Xe+ deuterium at 500 A MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcantara-Nunez, J. A.; Benlliure, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Casarejos, E.; Fernandez Ordonez, M.; Pereira, J.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kelic, A.; Pleskac, R.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Schmitt, C.; Yordanov, O.; Audouin, L.; Bernas, M.; Lafriaskh, A.; Stephan, C.

    2010-04-26

    More than six hundred nuclei produced in the fragmentation of {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 A MeV on a liquid deuterium target were identified using inverse kinematics at the GSI Fragment Separator (FRS). These data are relevant for understanding of spallation reactions.

  11. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a

  12. A Two-Column Method for the Separation of Kr and Xe from Process Off-Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul F.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2014-07-29

    Two metal organic framework materials were investigated to determine the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery from air at non-cryogenic temperatures. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and a partially fluorinated FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air and, with a two-bed system, separate Xe from Kr. In a two-bed system, the he removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased Xe was removed in the first bed. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  13. REVISED AND EXTENDED ANALYSIS OF FIVE TIMES IONIZED XENON, Xe VI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Pagan, C. J. B.; Abrahão, R. A. E-mail: cesarpagan@fee.unicamp.br

    2015-01-01

    A capillary discharge tube was used to record the Xe spectrum in the 400-5500 Å  region. A set of 243 lines of the Xe VI spectrum was observed, and 146 of them were classified for the first time. For all known lines, we calculated the weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and weighted transition probabilities (gA) using the configuration interaction in a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach. The energy matrix was calculated using energy parameters adjusted to fit the experimental energy levels. Core polarization effects were taken into account in our calculations. Experimental energy values and calculated lifetimes are also presented for a set of 88 levels. From these levels, 32 were classified for the first time and 33 had their values revised. Our analysis of the 5s5p5d and 5s5p6s configurations was extended in order to clarify discrepancies among previous works.

  14. Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2012-06-06

    Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

  15. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z. Belasri, A.

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  16. Overview of Hazard Assessment and Emergency Planning Software of Use to RN First Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waller, E; Millage, K; Blakely, W F; Ross, J A; Mercier, J R; Sandgren, D J; Levine, I H; Dickerson, W E; Nemhauser, J B; Nasstrom, J S; Sugiyama, G; Homann, S; Buddemeier, B R; Curling, C A; Disraelly, D S

    2008-08-26

    There are numerous software tools available for field deployment, reach-back, training and planning use in the event of a radiological or nuclear (RN) terrorist event. Specialized software tools used by CBRNe responders can increase information available and the speed and accuracy of the response, thereby ensuring that radiation doses to responders, receivers, and the general public are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Software designed to provide health care providers with assistance in selecting appropriate countermeasures or therapeutic interventions in a timely fashion can improve the potential for positive patient outcome. This paper reviews various software applications of relevance to radiological and nuclear (RN) events that are currently in use by first responders, emergency planners, medical receivers, and criminal investigators.

  17. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  18. Actinide production in /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregorich, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    The production cross sections for the actinide products from /sup 136/Xe bombardments of /sup 249/Cf at energies 1.02, 1.09, and 1.16 times the Coulomb barrier were determined. Fractions of the individual actinide elements were chemically separated from recoil catcher foils. The production cross sections of the actinide products were determined by measuring the radiations emitted from the nuclides within the chemical fractions. The chemical separation techniques used in this work are described in detail, and a description of the data analysis procedure is included. The actinide production cross section distributions from these /sup 136/Xe + /sup 249/Cf bombardments are compared with the production cross section distributions from other heavy ion bombardments of actinide targets, with emphasis on the comparison with the /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction. A technique for modeling the final actinide cross section distributions has been developed and is presented. In this model, the initial (before deexcitation) cross section distribution with respect to the separation energy of a dinuclear complex and with respect to the Z of the target-like fragment is given by an empirical procedure. It is then assumed that the N/Z equilibration in the dinuclear complex occurs by the transfer of neutrons between the two participants in the dinuclear complex. The neutrons and the excitation energy are statistically distributed between the two fragments using a simple Fermi gas level density formalism. The resulting target-like fragment initial cross section distribution with respect to Z, N, and excitation energy is then allowed to deexcite by emission of neutrons in competition with fission. The result is a final cross section distribution with respect to Z and N for the actinide products. 68 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Using Intel®VTune’ Amplifier XE to Tune Software on Knights Landing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    KNL is a highly-parallel architecture with large vector units. To get the most performance out of this platform, it is imperative to take advantage of these strengths. 6 7 Most screenshots in this presentation were taken from Intel® VTune(tm) Amplifier XE 2016 Update 4. This is the first public version with KNL support. Screenshots from different versions of the tool may have minor differences. 8 Results will be created in a directory named r###ah, r###ge, or r###macc Results can be viewed from

  20. Structures of {sup 201}Po and {sup 205}Rn from EC/{beta}{sup +}-decay studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, A. Y.; Podolyak, Zs.; Walker, P. M.; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Estevez, E.; Fraile, L. M.; Al-Dahan, N.; Alkhomashi, N.; Briz, J. A.; Maira, A.; Herlert, A.; Koester, U.; Singla, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several low-lying excited states in {sub 86}{sup 205}Rn{sub 119} and {sub 84}{sup 201}Po{sub 117} were identified for the first time following EC/{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 205}Fr and {sup 201}At, respectively, using {gamma}-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy at the CERN isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility. The EC/{beta}{sup +} branch from {sup 205}Fr was measured to be 1.5(2)%. The excited states of the daughter nuclei are understood in terms of the odd nucleon coupling to the neighboring even-even core. The neutron single-particle energies of the p{sub 3/2} orbital relative to the f{sub 5/2} ground state in {sup 205}Rn, and the f{sub 5/2} orbital relative to the p{sub 3/2} ground state in {sup 201}Po, were determined to be 31.4(2) and 5.7(3) keV, respectively. We tentatively identify a (13/2){sup +} isomeric level at 657.1(5) keV in {sup 205}Rn. The systematic behavior of the (13/2){sup +} and (3/2){sup -} levels is also discussed.

  1. Hyperpolarized Xe-129 NMR Investigation of Ammonia Borane in Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Li Q.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    2009-04-23

    Hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR was used for the first time to probe the porosity for nanophase ammonium borane (AB) infused in mesoporous silica (MCM). Variable temperature HP 129Xe NMR measurements have been systematically carried out on a series of AB:MCM materials with different AB loading. Three distinct types of pore environments are clearly evident: pristine mesopores; pores coated with AB inside the meso-channels, and inter-particle spacing formed from AB aggregates outside the meso-channels. We found similarly uniform coating of AB on mesoporous silica channels with 1:2 and 1:1 AB:MCM loading (ratio of weight percent). When the loading of AB to MCM is larger than 1:1, AB starts to aggregate outside the meso-channels. Further increases in loading (? 3:1) result in the formation of partially blocked meso-channels as a result of excessive AB loading. The detailed information obtained from this study on how supported AB resides in nanoporous channels and how it evolves with the increase of AB loading is helpful for rational design of novel materials with optimal hydrogen storage and release properties.

  2. Probing the Geometry and Interconnectivity of Pores in Organic Aerogels Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Wang, Li Q.; Baumann, T.; Satcher, J. H.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Ratcliffe, C. I.; Ripmeester, J. A.

    2004-04-28

    Aerogels represent a class of novel open-pore materials with high surface area and nanometer pore sizes. They exhibit extremely low mass densities, low thermal conductivity, good acoustic insulation, and low dielectric constants. These materials have potential applications in catalysis, advanced separation techniques, energy storage, environmental remediation, and as insulating materials. Organic aerogels are stiffer and stronger than silica aerogels and are better insulators with higher thermal resistance. Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) aerogels are typically prepared through the base-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol with formaldehyde in aqueous solution to produce gels, which are then dried in supercritical CO2.1,2 The [resorcinol]/ [catalyst] (R/C) ratio of the starting sol-gel solution has been determined to be the dominant factor that affects the properties of RF aerogels. Since the unique microstructures of aerogels are responsible for their unusual properties, characterizing the detailed porous structures and correlating them with the processing parameters are vital to establish rational design principles for novel organic aerogels with tailored properties. In this communication we report the first use of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe NMR to probe the geometry and interconnectivity of pores in RF aerogels and to correlate these with synthetic conditions. Our work demonstrates that HP 129Xe NMR is so far the only method for accurately measuring the free volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for soft mesoporous materials without using any geometric models.

  3. Characteristic emission enhancement in the atmosphere with Rn trace using metal assisted LIBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, M. M.; Parvin, P. Moosakhani, A.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Reyhani, A.; Majdabadi, A.; Abachi, S.

    2014-06-15

    Several characteristic emission lines from the metal targets (Cu, Zn and Pb) were investigated in trace presence of radon gas in the atmospheric air, using Q-SW Nd:YAG laser induced plasma inside a control chamber. The emission lines of metal species are noticeably enhanced in (Rn+air), relative to those in the synthetic air alone. Similar spectra were also taken in various sub-atmospheric environments in order to determine the optimum pressure for enhancement. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were also employed to count the tracks due to alpha particles for the activity assessment.

  4. Microscopic description of spherical to {gamma}-soft shape transitions in Ba and Xe nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2010-03-15

    The rapid transition between spherical and {gamma}-soft shapes in Ba and Xe nuclei in the mass region A>=130 is analyzed using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce the characteristic evolution of excitation spectra and E2 transition probabilities, and in general, a good agreement with available data is obtained. The calculated spectra display fingerprints of a second-order shape phase transition that can approximately be described by analytic solutions corresponding to the E(5) dynamical symmetry.

  5. Molecular dynamic studies on anisotropic explosion of laser irradiated Xe cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Gaurav; Gupta, N. K.

    2012-09-15

    A three dimensional molecular dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamics of Xe clusters of various radii irradiated by laser of moderate intensities ({approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 16}W/cm{sup 2}). The FWHM pulse duration of the laser is varied from few laser cycles to hundreds of femtosecond. For cluster of radius 50 A irradiated by a laser of 170 fs pulse duration, it is observed that ion yield is more along the direction of laser polarization than perpendicular to it. This trend reverses (more ions are emitted along the direction perpendicular to laser polarization than parallel to it) when laser pulses of few cycles are used. This reversal of anisotropy is explained on the basis of spatial shielding of ions due to the oscillating inner electron cloud along direction of laser electric field. The nature of anisotropy remains same with variations in laser intensity and cluster size.

  6. Mixed symmetry states and {beta} decays of odd-A Xe to I isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Khudair, Falih H.

    2009-07-15

    The energy spectra of the parent and daughter nuclei in the {beta} decays ({sup 121-127}Xe,{beta}{sup +121-127}I) are considered in the interacting boson fermion model (IBFM-2) with the g{sub 7/2},d{sub 5/2},d{sub 3/2},s{sub 1/2}, and h{sub 11/2} single-particle orbitals. Electromagnetic transition probabilities and branching ratios in odd {sup 121-127}I isotopes are investigated. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mixed symmetry states, and the F-spin structures of the wave functions are analyzed. The log{sub 10}ft values of the allowed {beta} decay transitions are calculated. It is found that the IBFM-2 results agree with the experimental data quite well.

  7. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tso, Kin

    1996-05-01

    The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  8. Matrix effect on vibrational frequencies: Experiments and simulations for HCl and HNgCl (Ng = Kr and Xe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Rsnen, Markku; Lignell, Antti; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Gerber, R. Benny; Department of Physical Chemistry, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel and Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697

    2014-03-07

    We study the environmental effect on molecules embedded in noble-gas (Ng) matrices. The experimental data on HXeCl and HKrCl in Ng matrices is enriched. As a result, the H?Xe stretching bands of HXeCl are now known in four Ng matrices (Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe), and HKrCl is now known in Ar and Kr matrices. The order of the H?Xe stretching frequencies of HXeCl in different matrices is ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constant, in contrast to the classical order observed for HCl: ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar) < ?(Ne). The order of the H?Kr stretching frequencies of HKrCl is consistently ?(Kr) < ?(Ar). These matrix effects are analyzed theoretically by using a number of quantum chemical methods. The calculations on these molecules (HCl, HXeCl, and HKrCl) embedded in single Ng{sup ?} layer cages lead to very satisfactory results with respect to the relative matrix shifts in the case of the MP4(SDQ) method whereas the B3LYP-D and MP2 methods fail to fully reproduce these experimental results. The obtained order of frequencies is discussed in terms of the size available for the Ng hydrides in the cages, probably leading to different stresses on the embedded molecule. Taking into account vibrational anharmonicity produces a good agreement of the MP4(SDQ) frequencies of HCl and HXeCl with the experimental values in different matrices. This work also highlights a number of open questions in the field.

  9. Spontaneous and induced emission of XeCl* excimer molecules under pumping of Xe – CCl{sub 4} and Ar – Xe – CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a low CCl{sub 4} content by fast electrons and uranium fission fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mis'kevich, A I; Guo, J; Dyuzhov, Yu A

    2013-11-30

    The spontaneous and induced emission of XeCl* excimer molecules upon excitation of Xe – CCl{sub 4} and Ar – Xe – CCl{sub 4} gas mixtures with a low CCl{sub 4} content by high-energy charged particles [a pulsed high-energy electron beam and products of neutron nuclear reaction {sup 235}U(n, f)] has been experimentally studied. The electron energy was 150 keV, and the pump current pulse duration and amplitude were 5 ns and 5 A, respectively. The energy of fission fragments did not exceed 100 MeV, the duration of the neutron pump pulse was 200 μs, and the specific power contribution to the gas was about 300 W cm{sup -3}. Electron beam pumping in a cell 4 cm long with a cavity having an output mirror transmittance of 2.7% gives rise to lasing on the B → X transition in the XeCl* molecule (λ = 308 nm) with a gain α = 0.0085 cm{sup -1} and fluorescence efficiency η ≈ 10%. Pumping by fission fragments in a 250-cm-long cell with a cavity formed by a highly reflecting mirror and a quartz window implements amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) with an output power of 40 – 50 kW sr{sup -1} and a base ASE pulse duration of ∼200 ms. .

  10. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell; Non-Nstec Authors: G. Pyles and Jon Carilli

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  11. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-life of {sup 136}Xe in KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KamLAND-Zen Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-01-23

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of {sup 136}Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 136}Xe is T{sup 2{nu}}{sub 1/2} = 2:38 {+-}#6; 0:02(stat)#6;{+-}0.14(syst)#2;x10{sup 21} yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} > 5.7 x#2; 10{sup 24} yr at 90% C.L.

  12. Removal of long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bowles, M. A.; Bunker, R.; McCabe, K.; White, J. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Cushman, P.; Pepin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Guiseppe, V. E. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing < 1 ?m from stainless-steel plates reduces the contamination efficiently, by a factor > 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screeners energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  13. One-neutron transfer study of Xe137 and systematics of 13/21+ and 13/22+ levels in N=83 nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Elson, J. M.; Kinnison, J. E.; Gargano, A.; Bottoni, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Allmond, James M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; et al

    2016-09-08

    Excited states in 137Xe have been studied by using the near-barrier single-neutron transfer reactions 13C(136Xe,12C )137Xe and 9Be(136Xe,8Be )137Xe in inverse kinematics.Particle- and particle- coincidence measurements have been performed with the Phoswich Wall and Digital Gammasphere detector arrays. Evidence is found for a 13/2+2 level (E = 3137 keV) and for additional high-lying 3/2– and 5/2– states. The results are discussed in the framework of realistic shell-model calculations. These calculations are also extended to the 13/2+1 and 13/2+2 levels in the N = 83 isotonic chain. Furthermore, they indicate that there is a need for a value of the neutronmore » 0i13/2 single-particle energy (ESPE = 2366 keV) lower than the one proposed in the literature. It is also demonstrated that the population patterns of the j = l ± 1/2 single-particle states in 137Xe are different for the two targets used in these measurements and the implications of this effect are addressed.« less

  14. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry; Welty, Amy Keil; Lyon, Kevin Lawrence; Watson, Tony Leroy

    2015-08-31

    Previous research studies have shown that INL-developed engineered form sorbents are capable of capturing both Kr and Xe from various composite gas streams. The previous experimental test bed provided single column testing for capacity evaluations over a broad temperature range. To advance research capabilities, the employment of an additional column to study selective capture of target species to provide a defined final gas composition for waste storage was warranted. The second column addition also allows for compositional analyses of the final gas product to provide for final storage determinations. The INL krypton capture system was modified by adding an additional adsorption column in order to create a multi-column test bed. The purpose of this modification was to investigate the separation of xenon from krypton supplied as a mixed gas feed. The extra column was placed in a Stirling Ultra-low Temperature Cooler, capable of controlling temperatures between 190 and 253K. Additional piping and valves were incorporated into the system to allow for a variety of flow path configurations. The new column was filled with the AgZ-PAN sorbent which was utilized as the capture medium for xenon while allowing the krypton to pass through. The xenon-free gas stream was then routed to the cryostat filled with the HZ-PAN sorbent to capture the krypton at 191K. Selectivities of xenon over krypton were determined using the new column to verify the system performance and to establish the operating conditions required for multi-column testing. Results of these evaluations verified that the system was operating as designed and also demonstrated that AgZ-PAN exhibits excellent selectivity for xenon over krypton in air at or near room temperature. Two separation tests were performed utilizing a feed gas consisting of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton with the balance being made up of air. The AgZ-PAN temperature was held at 295 or 253K while the HZ-PAN was held at 191K for both

  15. Understanding the Adsorption Mechanism of Xe and Kr in a Metal-Organic Framework from X-ray Structural Analysis and First- Principles Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Sanjit K.; Li, Yan; Yakovenko, Andrey; Dooryhee, Eric; Ehm, Lars; Ecker, Lynne E.; Dippel, Ann-Christin; Halder, Gregory J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2015-04-16

    Enhancement of adsorption capacity and separation of radioactive Xe/Kr at room temperature and above is a challenging problem. Here, we report a detailed structural refinement and analysis of the synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of Ni-DODBC metal organic framework with in situ Xe and Kr adsorption at room temperature and above. Our results reveal that Xe and Kr adsorb at the open metal sites, with adsorption geometries well reproduced by DFT calculations. The measured temperature-dependent adsorption capacity of Xe is substantially larger than that for Kr, indicating the selectivity of Xe over Kr and is consistent with the more negative adsorption energy (dominated by van der Waals dispersion interactions) predicted from DFT. Our results reveal critical structural and energetic information about host–guest interactions that dictate the selective adsorption mechanism of these two inert gases, providing guidance for the design and synthesis of new MOF materials for the separation of environmentally hazardous gases from nuclear reprocessing applications.

  16. A performance comparison of current HPC systems: Blue Gene/Q, Cray XE6 and InfiniBand systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Barker, Kevin J.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-01-01

    We present here a performance analysis of three of current architectures that have become commonplace in the High Performance Computing world. Blue Gene/Q is the third generation of systems from IBM that use modestly performing cores but at large-scale in order to achieve high performance. The XE6 is the latest in a long line of Cray systems that use a 3-D topology but the first to use its Gemini interconnection network. InfiniBand provides the flexibility of using compute nodes from many vendors that can be connected in many possible topologies. The performance characteristics of each vary vastly, and the way in which nodes are allocated in each type of system can significantly impact on achieved performance. In this work we compare these three systems using a combination of micro-benchmarks and a set of production applications. In addition we also examine the differences in performance variability observed on each system and quantify the lost performance using a combination of both empirical measurements and performance models. Our results show that significant performance can be lost in normal production operation of the Cray XE6 and InfiniBand Clusters in comparison to Blue Gene/Q.

  17. Comparing the Performance of Blue Gene/Q with Leading Cray XE6 and InfiniBand Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerbyson, Darren J.; Barker, Kevin J.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2013-01-21

    AbstractThree types of systems dominate the current High Performance Computing landscape: the Cray XE6, the IBM Blue Gene, and commodity clusters using InfiniBand. These systems have quite different characteristics making the choice for a particular deployment difficult. The XE6 uses Crays proprietary Gemini 3-D torus interconnect with two nodes at each network endpoint. The latest IBM Blue Gene/Q uses a single socket integrating processor and communication in a 5-D torus network. InfiniBand provides the flexibility of using nodes from many vendors connected in many possible topologies. The performance characteristics of each vary vastly along with their utilization model. In this work we compare the performance of these three systems using a combination of micro-benchmarks and a set of production applications. In particular we discuss the causes of variability in performance across the systems and also quantify where performance is lost using a combination of measurements and models. Our results show that significant performance can be lost in normal production operation of the Cray XT6 and InfiniBand Clusters in comparison to Blue Gene/Q.

  18. A technique for searching for the 2K capture in {sup 124}Xe with a copper proportional counter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.; Tekueva, D. A. Yakimenko, S. P.

    2015-12-15

    An experimental technique for searching for the 2K capture in {sup 124}Xe with a large low-background copper proportional counter is described. Such an experiment is conducted at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The experimental setup is located in the Low-Background Deep-Level Laboratory at a depth of 4900 m.w.e., where the flux of muons of cosmic rays is suppressed by a factor of 10{sup 7} relative to that at the Earth’s surface. The setup incorporates a proportional counter and low-background shielding (18 cm of copper, 15 cm of lead, and 8 cm of borated polyethylene). The results of processing the data obtained in 5 months of live measurement time are presented. A new limit on the half-life of {sup 124}Xe with respect to the 2K capture is set at the level of 2.5 × 10{sup 21} years.

  19. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrin, S.; Dafni, T.; Gmez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  20. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Ris fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. High dose Xe ion irradiation of yttria stabilized zirconia : influence of sputtering on implanted ion profile and retained damage /.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasyev, I. V.; Sickafus, K.

    2001-01-01

    Fully-stabilized zirconia is known as a radiation resistant material. The objective of many experinients on zirconia has been to test the susceptibility of this material to amorphization. Because zirconia exhibits high radiation tolerance, this has made very high fluence ion irradiation experiments a necessity and so, additional iiradiation-inducetl effects such as surface sputtering become important. In this paper, we present results from 340 keV Xe' irradiations of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) to fluences ranging froiri 1.10' to 1.5.1OZ1 ions/m2. No iunorphization of YSZ was observed after irradiation to even the highest ion fluences. To assess sputtering effects at high fluence, an analytical model was developed, using ion range and damage distribulions calculated using Monte Carlo simulations for ion-solid interactions. Analysis results and experimental data revealed that at high fluences, the implanted ion and damago distribution profiles are significantly modified by sputtering.

  2. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  3. Survey of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in the air of a tunnel located in Nagano City using the solid-state nuclear track detector method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muramatsu, H.; Hasegawa, N.; Misawa, C.; Minami, M.; Tanaka, E.; Asami, K.; Kuroda, C.; Kawakami, A. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1999-07-01

    The survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels constructed during World War II has been performed using a solid-state nuclear track detector technique. For the practical application of this technique t the determination of [sup 222]Rn concentrations in air, some basic properties were experimentally examined on the cellulose nitrate film, Kodak LR 115 type II. The calibration coefficient of the cellulose nitrate film used is determined from a correlation between the [sup 222]Rn concentration in air and the observed number of perforated etched tracks for widespread radon concentrations. The slope of the linear relationship observed yields a calibration coefficient of (0.00209 [+-] 0.00018) tracks cm[sup [minus]2] (Bq m[sup [minus]3] h)[sup [minus]1]. From the survey of [sup 222]Rn concentration in the air of tunnels, the concentration of several thousand Bq m[sup [minus]3] was observed at the inner most area of the tunnel, and the seasonal variation was clearly observed. The exponential distribution of radon concentration as a function of distance from the openings of the tunnel suggests that the radon concentration in the tunnel is basically governed by diffusion and mixing of radon gas with air.

  4. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more » TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  5. Measurements of charge and light in pure high pressure Xe towards the study of Xe+TMA mixtures with dark matter directionality sensitivity and supra-intrinsic energy resolution for 0νββ decay searches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Oliveira, C. A.B.; Gehman, V.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D.; Renner, J.

    2015-03-24

    Trimethylamine (TMA) may improve the energy resolution of gaseous xenon based detectors for 0νββ decay searches through the reduction of the Fano factor by the Penning effect. This molecule may also be the key for sensing directionality of nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in monolithic massive (ton-scale) detectors, without the need of track imaging, by making use of columnar recombination. Nuclear recoil directionality may be the path for a definite discovery of the WIMP nature of Dark Matter. An ionization chamber has been constructed and operated to explore the properties of high pressure gaseous Xe +more »TMA mixtures for particle detection in rare-event experiments. The ionization, scintillation and electroluminescence (EL) signals are measured as function of pressure and electric field. We present results for pure xenon at pressures up to 8 bar. This work has been carried out within the context of the NEXT collaboration.« less

  6. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  7. Pulsed Laser-Assisted Focused Electron-Beam-Induced Etching of Titanium with XeF 2 : Enhanced Reaction Rate and Precursor Transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Noh, J. H.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Timilsina, R.; Stanford, M. G.; Lewis, B. B.; Rack, P. D.

    2015-01-28

    We introduce a laser-assisted focused electron-beam-induced etching (LA-FEBIE) process which is a versatile, direct write nanofabrication method that allows nanoscale patterning and editing; we do this in order to enhance the etch rate of electron-beam-induced etching. The results demonstrate that the titanium electron stimulated etch rate via the XeF2 precursor can be enhanced up to a factor of 6 times with an intermittent pulsed laser assist. Moreover, the evolution of the etching process is correlated to in situ stage current measurements and scanning electron micrographs as a function of time. Finally, the increased etch rate is attributed to photothermally enhancedmore » Ti–F reaction and TiF4 desorption and in some regimes enhanced XeF2 surface diffusion to the reaction zone.« less

  8. Theoretical investigation of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kunqi; Sheng, Li

    2015-04-14

    The equilibrium geometries, harmonic frequencies, and dissociation energies of HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions (Ng = He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) were investigated using the following method: Becke-3-parameter-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP), Boese-Matrin for Kinetics (BMK), second-order Mller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster with single and double excitations as well as perturbative inclusion of triples (CCSD(T)). The results indicate that HHeNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HArNH{sub 3}{sup +}, HKrNH{sub 3}{sup +}, and HXeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ions are metastable species that are protected from decomposition by high energy barriers, whereas the HNeNH{sub 3}{sup +} ion is unstable because of its relatively small energy barrier for decomposition. The bonding nature of noble-gas atoms in HNgNH{sub 3}{sup +} was also analyzed using the atoms in molecules approach, natural energy decomposition analysis, and natural bond orbital analysis.

  9. Damage Accumulation in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yttria-Stabilized ZrO{sub 2} by Xe-Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I.V.; Gritsyna, V.T.; Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1999-04-25

    Magnesium-aluminate spinel (MAS) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) are being considered for use as ceramic matrices in proliferation resistant fuels and radioactive storage systems, and may be used either as individual entities or as constituents in multicomponent ceramic systems. It is worthwhile, therefore, to compare radiation damage in these two potentially important materials when subjected to similar irradiation conditions, e.g., ion beam irradiation. To compare radiation damage properties of these two materials, single crystals of spinel and zirconia were irradiated with 340 keV Xe{sup ++} ions at 120 K, and subsequently investigated by Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling (RBS/C), and optical absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that damage accumulation in both spinel and zirconia follow a three stage process: (1) very slow damage accumulation over a wide range of dose; (2) rapid changes in damage over a range of doses from about 0.25 to 25 displacements per atom (DPA); (3) slower damage accumulation at very high doses and possibly saturation. Optical absorption results indicate that F-centers form in Xe ion-irradiated spinel and that the concentration of these centers saturates at high dose. Absorption bands are also formed in both spinel and zirconia that are due to point defect complexes formed upon irradiation. These bands increase in intensity with increasing Xe dose, and, in the case of zirconia, without saturation. Finally the rate of change in intensity of these bands with increasing Xe dose, mimic the changes in damage observed by RBS/C with increasing dose.

  10. Time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves using visible continuum from the positive column of a Cs-Xe dc discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitlin, M. S.; Golovanov, V. V.; Spivakov, A. G.; Tsvetkov, A. I.; Zelenogorskiy, V. V.

    2010-03-15

    We present a high-sensitivity technique for time-resolved imaging of millimeter waves (MMWs) using the visible continuum (VC) from the positive column (PC) of a medium-pressure Cs-Xe dc discharge. For the MMW imaging application, a uniform plasma slab of the PC of a Cs-Xe discharge with 10x8 cm{sup 2} aperture and 2 cm in thickness was generated for 45 Torr xenon. The imaging technique is based on the fact that the intensity of the e-Xe bremsstrahlung continuum from the PC increases in the visible region when the electrons in the plasma are heated by MMWs. It is shown that in the MMW intensity range from zero to the threshold of the microwave-induced plasma breakdown, the intensity of the VC from the PC of a Cs-Xe discharge increases approximately as a second-order polynomial function of the MMW intensity. The obtained experimental data agree well with our calculations of the dependence of the VC intensity on electron temperature. The Ka-band MMW field patterns at the output of conical horn antennas and in the quasioptical beam were imaged using the discharge technique. It is shown that the technique can be used for time-resolved measurement of the profiles of watt- and subwatt-level MMWs. An energy flux sensitivity of the technique of about 10 {mu}J/cm{sup 2} in the Ka-band was demonstrated. The temporal resolution of the technique is about 0.8 {mu}s. Our modeling of the transient behavior of the electron temperature in the PC shows that the time history of the electron temperature variation coincides well with the measured time history of the VC intensity variation.

  11. Search for 2νββ decay of Xe136 to the 01+ excited state of Ba136 with the EXO-200 liquid xenon detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Albert, J. B.; Auty, D. J.; Barbeau, P. S.; Beck, D.; Belov, V.; Breidenbach, M.; Brunner, T.; Burenkov, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chambers, C.; et al

    2016-03-08

    EXO-200 is a single phase liquid xenon detector designed to search for neutrinoless ββ decay of 136Xe to the ground state of 136Ba. We report here on a search for the two-neutrino ββ decay of 136Xe to the first 0+ excited state, 0+1, of Ba136 based on a 100 kg yr exposure of 136Xe. Using a specialized analysis employing a machine learning algorithm, we obtain a 90% CL half-life sensitivity of 1.7×1024 yr. We find no statistically significant evidence for the 2νββ decay to the excited state resulting in a lower limit of T2ν1/2 (0+ → 0+1) > 6.9 ×1023more » yr at 90% CL. In conclusion, this observed limit is consistent with the estimated half-life of 2.5×1025 yr.« less

  12. RN12 and RN30 Epidote anlayses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-01-01

    Results for laser ablation measurement of reare earth elments and electron microprobe analysis of major elments in hydrothermal epidote. Laser ablation measurements were completed using an Agilent 7700 quadrupole ICP-MS coupled with 193nm Photon Instruments Excimer laser.

  13. d-alpha correlation functions and collective motion in Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verde, G; Danielewicz, P; Lynch, W; Chan, C; Gelbke, C; Kwong, L; Liu, T; Liu, X; Seymour, D; Tan, W; Tsang, M; Wagner, A; Xu, H; Brown, D; Davin, B; Larochelle, Y; de Souza, R; Charity, R; Sobotka, L

    2006-07-27

    The interplay of the effects of geometry and collective motion on d-{alpha} correlation functions is investigated for central Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV. The data cannot be explained with out collective motion, which could be partly along the beam axis. A semi-quantitative description of the data can be obtained using a Monte -Carlo model, where thermal emission is superimposed on collective motion. Both the emission volume and the competition between the thermal and collective motion influence significantly the shape of the correlation function, motivating new strategies for extending intensity interferometry studies to massive particles.

  14. RnD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sources Materials research Thin films Crab cavities Temperature mapping Process development Large grain niobium High-current High-current Structures SRF photo-injectors RF windows Q-drop and baking studies SRF R&D

  15. XE6_Tips_022011.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For m ost u sers a nd a pplica1ons, u sing d efault s e5ngs w ork very well  For users who want to experiment to get the best performance t hey c an, t he f ollowing p resenta1on g ives y ou some informa1on on compilers and se5ngs to try  While i t d oesn't c over a bsolutely e verything, t he p resenta7on tries t o a ddress s ome o f t he t unable p arameters w hich w e h ave found t o p rovide i ncreased p erformance i n t he s itua7ons discussed 2 xtpe---mc12 If n o m odule i s l oaded,

  16. XE6_Tips_09302010.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For
most
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and
applica1ons,
using
default
se5ngs
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  For
users
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want
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experiment
to
get
the
best
 performance
they
can,
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 some
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se5ngs
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  While
it
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presenta7on
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  17. Using the Cray XE6

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    who already have some High Performance Computing experience. The ability to use Linux, Fortran, C, andor C++, and exposure to parallel programming concepts using the Message...

  18. Analytical Hartree-Fock wave functions subject to cusp and asymptotic constraints: He to Xe, Li{sup +} to Cs{sup +}, H{sup {minus}} to I{sup {minus}}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga, Toshikatsu; Kanayama, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Thakkar, A.J.

    1999-02-20

    Analytical, variational approximations to Hartree-Fock wave functions are constructed for the ground states of all the neutral atoms from He to Xe, the cations from Li{sup +} to Cs{sup +}, and the stable anions from H{sup {minus}} to I{sup {minus}}. The wave functions are constrained so that each atomic orbital agrees well with the electron-nuclear cusp condition and has good long-range behavior. Painstaking optimization of the exponents and principal quantum numbers of the Slater-type basis functions allows one to reach this goal while obtaining total energies that, at worst, are a few microHartrees above the numerical Hartree-Fock limit values. The wave functions are freely available by anonymous ftp from okapi-chem.unb,ca or upon request to the authors.

  19. Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with atomic halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2014-01-28

    We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −}), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl{sup −} to I{sup −}. The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for Ne{sup +} with I{sup −}. Rate coefficients for Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, and Xe{sup +} reacting with Br{sub 2}{sup −} are also reported.

  20. Ultraviolet and infrared laser-induced fragmentation of free (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters in a molecular beam and (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters inside or on the surface of large (Xe){sub m} clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apatin, V. M.; Lokhman, V. N.; Makarov, G. N. Ogurok, N.-D. D.; Petin, A. N.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2015-02-15

    The fragmentation of free homogeneous (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters in a molecular beam (n ≤ 45 is the average number of molecules in the cluster) and (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters inside or on the surface of large (Xe){sub m} clusters (m ≥ 100 is the average number of atoms in the cluster) by ultraviolet and infrared laser radiations has been studied. These three types of (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters are shown to have different stabilities with respect to fragmentation by both ultraviolet and infrared radiations and completely different dependences of the fragmentation probability on the energy of ultraviolet and infrared radiations. When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the free (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters fragment at comparatively low fluences (Φ{sub UV} ≤ 0.15 J cm{sup −2}) and the weakest energy dependence of the fragmentation probability is observed for them. A stronger energy dependence of the fragmentation probability is observed for the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters localized inside (Xe){sub m} clusters, and the strongest dependence is observed for the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters located on the surface of (Xe){sub m} clusters. When the clusters are exposed to infrared radiation, the homogeneous (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters efficiently fragment at low fluences (Φ{sub IR} ≤ 25 mJ cm{sup −2}), higher fluences (Φ{sub IR} ≈ 75 mJ cm{sup −2}) are needed for the fragmentation of the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} localized inside (Xe){sub m} clusters, and even higher fluences (Φ{sub IR} ≈ 150 mJ cm{sup −2}) are needed for the fragmentation of the (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters located on the surface of (Xe){sub m} clusters. It has been established that small (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters located on the surface of (Xe){sub m} clusters do not fragment up to fluences Φ{sub IR} ≈ 250 mJ cm{sup −2}. The fragmentation efficiency of (CF{sub 3}I){sub n} clusters is shown to be the same (at the same fluence) when they are excited by both pulsed (τ{sub p}

  1. NREL: Energy Analysis - Jørn Aabakken

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Primary research interests Online Communities Web Applications Technology Characterizations Renewable energy scenarios Education and background training B.S. in economics, The ...

  2. Radioxenon detections in the CTBT International Monitoring System likely related to the announced nuclear test in North Korea conducted on February 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringbom, Anders; Axelssson, A.; Aldener, M.; Auer, M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fritioff, T.; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Nikkinen, Mika; Popov, Vladimir Y.; Popov, Y.; Ungar, R. Kurt; Wotawa, G.

    2014-02-01

    Abstract: Observations of the radioxenon isotopes 133Xe and 131mXe collected at the IMS stations RN38 and RN58 on April 7-8, and April 12-13 2013, respectively, are unique with respect to the measurement history of these stations. Comparison of measured data with calculated isotopic ratios as well as analysis using atmospheric transport modeling indicate that it is likely that the xenon measured was created in the underground nuclear test conducted by North Korea on February 12, 2013, and released 7 weeks later. More than one release is required to explain all observations. The 131mXe source terms for each release were calculated to 7x1011 Bq, corresponding to about 1-10% of the total xenon inventory for a 10-kt explosion, depending on fractionation and release scenario. The observed ratios could not be used to obtain any information regarding the fissile material that was used in the test.

  3. New Features of the Hopper XE6 - Differences from Franklin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Login Nodes The Hopper system has login nodes that are "external" to the main compute portion of the system. This is different from Franklin, where the login nodes are a ...

  4. Coalition for Rainforest Nations (CfRN) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through: utilizing selective logging practices, harnessing and remunerating the carbon sequestration and absorption capabilities of the rainforest, by valuing...

  5. Drill core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-04-01

    Analytical results for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill core from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  6. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  7. Drill cutting and core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Analytical results for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill cuttings from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  8. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  9. Materials Data on SbXe2F9 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on XeIF7 (SG:87) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    P.S. ; Barry, K. ; Bartoszek, L. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Colorado State U. ; ...

  12. Stable formation of ultrahigh power-density 248 nm channels in Xe cluster targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, Alex B.; Racz, Ervin; Khan, Shahab F.; Poopalasingam, Sankar; McCorkindale, John C.; Boguta, John; Longworth, James W.; Rhodes, Charles K.

    2012-07-11

    The optimization of relativistic and ponderomotive self-channeling of ultra-powerful 248 nm laser pulses launched in underdense plasmas with an appropriate longitudinal gradient in the electron density profile located at the initial stage of the self-channeling leads to (1) stable channel formation and (2) highly efficient power compression producing power densities in the 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 3} range. The comparison of theoretical studies with experimental results involving the correlation of (a) Thomson images of the electron density with (b) x-ray images of the channel morphology demonstrates that more than 90% of the incident 248 nm power can be trapped in stable channels and that this stable propagation can be extended to power levels significantly exceeding the critical power of the self-channeling process.

  13. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nature Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 9, September 1, 2014, pp. 835-839 Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Nature Chemistry, vol. 8, no. ...

  14. Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay ofXe136with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. ; Rowson, P. C. ; Rozo, M. P. ; Russell, J. J. ; Schubert, A. ; Sinclair, D. ; Smith, E. ; Stekhanov, V. ; Tarka, M. ; Tolba, T. ; Tosi, D. ; Tsang, R. ; Twelker, K. ;...

  15. Methane activation using Kr and Xe in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Lee, Dae Hoon Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Woo Seok; Song, Young-Hoon

    2014-10-15

    Methane has interested many researchers as a possible new energy source, but the high stability of methane causes a bottleneck in methane activation, limiting its practical utilization. To determine how to effectively activate methane using non-thermal plasma, the conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—Ar, Kr, and Xe—as additives. In addition to the methane conversion results at various applied voltages, the discharge characteristics such as electron temperature and electron density were calculated through zero-dimensional calculations. Moreover, the threshold energies of excitation and ionization were used to distinguish the dominant particle for activating methane between electrons, excited atoms, and ionized atoms. From the experiments and calculations, the selection of the additive noble gas is found to affect not only the conversion of methane but also the selectivity of product gases even under similar electron temperature and electron density conditions.

  16. Disproportionation of Ag+ by pressure-and heat-induced Xe insertion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

  17. Search for 2 ν β β decay of Xe 136 to the 0 1 + excited state...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Licciardi, C. ; Lin, Y. H. ; Ling, J. ; MacLellan, R. ; Marino, M. G. ; Mong, B. ; Moore, D. ; Njoya, O. ; Nelson, R. ; Odian, A. ; Ostrovskiy, I. ; Piepke, A. ; Pocar, A. ; ...

  18. Search for Majoron-emitting modes of double-beta decay of Xe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Licciardi, C. ; Lin, Y. H. ; Ling, J. ; MacLellan, R. ; Marino, M. G. ; Mong, B. ; Moore, D. ; Nelson, R. ; Odian, A. ; Ostrovskiy, I. ; Ouellet, C. ; Piepke, A. ; Pocar, A. ; ...

  19. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $^{136}$Xe with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  20. Franklin XT4 to Hopper XE6 Katie Antypas and Helen He NERSC User...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... PGI wrapper * Libsci dynamic linking - Dependency on FFTW3 - Introduced ... has run time error due to "undesirable dependency issues" between libmpich2 and libsma. - ...

  1. Observation of Two-Neutrino Double-Beta Decay in Xe-136 with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This second-order process, predicted by the standard model, has been observed for several ... ELEMENTS; NEUTRINOS; NUCLEI; PROBES; STANDARD MODEL Experiment-HEP, ...

  2. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in $^{136}$Xe with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept. ; Beauchamp, E. ; Laurentian U. ; Belov, V. ; Moscow, ITEP ; Benitez-Medina, C. ; Colorado State U. ; Breidenbach, M. ; SLAC ; Brunner, T. ; Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; ...

  3. Pore-structure determinations of silica aerogels by {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy and imaging.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, D. M.; Gerald, R. E., II; Botto, R. E.; Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    Silica aerogels represent a new class of open-pore materials with pore dimensions on a scale of tens of nanometers, and are thus classified as mesoporous materials. In this work, we show that the combination of NMR spectroscopy and chemical-shift selective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can resolve some of the important aspects of the structure of silica aerogels. The use of xenon as a gaseous probe in combination with spatially resolved NMR techniques is demonstrated to be a powerful, new approach for characterizing the average pore structure and steady-state spatial distributions of xenon atoms in different physicochemical environments. Furthermore, dynamic NMR magnetization transfer experiments and pulsed-field gradient (PFG) measurements have been used to characterize exchange processes and diffusive motion of xenon in samples at equilibrium. In particular, this new NMR approach offers unique information and insights into the nanoscopic pore structure and microscopic morphology of aerogels and the dynamical behavior of occluded adsorbates. MRI provides spatially resolved information on the nature of the flaw regions found in these materials. Pseudo-first-order rate constants for magnetization transfer among the bulk and occluded xenon phases indicate xenon-exchange rate constants on the order of 1 s-1 for specimens having volumes of 0.03 cm3. PFG diffusion measurements show evidence of anisotropic diffusion for xenon occluded within aerogels, with nominal self-diffusivity coefficients on the order of D= 10-3cm2/s.

  4. High field strength following the Kauai R-N geomagnetic reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, H.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The paleomagnetism of superposed lava flows on Kauai, Hawaii shows that the ancient geomagnetic field was unusually strong following a reverse-to-normal polarity transition that occurred about 4 million years ago. Paleointensities were determined by a standard experimental procedure (Thelliers' method) that recreates the process of remanence acquisition in volcanic rocks. This experiment makes it possible to infer the strength of the geomagnetic field present with each lava flow formed, thus producing an accurate picture of the ancient field's behavior after the reversal. Samples from 10 volcanic units yielded virtual dipole moments (VDMs) ranging from 7.4 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] to 14.5 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] with an average of 11.1[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. This value is high in comparisons to the average VDM for the past 5 m.y., approximately 8.7[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. In contrast to the highly variable dipole moment observed following a 15 m.y. old reversal at Steen s Mountain, Oregon, the field following the Kauai transition was relatively steady. Surprisingly, the maximum dipole moments following the two reversals were nearly equal. This similarity hints that high field strength may be a systematic feature of the geodynamo immediately following a polarity reversal.

  5. Using {sup 222}Rn as a tracer of geophysical processes in underground environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R. M.; Silva, A. A. R. da; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-11-11

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, are reported and analyzed. These mines are today used for touristic visitation. Our goal was to assess the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer of geological processes in underground environments. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used during the winter and summer seasons. The findings show that the significant radon concentrations reported in this environment are subject to large seasonal modulations, due to the strong dependence of natural ventilation on the variations of outside temperature. The results also indicate that radon pattern distribution appear as a good method to localize unknown ducts, fissures or secondary tunnels in subterranean environments.

  6. UPC-Yelick.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory 2711" 1" Cray XE Training" What's Wrong with MPI Everywhere * We ... Chapel or Titanium 2711" 2" Cray XE Training" 2711" Cray XE Training" 3" PGAS ...

  7. Theoretical study of the similarity between nuclei with four valence nucleons in A = 208, 132 and 68 regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benmicia, N.; Benrachi, F.

    2012-06-27

    One of the most interesting topics in nuclear structure is the study of nuclei near the limits of particle stability. Much attention is currently being focused on nuclei with few valence nucleons around Z= 28, 50 and 82, in particular the 68Ni, 132Sn and 208Pb neighbors. We are interested of the even-even isobars 72Ni, 72Ge and 72Zn in 68Ni region, 136Sn, 136Xe and 136Te in 132Sn region, 212Pb, 212Rn and 212Po in 208Pb region. The calculation of energies spectra using the effective interactions JUN45M, CW{Delta}5082 and KHP shows a good agreement with the available experimental data for the energie levels and their sequences. We have extended the existed similarity between lead and tin regions to the Nickel region.

  8. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  9. DPD Presentation Template based on New Intel Foil Format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... VTune(tm) Amplifier XE visualizes performance Intel Confidential 25 7112013 Source View ... VTune(tm) Amplifier XE visualizes performance Intel Confidential 26 7112013 Source View ...

  10. Computational studies of adsorption in metal organic frameworks and interaction of nanoparticles in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annapureddy, Harsha V.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Nguyen, Phuong T.; Truong, T. B.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-01-08

    In this review, we describe recent efforts in which computer simulations were used to systematically study nano-structured metal organic frameworks, with particular emphasis on their application in heating and cooling processes. These materials also are known as metal organic heat carriers. We used both molecular dynamics and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulation techniques to gain a molecular-level understanding of the adsorption mechanism of gases in these porous materials. We investigated the uptake of various gases such as refrigerants R12 and R143a and also the elemental gases Xe and Rn by the metal organic framework (i.e., Ni2(dhtp)). We also evaluated the effects of temperature and pressure on the uptake mechanism. Our computed results compared reasonably well with available experimental measurements, thus validating our potential models and approaches. In addition, we also investigated the structural, diffusive, and adsorption properties of different hydrocarbons in Ni2(dhtp). To elucidate the mechanism of nanoparticle dispersion in condensed phases, we also studied the interactions among nanoparticles in various liquids, such as n-hexane, water and methanol. This work was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the DOE. The authors also gratefully acknowledge support received from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of DOE's Office of Fossil Energy.

  11. Method for the preparation of radon-211

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Geerd-J.; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of .sup.211 Rn comprising bombarding .sup.209 Bi with .sup.7 Li particles utilizing the nuclear reaction .sup.209 Bi(.sup.7 Li,5n).sup.211 Rn. The method provides a simple spectrum from which .sup.211 Rn can be easily isolated in a highly pure condition.

  12. U-138: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 38: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability U-138: Cisco IOS IPSec IKE Unspecified Denial of Service Vulnerability April 2, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability has been reported in Cisco IOS, which can be exploited by malicious people to cause a DoS (Denial of Service). PLATFORM: Cisco IOS XE 2.1.x Cisco IOS XE 2.2.x Cisco IOS XE 2.3.x Cisco IOS XE 2.4.x Cisco IOS XE 2.5.x Cisco IOS XE 2.6.x Cisco IOS XE 3.1.x Cisco IOS XE 3.3.x

  13. NERSC Users Group Meeting October 18-21, 2010 Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture of XE6), Launch of parallel applicationsbatch system, User Environment, Compilers of the XE6 (PGI, Pathscale, GNU, Cray) October 18, 2010 | Author(s): The Cray Team |...

  14. Metastable Radioxenon Verification Laboratory (MRVL) Year-End Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Lidey, Lance S.

    2014-11-07

    This is the year end report that is due to the client. The MRVL system is designed to measure multiple radioxenon isotopes (135Xe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 133mXe) simultaneously. The system has 12 channels to load samples and make nuclear measurements. Although the MRVL system has demonstrated excellent stability in measurements of Xe-133 and Xe-135 over the year of evaluation prior to delivery, there has been concern about system stability over measurements performed on samples with orders of magnitude different radioactivity, and samples containing multiple isotopes. To address these concerns, a series of evaluation test have been performed at the end-user laboratory. The evaluation was performed in two separate phases. Phase 1 made measurements on isotopically pure Xe-133 from high radioactivity down to the system background levels of activity, addressing the potential count rate dependencies when activities change from extreme high to very low. The second phase performed measurements on samples containing multiple isotopes (Xe-135, Xe-133 and Xe-133m), and addressed concerns about the dependence of isotopic concentrations on the presence of additional isotopes. The MRVL showed a concentration dependence on the Xe-133 due to the amount of Xe-133m that was in the sample. The dependency is due to the decay of Xe-133m into Xe-133. This document focuses on the second phase and will address the analysis used to account for ingrowth of Xe-133 from Xe-133m.

  15. Generation of Radixenon Isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Pitts, W. K.; Pratt, Sharon L.; Reeder, Paul L.; Thomas, Charles W.

    2003-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air and can detect the following radioxenon isotopes, 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. This report details the techniques used to generate the various radioxenon isotopes that are used for the calibration of the detector as well as other isotopes that have the potential to interfere with the fission produced radioxenon isotopes. Fission production is covered first using highly enriched uranium followed by a description and results from an experiment to produce radioxenon isotopes from neutron activation of ambient xenon.

  16. Influence of the gas-flow Reynolds number on a plasma column in a glass tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Dong Jun; Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Guangsup [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronic and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, 20 Kwangwon-Ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric-plasma generation inside a glass tube is influenced by gas stream behavior as described by the Reynolds number (Rn). In experiments with He, Ne, and Ar, the plasma column length increases with an increase in the gas flow rate under laminar flow characterized by Rn < 2000. The length of the plasma column decreases as the flow rate increases in the transition region of 2000 < Rn < 4000. For a turbulent flow beyond Rn > 4000, the length of the plasma column is short in front of the electrode, eventually leading to a shutdown.

  17. Spencer Chetnical Ccmpny

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    to unrestricted areas. " with: respect to air- borne radioactivity. . . ..i .' .' 2. ... 1960.. .:,: : . . . . .. .-Lc*. .Bxhawt. air fr&,'& ho&in- R&n 16 of. .) -Buildiof,702 ...

  18. Amplio Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: SW1A 1RN Product: London-based venture capital & private equity investor in young European clean energy and environmental businesses. Coordinates: 51.506325,...

  19. Oak Ridge Associated Universities II

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... any radioactive form of the elements, a radioactive nuclide. ... Radon (Rn): .- ,.- I. -c- Rare earths: Rem: Roentgen CR): ... parameters of typical earth materials......

  20. Governor Kicks Off Energy Education Initiative in Colorado -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    importance of energy, science, mathematics and technology education in Colorado schools. ... The RnE2EW program also helps students see the importance of mathematics, science and ...

  1. The Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolinski, M. J. [Stanford University Physics Department, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2009-12-17

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe. The EXO Collaboration is actively pursuing both liquid-phase and gas-phase Xe detector technologies with scalability to the ton-scale. The search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe is especially attractive because of the possibility of tagging the resulting Ba daughter ion, eliminating all sources of background other than the two neutrino decay mode. EXO-200, the first phase of the project, is a liquid Xe time projection chamber with 200 kg of Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe. EXO-200, which does not include Ba-tagging, will begin taking data in 2009, with two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4x10{sup 25} years. This corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV.

  2. Jay Srinivasan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    before coming to Berkeley Lab. Conference Papers Jay Srinivasan, Richard Shane Canon, "Evaluation of A Flash Storage Filesystem on the Cray XE-6", CUG 2013, May 2013,...

  3. Presentations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Adobe Acrobat PDF file A description of the Cray XE6 architecture. Presented by John Shalf, NERSC. Compiling-Cunningham.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file An introduction to...

  4. Multithreaded Global Address Space Communication Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hy- brid MPIOpenMP & PGASOpenMP computing 1. INTRODUCTION The path towards ... network interface to access variables inmemory on Cray XE machines (when compiling with ...

  5. Compiling and Linking | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and are available in your default environment. Intel Composer XE compilers (CC++ and FORTRAN) are installed in softapps. To use the most current installed version, add...

  6. Compiler Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparisons Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons on Hopper There are five compilers available to users on Hopper, the NERSC XE6. All of the compilers on this system are...

  7. VTune

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intel VTUNE Amplifier XE is a performance analysis tool that enables you to find serial and parallel code bottlenecks and speed execution. VTUNE provides both the GUI...

  8. Charles F. McMillan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hungerford, and Timmes, Ap. J. (2006) Supernova hydrodynamics and nucleosynthesis 2D Hydro Simulation of Supernova Fallback model shows the data need for Xe, Cs, Ba, Pt, Au,...

  9. SAND2008-6687

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... at 300 K: Xe and Kr insertiondeletion statistics and guest mole fractions in the ... materials whose pore size and chemical environment can be chemically tailored because of ...

  10. Method for the preparation of radon-211. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, G.J.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1980-10-10

    A method is claimed for the production of /sup 211/Rn which can be easily isolated from the target and obtained in high yields. It is claimed that the radioisotope /sup 211/Rn can be prepared by the bombardment of /sup 209/Bi with /sup 7/Li particles using the nuclear reaction /sup 209/Bi(/sup 7/Li,5n)/sup 211/Rn. The /sup 211/Rn can be isolated from the target quite easily by degassing at elevated temperatures and the radiochemical purity of the product is better than 98%. It can thus be used as a generator system for /sup 211/At which is of potential interest in biomedical applications. The excitation function for this reaction is about from 40 to 60 MeV and the cross section for /sup 211/Rn production reaches 650 mb at 53 MeV producing a saturation yield of 5.5 ..mu..Ci/nA.

  11. Featured Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July 2011 Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences September 27-28 July 11, 2011 by Francesca Verdier Sandia National Laboratory and Cray Inc are hosting a Workshop on Cray XE6 User Experiences in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on September 27 -28, 2011. The workshop will focus on:

  12. Analysis of transient electron energy in a micro dielectric barrier discharge for a high performance plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae; Uchida, Satoshi

    2010-01-15

    We present here analysis of electron energy of a micro dielectric barrier discharge (micro-DBD) for alternating-current plasma display panel (ac-PDP) with Ne/Xe gas mixture by using the optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES method is quite useful to evaluate a variety of electron energy in a high pressure DBD ignited in a PDP small cell. Experiment shows that the ratio of Ne emission intensity (I{sub Ne}) relative to Xe emission intensity (I{sub Xe}) drastically decreases with time. This temporal profile is well consistent with dynamic behavior of electron temperature in a micro-DBD, calculated in one-dimensional fluid model. I{sub Ne}/I{sub Xe} also decreases with an increase in Xe gas pressure and a decrease in applied voltage especially in the initial stage of discharge, and these reflect the basic features of electron temperature in a micro-DBD. The influences of plasma parameters such as electron temperature on luminous efficacy are also theoretically analyzed using one-dimensional fluid model. The low electron temperature, which is attained at high Xe gas pressure, realizes the efficient Xe excitation for vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The high Xe-pressure condition also induces the rapid growth of discharge and consequent high plasma density, resulting in high electron heating efficiency.

  13. Actinide production from xenon bombardments of curium-248

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Production cross sections for many actinide nuclides formed in the reaction of /sup 129/Xe and /sup 132/Xe with /sup 248/Cm at bombarding energies slightly above the coulomb barrier were determined using radiochemical techniques to isolate these products. These results are compared with cross sections from a /sup 136/Xe + /sup 248/Cm reaction at a similar energy. When compared to the reaction with /sup 136/Xe, the maxima in the production cross section distributions from the more neutron deficient projectiles are shifted to smaller mass numbers, and the total cross section increases for the production of elements with atomic numbers greater than that of the target, and decreases for lighter elements. These results can be explained by use of a potential energy surface (PES) which illustrates the effect of the available energy on the transfer of nucleons and describes the evolution of the di-nuclear complex, an essential feature of deep-inelastic reactions (DIR), during the interaction. The other principal reaction mechanism is the quasi-elastic transfer (QE). Analysis of data from a similar set of reactions, /sup 129/Xe, /sup 132/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe with /sup 197/Au, aids in explaining the features of the Xe + Cm product distributions, which are additionally affected by the depletion of actinide product yields due to deexcitation by fission. The PES is shown to be a useful tool to predict the general features of product distributions from heavy ion reactions.

  14. Microsoft Word - NESHAP-DRAFT-STIPrev1 rfg caw 6-23-06.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (grouping of meteorological data) Th thorium TRU transuranic (nuclides with atomic ... of radon-222 ( 222 Rn) from the decay of thorium-230 ( 230 Th) in thorium wastes would not ...

  15. Section 55: Results of Compliance Assessments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Am americium Pu plutonium Ra radium Rn radon Th thorium U uranium This page intentionally ... (234U), and thorium-230 (230Th), of which only nine were above the selection criteria. ...

  16. Microsoft Word - NESHAP-Final- with cover.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (grouping of meteorological data) Th thorium TRU transuranic (nuclides with atomic ... of radon-222 ( 222 Rn) from the decay of thorium-230 ( 230 Th) in thorium wastes would not ...

  17. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... The result APV 0.656 0.060 (stat) 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides ...

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - Preparing for IAEA Data Reporting (10...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... MBR (PB, RF, RD, RN, SF, SD, SN, PE, MF & 65?) Summary * If we had known 5 years ago what we know now: UUSA would have taken a closer look at what was done at the URENCO plants ...

  19. Evance Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    England, United Kingdom Zip: LE11 5RN Sector: Wind energy Product: England-based small wind turbine manufacturer. References: Evance Wind1 This article is a stub. You can...

  20. Reliability of oceanic heat flow averages (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Sclater, J.G. 1 ; Crowe, J. ; Anderson, R.N. + Show Author Affiliations (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge) Publication Date: 1976-06-10 OSTI Identifier: 7155880 ...

  1. New Perspectives for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Radionuclides Release Model in a Deep Geological Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poinssot, Christophe; Ferry, Cecile; Poulesquen, Arnaud

    2007-07-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) source terms are used to define the release rate of radionuclides (RN) in a direct disposal and to assess the performance of this waste form. They classically distinguish between two contributions: (i) the Instant Release Fraction (IRF) of RN which are directly leached when water contacts the fuel, (ii) the slow and long term release of RN which are embedded within the fuel matrix. Recent experimental results bring significant input in our understanding and assessment of both contributions. However, they have not yet been integrated in the definition of the SNF source term. This paper will present the impact on the RN source term of the latest results on the SNF long term evolution and the key remaining scientific issues. (authors)

  2. Regen SW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SW Jump to: navigation, search Name: Regen SW Place: Exeter, United Kingdom Zip: EX4 4RN Product: Sustainable energy agency funded by South West RDA supporting green business in...

  3. Unified Resolve 2014: A Proof of Concept for Radiological Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are presently referred to as "Radiological Operations Support Specialists (ROSS). The role of the ROSS cadre is envisioned to be an on-scene RN subject matter expert to Incident ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Rn-Rp 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. Full Text Available March 2012 , ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. ...

  6. National Emission Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in-growth of Rn from the decay of Th in thorium 222 230 wastes would not exceed the ... RADON EMISSIONS FROM U AND Th SOURCES 238 232 In the past, material from Mound Applied ...

  7. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... In addition, two hot spot regions, the southern Great Plains and south-central Africa, ... In south-central Africa, Rn decreased at a rate of -0.63 W*m-2 per year, the major driving ...

  8. EV-13

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    support of these findings are: use, c - The rnE The radiological srrrvcy report for Dayo Cat;-on, snd The Gay0 Canyon Site bmary. Office of General Counsel has made a prelirslinky...

  9. Microsoft Word - FINAL 2009 Annual Summary Report_021910_Edits...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Pit 6 and Pit 13 contain thorium waste expected to generate 222 Rn in the future as 226 Ra ... humidity, wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, and incoming solar radiation. ...

  10. Microsoft Word - FY05 EMSP 86807 Report.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Environmental Science and Technology. 39, 18:7126- 7133. BORCH, T.; BIEDERMAN, J.A.; MOGK, D.W.; GERLACH, R.; BUTTERFIELD, P.W.; JORDAN, R.N.; CAMPER, A.K.: Characterization of Two ...

  11. Microsoft Word - applications_2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A final use of ATLAS for applications would be the possibility of medical isotope production. One example is the production of 211 Rn, via the 209 Bi( 7 Li,5n) reaction, which is a ...

  12. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radioisotope radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to ...

  13. BIG SANDY IDA ONEID A WILL IAM SBU RG BU RNIN G SPRIN GS WIN

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... ASH BU RN C REEK HUNT ING CREEK RED BIRD C OALBED GREEN GROVE RPD-WAYNE-3 LOC UST HILL BU ... Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to ...

  14. Nuclear Data Sheets for A=228

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abusaleem, Khalifeh

    2014-02-01

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for known nuclides of mass 228 (Ac, At, Fr, Np, Pa, Pu, Ra, Rn, Th, and U). Excited states in {sup 228}At, {sup 228}Rn, {sup 228}Fr, {sup 228}Np, and {sup 228}Pu have not been identified as yet. Significant amounts of new data have been added since the last evaluation of A=228 nuclides. This work supersedes earlier full evaluations of A=228 published by 1997Ar08.

  15. Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA * Sugar Land, TX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of 222 Rn, 220 Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity Background Increased attention is being placed on research into technologies that capture and store carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer great potential for reducing CO 2 emissions and, in turn, mitigating global climate change without adversely influencing energy use or

  16. GLASS daytime all-wave net radiation product: Algorithm development and preliminary validation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Ma, Han; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Jia, Kun; Yao, Yunjun; Jia, Aolin

    2016-03-09

    Mapping surface all-wave net radiation (Rn) is critically needed for various applications. Several existing Rn products from numerical models and satellite observations have coarse spatial resolutions and their accuracies may not meet the requirements of land applications. In this study, we develop the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) daytime Rn product at a 5 km spatial resolution. Its algorithm for converting shortwave radiation to all-wave net radiation using the Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) model is determined after comparison with three other algorithms. The validation of the GLASS Rn product based on high-quality in situ measurements in the United Statesmore » shows a coefficient of determination value of 0.879, an average root mean square error value of 31.61 Wm-2, and an average bias of 17.59 Wm-2. Furthermore, we also compare our product/algorithm with another satellite product (CERES-SYN) and two reanalysis products (MERRA and JRA55), and find that the accuracy of the much higher spatial resolution GLASS Rn product is satisfactory. The GLASS Rn product from 2000 to the present is operational and freely available to the public.« less

  17. Surface daytime net radiation estimation using artificial neural networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yi; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xiao, Zhiqiang

    2014-11-11

    Net all-wave surface radiation (Rn) is one of the most important fundamental parameters in various applications. However, conventional Rn measurements are difficult to collect because of the high cost and ongoing maintenance of recording instruments. Therefore, various empirical Rn estimation models have been developed. This study presents the results of two artificial neural network (ANN) models (general regression neural networks (GRNN) and Neuroet) to estimate Rn globally from multi-source data, including remotely sensed products, surface measurements, and meteorological reanalysis products. Rn estimates provided by the two ANNs were tested against in-situ radiation measurements obtained from 251 global sites between 1991–2010more » both in global mode (all data were used to fit the models) and in conditional mode (the data were divided into four subsets and the models were fitted separately). Based on the results obtained from extensive experiments, it has been proved that the two ANNs were superior to linear-based empirical models in both global and conditional modes and that the GRNN performed better and was more stable than Neuroet. The GRNN estimates had a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.92, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 34.27 W·m–2 , and a bias of –0.61 W·m–2 in global mode based on the validation dataset. In conclusion, ANN methods are a potentially powerful tool for global Rn estimation.« less

  18. Field studies of streamflow generation using natural and injected tracers on Bickford and Walker Branch Watersheds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genereux, D.; Hemond, H. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Mulholland, P. )

    1992-05-01

    Field studies of streamflow generation were undertaken on two forested watersheds, the West Road subcatchment of Bickford Watershed in central Massachusetts and the West Fork of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee. A major component of the research was development of a two-stage methodology for the use of naturally-occurring {sup 222}Rn as a tracer. The first of the two stages was solving a mass-balance equation for {sup 222}Rn around a stream reach of interest in order to calculate Rn{sub q}, the {sup 222}Rn content of the lateral inflow to the reach; a conservative tracer (chloride) and a volatile tracer (propane) were injected into the study stream to account for lateral inflow to, and volatilization from, the study reach. The second stage involved quantitative comparison of Rn{sub q} to the measured {sup 222}Rn concentrations of different subsurface waters in order to assess how important these waters were in contributing lateral inflow to the stream reach.

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ...

  20. CX-013827: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Kr/Xe Separation over Metal Organic Framework Membranes - Colorado School of Mines CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 06/17/2015 Location(s): IdahoOffices(s): Nuclear Energy

  1. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ...

  2. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ...

  3. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ... Is Carbon Capture and Storage Really Needed? Tsouris, Costas ; Williams, Kent Alan ; Aaron, D ...

  4. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ... Ions from Aqueous Solutions Using Mesoporous Carbon Materials Sharma, Ms. ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... temperature (1) aqueous solutions (1) capture (1) carbon dioxide (1) computer codes (1) ... material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. ...

  6. A :netao '?X,S vrtttcn (XX-x-162) to ;,r+ allison dascrllltnPr...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    XeJuction an& nurification methods for the metal should be sou&t ano the 12 usefulnas? oiL:stillation should be Determined. Sneddiw' s work on' 9e reduct.Zoa and- : castin? 2nd ...

  7. TO: FILE CITY- Cb-uek~

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Thus It ob? '3e oolloludod that if Ei?a (IB is uead in our produotioa plants under the sake wnditlona as in this test, no rantlletion control will ba rfqulred. since thare u19x-e ...

  8. Potential impact of releases from a new Molybdenum-99 production facility on regional measurements of airborne xenon isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Friese, Judah I.; Hayes, James C.; Metz, Lori A.; Miley, Harry S.

    2014-03-01

    The monitoring of the radioactive xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe, and 135Xe is important for the detection of nuclear explosions. While backgrounds of the xenon isotopes are short-lived, they are constantly replenished from activities dominated by the fission-based production of 99Mo used for medical procedures. One of the most critical locations on earth for the monitoring of nuclear explosions is the Korean peninsula, where the Democratic Republic of North Korea (DPRK) has announced that it had conducted three nuclear tests between 2009 and 2013. This paper explores the backgrounds that would be caused by the medium to large scale production of 99Mo in the region of the Korean peninsula.

  9. Support Nodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Support Nodes Support Nodes xe6blade.png Hopper has nodes connected to the internal Gemini network that provide functions that support the compute nodes. These include job launch...

  10. User Submitted Research Citations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NERSC repository: m2217 NERSC Resources Used Edison - Cray XC30, Hopper - Cray XE6, Carver Linux Cluster Brennan ChemComm 01 12 2016 Molecular Titanium-Hydroxamate Complexes as ...

  11. September is Scientific Supercomputing Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Scientific Supercomputing Month DOE celebrates the science and technology that drive modern discovery September 3, 2013 hopper2cshp.jpg NERSC's flagship Cray XE6 system is...

  12. Table of Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND MOLECULAR SCIENCE Target Z-dependence of Cross Sections for Multiple Electron Loss by 6 A MeV Xe18+ Ions R. L. Watson, Y. Peng, and V. Horvat Additivity of Cross Sections...

  13. Ab initio study of MXe{sub n}{sup +} (M=Cu, Ag, and Au; n=1,2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xinying; Cao Xue

    2008-02-15

    The equilibrium geometries, vibrational frequencies, dissociation energies, and populations of the title species were studied at Hartree-Fock (HF), second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2), and coupled-cluster singles-doubles (triples) [CCSD(T)] levels. The electron correlation effects and relativistic effects on the geometry and stability were investigated at the CCSD(T) level. Both effects stabilize title species. The populations analyses show that M-Xe bonding is dominated by electrostatic interactions and the best theoretical estimate of the dissociation energies are 1.104 and 2.260 eV for AuXe{sup +} and AuXe{sub 2}{sup +}, respectively. The Cu and Ag are weakly bonded to Xe compared to Au.

  14. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A 50-200 eV beam of Xe+ from an ion sputter gun was directed onto the surface of a ... The accumulated powder (few tens of mg) was scraped from the surface and placed into a ...

  15. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200","Auger, M.; Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Beauchamp, E.;...

  16. M.; /Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; /Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; /Stanford...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay in 136Xe with EXO-200 Auger, M.; Bern U.; Auty, D.J.; Alabama U.; Barbeau, P.S.; Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Beauchamp, E.; Laurentian U.;...

  17. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Xe with EXO Auger M Bern U Auty D J Alabama U Barbeau P S Stanford U Phys Dept Beauchamp E Laurentian U Belov V Moscow ITEP Benitez...

  18. NERSC-ScienceHighlightSlidesJune2012v1.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 2012 2 Scien&fic A ccomplishments a t N ERSC High Energy Physics GEANT4 and other ... n a l arge v olume of h ighly---enriched 136 Xe HEP PI: G . G raaa ( Stanford); M . ...

  19. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  20. Oriel UV Exposure Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a mask holder for standard 5" x 5" optical masks. Capabilities: Light Source 1000 Watt Hg(Xe) lamp Wavelength range: 220-450 nm Digital timer for exposure control with...

  1. Configuration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Configuration Hopper is NERSC's first peta-flop system, a Cray XE6, with a peak ... AMD 'MagnyCours'. Read More login.jpg Login Nodes When you ssh to ...

  2. Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hopper was retired on Dec 15, 2015. Login nodes and scratch file systems were available until noon Dec 22, 2015. Hopper was NERSC's first petaflop system, a Cray XE6, with a peak ...

  3. Cray XT Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Cray XT Documentation Search Preferences | Advanced Search Home Browse Books Man Pages Glossary Platforms Cray XC Cray XE and Cray XK Cray XT Cray X2 Cray X1 Data...

  4. Simulation of xenon, uranium vacancy and interstitial diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Nerikar, Pankaj; Vyas, Shyam; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2014-10-31

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations 1, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO2 have been derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model for the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO2 ( Σ5 tilt, Σ5 twist and a high angle random boundary),as derived from atomistic calculations. All models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as redistribution for a few simple microstructures.

  5. Spatial distribution of electrical properties for Al-doped ZnO films deposited by dc magnetron sputtering using various inert gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Yasushi; Ishihara, Keita; Oka, Nobuto; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2010-07-15

    Spatial distribution of electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering was investigated. To adjust the intensity of bombardment by high-energy particles, the AZO films were deposited using Ar, Kr, or Xe gas with varying plasma impedance. The spatial distribution of the electrical properties clearly depends on the sputtering gas. In the case of using Kr or Xe, the resistivity of the films in front of the target center and erosion areas was significantly enhanced, in contrast with Ar. This was attributed to an enhancement in bombardment damage due to the increased sputtering voltages required for Kr or Xe discharges. The increase in plasma impedance was due to the smaller coefficients for secondary-electron emission of the target surface by Kr or Xe impingements, which leads to the larger sputtering voltage.

  6. Shell model estimate of electric dipole moment in medium and heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    2011-05-06

    The nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) and the nuclear Schiff moment for the lowest 1/2{sup +} state of {sup 129}Xe are investigated in terms of the nuclear shell model. We estimate the upper limit for the EDM of neutral {sup 129}Xe atom using the Schiff moment. We also estimate the upper limit of the nuclear EDM, which may be directly measured through ionic atoms.

  7. Fission Product Monitoring and Release Data for the Advanced Gas Reactor -1 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn M. Scates; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Mark W. Drigert; Edward L. Reber

    2010-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment is a fueled multiple-capsule irradiation experiment that was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) from December 26, 2006 until November 6, 2009 in support of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Fuel Development and Qualification program. An important measure of the fuel performance is the quantification of the fission product releases over the duration of the experiment. To provide this data for the inert fission gasses(Kr and Xe), a fission product monitoring system (FPMS) was developed and implemented to monitor the individual capsule effluents for the radioactive species. The FPMS continuously measured the concentrations of various krypton and xenon isotopes in the sweep gas from each AGR-1 capsule to provide an indicator of fuel irradiation performance. Spectrometer systems quantified the concentrations of Kr-85m, Kr-87, Kr-88, Kr-89, Kr-90, Xe-131m, Xe-133, Xe 135, Xe 135m, Xe-137, Xe-138, and Xe-139 accumulated over repeated eight hour counting intervals.-. To determine initial fuel quality and fuel performance, release activity for each isotope of interest was derived from FPMS measurements and paired with a calculation of the corresponding isotopic production or birthrate. The release activities and birthrates were combined to determine Release-to-Birth ratios for the selected nuclides. R/B values provide indicators of initial fuel quality and fuel performance during irradiation. This paper presents a brief summary of the FPMS, the release to birth ratio data for the AGR-1 experiment and preliminary comparisons of AGR-1 experimental fuels data to fission gas release models.

  8. Running Jobs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Queues and Policies Monitoring Jobs Using OpenMP with MPI Memory Considerations Runtime Tuning Options Running Large Scale Jobs Trouble Shooting and Error Messages Completed Jobs How Usage Is Charged File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup Dirac Edison Phase I Euclid - Retired 01/31/2013 Franklin - Retired 04/30/12 Bassi Storage & File Systems Application

  9. Fortran MPI/OpenMP example

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Getting Started Configuration Programming Running Jobs Overview Interactive Jobs Batch Jobs Example Batch Scripts Using aprun Queues and Policies Monitoring Jobs Using OpenMP with MPI Memory Considerations Runtime Tuning Options Running Large Scale Jobs Trouble Shooting and Error Messages Completed Jobs How Usage Is Charged File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup

  10. Microsoft Word - CUG2011_Stewart_Paper.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray User Group 2011 Proceedings 1 of 6 Benchmark Performance of Different Compilers on a Cray XE6 Michael Stewart and Yun (Helen) He National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) ABSTRACT: There are four different supported compilers on NERSC's recently acquired XE6, Hopper. Our users often request guidance from us in determining which compiler is best for a particular application. In this paper, we will describe the comparative performance of different compilers on several MPI

  11. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-15-034 Colorado SofM EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 SECTION A. Project Title: Kr/Xe Separation over Metal Organic Framework Membranes - Colorado School of Mines SECTION B. Project Description The Colorado School of Mines proposes to establish a solid fundamental science program leading to the rational design of a novel family of membranes, composed of metal organic frameworks which offer the possibility of demonstrating high separation performance for Kr/Xe gas mixtures. Specific objectives include 1) the development of continuous and

  12. GASEOUS DISPOSAL PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, R.F.; Thomasson, F.R.; Hicks, J.H.

    1963-01-22

    A method is described of removing gaseous radioactive Xe and Kr from water containing O. The method consists in stripping the gases from the water stream by means of H flowing countercurrently to the stream. The gases are then heated in a deoxo bed to remove O. The carrier gas is next cooled and passed over a charcoal adsorbent bed maintained at a temperature of about --280 deg F to remove the Xe and Kr. (AEC)

  13. DATE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 SECTION A. Project Title: Solving Critical Challenges to Enable the Xe-100 Pebble Bed Advanced Reactor Concept - X Energy, LLC SECTION B. Project Description X Energy, in collaboration with BWXT Nuclear Energy, Inc. (BWXT), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and Oregon State University (OSU), proposes to leverage prior and current DOE programs and previous Xe-100 design investments to further key pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR)

  14. Software and Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    File Storage and I/O Software and Tools Debugging and profiling Performance and Optimization Cray XE Documentation Cluster Compatibility Mode Hopper, Cray XE6 Carver Jesup Dirac Edison Phase I Euclid - Retired 01/31/2013 Franklin - Retired 04/30/12 Bassi Storage & File Systems Application Performance Data & Analytics Job Logs & Statistics Training & Tutorials Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Need Help? Out-of-hours

  15. Multiscale simulation of xenon diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andersson, David A.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Vyas, Shyam; Nerikar, Pankaj; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2015-07-01

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. The segregation rate is controlled by diffusion of fission gas atoms through the grains and interaction with the boundaries. Based on the mechanisms established from earlier density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, diffusion models for xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO₂ have been derived for both intrinsic (no irradiation) and irradiation conditions. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model formore » the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO₂ (Σ5 tilt, Σ5 twist and a high angle random boundary), as derived from atomistic calculations. The present model does not attempt to capture nucleation or growth of fission gas bubbles at the grain boundaries. The point defect and Xe diffusion and segregation models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as to simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures.« less

  16. Multiscale simulation of xenon diffusion and grain boundary segregation in UO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, David A.; Tonks, Michael R.; Casillas, Luis; Vyas, Shyam; Nerikar, Pankaj; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2015-07-01

    In light water reactor fuel, gaseous fission products segregate to grain boundaries, resulting in the nucleation and growth of large intergranular fission gas bubbles. The segregation rate is controlled by diffusion of fission gas atoms through the grains and interaction with the boundaries. Based on the mechanisms established from earlier density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, diffusion models for xenon (Xe), uranium (U) vacancies and U interstitials in UO₂ have been derived for both intrinsic (no irradiation) and irradiation conditions. Segregation of Xe to grain boundaries is described by combining the bulk diffusion model with a model for the interaction between Xe atoms and three different grain boundaries in UO₂ (Σ5 tilt, Σ5 twist and a high angle random boundary), as derived from atomistic calculations. The present model does not attempt to capture nucleation or growth of fission gas bubbles at the grain boundaries. The point defect and Xe diffusion and segregation models are implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe and U diffusivities as well as to simulate Xe redistribution for a few simple microstructures.

  17. Atomistic Simulations of Mass and Thermal Transport in Oxide Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Du, Shiyu; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Nerikar, Pankaj; Stanek, Christopher R.; Tonks, Michael; Millet, Paul; Biner, Bulent

    2012-06-04

    In this talk we discuss simulations of the mass and thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. Redistribution of fission gases such as Xe is closely coupled to nuclear fuel performance. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, specifically the insolubility is most pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. The first step of the fission gas redistribution is diffusion of individual gas atoms through the fuel matrix to existing sinks, which is governed by the activation energy for bulk diffusion. Fission gas bubbles are then formed by either separate nucleation events or by filling voids that were nucleated at a prior stage; in both cases their formation and latter growth is coupled to vacancy dynamics and thus linked to the production of vacancies via irradiation or thermal events. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior (diffusion mechanisms) in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using density functional theory (DFT) techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism, though other alternatives may exist in high irradiation fields. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next a continuum transport model for Xe and U is formulated based on the diffusion mechanisms established from DFT. After combining this model with descriptions of the interaction between Xe and grain

  18. The effect of cathode geometry on barium transport in hollow cathode plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, James E. Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.

    2014-05-14

    The effect of barium transport on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in numerical modeling of a cathode with two different orifice sizes. Despite large differences in cathode emitter temperature, emitted electron current density, internal xenon neutral and plasma densities, and size of the plasma-surface interaction region, the barium transport in the two geometries is qualitatively very similar. Barium is produced in the insert and flows to the surface through the porous structure. A buildup of neutral Ba pressure in the plasma over the emitter surface can suppress the reactions supplying the Ba, restricting the net production rate. Neutral Ba flows into the dense Xe plasma and has a high probability of being ionized at the periphery of this zone. The steady state neutral Ba density distribution is determined by a balance between pressure gradient forces and the drag force associated with collisions between neutral Ba and neutral Xe atoms. A small fraction of the neutral Ba is lost upstream. The majority of the neutral Ba is ionized in the high temperature Xe plasma and is pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field. The steady state Ba{sup +} ion density distribution results from a balance between electrostatic and pressure forces, neutral Xe drag and Xe{sup +} ion drag with the dominant forces dependent on location in the discharge. These results indicate that hollow cathodes are very effective at recycling Ba within the discharge and therefore maintain a high coverage of Ba on the emitter surface, which reduces the work function and sustains high electron emission current densities at moderate temperatures. Barium recycling is more effective in the cathode with the smaller orifice because the Ba is ionized in the dense Xe plasma concentrated just upstream of the orifice and pushed back into the hollow cathode. Despite a lower emitter temperature, the large orifice cathode has a higher Ba loss rate through the orifice

  19. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 210

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuzzoha Basunia, M.

    2014-09-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data for {sup 210}Au, {sup 210}Hg, {sup 210}Tl, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}At, {sup 210}Rn, {sup 210}Fr, {sup 210}Ra, {sup 210}Ac, and {sup 210}Th and corresponding level schemes from radioactive decay and reaction studies are presented. This evaluation supersedes the previous evaluation by E. Browne (2003Br13). Highlights of this publication are the identification of new μs isomers of {sup 210}Hg by 2013Go10 and measurement of an excited level energy at 1709 keV 30 of {sup 210}Rn from {sup 214}Rn α decay: 68.6 μs by 2006Ku26 denoted as x+1664.6 in the Adopted Levels. Earlier experimental limits for x≤50 keV was proposed in 1979Po19 and 1982Po03 – (HI,xnγ)

  20. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  1. Optimization of Xenon Difluoride Vapor Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Joseph; Marganski, Paul; Kaim, Robert; Wodjenski, Mike; Gregg, John; Yedave, Sharad; Sergi, Steve; Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Zou Peng [ATMI, Inc., Danbury, Connecticut 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Xenon difluoride (XeF{sub 2}) has been shown to provide many process benefits when used as a daily maintenance recipe for ion implant. Regularly flowing XeF{sub 2} into the ion source cleans the deposits generated by ion source operation. As a result, significant increases in productivity have been demonstrated. However, XeF{sub 2} is a toxic oxidizer that must be handled appropriately. Furthermore, it is a low vapor pressure solid under standard conditions ({approx}4.5 torr at 25 deg. C). These aspects present unique challenges for designing a package for delivering the chemistry to an ion implanter. To address these challenges, ATMI designed a high-performance, re-usable cylinder for dispensing XeF{sub 2} in an efficient and reliable manner. Data are presented showing specific attributes of the cylinder, such as the importance of internal heat transfer media and the cylinder valve size. The impact of mass flow controller (MFC) selection and ion source tube design on the flow rate of XeF{sub 2} are also discussed. Finally, cylinder release rate data are provided.

  2. Migration of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy clusters in uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dong; Gao, Fei; Deng, Huiqiu; Hu, Wangyu; Sun, Xin

    2014-07-01

    The possible transition states, minimum energy paths and migration mechanisms of defect clusters and xenon-vacancy defect clusters in uranium dioxide have been investigated using the dimer and the nudged elastic-band methods. The nearby O atom can easily hop into the oxygen vacancy position by overcoming a small energy barrier, which is much lower than that for the migration of a uranium vacancy. A simulation for a vacancy cluster consisting of two oxygen vacancies reveals that the energy barrier of the divacancy migration tends to decrease with increasing the separation distance of divacancy. For an oxygen interstitial, the migration barrier for the hopping mechanism is almost three times larger than that for the exchange mechanism. Xe moving between two interstitial sites is unlikely a dominant migration mechanism considering the higher energy barrier. A net migration process of a Xe-vacancy pair containing an oxygen vacancy and a xenon interstitial is identified by the NEB method. We expect the oxygen vacancy-assisted migration mechanism to possibly lead to a long distance migration of the Xe interstitials in UO2. The migration of defect clusters involving Xe substitution indicates that Xe atom migrating away from the uranium vacancy site is difficult.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Ratcliffe, C I.; Ripmeester, J A.; Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Baumann, T; Satcher, J H.

    2005-06-09

    In this article we report a detailed study of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels prepared under different processing conditions, [resorcinol]/[catalyst] (R/C) ratios in the starting sol-gel solutions, using continuous flow hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR in combination with solid-state 13C and two-dimensional wide-line separation (2D-WISE) NMR techniques. The degree of polymerization and the mobility of the cross-linking functional groups in RF aerogels are examined and correlated with the R/C ratios. The origin of different adsorption regions is evaluated using both co-adsorption of chloroform and 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. A hierarchical set of Xe exchange processes in RF aerogels is found using 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. The exchange of Xe gas follows the sequence (from fastest to slowest): mesopores with free gas, gas in meso- and micro-pores, free gas with micropores, and, finally, among micropore sites. The volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for aerogels are measured for the first time without the use of geometric models. The Vg/S parameter, which is related both to the geometry and the interconnectivity of the pore space, has been found to correlate strongly with the R/C ratio and exhibits an unusually large span: an increase in the R/C ratio from 50 to 500 results in about a 5-fold rise in Vg/S.

  4. Anisotropic alpha decay from oriented odd-mass isotopes of some light actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Half-lives and anisotropies in the [alpha] decay of [sup 205,207,209]Rn, [sup 219]Rn, [sup 221]Fr, [sup 227,229]Pa, and [sup 229]U have been calculated using the reaction-theoretical formalism proposed by Jackson and Rhoades-Brown and adapted for axially symmetric deformed nuclei by Berggren and Olanders. The possibility of octupole deformation has been taken into account. In addition, a variant of triaxial octupole deformation has been considered tentatively in the case of [sup 227]Pa and [sup 229]Pa.

  5. Factoriality of nodal three-dimensional varieties and connectedness of the locus of log canonical singularities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheltsov, I A

    2006-04-30

    Shokurov's vanishing theorem is used for the proof of the Q-factoriality of the following nodal threefolds: a complete intersection of hypersurfaces F and G in P{sup 5} of degrees n and k, n{>=}k, such that G is smooth and |Sing(F intersection G)|{<=}(n+k-2)(n-1)/5; a double cover of a smooth hypersurface F subset of P{sup 4} of degree n branched over the surface cut on F by a hypersurface G subset of P{sup 4} of degree 2r{>=}n, provided that |Sing(F intersection G)|{<=}2r+n-2)r/4.

  6. Back reaction on a Reissner-Nordstro''m black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bobo; Huang, Chao-guang

    2001-06-15

    The perturbed (''dressed'') metric of the conformally invariant scalar field in a Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black hole is given by solving the semiclassical Einstein and Maxwell equations according to York's back-reaction approach. Some properties of the ''dressed'' black hole are obtained, such as its ''dressed'' mass, the location of the event horizon, and its surface gravity. It will also be found that the hypersurfaces of r{sub +} and r{sub {minus}} which are the event and Cauchy horizons in the ''naked'' RN black hole, become spacelike in the perturbed geometry.

  7. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Babineau, Benjamin; Barbieri, A.; Bellini, Vincenzo; Beminiwattha, Rakitha; et al

    2012-03-15

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  8. Supersonic cluster jet source for debris-free extreme ultraviolet production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, G.D.; Bernardez, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    The supersonic cluster jet has been developed and characterized for use as a target medium to produce a clean source of extreme ultraviolet radiation for extreme ultraviolet lithography and other applications. Spectroscopic characterization of the laser plasma emission produced from Xe, O{sub 2} and Kr cluster gas targets has been performed. Xe is the most efficient target gas, exhibiting a conversion efficiency at 13.5 nm of 0.8% into the relevant 2.5% spectral bandwidth. The other target gases are less efficient in the spectral region of interest and, in the case of oxygen, emit {approximately}5 times less off-band radiation. The angular distribution of the Xe plasma emission has also been characterized.

  9. Demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.

    2013-08-23

    Metal organic framework materials (MOFs) were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr) from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. Two metal organic framework structures were investigated in greater detail to demonstrate the removal efficiency and capacity of MOF materials for krypton recovery. Our two bed breakthrough measurements on NiDOBDC and FMOFCu indicate these materials can capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe and Kr from air. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity for Kr on these two MOFs were further increased upon removal of Xe upfront.

  10. Ejecta model development at pRad (u)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttler, William T; Oro, David M; Dimonte, Guy; Terrones, Guillermo; Morris, Christopher; Bainbridge, J R; Hogan, Gary E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Holtkamp, David B.; Kwiathowski, Kris; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Merrill, Frank E; Nedrow, Paul; Saunders, Alexander; Schwartz, C L; Stone, B; Tupa, Dale; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy S

    2010-02-09

    In July 2009 we fielded three explosively (HE) driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments at the LANSCE Proton Radiography Facility (pRad), and in August of 2009 we fielded one flyer plate experiment on the pRad 40 mm powder gun. One HE experiment was done in vacuum, and the other two within four atmospheres of noble gasses: Xe and Ne. These two gases were chosen to study the viscous effects on ejecta formation. It is unexpected, but the viscosity {eta} of Ne is twice that of Xe, and, due to the atomic mass difference between the two, the kinematic viscosity ({eta}/{rho}) of Ne is about ten times that of Xe. The results showed that ejecta formation is sensitively linked to the gas density, which implies that the Weber number is more important in ejecta formation than the Reynolds number.

  11. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  12. Development and Test Evaluations for Ni-DOBDC Metal Organic Framework (MOF) Engineered Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh

    2013-07-01

    A joint effort to prepare engineered forms of a Ni-DOBDC metal organic framework (MOF) was completed with contributions from PNNL, SNL and the INL. Two independent methods were used at INL and SNL to prepare engineered form (EF) sorbents from Ni-DOBDC MOF powder developed and prepared at PNNL. Xe and Kr capacity test evaluations were performed at ambient temperature with the cryostat experimental setup at INL. The initial INL EF MOF test results indicated a Xe capacity of 1.6 mmol/kg sorbent and no Kr capacity. A large loss of surface area also occurred during minimal testing rendering the INL EF MOF unusable. Four capacity tests were completed using the SNL EF MOF at ambient temperature and resulted in Xe capacities of 1.4, 4.2, 5.0 and 3.8 mmol/kg sorbent with no Kr capacity observed in any ambient temperature tests. Two additional capacity tests were performed at 240 K to further evaluate SNL EF MOF performance. Xe capacities of 50.7 and 49.3 mmol/kg of sorbent and Kr capacities of 0.77 and 0.69 mmol/kg of sorbent were obtained, respectively. Following the adsorption evaluations, the SNL EF MOF material had lost about 40 % of the initial mass and 40 % of the initial surface area. In general, the Xe capacity results at ambient temperature for the INL and SNL EF Ni-DOBDC MOF’s were lower than 9.8 mmol Xe/kg sorbent test results reported by INL in FY-12 using PNNL’s inital EF supplied material.

  13. Multi-core Performance Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scaling on Petascale- class Systems Cray XE/XT Architecture, System Software, and Scientific Libraries 34 CRAY XE/XT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE 35 DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel DDR3 Channel 6MB L3 Cache Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound 6MB L3 Cache Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound 6MB L3 Cache Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound Greyhound 6MB L3 Cache Greyhound Greyhound

  14. NUG 2013: Training -- Edison

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training -- Edison NUG 2013: Training -- Edison February 14, 2013 Edison Jeff3 Thursday, Feb. 14 - Training: Edison, NERSC's new Cray XC30 NERSC Oakland Scientific Facility 8:30 - Welcome 9:00 - Overview of Edison and the NERSC 7 Project - Richard Gerber, NERSC 9:30 - System Overview of the Cray XE30 - Nathan Wichmann, Cray Inc. 10:30 - Break 10:45 - Moving from Hopper (Cray XE6) to Edison (Cray XC30) - Zhengji Zhao, NERSC 11:15 - Performance Tricks and Tips on the Cray XC30 - Nathan Wichmann,

  15. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  16. Spectroscopy of reflection-asymmetric nuclei using multinucleon transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocks, J.F.C.; Butler, P.A.; Cann, K.J.

    1996-12-01

    The heavy-ion collisions of {sup 56}Fe + {sup 232}Th, {sup 86}Kr + {sup 232}Th and {sup 136Xe} + {sup 232}Th with beam energies 15--20% above the Coulomb barrier were used to populate nuclei in the light-actinide region. Yield distributions of the binary reaction products stopped in thick targets were obtained by measuring {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence intensities. The {sup 136}Xe + {sup 232}Th reaction was repeated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using a recent implementation of the GAMMASPHERE array. Many interesting discoveries concerning the high-spin structure of octupole-deformed light-actinide nuclei have been made.

  17. CUG2011_Hopper2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cray User Group 2011 Proceedings 1 of 13 Transitioning Users from the Franklin XT4 System to the Hopper XE6 System Katie Antypas and Yun (Helen) He, National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center ABSTRACT: The Hopper XE6 system, NERSC's first peta-flop system with over 153,000 cores has increased the computing hours available to the Department of Energy's Office of Science users by more than a factor of 4. As NERSC users transition from the Franklin XT4 system with 4 cores per node to the

  18. Microsoft Word - McIntosh_abstract

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 at 2:00 PM Binary and Ternary Break-up of Excited Projectile-like Fragments Produced in 124 Xe + 112,124 Sn Reactions at E/A = 50MeV. Alan McIntosh Indiana University Abstract: Peripheral reactions of 124 Xe ions with 112,124 Sn target nuclei were examined by measuring charged particles in a highly segmented silicon/CsI(Tl) array at forward angles together with the measurement of coincident neutrons. Charged particles were identified for Z≤54 and isotopically resolved for Z≤14. Of

  19. Method of locating a leaking fuel element in a fast breeder power reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honekamp, John R.; Fryer, Richard M.

    1978-01-01

    Leaking fuel elements in a fast reactor are identified by measuring the ratio of .sup.134 Xe to .sup.133 Xe in the reactor cover gas following detection of a fuel element leak, this ratio being indicative of the power and burnup of the failed fuel element. This procedure can be used to identify leaking fuel elements in a power breeder reactor while continuing operation of the reactor since the ratio measured is that of the gases stored in the plenum of the failed fuel element. Thus, use of a cleanup system for the cover gas makes it possible to identify sequentially a multiplicity of leaking fuel elements without shutting the reactor down.

  20. Molecular interactions with ice: Molecular embedding, adsorption, detection, and release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, K. D.; Langlois, Grant G.; Li, Wenxin; Sibener, S. J.; Killelea, Daniel R.

    2014-11-14

    The interaction of atomic and molecular species with water and ice is of fundamental importance for chemistry. In a previous series of publications, we demonstrated that translational energy activates the embedding of Xe and Kr atoms in the near surface region of ice surfaces. In this paper, we show that inert molecular species may be absorbed in a similar fashion. We also revisit Xe embedding, and further probe the nature of the absorption into the selvedge. CF{sub 4} molecules with high translational energies (?3 eV) were observed to embed in amorphous solid water. Just as with Xe, the initial adsorption rate is strongly activated by translational energy, but the CF{sub 4} embedding probability is much less than for Xe. In addition, a larger molecule, SF{sub 6}, did not embed at the same translational energies that both CF{sub 4} and Xe embedded. The embedding rate for a given energy thus goes in the order Xe > CF{sub 4} > SF{sub 6}. We do not have as much data for Kr, but it appears to have a rate that is between that of Xe and CF{sub 4}. Tentatively, this order suggests that for Xe and CF{sub 4}, which have similar van der Waals radii, the momentum is the key factor in determining whether the incident atom or molecule can penetrate deeply enough below the surface to embed. The more massive SF{sub 6} molecule also has a larger van der Waals radius, which appears to prevent it from stably embedding in the selvedge. We also determined that the maximum depth of embedding is less than the equivalent of four layers of hexagonal ice, while some of the atoms just below the ice surface can escape before ice desorption begins. These results show that energetic ballistic embedding in ice is a general phenomenon, and represents a significant new channel by which incident species can be trapped under conditions where they would otherwise not be bound stably as surface adsorbates. These findings have implications for many fields including environmental science, trace gas

  1. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23), persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.

  2. Tubes Are Us: High Performance, Multi-use Nanotube Material Commercially

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Available Soon (NASA Researcher News) | Jefferson Lab Tubes Are Us: High Performance, Multi-use Nanotube Material Commercially Available Soon (NASA Researcher News) External Link: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/researchernews/rn_BNNT.html By jlab_admin on Fri, 2012-03-30

  3. Microsoft Word - Front Matter thru Exec Summary_MR Drft_with...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... J 0.0018U 088501-009 SW846 6020 Uranium 0.00266 0.00005 0.0002 0.030 5.00 088501-009 SW846 ... Rn B Uranium-233234 56.2 8.04 0.0628 0.0266 NE NE 088516-035 DOE HASL-300 Uranium-235...

  4. R

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

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  5. Chattan

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ba rn ett - Wo od for d Le wis Hilli ard- Ba xter - Man cos -Nio bra ra Exc e llo- Mul ky Fay ette ville Floyd- Neal Gam m on Cody Hayn esvil le- Boss ier Ma nco s Pie rre- Nio bra ...

  6. Validation and Spatiotemporal Analysis of CERES Surface Net Radiation Product

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jia, Aolin; Jiang, Bo; Liang, Shunlin; Zhang, Xiaotong; Ma, Han

    2016-01-23

    The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) generates one of the few global satellite radiation products. The CERES ARM Validation Experiment (CAVE) has been providing long-term in situ observations for the validation of the CERES products. However, the number of these sites is low and their distribution is globally sparse, and particularly the surface net radiation product has not been rigorously validated yet. Therefore, additional validation efforts are highly required to determine the accuracy of the CERES radiation products. In this study, global land surface measurements were comprehensively collected for use in the validation of the CERES netmore » radiation (Rn) product on a daily (340 sites) and a monthly (260 sites) basis, respectively. The validation results demonstrated that the CERES Rn product was, overall, highly accurate. The daily validations had a Mean Bias Error (MBE) of 3.43 W·m−2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 33.56 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.79, and the monthly validations had an MBE of 3.40 W·m−2, RMSE of 25.57 W·m−2, and R2 of 0.84. The accuracy was slightly lower for the high latitudes. Following the validation, the monthly CERES Rn product, from March 2000 to July 2014, was used for a further analysis. We analysed the global spatiotemporal variation of the Rn, which occurred during the measurement period. In addition, two hot spot regions, the southern Great Plains and south-central Africa, were then selected for use in determining the driving factors or attribution of the Rn variation. We determined that Rn over the southern Great Plains decreased by −0.33 W·m−2 per year, which was mainly driven by changes in surface green vegetation and precipitation. In south-central Africa, Rn decreased at a rate of −0.63 W·m−2 per year, the major driving factor of which was surface green vegetation.« less

  7. Method of and apparatus for measuring the mean concentration of thoron and/or radon in a gas mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Henry

    1990-01-01

    A method of and an apparatus for detecting and accurately measuring the mean concentrations of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in a gas mixture, such as the ambient atmosphere in a mine, is provided. The apparatus includes an alpha target member which defines at least one operative target surface and which is preferably fabricated from a single piece of an alpha particle sensitive material. At least one portion of the operative target surface is covered with an alpha particle filter. The uncovered and filter covered operative surface is exposed to the gas mixture containing the .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn. In the radioactive decay series of these isotopes the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of .sup.222 Rn is about 1.1 MeV less than the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of a .sup.220 Tn. The alpha particle filter has a predetermined mass per unit area of the covered portion of the operative target surface that prevents penetration of alpha particles which originate from .sup.222 Rn decay, but which allows passage therethrough of the maximum kinetic energy alpha particles from .sup.220 Tn decay. Thus, a count of the alpha particle tracks in the uncovered portion of the target member is proportional to the mean concentration of sum of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture, while the count of alpha tracks in the target member under the filter is proportional to the concentration of only the .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture.

  8. MULTI-KEV X-RAY YIELDS FROM HIGH-Z GAS TARGETS FIELDED AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, J O; Fournier, K B; May, M J; Colvin, J D; Thomas, C A; Marrs, R E; Compton, S M; Moody, J D; Bond, E J; Davis, J F

    2010-11-04

    The authors report on modeling of x-ray yield from gas-filled targets shot at the OMEGA laser facility. The OMEGA targets were 1.8 mm long, 1.95 mm in diameter Be cans filled with either a 50:50 Ar:Xe mixture, pure Ar, pure Kr or pure Xe at {approx} 1 atm. The OMEGA experiments heated the gas with 20 kJ of 3{omega} ({approx} 350 nm) laser energy delivered in a 1 ns square pulse. the emitted x-ray flux was monitored with the x-ray diode based DANTE instruments in the sub-keV range. Two-dimensional x-ray images (for energies 3-5 keV) of the targets were recorded with gated x-ray detectors. The x-ray spectra were recorded with the HENWAY crystal spectrometer at OMEGA. Predictions are 2D r-z cylindrical with DCA NLTE atomic physics. Models generally: (1) underpredict the Xe L-shell yields; (2) overpredict the Ar K-shell yields; (3) correctly predict the Xe thermal yields; and (4) greatly underpredict the Ar thermal yields. However, there are spreads within the data, e.g. the DMX Ar K-shell yields are correctly predicted. The predicted thermal yields show strong angular dependence.

  9. Facile xenon capture and release at room temperature using a metal-organic framework: a comparison with activated charcoal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thallapally, Praveen K.; Grate, Jay W.; Motkuri, Radha K.

    2012-01-11

    Two well known Metal organic frameworks (MOF-5, NiDOBDC) were synthesized and studied for facile xenon capture and separation. Our results indicate the NiDOBDC adsorbs significantly more xenon than MOF-5, releases it more readily than activated carbon, and is more selective for Xe over Kr than activated carbon.

  10. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; Mitchell Greenhalgh; Veronica J. Rutledge; Jack D. Law

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  11. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansari, Azizullah N.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Redvanly, Carol S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1976-01-01

    The method of labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 comprising the steps of condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the .sup.123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce .sup.123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG.

  12. Nuclear structure relevant to neutrinoless double beta decay candidate {sup 130}Te and other recent results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, B. P. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-12-30

    We have undertaken a series of single-nucleon and pair transfer reaction measurements to help constrain calculations of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay. In this talk, a short overview of measurements relevant to the {sup 130}Te?{sup 130}Xe system is given. Brief mention is made of other recent and forthcoming results.

  13. Status of EXO-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, Nicole; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    EXO-200 is the first phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment, which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe to measure the mass and probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. EXO-200 consists of 200 kg of liquid Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe in an ultra-low background TPC. Energy resolution is enhanced through the simultaneous collection of scintillation light using Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPD's) and ionization charge. It is being installed at the WIPP site in New Mexico, which provides a 2000 meter water-equivalent overburden. EXO-200 will begin taking data in 2009, with the expected two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4 x 10{sup 25} years. According to the most recent nuclear matrix element calculations, this corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV. It will also measure the two neutrino mode for the first time in {sup 136}Xe.

  14. Radioxenon spiked air

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The Internationalmore » Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.« less

  15. Phase II: Field Detector Development For Undeclared/Declared Nuclear Testing For Treaty Verfiation Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriz, M.; Hunter, D.; Riley, T.

    2015-10-02

    Radioactive xenon isotopes are a critical part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) for the detection or confirmation of nuclear weapons tests as well as on-site treaty verification monitoring. On-site monitoring is not currently conducted because there are no commercially available small/robust field detector devices to measure the radioactive xenon isotopes. Xenon is an ideal signature to detect clandestine nuclear events since they are difficult to contain and can diffuse and migrate through soils due to their inert nature. There are four key radioxenon isotopes used in monitoring: 135Xe (9 hour half-life), 133mXe (2 day half-life), 133Xe (5 day half-life) and 131mXe (12 day half-life) that decay through beta emission and gamma emission. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a leader in the field of gas collections and has developed highly selective molecular sieves that allow for the collection of xenon gas directly from air. Phase I assessed the development of a small, robust beta-gamma coincidence counting system, that combines collection and in situ detection methodologies. Phase II of the project began development of the custom electronics enabling 2D beta-gamma coincidence analysis in a field portable system. This will be a significant advancement for field detection/quantification of short-lived xenon isotopes that would not survive transport time for laboratory analysis.

  16. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ER RI I W Wi in nt te er r S Su ur rf fa ac ce e G Gr re ee en nh ho ou us se e F Fl lu ux xe es s Greenhouse Gas Emission Band (cm -1 ) GL Flux (Wm 2 ) AERI Flux (Wm 2 ) CFC-11...

  17. Search

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Double-Beta Decay in 136 Xe with EXO-200 M. Auger, 1 D.J. Auty, 2 P.S. Barbeau, 3, E. Beauchamp, 4 V. Belov, 5 C. Benitez-Medina, 6 M. Breidenbach, 7 T. Brunner, 3 A....

  18. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  19. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutronmore » fluxes.« less

  20. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  1. Radon measurements at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczak, L.M.; Daniels, R.D.; Dennis, C.; Glassey, H.G.; Lohner, W.G.; Ray, E.C.; Selasky, J.A.; Spitz, H.B.; Roush, K.

    1993-08-01

    Environmental radon monitoring activities at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have been conducted extensively since the early 1980`s. Monitoring has been conducted at ambient concentration levels (< 1 pCi/L Rn-222), inside buildings, and at significantly elevated levels (hundreds of thousands pCi/L Rn-222) within the K-65 silo that store concentrated radium bearing wastes. The purpose of this paper/presentation is to present and discuss some of the difficulties encountered/solutions (e.g. reliability, detection limits, affects of environmental factors, data transfer, etc.) that have been discovered while taking measurements using both alpha track-etch passive integrating detectors and alpha scintillation real-time detectors. A short summary and conclusion section is provided following each topic presented.

  2. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutron fluxes.

  3. Studies on the reduction of radon plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruemmer, M.; Nakib, M.; Calkins, R.; Cooley, J. Sekula, S.

    2015-08-17

    The decay of common radioactive gases, such as radon, produces stable isotopes by a sequence of daughter particles with varied half-lives. These daughter particles are a significant source of gamma, neutron, and alpha (α) particle backgrounds that can mimic desired signals in dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. In the LUMINA Laboratory at Southern Methodist University (SMU), studies of radon plate-out onto copper samples are conducted using one of XIA’s first five UltraLo 1800 alpha counters. We present results from investigations into various mitigation approaches. A custom-built copper holder (in either plastic or metal) has been designed and produced to maximize the copper’s exposure to {sup 220}Rn. The {sup 220}Rn source is a collection of camping lantern mantles. We present the current status of control and experimental methods for addressing radon exposure levels.

  4. Natural radionuclides in Hanford site ground waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Johnson, V.G.

    1987-10-01

    Uranium, Th, Ra, Rn, Pb and Po radionuclide concentrations in ground waters from the Hanford Site indicate that U, Th, and Ra are highly sorbed. Relative to Rn, these radionuclides are low by factors of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -6/. Uranium sorption is likely due to its reduction from the +6 state, where it is introduced via surface waters, to the +4 state found in the confined aquifers. The distribution of radionuclides is very similar in all of the confined aquifers and significantly different from the distribution observed in the unconfined and surface waters. Barium correlates well with Ra over three orders of magnitude, indicating that stable element analogs may be useful for inferring the behavior of radioactive waste radionuclides in this candidate geologic repository. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Quantity of 135I Released from the AGR 1, AGR 2, and AGR 3/4 Experiments and Discovery of 131I at the FPMS Traps during the AGR-3/4 Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawn Scates

    2014-09-01

    A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The HPGe detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About 2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the parent, and its concentration in the flowing gas stream will appear to decay

  6. Determination of the Quantity of I-135 Released from the AGR Experiment Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scates, Dawn Marie; Walter, John Bradley; Reber, Edward Lawrence; Sterbentz, James William; Petti, David Andrew

    2014-10-01

    A series of three Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). From 2006 through 2014, these experiments supported the development and qualification of the new U.S. tri structural isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel for Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR). Each AGR experiment consisted of multiple fueled capsules, each plumbed for independent temperature control using a mix of helium and neon gases. The gas leaving a capsule was routed to individual Fission Product Monitor (FPM) detectors. For intact fuel particles, the TRISO particle coatings provide a substantial barrier to fission product release. However, particles with failed coatings, whether because of a minute percentage of initially defective particles, those which fail during irradiation, or those designed to fail (DTF) particles, can release fission products to the flowing gas stream. Because reactive fission product elements like iodine and cesium quickly deposit on cooler capsule components and piping structures as the effluent gas leaves the reactor core, only the noble fission gas isotopes of Kr and Xe tend to reach FPM detectors. The FPM system utilizes High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors coupled with a thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) scintillator. The germanium detector provides individual isotopic information, while the NaI(Tl) scintillator is used as a gross count rate meter. During irradiation, the 135mXe concentration reaching the FPM detectors is from both direct fission and by decay of the accumulated 135I. About ~2.5 hours after irradiation (ten 15.3 minute 135mXe half lives) the directly produced 135mXe has decayed and only the longer lived 135I remains as a source. Decay systematics dictate that 135mXe will be in secular equilibrium with its 135I parent, such that its production rate very nearly equals the decay rate of the parent, and its concentration in the flowing gas stream will appear to

  7. Formation of superheavy elements in cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2001-04-01

    We calculate the formation cross sections of transactinides (superheavy elements), as well as heavy actinides (No and Lr), which have been or might be obtained in fusion reactions with the evaporation of only one neutron. We use both more realistic fusion barrier and survival probability of the compound nucleus in comparison with the original phenomenological model [Phys. Rev. C 59, 2634 (1999)] that prompted the Berkeley experiment on the synthesis of a new superheavy element 118 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1104 (1999)]. Calculations are performed for asymmetric and symmetric target-projectile combinations and for reactions with stable and radioactive-ion beams. The formation cross sections measured at GSI-Darmstadt for transactinides and heavy actinides, as well as that for superheavy element 118 reported by the LBNL-Berkeley group, are reproduced within a factor of 2.4, on average. Based on the obtained relatively large cross sections, we predict that optimal reactions with stable beams for the synthesis of so far unobserved superheavy elements 119, 120, and 121 are {sup 209}Bi({sup 86}Kr, 1n){sup 294}119, {sup 208}Pb({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 295}120, and {sup 209}Bi({sup 88}Sr, 1n){sup 296}121, respectively. This is because of the magic of both the target and the projectile that leads to larger Q value and, consequently, lower effective fusion barrier with larger transmission probability. The same effect is responsible for relatively large cross sections predicted for the symmetric reactions {sup 136}Xe({sup 124}Sn, 1n){sup 259}Rf, {sup 136}Xe({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 271}Hs,{sup 138}Ba({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 273}110, and {sup 140}Ce({sup 136}Xe, 1n){sup 275}112. Although shell effects in the magic nuclei {sup 124}Sn, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 138}Ba, and {sup 140}Ce are not as strong as in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi, they act on both the target and the projectile and lead to the prediction of measurable cross sections.

  8. NE-23:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    1 , : -2 rn; NE-23: 4 Whitr%; Ms. Theresa Schaffer 3315 S. Emerald Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60616 Dear Ms. Schaffer: . -. r ;-, .4r.-,. , ' P?;c \ \ ; . EC.. ., . The Department of Energy (DOE), as part of its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), has reviewed information on the former General Services Administratlon 39th Street Werehouse, Chicago, Illincis, to determine whether it contains residual radioactivity traceable to activities conducted on behalf of the Manhattan

  9. Vegetation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vegetation 250 o 250 N A Community _ Loblolly Pine D Bottomland Hardwood I!!!I Carolina Bay Wetland _ Bottomland HardwodlPine W Streams ~ Roads A/; Rails [2] SRS Bays Will Hydric Soils 500 Meters Soils Soil Series and Phase D DoA D DoB DRm rn Uo Figure 24-1. Plant COll/llll/lzities and soils associated with the Cypress Bay Set-Aside Area. sc 24-5 Set-Aside 24: Cypress Bay

  10. Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Hendi, S. H.

    2006-04-15

    We present a class of higher-dimensional solutions to Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell equations in 2k+2 dimensions with a U(1) fibration over a 2k-dimensional base space B. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the Newman-Unti-Tamburino charge, which are the electric charge q and the electric potential at infinity V. We find that the form of metric is sensitive to geometry of the base space, while the form of electromagnetic field is independent of B. We investigate the existence of Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino/bolt solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions, there exist two other conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the black hole. We find that for all nonextremal Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity. Indeed, we have nonextreme Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions in 2+2k dimensions only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity has extremal Newman-Unti-Tamburino solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a 2-dimensional factor space of positive curvature, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Maxwell gravity with any base space. The only case for which one does not have black hole solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.

  11. Assessment of Hard-to-Detect Radionuclide Levels in Decommissioning Waste From the Bohunice NPP-A1, Slovakia, for Clearance and Disposal Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slavik, O.; Moravek, J.; Stubna, M.

    2002-02-26

    For assessments of hard-to-detect radionuclides (HD-RN) contents in various type of radwastes at the NPP-A1, available empirical data referenced to 137Cs (actinides, 90Sr, 99Tc, 63Ni, 14C) and the theoretical assessment for the remaining HD-RN using calculated RN inventory and a simple model with effective relative (137Cs) spent fuel release fractions was applied. The analytical data of extended radiochemical analysis for the existing available operational radwaste forms have been reviewed for this purpose. 137Cs, 90Sr and 241Am were set up as release markers for partial spent fuel release groups of HD-RNs within which the total fractions of HD-RN released to the operational radwastes were assumed to be constant. It was shown by the assessment carried out that 137Cs and HD-RNs 129I, 99Tc, and partly 79Se and 14C are the main contributors to the disposal dose limit for the radioactive concentrate at NPP A-1. In the case of the radioactive sludge from the operational radwaste system the role of predominant dose contributors belongs to actinides 239,240Pu and 241Am. In the case of clearance of radioactive material from the NPP-A1 site, only the reference radionuclide, 137Cs was predicted to be the most dominant dose contributor. In all of these cases the estimated contributions of other hard-to-detect radionuclides to respective disposal or release dose limit are lower by 2 and more orders of magnitude. As a lesson learned, the most attention is proposed to focus on the control and measurement of the critical HD-RNs indicated by the assessment. For the control of less important HD-RNs, the developed release coefficient method is sufficient to be applied.

  12. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radon Measurements to Help Scientists Estimate Carbon Dioxide Exchange Bookmark and Share Researchers installed a continuous 222Rn monitor at the base of the 60-meter tower at the SGP Central Facility. A sampling tube connected to the tower supplies air to the container, where the radon is measured. In November, ARM scientists and researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory began a collaborative field campaign at the

  13. Unique Lanthide-Free Motor Construction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Incident Commanders | Department of Energy Daniel Blumenthal*, U.S. Department of Energy ; John Crapo, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Gerard Vavrina, U.S. Department of Energy; Katharine McLellan McLellan, U.S. Department of Energy; Michael J. Gresalfi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Abstract: In response to a radiological or nuclear (R/N) emergency, Incident Command and the associated response community will require requisite technical expertise, and the application of

  14. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Ahmed, Z.; Jen, C. -M.; Rakhman, A.; Souder, P. A.; Dalton, M. M.; Liyanage, N.; Paschke, K. D.; Saenboonruang, K.; Silwal, R.; et al

    2012-03-26

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(more » $$\\bar{q}$$), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer $$\\bar{q}$$ = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW($$\\bar{q}$$) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW($$\\bar{q}$$). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness σ of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. As a result, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.« less

  15. Remediation of Occupied Commercial Property Subject to Widespread Radium-226 Contamination - Confidential Client in the South-West of England - 12570

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Philip

    2012-07-01

    AMEC was contacted by a company that managed commercial office space in 2010. High Rn- 222 measurements had been observed throughout the facility and the landlord had been advised to commission a radiological survey of the site. The site had been purchased by the client in the 1990's. Initial desk studies found that the building had operated for around 50 years as a compass factory. Non-intrusive investigation identified widespread Ra-226 contamination. Ra-226 was found in the fabric of the building, in attic spaces, buried under floor boards and underlying car parks. Intrusive investigation was undertaken to estimate volume(s) of waste, waste categories, activity concentrations and the total inventory of radioactive materials on site. This work identified the presence of 180 GBq of Ra-226 on site. A programme of work is currently underway to remediate the site tackling areas posing the greatest risk to site occupants as a priority. We have worked closely with Regulators, our client, and tenants, to decontaminate the fabric of the building whilst areas of the building remain occupied. The radiological risk, from irradiation, ingestion and inhalation (of Ra-226 and Rn- 222) has been assessed before, during and after intervention to minimise the risks to site occupants. Tenants were moved from areas of unacceptable radiological risk to areas unaffected by the presence of radioactive materials. Rn-222 mitigation measures were installed during the remedial operations to minimise the hazard from Rn-222 that was liberated as a result of decontamination activities. Decontamination techniques were required to be sympathetic to the building as the ageing structure was in danger of collapse during several phases of work. The first phase of remediation is now complete and the decontaminated building is being returned for use as office space. The radiological risks have been significantly reduced and, in areas where decontamination was not possible (e.g. due to concerns over

  16. Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalbey, Keith R.

    2013-08-01

    %E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

  17. Half-life measurements of isomeric states populated in projectile fragmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowry, M.; Podolay, Zs.

    2012-10-20

    The half-lives of excited isomeric states observed in {sup 195}Au, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 215}Rn are reported for the first time. Delayed {gamma}-rays were correlated with nuclei produced in the projectile fragmentation of relativistic {sup 238}U ions, unambiguously identified in terms of their atomic number (Z) and mass-to-charge ratio (A/Q) after traversing an in-flight separator. The observation of a long-lived isomeric state in {sup 195}Au with t{sub 1/2} = 16{sub -4}{sup +8}{mu}s is presented. Two shorter-lived isomeric states were detected in {sup 201}Tl and {sup 215}Rn with t{sub 1/2} = 95{sub -21}{sup +39} and 57{sub -12}{sup +21} ns respectively. In total 24 isomeric states were identified in different nuclei from Pt to Rn (A {approx} 200) during the current study, the majority of which were previously reported. The wealth of spectroscopic data provides the opportunity to determine the isomeric ratios over a wide range of Z, A and angular momentum (I h) of the reaction products. In particular, high-spin states with I Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 18 h provide a robust test of theoretical models of fragmentation.

  18. RECURRENT NOVAE IN M31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafter, A. W.; Henze, M.; Rector, T. A.; Schweizer, F.; Hornoch, K.; Orio, M.; Pietsch, W.; Darnley, M. J.; Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Bryan, J.

    2015-02-01

    The reported positions of 964 suspected nova eruptions in M31 recorded through the end of calendar year 2013 have been compared in order to identify recurrent nova (RN) candidates. To pass the initial screen and qualify as a RN candidate, two or more eruptions were required to be coincident within 0.′1, although this criterion was relaxed to 0.′15 for novae discovered on early photographic patrols. A total of 118 eruptions from 51 potential RN systems satisfied the screening criterion. To determine what fraction of these novae are indeed recurrent, the original plates and published images of the relevant eruptions have been carefully compared. This procedure has resulted in the elimination of 27 of the 51 progenitor candidates (61 eruptions) from further consideration as RNe, with another 8 systems (17 eruptions) deemed unlikely to be recurrent. Of the remaining 16 systems, 12 candidates (32 eruptions) were judged to be RNe, with an additional 4 systems (8 eruptions) being possibly recurrent. It is estimated that ∼4% of the nova eruptions seen in M31 over the past century are associated with RNe. A Monte Carlo analysis shows that the discovery efficiency for RNe may be as low as 10% that for novae in general, suggesting that as many as one in three nova eruptions observed in M31 arise from progenitor systems having recurrence times ≲100 yr. For plausible system parameters, it appears unlikely that RNe can provide a significant channel for the production of Type Ia supernovae.

  19. Repository Performance Confirmation - 12119

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, F.D.

    2012-07-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. Among the countless aspects of monitoring, performance confirmation holds a special place, involving distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. Discussion is divided into four themes: 1. A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives, 2. A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain, 3. A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and 4. An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. Experience from two repository programs in the United States sheds light on how performance confirmation has been executed. Lessons learned can help the next generation of performance confirmation. (author)

  20. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-23

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131mXe – 0.12 mBq/m3 (0.12 mBq/m3); 133Xe – 0.18 mBq/m3 (0.21 mBq/m3); 133mXe – 0.07 mBq/m3 (0.15 mBq/m3); 135Xe – 0.45 mBq/m3 (0.67 mBq/m3). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131mXe and 133mXe, but similar for 133Xe and 135Xe. Another important factor is the amount of “memory effect” or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is

  1. Method for production of an isotopically enriched compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watrous, Matthew G.

    2012-12-11

    A method is presented for producing and isolating an isotopically enriched compound of a desired isotope from a parent radionuclide. The method includes forming, or placing, a precipitate containing a parent radionuclide of the desired daughter isotope in a first reaction zone and allowing sufficient time for the parent to decay into the desired gaseous daughter radioisotope. The method further contemplates collecting the desired daughter isotope as a solid in a second reaction zone through the application of temperatures below the freezing point of the desired isotope to a second reaction zone that is connected to the first reaction zone. Specifically, a method is presented for producing isotopically enriched compounds of xenon, including the radioactive isotope Xe-131m and the stable isotope Xe-131.

  2. Collision lifetimes of polyatomic molecules at low temperatures: Benzenebenzene vs benzenerare gas atom collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jie; Krems, Roman V.; Li, Zhiying

    2014-10-28

    We use classical trajectory calculations to study the effects of the interaction strength and the geometry of rigid polyatomic molecules on the formation of long-lived collision complexes at low collision energies. We first compare the results of the calculations for collisions of benzene molecules with rare gas atoms He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the collision complexes increase monotonically with the strength of the atommolecule interaction. We then compare the results of the atombenzene calculations with those for benzenebenzene collisions. The comparison illustrates that the mean lifetimes of the benzenebenzene collision complexes are significantly reduced due to non-ergodic effects prohibiting the molecules from sampling the entire configuration space. We find that the thermally averaged lifetimes of the benzenebenzene collisions are much shorter than those for Xe with benzene and similar to those for Ne with benzene.

  3. Comparative Study of Structural Damage Under Irradiation in SiC Nano-structured and Conventional Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leconte, Yann; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Reynaud, Cecile; Thome, Lionel

    2008-07-01

    In the context of research on new materials for next generation nuclear reactors, it becomes more and more interesting to know what can be the advantages of nano-structured materials for such applications. In this study, we performed irradiation experiments on micro-structured and nano-structured {beta}-SiC samples, with 95 MeV Xe and 4 MeV Au ions. The structure of the samples was characterized before and after irradiation by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the occurrence of a synergy between electronic and nuclear energy loss in both samples with 95 MeV Xe ions, while the nano-structured pellet was found to have a better resistance to the irradiation with 4 MeV Au ions. (authors)

  4. Process for depositing I-125 onto a substrate used to manufacture I-125 sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGovern, James J.; Olynyk, Joseph M.

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for depositing I-125 on a substrate which comprises contacting a predetermined surface area of substrate with Xe-125 gas, whereby the Xe-125 decays to I-125 and the I-125 in turn deposits as a solid on the surface of the substrate, the contact being for a time sufficient to deposit at least about 1 microcurie of I-125. I-125 is thereby deposited in a relatively uniform amount over the surface area of the substrate. The substrate is then assayed to determine how much I-125 has been deposited. The substrate is then divided into pieces of measured surface area, each piece therefore containing a measured amount of deposited I-125, and each piece can then be used in the manufacture of an I-125 source.

  5. Dramatic enhancement of xuv laser output using a multimode gas-filled capillary waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Vorontsov, V.; McKenna, C.M.; Spence, D.J.; Gonsavles, A.J.; Hooker, S.M.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2005-01-01

    We report a significant increase of the output of a 41.8-nm Xe{sup 8+} laser achieved by means of multimode guiding of high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses in a gas-filled dielectric capillary tube. The optimized lasing signal from a 15-mm-long capillary was nearly an order of magnitude higher than that from a gas cell of the same length. Simulations of the propagation of the pump laser pulse in the capillary confirmed that this enhancement is due to reflections from the capillary wall, which increase the length of the Xe{sup 8+} plasma column generated. The influence of gas pressure and focusing position on the lasing is also presented.

  6. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  7. Radiopurity control in the NEXT-100 double beta decay experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lvarez, V.; Crcel, S.; Cervera, A.; Daz, J.; Ferrario, P.; Gil, A.; Gmez-Cadenas, J. J.; Laing, A.; Liubarsky, I.; Lorca, D.; Martn-Albo, J.; Martnez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Muoz Vidal, J.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Rodrguez, J.; Serra, L.; Simn, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M. [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valncia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)] [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valncia, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2013-08-08

    An extensive material screening and selection process is underway in the construction of the 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC' (NEXT), intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay using a high-pressure xenon gas TPC filled with 100 kg of Xe enriched in {sup 136}Xe. Determination of the radiopurity levels of the materials is based on gamma-ray spectroscopy using ultra-low background germanium detectors at the Laboratorio Subterrneo de Canfranc (Spain) and also on Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry. Materials to be used in the shielding, pressure vessel, electroluminescence and high voltage components and energy and tracking readout planes have been already taken into consideration. The measurements carried out are presented, describing the techniques and equipment used, and the results obtained are shown, discussing their implications for the NEXT experiment.

  8. Method of detecting leakage of reactor core components of liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Fred E.; Cash, Robert J.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    A method of detecting the failure of a sealed non-fueled core component of a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor having an inert cover gas. A gas mixture is incorporated in the component which includes Xenon-124; under neutron irradiation, Xenon-124 is converted to radioactive Xenon-125. The cover gas is scanned by a radiation detector. The occurrence of 188 Kev gamma radiation and/or other identifying gamma radiation-energy level indicates the presence of Xenon-125 and therefore leakage of a component. Similarly, Xe-126, which transmutes to Xe-127 and Kr-84, which produces Kr-85.sup.m can be used for detection of leakage. Different components are charged with mixtures including different ratios of isotopes other than Xenon-124. On detection of the identifying radiation, the cover gas is subjected to mass spectroscopic analysis to locate the leaking component.

  9. Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

    2005-11-11

    A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

  10. Measurement of the density profile of pure and seeded molecular beams by femtosecond ion imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Congsen; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2015-02-15

    Here, we report on femtosecond ion imaging experiments to measure the density profile of a pulsed supersonic molecular beam. Ion images are measured for both a molecular beam and bulk gas under identical experimental conditions via femtosecond multiphoton ionization of Xe atoms. We report the density profile of the molecular beam, and the measured absolute density is compared with theoretical calculations of the centre line beam density. Subsequently, we discuss reasons accounting for the differences between measurements and calculations and propose that strong skimmer interference is the most probable cause for the differences. Furthermore, we report on experiments measuring the centre line density of seeded supersonic beams. The femtosecond ion images show that seeding the heavy Xe atom at low relative seed fractions (1%-10%) in a light carrier gas like Ne results in strong relative enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude.

  11. Sandia National Labs: PCNSC: Departments: Radiation-Solid Interactions: IBA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Table (HTML): Xenon Home About Us Departments Radiation, Nano Materials, & Interface Sciences > Radiation & Solid Interactions > Nanomaterials Sciences > Surface & Interface Sciences Semiconductor & Optical Sciences Energy Sciences Small Science Cluster Business Office News Partnering Research Xenon Symbol: Xe Atomic Number: 54 Atomic Weight (Average): 131.2931 Mass (amu) 123.906120 125.905624 127.903531 128.904780 129.903510 130.905076 131.904148 133.905395

  12. MARMOT Enhanced | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced MARMOT Enhanced January 29, 2013 - 10:23am Addthis Lower-length-scale Model Development To develop mechanistic models for fuel thermal conductivity, the Fuel team used supercells up to 55 nm long to determine the thermal conductivity of UO2 with Xe incorporated. Atomistic simulations were used to determine thermal resistance values for four different types of grain boundaries, and these values have been used in meso-scale simulations of heat transport through representative fuel

  13. Presentations | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Services User Support Machine Status Presentations Training & Outreach User Survey Presentations Name of Event Sort by Published Date Title Order Asc Desc Apply Presented at: ALCF Theta ESP Hands-On Workshop Intel Compiler Optimization and Building for KNL August 2016 ALCF Theta ESP Hands-On Workshop PDF icon Intel Compiler Optimization and Building for KNL.pdf Using Intel VTune Amplifier XE to Tune Software on the Intel Xeon Phi code named Knights Landing (KNL) August 2016 ALCF Theta

  14. Magellan-Tutorial.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magellan A Test Bed to Explore Cloud Computing for Science Shane Canon and Lavanya Ramakrishnan Cray XE6 Training February 8, 2011 Magellan - Exploring Cloud Computing Co-located at two DOE-SC Facilities * Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) * National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) * Funded by DOE under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) 2 Magellan Mission * Determine the appropriate role for commercial and/or private cloud computing for DOE/SC

  15. Atomic ionization by keV-scale pseudoscalar dark-matter particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Pospelov, M.

    2010-05-15

    Using the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation, we calculate the rates of atomic ionization by absorption of pseudoscalar particles in the mass range from 10 to {approx}50 keV. We present numerical results for atoms relevant for the direct dark-matter searches (e.g. Ar, Ge, I and Xe), as well as the analytical formula which fits numerical calculations with few per cent accuracy and may be used for multielectron atoms, molecules and condensed matter systems.

  16. Application Performance Variability on Hopper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Performance Variability on Hopper Application Performance Variability on Hopper Introduction The Hopper system is a Cray XE6 system with roughly 6300 compute nodes. In normal day to day operations, Hopper can be running hundreds of individual applications at any given time. Some users have reported application runtime variability, in some cases as large as 30-40%. Non-uniform runtimes makes it more difficult for scientists to measure the performance of their codes and to estimate the

  17. Flame front imaging in an internal-combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, A.; Becker, H.; Suntz, R.; Monkhouse, P.; Wolfrum, J. ); Maly, R.; Pfister, W. )

    1990-08-01

    Acetaldehyde has been used as a fluorescent dopant for two-dimensional imaging of the flame front in an internal-combustion-engine simulator. The molecule was excited with a XeCl-laser-light sheet at 308 nm, and broadband fluorescence centered at 400 nm was detected. In this way, the flame front could be marked by mapping regions of unburned gas. Also, the intake process into the engine could be followed.

  18. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  19. Nuclear structure studies. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Maryland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, W.B.

    1992-08-31

    New results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of [sup 114,116]I and [sup 114]Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides [sup 114,116]Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of [sup 126]Xe are also reported. A new approach to the problem of the underproduction of A = 120 nuclides in the astrophysical r-process is reported.

  20. COE_NERSCtraining_Feb8_2011.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    practices for writing and running mix- mode MPI and OpenMP codes on the Cray XE6 LBNL NERSC Nicholas J Wright, Karl Fuerlinger, John Shalf LBNL Computing Research Division Hongzhang Shan, Tony Drummond, Andrew Canning PPPL Stephane Ethier Cray Inc. Nathan Wichmann, Marcus Wagner, Sarah Anderson, Ryan Olsen, Mike Aamodt 2 The Multicore era * Moore's Law continues * Traditional sources of performance improvement ending - Old Trend: double clock frequency every 18 th months - New Trend: Double #

  1. September is Scientific Supercomputing Month

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    September is Scientific Supercomputing Month September is Scientific Supercomputing Month DOE celebrates the science and technology that drive modern discovery September 3, 2013 hopper2cshp.jpg NERSC's flagship Cray XE6 system is called "Hopper" in honor of American computer scientist Grace Murray Hopper. Whether it's building a car battery that will take you 500 miles on a single charge or understanding the impact of Earth's changing climate on agriculture-advanced computing is a

  2. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-14-045 Georgia Institute of Tech. _2 EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 SECTION A. Project Title: Zeolite Membranes for Krypton/Xenon Separation from Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Off-Gas - Georgia Tech Research Corporation SECTION B. Project Description Georgia Tech Research Corporation will develop a novel, high-performance, low-energy intensity, lower-cost zeolite membrane process for Kr/Xe separation during spent nuclear fuel processing; and investigate the underlying molecular adsorption and transport processes in both 'idealized' and 'realistic' operating

  3. MEMO TO HCAs.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Enhanced MARMOT Enhanced January 29, 2013 - 10:23am Addthis Lower-length-scale Model Development To develop mechanistic models for fuel thermal conductivity, the Fuel team used supercells up to 55 nm long to determine the thermal conductivity of UO2 with Xe incorporated. Atomistic simulations were used to determine thermal resistance values for four different types of grain boundaries, and these values have been used in meso-scale simulations of heat transport through representative fuel

  4. Hopper Featured Announcements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2012 Cluster Compatibility Mode is now available on Hopper April 10, 2012 We are pleased to announce a new feature on Hopper, Cray Cluster Compatibility Mode (CCM) which allows applications that previously could only run on Carver to run on Hopper. Cluster Compatibility Mode (CCM) is a Cray software solution that provides services needed to run most cluster-based independent software vendor (ISV) applications on the Cray XE6. It supports the standard Linux services, such as ssh, rsh, nscd,

  5. Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuge, Masashi E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi; Lignell, Antti; Rsnen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-28

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N{sub 2} matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N{sub 2} matrices, and HXeH in an N{sub 2} matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N{sub 2} matrix. An N{sub 2} matrix strongly increases the HXe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N{sub 2} molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N{sub 2} matrix is similar to that in a CO{sub 2} matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO{sub 2} is about three times as large as that of N{sub 2}. The HXe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBrNg and HXeCCHNg (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

  6. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  7. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: July-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-18

    Research is reported in the following fields: isotope separation (Ar, C, He, Kr, Ne, O, Xe), low-temperature research (H intermolecular potential functions, gas analysis in trennschaukel), separation chemistry (/sup 229/Th, /sup 231/Pa, /sup 230/Th, /sup 234/U), separation research (liquid thermal diffusion, Ca isotope separation, molecular beam scattering, mutual diffusion of noble gas mixtures, lithium chemical exchange with cryptands), and calculations in plutonium chemistry (algorithms, valence in natural water). (DLC)

  8. NERSC Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards NERSC Announces Winners of Inaugural HPC Achievement Awards February 14, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 XBD201009 01166 03 NERSC's Cray XE6 "Hopper" The Department of Energy's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) announced the winners of their inaugural High Performance Computing (HPC) Achievement Awards on Wednesday at the annual NERSC User Group meeting at the Lawrence Berkeley

  9. NERSC-6/7 Benchmarks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6/7 Benchmarks NERSC-6/7 Benchmarks The NERSC-6/7 application benchmarks were used in the acquisition process that resulted in the NERSC Cray XE6 ("Hopper") system and the follow on Cray XC30 system ("Edison") . A technical report describing the benchmark programs used in the NERSC-6 acquisition and the science drivers behind them is available here. Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:40

  10. Compiler Comparisons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons Compiler Comparisons on Hopper There are five compilers available to users on Hopper, the NERSC XE6. All of the compilers on this system are provided by Cray, and they are invoked with wrapper modules that ensure that each compiler links with the proper system and MPI libraries. Each of the compilers have a wide variety of options that control the level of optimization of the exectuable code they produce. We have collected several optimization

  11. Source Term Estimates of Radioxenon Released from the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility Using External Measured Air Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Imardjoko, Yudi; Marsoem, Pujadi; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2015-10-01

    Abstract Batan Teknologi (BaTek) operates an isotope production facility in Serpong, Indonesia that supplies 99mTc for use in medical procedures. Atmospheric releases of Xe-133 in the production process at BaTek are known to influence the measurements taken at the closest stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). The purpose of the IMS is to detect evidence of nuclear explosions, including atmospheric releases of radionuclides. The xenon isotopes released from BaTek are the same as those produced in a nuclear explosion, but the isotopic ratios are different. Knowledge of the magnitude of releases from the isotope production facility helps inform analysts trying to decide whether a specific measurement result came from a nuclear explosion. A stack monitor deployed at BaTek in 2013 measured releases to the atmosphere for several isotopes. The facility operates on a weekly cycle, and the stack data for June 15-21, 2013 show a release of 1.84E13 Bq of Xe-133. Concentrations of Xe-133 in the air are available at the same time from a xenon sampler located 14 km from BaTek. An optimization process using atmospheric transport modeling and the sampler air concentrations produced a release estimate of 1.88E13 Bq. The same optimization process yielded a release estimate of 1.70E13 Bq for a different week in 2012. The stack release value and the two optimized estimates are all within 10 percent of each other. Weekly release estimates of 1.8E13 Bq and a 40 percent facility operation rate yields a rough annual release estimate of 3.7E13 Bq of Xe-133. This value is consistent with previously published estimates of annual releases for this facility, which are based on measurements at three IMS stations. These multiple lines of evidence cross-validate the stack release estimates and the release estimates from atmospheric samplers.

  12. Radioxenon spiked air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watrous, Matthew G.; Delmore, James E.; Hague, Robert K.; Houghton, Tracy P.; Jenson, Douglas D.; Mann, Nick R.

    2015-08-27

    Four of the radioactive xenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) with half-lives ranging from 9 h to 12 days are produced from nuclear fission and can be detected from days to weeks following their production and release. Being inert gases, they are readily transported through the atmosphere. Sources for release of radioactive xenon isotopes include operating nuclear reactors via leaks in fuel rods, medical isotope production facilities, and nuclear weapons' detonations. They are not normally released from fuel reprocessing due to the short half-lives. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty has led to creation of the International Monitoring System. The International Monitoring System, when fully implemented, will consist of one component with 40 stations monitoring radioactive xenon around the globe. Monitoring these radioactive xenon isotopes is important to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty in determining whether a seismically detected event is or is not a nuclear detonation. A variety of radioactive xenon quality control check standards, quantitatively spiked into various gas matrices, could be used to demonstrate that these stations are operating on the same basis in order to bolster defensibility of data across the International Monitoring System. This study focuses on Idaho National Laboratory's capability to produce three of the xenon isotopes in pure form and the use of the four xenon isotopes in various combinations to produce radioactive xenon spiked air samples that could be subsequently distributed to participating facilities.

  13. Copyright© 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Performance Analysis for Intel architecture 10/24/13 1 Copyright© 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. *Other brands and names are the property of their respective owners. Intel ® VTune(tm) Amplifier XE 2013 Second Generation VTune(tm) Analyzer Fast, Accurate Performance Profiles * Hotspot (Statistical call tree) * Hardware-Event Based Sampling 1 Thread Profiling *

  14. Noble gas component organization in Apollo 14 breccia 14318: /sup 129/I and /sup 244/Pu regolith chronology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, T.D.; Caffee, M.W.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Hudson, G.B.; Laul, J.C.; Simon, S.B.; Papike, J.J.

    1985-02-15

    Noble gas, petrological, and chemical studies made on grain-size separates from lunar regolith breccia 14318 demonstrate that the noble gases are organized into two functional components, volume-correlated and surface-correlated. As in regolith breccia 14301, volume-correlated xenon in 14318 is primarily spallation-derived and the surface-correlated component contains not only solar wind xenon but also significant amounts of ''parentless' xenon from the fission of now extinct /sup 244/Pu and the decay of now extinct /sup 129/I (''parentless'' means the daughter products were incorporated onto grain surfaces following decay of the parent nuclide elsewhere). The ratio of /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe in the total surface-correlated parentless component, as identified in grain-size analysis, is substantially higher than in the least tightly bound parentless component identified in stepwise heating analyses, confirming the trend seen in 14301. If the order of release of gases in stepwise heating is related to the order of incorporation in the simplest way (first in, last out), incorporation of these grain-surface components was probably time-ordered. The /sup 129/Xe//sup 136/Xe ratio in each identifiable parentless component would then be characteristic of the xenon available for surface adsorption at the particular time of acquisition. Continuous variations in this ratio further suggest that incorporation of the parentless xenon was closely coupled with production. Such observations provide the basis for a new chronometer from which we conclude that acquisition of parentless xenon was an ongoing process spanning at least 90 m.y., beginning no more than 44 +- 34 m.y. after the formation of the most meteorites and possibly predating xenon acquisition for the earth.

  15. Summary Report on the Volatile Radionuclide and Immobilization Research for FY2011 at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Chun, Jaehun; Matyas, Josef; Lepry, William C.; Riley, Brian J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2011-09-01

    The materials development summarized here is in support of the Waste Forms campaign, Volatile Radionuclide task. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal and immobilization of iodine and krypton, specifically 129I and 85Kr. During FY 2011, aerogel materials were investigated for removal and immobilization of 129I. Two aerogel formulations were investigated, one based on silica aerogels and the second on chalcogen-based aerogels (i.e., chalcogels). A silica aerogel was tested at ORNL for total I2 sorption capacity. It was determined to have 48 mass% capacity while having little physisorbed I2 (I2 not taken up in the aerogel pores). For 85Kr, metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated and a new MOF with about 8 mass% capacity for Xe and Kr. The selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by lowering the temperature below 0 C. A patent disclosure has been filed. Lastly, silicon carbide (SiC) was loaded with Kr. The diffusion of Kr in SiC was found to be less than detectable at 500 C.

  16. Multiscale modeling of thermal conductivity of high burnup structures in UO2 fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xian -Ming; Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-12-22

    The high burnup structure forming at the rim region in UO2 based nuclear fuel pellets has interesting physical properties such as improved thermal conductivity, even though it contains a high density of grain boundaries and micron-size gas bubbles. To understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, mesoscale heat conduction simulations with inputs from atomistic simulations and experiments were conducted to study the thermal conductivities of a small-grain high burnup microstructure and two large-grain unrestructured microstructures. We concluded that the phonon scattering effects caused by small point defects such as dispersed Xe atoms in the grain interior must be included in order to correctly predict the thermal transport properties of these microstructures. In extreme cases, even a small concentration of dispersed Xe atoms such as 10-5 can result in a lower thermal conductivity in the large-grain unrestructured microstructures than in the small-grain high burnup structure. The high-density grain boundaries in a high burnup structure act as defect sinks and can reduce the concentration of point defects in its grain interior and improve its thermal conductivity in comparison with its large-grain counterparts. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity at different concentrations of dispersed Xe, bubble porosities, and grain sizes. Upon calibration, the model is robust and agrees well with independent heat conduction modeling over a wide range of microstructural parameters.

  17. Multiscale modeling of thermal conductivity of high burnup structures in UO2 fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bai, Xian -Ming; Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-12-22

    The high burnup structure forming at the rim region in UO2 based nuclear fuel pellets has interesting physical properties such as improved thermal conductivity, even though it contains a high density of grain boundaries and micron-size gas bubbles. To understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, mesoscale heat conduction simulations with inputs from atomistic simulations and experiments were conducted to study the thermal conductivities of a small-grain high burnup microstructure and two large-grain unrestructured microstructures. We concluded that the phonon scattering effects caused by small point defects such as dispersed Xe atoms in the grain interior must be included in order to correctlymore » predict the thermal transport properties of these microstructures. In extreme cases, even a small concentration of dispersed Xe atoms such as 10-5 can result in a lower thermal conductivity in the large-grain unrestructured microstructures than in the small-grain high burnup structure. The high-density grain boundaries in a high burnup structure act as defect sinks and can reduce the concentration of point defects in its grain interior and improve its thermal conductivity in comparison with its large-grain counterparts. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity at different concentrations of dispersed Xe, bubble porosities, and grain sizes. Upon calibration, the model is robust and agrees well with independent heat conduction modeling over a wide range of microstructural parameters.« less

  18. Recombination laser by laser-produced xenon plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanying, L.; Zaitong, L.; Dounan, Z.; Zemin, W.

    1982-09-01

    A recombination laser of Xe plasma produced in a gaseous mixture of He and Xe with a CO/sub 2/ laser pulse of 10.6 micron wave is reported. The particle number is the result of electron-ion recombination. The wavelength of the Xe recombination laser obtained in the experiment is 2.03 microns with an output power of more than 80 watts and a pulse width of 2 microsec. The input CO/sub 2/ laser energy is supplied by a CO/sub 2/ laser with cold cathode electron beam controlled discharge. Each pulse has an energy of over 30 joules (pulse width 1 to 2 microsec). After being reflected by a cylindrical reflector of 6 cm focal length in the target chamber, the CO/sub 2/ laser beam is focussed on a metal target 8 cm long 3 mm wide. At the two ends of the chamber are Brewster angle windows at 2.03 microns made by quartz plates.

  19. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) Apparatus for Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D A; Velsko, C A; Jedlovec, D R; Yeamans, C B; Moody, K J; Tereshatov, E; Stoeffl, W; Riddle, A

    2012-05-11

    The RAGS (Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility. Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  20. Excimer lasers and optics. SPIE volume 710

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, T.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the following contents: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. High average power commercial excimer lasers. Inductively stabilized excimer lasers. Characteristics of an e-beam pumped KrF laser system. Large excimer lasers for fusion. High power picosecond KrF laser system. MATERIAL PROCESSING. Fundamental aspects of pulsed-laser irradiation of semiconductors. Advances in excimer laser lithography. Laser photochemical vapor deposition. Studies of excimer laser etching mechanism using laser-induced fluorescence measurements. Industrial applications of excimer lasers. Excimer laser processing of semiconductor devices: high efficiency solar cells. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT II. Review of UV laser damage measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Generation of subnanosecond excimer laser pulses by means of stimulated Brillouin scattering in liquids. Amplification in a XeCl excimer gain module of 200-fsec UV pulses derived from a colliding pulse mode-locked (CPM) laser system. High order multiphoton processes observed with subpicosecond excimer lasers. VUV fluorescence and harmonic generation with intense picosecond 248 nm KrF radiation. Excited state excimer spectroscopy. Multi-kilojoule narrowband XeCl laser. Performance and properties of e-beam pumped XeF(C ..-->.. A) lasers. Long-pulse e-beam pumped excimer laser.

  1. Derivation of effective fission gas diffusivities in UO2 from lower length scale simulations and implementation of fission gas diffusion models in BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Pastore, Giovanni; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Tonks, Michael; Stanek, Christopher Richard

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO2 were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.

  2. Highly concentrated nebular noble gases in porous nanocarbon separates from the Saratov (L4) meteorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amari, Sachiko; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2013-11-20

    The majority of heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) in primitive meteorites are stored in a poorly understood phase called Q. Although Q is thought to be carbonaceous, the full identity of the phase has remained elusive for almost four decades. In order to better characterize phase Q and, in turn, the early solar nebula, we separated carbon-rich fractions from the Saratov (L4) meteorite. We chose this meteorite because Q is most resistant in thermal alteration among carbonaceous noble gas carriers in meteorites and we hoped that, in this highly metamorphosed meteorite, Q would be present but not diamond: these two phases are very difficult to separate from each other. One of the fractions, AJ, has the highest {sup 132}Xe concentration of 2.1 10{sup 6} cm{sup 3} STP g{sup 1}, exceeding any Q-rich fractions that have yet been analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the fraction AJ and a less Q-rich fraction AI indicate that they both are primarily porous carbon that consists of domains with short-range graphene orders, with variable packing in three dimensions, but no long-range graphitic order. The relative abundance of Xe and C atoms (6:10{sup 9}) in the separates indicates that individual noble gas atoms are associated with only a minor component of the porous carbon, possibly one or more specific arrangements of the nanoparticulate graphene.

  3. The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) apparatus for nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaughnessy, D. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Yeamans, C. B.; Moody, K. J.; Tereshatov, E.; Stoeffl, W.; Riddle, A.

    2012-10-15

    The Radiochemical Analysis of Gaseous Samples (RAGS) diagnostic apparatus was recently installed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Following a NIF shot, RAGS is used to pump the gas load from the NIF chamber for purification and isolation of the noble gases. After collection, the activated gaseous species are counted via gamma spectroscopy for measurement of the capsule areal density and fuel-ablator mix. Collection efficiency was determined by injecting a known amount of {sup 135}Xe into the NIF chamber, which was then collected with RAGS. Commissioning was performed with an exploding pusher capsule filled with isotopically enriched {sup 124}Xe and {sup 126}Xe added to the DT gas fill. Activated xenon species were recovered post-shot and counted via gamma spectroscopy. Results from the collection and commissioning tests are presented. The performance of RAGS allows us to establish a noble gas collection method for measurement of noble gas species produced via neutron and charged particle reactions in a NIF capsule.

  4. Distribution of metal and adsorbed guest species in zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chmelka, B.F.

    1989-12-01

    Because of their high internal surface areas and molecular-size cavity dimensions, zeolites are used widely as catalysts, shape- selective supports, or adsorbents in a variety of important chemical processes. For metal-catalyzed reactions, active metal species must be dispersed to sites within the zeolite pores that are accessible to diffusing reactant molecules. The distribution of the metal, together with transport and adsorption of reactant molecules in zeolite powders, are crucial to ultimate catalyst performance. The nature of the metal or adsorbed guest distribution is known, however, to be dramatically dependent upon preparatory conditions. Our objective is to understand, at the molecular level, how preparatory treatments influence the distribution of guest species in zeolites, in order that macroscopic adsorption and reaction properties of these materials may be better understood. The sensitivity of xenon to its adsorption environment makes {sup 129}Xe NMR spectroscopy an important diagnostic probe of metal clustering and adsorbate distribution processes in zeolites. The utility of {sup 129}Xe NMR depends on the mobility of the xenon atoms within the zeolite-guest system, together with the length scale of the sample heterogeneity being studied. In large pore zeolites containing dispersed guest species, such as Pt--NaY, {sup 129}Xe NMR is insensitive to fine structural details at room temperature.

  5. Direct Photolysis of Chlorophenols In Aqueous Solution By Ultraviolet Excilamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matafonova, Galina; Philippova, Natalya; Batoev, Valeriy

    2011-08-25

    The direct photolysis of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in model aqueous solution was studied using UV XeBr (282 nm) and KrCl (222 nm) excilamps. The highest pseudo-first order rate constants and quantum yields were found for molecular form of 4-CP (at pH 2 and 5.7) and anionic forms of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP (at pH 11) when irradiated by XeBr excilamp. The maximum removal efficiency of molecular form of 2-CP and 2,4-DCP with the lowest UV dose of absorbed energy was observed using KrCl excilamp. On the contrary, the XeBr excilamp required the lowest dose ({approx}2 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2}) for complete degradation of molecular 4-CP and anionic 2-CP. The highest removal efficiency of anionic form of 4-CP (65%) was achieved when using KrCl excilamp.

  6. Spontaneous Fission Modes and Lifetimes of Superheavy Elements in the Nuclear Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staszczak, A,

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reactions with the neutron-rich 48Ca beam and actinide targets resulted in the detection of new superheavy (SH) nuclides with Z=104 118. The unambiguous identification of the new isotopes, however, still poses a problem because their -decay chains terminate by spontaneous fission (SF) before reaching the known region of the nuclear chart. The understanding of the competition between -decay and SF channels in SH nuclei is, therefore, of crucial importance for our ability to map the SH region and to assess its extent.

    Purpose: We perform self-consistent calculations of the competing decay modes of even-even SH isotopes with 108 Z 126 and 148 N 188.

    Methods: We use the state-of-the-art computational framework based on self-consistent symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory capable of describing the competition between nuclear attraction and electrostatic repulsion. We apply the SkM* Skyrme energy density functional. The collective mass tensor of the fissioning superfluid nucleus is computed by means of the cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) approach. This paper constitutes a systematic self-consistent study of spontaneous fission in the SH region, carried out at a full HFB level, that simultaneously takes into account both triaxiality and reflection asymmetry.

    Results: Breaking axial symmetry and parity turns out to be crucial for a realistic estimate of collective action; it results in lowering SF lifetimes by more than 7 orders of magnitude in some cases. We predict two competing SF modes: reflection symmetric modes and reflection asymmetric modes.

    Conclusions: The shortest-lived SH isotopes decay by SF; they are expected to lie in a narrow corridor formed by 280Hs, 284Fl, and 118284Uuo that separates the regions of SH nuclei synthesized in cold-fusion and hot-fusion reactions. The region of long-lived SH nuclei is expected to be centered on 294Ds with a total half-life of

  7. Density Functional Theory Calculations of Mass Transport in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Dorado, Boris; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-06-26

    In this talk we present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of U, O and fission gas diffusion in UO{sub 2}. These processes all impact nuclear fuel performance. For example, the formation and retention of fission gas bubbles induce fuel swelling, which leads to mechanical interaction with the clad thereby increasing the probability for clad breach. Alternatively, fission gas can be released from the fuel to the plenum, which increases the pressure on the clad walls and decreases the gap thermal conductivity. The evolution of fuel microstructure features is strongly coupled to diffusion of U vacancies. Since both U and fission gas transport rates vary strongly with the O stoichiometry, it is also important to understand O diffusion. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using DFT techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next we investigate species transport on the (111) UO{sub 2} surface, which is motivated by the formation of small voids partially filled with fission gas atoms (bubbles) in UO{sub 2} under irradiation. Surface diffusion could be the rate-limiting step for diffusion of such bubbles, which is an alternative mechanism for mass transport in these materials. As expected, the activation energy for surface diffusion is significantly lower than for bulk transport. These results are further discussed in terms of engineering-scale fission gas release models

  8. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balraj; Mukherjee, Gopal; Abriola, Daniel; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Demetriou, Paraskevi; Jain, Ashok; Kumar, Suresh; Singh, Sukhjeet; Tuli, Jagdish

    2013-12-15

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 12 known nuclides of mass 215 (Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th, Pa). For {sup 215}Hg, {sup 215}Tl, {sup 215}Pb, and {sup 215}Pa nuclei, no excited states are known. The decay characteristics of {sup 215}Hg and {sup 215}Tl are unknown. The decay scheme of {sup 215}Pb is considered as incomplete. Ordering of ? cascades in the decay of 36.9s isomer of {sup 215}Bi and for highspin states above 2251 keV in {sup 215}Fr are not established. Highspin excitations, including several isomeric states, are well known in {sup 215}Bi, {sup 215}Po, {sup 215}Rn, {sup 215}Fr, {sup 215}Ra, and {sup 215}Ac. No particletransfer reaction data are available for any of the A=215 nuclei. The rms charge radii for {sup 215}Pb, {sup 215}Bi, {sup 215}Po, {sup 215}Rn, {sup 215}Fr and {sup 215}Ra have been evaluated by Daniel Abriola, from extrapolation or interpolation of available evaluated data in 2013An02 for radii of respective Z chains using formula 9 in 2004An14. This evaluation was carried out as part of ENSDDworkshop at VECC, Kolkata for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data, organized and hosted by VECC and Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) in Kolkata, India, November 2629, 2012. This work supersedes the previous A = 215 evaluation (2001Br31) published by E. Browne which covered literature prior to May 2001.

  9. NUT-charged black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2005-12-15

    We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Taub-bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and obtain the general form of these solutions in d dimensions. We find that for all nonextremal NUT solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that contain these solutions in the limit that the Gauss-Bonnet parameter {alpha} goes to zero. Furthermore there are no NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that yield nonextremal NUT solutions to Einstein gravity having a curvature singularity at r=N in the limit {alpha}{yields}0. Indeed, we have nonextreme NUT solutions in 2+2k dimensions with nontrivial fibration only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet gravity has extremal NUT solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a two-dimensional factor space of positive curvature. Indeed, when the base space has at most one positively curved two-dimensional space as one of its factor spaces, then Gauss-Bonnet gravity admits extreme NUT solutions, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with any base space with factor spaces of zero or positive constant curvature. The only case for which one does not have bolt solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.

  10. Thermodynamics of Taub-NUT/bolt black holes in Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Khodam-Mohammadi, A.

    2006-06-15

    First, we construct the Taub-NUT/bolt solutions of (2k+2)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity, when all the factor spaces of 2k-dimensional base space B have positive curvature. These solutions depend on two extra parameters, other than the mass and the NUT charge. These are electric charge q and electric potential at infinity V. We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT solutions and find that in addition to the two conditions of uncharged NUT solutions, there exist two extra conditions. These two extra conditions come from the regularity of vector potential at r=N and the fact that the horizon at r=N should be the outer horizon of the NUT charged black hole. We find that the NUT solutions in 2k+2 dimensions have no curvature singularity at r=N, when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. For bolt solutions, there exists an upper limit for the NUT parameter which decreases as the potential parameter increases. Second, we study the thermodynamics of these spacetimes. We compute temperature, entropy, charge, electric potential, action and mass of the black hole solutions, and find that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. We perform a stability analysis by computing the heat capacity, and show that the NUT solutions are not thermally stable for even k's, while there exists a stable phase for odd k's, which becomes increasingly narrow with increasing dimensionality and wide with increasing V. We also study the phase behavior of the 4 and 6 dimensional bolt solutions in canonical ensemble and find that these solutions have a stable phase, which becomes smaller as V increases.

  11. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes

  12. QER- Comment of Beth Markens 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I am writing to ask that you deny the surveying of the Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust by Tennessee Gas. Mount Grace is an asset to the communities in Franklin County and the North Quabbin Region. The conservation of this area has allowed the maintenance of fresh water. Mount Grace also serves as an area of recreation in Franklin county. By allowing Tennessee Gas to destroy this asset for profit, you will be depriving Western Mass of clean water and access to undeveloped land. Thank you, Beth A. Markens, RN

  13. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Kondev, F.G.

    2015-05-15

    The experimental data are evaluated for known nuclides of mass number A = 209 (Au,Hg,Tl,Pb,Bi,Po,At,Rn, Fr,Ra,Ac,Th). Detailed evaluated level properties and related nuclear structure information are presented, with the best values recommended for level energies, half-lives, γ–ray energies and intensities, decay data (energies, intensities and placement of radiations), and other spectroscopic data. This work supersedes the earlier full evaluation of A = 209 by M.J. Martin (1991Ma16)

  14. Defining the Optimal Planning Target Volume in Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery of Brain Metastases: Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, John P.; Wang, Zhiheng; Sampson, John H.; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; Allen, Karen J.; Duffy, Eileen; Hoang, Jenny K.; Chang, Zheng; Yoo, David S.; Kelsey, Chris R.; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify an optimal margin about the gross target volume (GTV) for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases, minimizing toxicity and local recurrence. Methods and Materials: Adult patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases less than 4 cm in greatest dimension, no previous brain radiation therapy, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS) above 70 were eligible for this institutional review board–approved trial. Individual lesions were randomized to 1- or 3- mm uniform expansion of the GTV defined on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting planning target volume (PTV) was treated to 24, 18, or 15 Gy marginal dose for maximum PTV diameters less than 2, 2 to 2.9, and 3 to 3.9 cm, respectively, using a linear accelerator–based image-guided system. The primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR). Secondary endpoints included neurocognition Mini-Mental State Examination, Trail Making Test Parts A and B, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain), radionecrosis (RN), need for salvage radiation therapy, distant failure (DF) in the brain, and overall survival (OS). Results: Between February 2010 and November 2012, 49 patients with 80 brain metastases were treated. The median age was 61 years, the median KPS was 90, and the predominant histologies were non–small cell lung cancer (25 patients) and melanoma (8). Fifty-five, 19, and 6 lesions were treated to 24, 18, and 15 Gy, respectively. The PTV/GTV ratio, volume receiving 12 Gy or more, and minimum dose to PTV were significantly higher in the 3-mm group (all P<.01), and GTV was similar (P=.76). At a median follow-up time of 32.2 months, 11 patients were alive, with median OS 10.6 months. LR was observed in only 3 lesions (2 in the 1 mm group, P=.51), with 6.7% LR 12 months after SRS. Biopsy-proven RN alone was observed in 6 lesions (5 in the 3-mm group, P=.10). The 12-month DF rate was 45.7%. Three months after SRS, no significant change in

  15. Mr. Anthony D. Pantaleoni Vice President Environment, Health & Safety

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    7=cr5rnP 7694 i+lJ Washington, DC 20585 Mr. Anthony D. Pantaleoni Vice President Environment, Health & Safety Crane Company 757 Third Avenue New York, New York 10017 Dear Mr. Pantaleoni: This letter is a followup to the radiological survey performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in August at the former Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company in Indian Orchard, Massachusetts. The facility is presently owned by the Crane Company. The radiological survey identified areas of elevated

  16. Personal Property Management Program Brochure

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INVENTORY Physical inventory expectations (methods, frequency, and targeted results) are clarified in the chart below. DOE/NNSA ORGANIZATIONAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS (OPMOs) SC-Oak Ridge-Rebecca Whitehead (Acting) WhiteheadRN@oro.doe.gov SC-Chicago-Bonnie Anderson Bonnie.Anderson@ch.doe.gov EM-Savannah River-Tim Armstrong Timothy.armstrong@srs.gov EM-CBC-David Lojek dave.lojek@emcbc.doe.gov EM-Richland-Renato Mercado Renato_s_mercado@rl.gov EM-ORP-Richard McNulty Richard_r_mcnulty@rl.gov

  17. SUSANA MARTINEZ Governor JOHN A. SANCHEZ Lieutenan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lieutenan t Governor NEW MEXICO ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT Harold l~unn e l s Buildi ng 11 90 St. francis Drive P.O. Box 5469, Santa Fe, NM 87502-5469 Phone (505) 827-29 18 Fax (505) 82 7-2965 www.nmenv.state.nm.us RYAN FL YNN Secretary 13UTCI I TONGATE Deputy Secretary CERTIFIED MAIL- RETU RN RECEIPT REQUESTED July 29, 20 I 4 Jose Franco, Manager U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, NM 88221 RE: Discharge Permit Renewal, DP-831, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WlPP) Dear Mr. Franco: The

  18. Haza

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8earzi , Chief Haza rdou s Waste Bureau Depa rtme nt o f Energy Carlsbad Fie ld Office P. O. Box 3090 Ca rlsbad, New Mexico 8822 1 FEB 3 2011 New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Sa nta Fe, NM 87505-6303 Su bj ect: Notification of Exceeda nce of Repository Volati le Organic Compound Concentration of Conce rn for Carbon Tetra ch loride Dear Mr. Bearzi: Th e purpose of this letter is to notify you of th e receipt of validated a nalytical results for a compound

  19. Method of detecting leakage from geologic formations used to sequester CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Curt; Wells, Arthur; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian

    2010-04-27

    The invention provides methods for the measurement of carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs. Tracer moieties are injected along with carbon dioxide into geological formations. Leakage is monitored by gas chromatographic analyses of absorbents. The invention also provides a process for the early leak detection of possible carbon dioxide leakage from sequestration reservoirs by measuring methane (CH.sub.4), ethane (C.sub.2H.sub.6), propane (C.sub.3H.sub.8), and/or radon (Rn) leakage rates from the reservoirs. The invention further provides a method for branding sequestered carbon dioxide using perfluorcarbon tracers (PFTs) to show ownership.

  20. L AW R E N C E N A T I O N A L LABORATORY LIVERMORE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AW R E N C E N A T I O N A L LABORATORY LIVERMORE Atoms for Peace After 50 Years R.N. Schock, E.S. Vergino, N. Joeck, and R.F. Lehman Issues in Science and Technology Spring 2004 Spring 2004 UCRL-JRNL-203590 This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility

  1. PrintRes_PeriodicChartPostCard2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Hg Mercury 35 Br Bromine 43 c echnetium 93 Np Neptunium 94 Pu Plutonium 95 Am Americium 96 Cm Curium 97 Bk Berkelium 98 Cf Californium 99 Es Einsteinium 100 Fm Fermium 101 Md Mendelevium 102 No Nobelium 105 107 106 108 109 111 110 112 Db Dubnium Sg Hs Hassium Bh Seaborgium Bohrium Mt Meitnerium Uun Ununnilium Uuu Unununium 114 116 103 Lr Lawrencium 104 Rf Rutherfordium Uub Ununbium Uuq Ununquadium Uuh Ununhexium T T 17 Cl Chlorine 18 Ar Argon 1 H Hydrogen 86 Rn Radon 10 Ne Neon 2 He Helium 9 O

  2. Soils Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soils Soil Series and Phase DBaC i:JFu IIiiiiIO!:l _PK _TuE _Ud DVeD o o o 1180 Meters o 590 \' Community _ Loblolly Pine D Mixed Pine/Hardwood D Upland Hardwood D Bonomland Hardwood iiiI Bonomland HardwoodlPine N Streams * TES Plants (1) D TES Plants (2) U Monitoring Wells o SRS Bays 6 ~ Utili1y ROW !.! Openwells tit NPDES outfalls ** Areas WI Roads rnOther Set-Asides ~ Hydric Soils Figure 15-1. Plant cOllllllunities and soils associated with the WhippldOH ER Study Site Set-Aside Area. 15-7

  3. Cell Total Activity Final Estimate.xls

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    WSSRAP Cell Total Activity Final Estimate (calculated September 2002, Fleming) (Waste streams & occupied cell volumes from spreadsheet titled "cell waste volumes-8.23.02 with macros.xls") Waste Stream a Volume (cy) Mass (g) 2 Radiological Profile 3 Nuclide Activity (Ci) 4 Total % of Total U-238 U-234 U-235 Th-228 Th-230 Th-232 Ra-226 Ra-228 Rn-222 5 Activity if > 1% Raffinate Pits Work Zone (Ci) Raffinate processed through CSS Plant 1 159990 1.49E+11 Raffinate 6.12E+01 6.12E+01

  4. I"

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .., ..6'"w' I, . v -+"+.~ f, :. 6 ~,i.//bJc-iC ' ; 1-i -5' ; i - *> i-i> I ii I-t t n,.,4 ( .I , f ' .I f x c . : ' . ,"", ' C.--c rn ' 2. I _ i ' L :_ ;) --lr>[-0-t. ' I" c j-j! : , :- ) L (, 3 uTALL.URCICAL PROJECT FOmc W-73 The University of Chicago Chicago, Illinois s docurrient consists of--.TL,y. es and ._______ C? . _ - _ _ ._.__ d..nf ______ &?copiesl fig ____________________-----. 2 Series_.. re%~~IC~ 0~ T~WINATI~N OF SUBCONTRACT _ _____ Contract

  5. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLing, Travis; Carpenter, Michael; Brandon, William; Zavala, Bernie

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  6. Probing the photochemistry of chemisorbed oxygen on TiO2(110) with Kr and other co-adsorbates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Gregory A.

    2014-02-14

    Weakly bound (physisorbed) atoms and molecules such as Ar, Kr, Xe, CO, CH4, CH3OH, CO2 and N2 are used to probe the photochemical interactions of O2 on rutile TiO2(110). UV irradiation of chemisorbed O2 along with the physisorbed probe species leads to photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of Ar, Kr, CO, CH4 and N2. Without co-adsorbed O2, the PSD yields of the probe species are very low or not observed. No PSD was observed for CO2, N2O, CH3OH and the PSD yield for Xe is very low compared to the other probe atoms or molecules. The angular distribution of the photo-desorbing Kr, which is broad and cosine, is quite different from the O2 PSD angular distribution, which is sharply peaked along the surface normal. The Kr PSD yields increase with increasing coverage of Kr and of chemisorbed O2. We propose a mechanism for the observed phenomena where the chemisorbed O2 serves as photoactive center, excited via electronic excitations (electrons and/or holes) created in the TiO2 substrate by UV photon irradiation. The photo-excited O2 may transfer its energy to neighboring co-adsorbed atom or molecule resulting in desorption of the latter. Simple momentum transfer considerations suggest that heavier adsorbates (like Xe) and adsorbates with higher binding energy (like CO2) should desorb less efficiently according to the proposed mechanism. Various forms of chemisorbed O2 appeared photoactive in such stimulated desorption of Kr atoms: molecular anions (O22-, O2-), adatoms (Oa), and others. The observed phenomenon provides a new tool for study of photocatalysis.

  7. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  8. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raftery, M.D.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping {sup 129}Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the {sup 131}Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  9. Nuclear Data Sheets for A-142

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, T.D.; Johnson,T.D.; Symochko,D.; Fadil,M.; Tuli,J.K.

    2011-08-01

    The 2000 Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 142 by J. K. Tuli, with literature cutoff date of February 4, 2000, has been revised. The evaluated experimental data are presented for 16 known nuclides of mass 142 (Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Gd, Ho, I, La, Nd, Pm, Pr, Sm, Tb, Te, Xe). Comparing to the previous evaluation (2000Tu01) significant changes were done to the level schemes of Gd, Cs, Ce and Nd. For all nuclides, the more recent Q values have been added.

  10. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  11. PROGRESS IN THE OPERATION OF A HIGH INTENSITY EBIS AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALESSI,J.G.; BEEBE,E.; GOULD,O.; KPONOU,A.; PIKIN,A.; PRELEC,K.; RITTER,J.

    2001-06-18

    Excellent progress has been made in the operation of the BNL Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), which is a prototype for an EBIS that could meet requirements for a RHIC preinjector. We have achieved very stable operation of the electron beam at 10 A through the EBIS trap. At 7 A electron beam current, 2.8 x 10{sup 11} charges have been extracted in short pulses from ionization of residual gas, exceeding our goal for yield for the corresponding trap capacity. The EBIS has been operated very successfully with Xe gas injection, and external injection of Cs and Au ions, where the expected yields and charge-state distributions were measured.

  12. Analysis of fission gas release kinetics by on-line mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerega, Y.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Parrat, D.; Carette, M.; Brkic, B.; Lyoussi, A.; Bignan, G.; Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Ducros, G.; Taylor, S.

    2011-07-01

    The release of fission gas (Xe and Kr) and helium out of nuclear fuel materials in normal operation of a nuclear power reactor can constitute a strong limitation of the fuel lifetime. Moreover, radioactive isotopes of Xe and Kr contribute significantly to the global radiological source term released in the primary coolant circuit in case of accidental situations accompanied by fuel rod loss of integrity. As a consequence, fission gas release investigation is of prime importance for the nuclear fuel cycle economy, and is the driven force of numerous R and D programs. In this domain, for solving current fuel behavior understanding issues, preparing the development of new fuels (e.g. for Gen IV power systems) and for improving the modeling prediction capability, there is a marked need for innovations in the instrumentation field, mainly for: . Quantification of very low fission gas concentrations, released from fuel sample and routed in sweeping lines. Monitoring of quick gas release variations by quantification of elementary release during a short period of time. Detection of a large range of atomic masses (e.g. H{sub 2}, HT, He, CO, CO{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), together with a performing separation of isotopes for Xe and Kr elements. Coupling measurement of stable and radioactive gas isotopes, by using in parallel mass spectrometry and gamma spectrometry techniques. To fulfill these challenging needs, a common strategy for analysis equipment implementation has been set up thanks to a recently launched collaboration between the CEA and the Univ. of Provence, with the technological support of the Liverpool Univ.. It aims at developing a chronological series of mass spectrometer devices based upon mass filter and 2D/3D ion traps with Fourier transform operating mode and having increasing levels of performances to match the previous challenges for out-of pile and in-pile experiments. The final objective is to install a high performance online mass spectrometer coupled to

  13. dlfm_user_guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the DLFM Package on the Cray XE6 System Mike Davis, Cray Inc. Version 1.4 - October 2013 1.0: Introduction The DLFM package is a set of libraries and tools that can be applied to a dynamically-linked application, or an application that uses Python, to provide improved performance during the loading of dynamic libraries and importing of Python modules when running the application at large scale. Included in the DLFM package are: a set of wrapper functions that interface with the dynamic linker

  14. Microsoft PowerPoint - 01XEPO-0_SystemOverview.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Cray XE y y System Overview Customer Documentation and Training Overview Topics * System Overview - Cabinets, Chassis, and Blades - Compute and Service Nodes - Components of a Node Opteron Processor Opteron Processor SeaStar ASIC * Portals API Design Gemini ASIC * System Networks * Interconnection Topologies 10/18/2010 2 Cray Private Cray XT System 10/18/2010 3 Cray Private System Overview GigE X Y Z 10 GigE GigE Fibre SMW RAID Subsystem Channels Compute node Login node g Network node Boot

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - 02XEPO-0_Lustre.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lustre File System Lustre File System Customer Documentation and Training Cray XT/XE Systems I/O Support - The compute nodes usually hand off I/O to the SIO or XIO (service I/O) nodes Th li ti l h h dl tdi - The aprun application launcher handles stdin, stdout, and stderr Refer to the Cray XT Programming Environment User's Guide y g g (S-2396), "I/O Support" in the "Catamount Programming Considerations" section 10/18/2010 2 Cray Private Cray I/O Architecture A li ti Login

  16. Link error from craype/2.5.0

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Link error from craype/2.5.0 Link error from craype/2.5.0 January 13, 2016 by Woo-Sun Yang If you build a code using a file called 'configure' with craype/2.5.0, Cray build-tools assumes that you want to use the 'native' link mode (e.g., gcc defaults to dynamic linking), by adding '-Wl,-rpath=/opt/intel/composer_xe_2015/compiler/lib/intel64 -lintlc'. This creates a link error: /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lintlc A temporary work around is to swap the default craype (2.5.0) with an older or newer

  17. Yun (Helen) He

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yun (Helen) He Yun (Helen) He Helen-He.jpg Yun (Helen) He , Ph.D. HPC Consultant User Services Group YHe@lbl.gov Phone: (510) 486-5180 Fax: (510) 486-4316 1 Cyclotron Road Mail Stop 943R0256 Berkeley, CA 94720 US Biographical Sketch Helen is a High Performance Computing consultant of the User Services Group at NERSC. She has been the main USG point of contact, among users, system people, and vendors, for the Cray XT4 (Franklin) and XE6 (Hopper) systems at NERSC. She also provides support for

  18. Milestone Report - M4FT-15OR03120218 - A Literature Search on the Effects of the Decay of 85Kr to 85Rb on Long-term Storage Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruffey, Stephanie H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Spencer, Barry B.

    2015-10-01

    Reprocessing of UNF that has been out of the reactor for less than about 50 y requires the removal of 85Kr from the process off-gas streams. This is needed despite the relatively small amount of that isotope in the combined Xe and Kr inventory (Table 1). The decay of 85Kr to 85Rb presents challenges to the materials that will potentially be used to remove and store the Kr recovered from the off-gas. To address some of these problems, a thorough literature survey was completed, and the results of that analysis are summarized in this document.

  19. Present Status and Future Perspectives of the NEXT Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gómez Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Borges, F. I. G.; Cárcel, S.; Castel, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cervera, A.; Conde, C. A. N.; Dafni, T.; Dias, T. H. V. T.; et al

    2014-01-01

    NEXT is an experiment dedicated to neutrinoless double beta decay searches in xenon. The detector is a TPC, holding 100 kg of high-pressure xenon enriched in the136Xe isotope. It is under construction in the Laboratorio Subterráneo de Canfranc in Spain, and it will begin operations in 2015. The NEXT detector concept provides an energy resolutionbetter than 1% FWHM and a topological signal that can be used to reduce the background. Furthermore, the NEXT technology can be extrapolated to a 1 ton-scale experiment.

  20. Decreasing Beam Auto Tuning Interruption Events with In-Situ Chemical Cleaning on Axcelis GSD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, Dieter; Spreitzer, Stefan; Vogl, Josef [Infineon Technologies AG., Wernerwerkstr.2, 93049 Regensburg (Germany); Bishop, Steve; Eldridge, David; Kaim, Robert [ATMI Inc., 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT 06810 (United States)

    2008-11-03

    Ion beam auto tuning time and success rate are often major factors in the utilization and productivity of ion implanters. Tuning software frequently fails to meet specified setup times or recipe parameters, causing production stoppages and requiring manual intervention. Build-up of conductive deposits in the arc chamber and extraction gap can be one of the main causes of auto tuning problems. The deposits cause glitching and ion beam instabilities, which lead to errors in the software optimization routines. Infineon Regensburg has been testing use of XeF{sub 2}, an in-situ chemical cleaning reagent, with positive results in reducing auto tuning interruption events.

  1. Ultranarrow linewidth waveguide excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, C.P. ); Feldman, B.J.; Huston, A.

    1989-09-01

    We have constructed a single longitudinal mode XeCl laser using microwave discharge waveguide laser technology. The pulse duration, repetition rate, and simplicity of construction associated with waveguide excimer lasers lend this system unique capabilities and a broad utility for interfacing with other excimer devices. The coherence length of the laser emission has been found to be {similar to}6 m with a corresponding bandwidth of {l brace}22 MHz that is near the transform limit. The laser has been used to demonstrate pulsed UV Doppler velocity measurement in a simple homodyne configuration.

  2. Resonant optical reflection by a periodic system of the quantum well excitons at the second quantum state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaldyshev, V. V.; Poddubny, A. N.; Vasil'ev, A. P.; Chen Yuechao; Liu Zhiheng

    2011-02-14

    A periodic multiple quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs structure was designed, grown, and characterized in order to reveal resonant features in optical spectra when the Bragg resonance was tuned to the second quantum state x(e2-hh2) of the heavy-hole exciton-polaritons in the multiple quantum wells. This double resonance was demonstrated by tuning the incident angle of the light as well as by comparison with a single quantum well structure. A significant enhancement of the light-matter interaction was observed, which manifests itself by strong resonant optical reflection and electroreflection.

  3. HXeOBr in a xenon matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Tapio, Salla; Domanskaya, Alexandra V.; Raesaenen, Markku; Isokoski, Karoliina; Lundell, Jan

    2011-03-28

    We report on a new noble-gas molecule HXeOBr prepared in a low-temperature xenon matrix from the HBr and N{sub 2}O precursors by UV photolysis and thermal annealing. This molecule is assigned with the help of deuteration experiments and ab initio calculations including anharmonic methods. The H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeOBr is observed at 1634 cm{sup -1}, which is larger by 56 cm{sup -1} than the frequency of HXeOH identified previously. The experiments show a higher thermal stability of HXeOBr molecules in a xenon matrix compared to HXeOH.

  4. Mechanisms of neutrinoless double-beta decay: A comparative analysis of several nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, A. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (Germany); Borisov, A. V., E-mail: borisov@phys.msu.r [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Zhuridov, D. V. [Scuola Normale Superiore (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The neutrinoless double beta decay of several nuclei that are of interest from the experimental point of view ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe) is investigated on the basis of a general Lorentzinvariant effective Lagrangian describing physics effects beyond the Standard Model. The half-lives and angular-correlation coefficients for electrons are calculated for various decay mechanisms associated, in particular, with the exchange of Majorana neutrinos, supersymmetric particles (with R-parity violation), leptoquarks, and right-handed W{sub R} bosons. The effect of theoretical uncertainties in the values of relevant nuclear matrix elements on decay features is considered.

  5. Searches for Neutrino-less Double

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Searches for Neutrino-less Double Beta-Decay: a Decade of Discovery Ahead at the ton-scale? David Nygren University of Texas at Arlington September 2, 2015 4:00 p.m. Double beta-decay with the emission of neutrinos is an allowed second-order process and has been observed in several candidate nuclei such as 76Ge, 82Se, and 136Xe. A neutrino-less decay mode is theoretically possible as well, with profound implications such as non-conservation of lepton number. The neutrino-less decay can only

  6. Helen He!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NUG Meeting, 10/08/2015 Nested OpenMP OpenMP Execution Model * Fork and Join Model - Master thread forks new threads at the beginning of parallel regions. - Mul6ple threads share work in parallel. - Threads join at the end of the parallel regions. - 2 - Hopper/Edison Compute Nodes - 3 - * Hopper: NERSC Cray XE6, 6,384 nodes, 153,126 cores. * 4 NUMA domains per node, 6 cores per NUMA domain. * Edison: NERSC Cray XC30, 5,576 nodes, 133,824 cores. * 2 NUMA domains per node, 12 cores per NUMA

  7. Erosion resistant nozzles for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kubiak, Glenn D.; Bernardez, II, Luis J.

    2000-01-04

    A gas nozzle having an increased resistance to erosion from energetic plasma particles generated by laser plasma sources. By reducing the area of the plasma-facing portion of the nozzle below a critical dimension and fabricating the nozzle from a material that has a high EUV transmission as well as a low sputtering coefficient such as Be, C, or Si, it has been shown that a significant reduction in reflectance loss of nearby optical components can be achieved even after exposing the nozzle to at least 10.sup.7 Xe plasma pulses.

  8. © 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are tr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Composer XE 2013 SP1 Getting Started Xeon Phi edition Fall 2013 1 © 2013, Intel Corporation. All rights reserved. Intel and the Intel logo are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the U.S. and/or other countries. *Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others. Agenda New

  9. Hopper Workload Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, Brian; Butler, Tina; Gerber, Richard; Whitney, Cary; Wright, Nicholas; Yang, Woo-Sun; Zhao, Zhengji

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center is the primary computing facility for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science. With over 5,000 users and over 600 different applications utilizing NERSC systems, it is critically important to examine the workload running on NERSCs large supercomputers in order to procure systems that perform well for a broad workload. In this paper we show the breakdown of the NERSC workload by science area, algorithm, memory, thread usage and more. We also describe the methods used to collect data from NERSCs Hopper (Cray XE6) system.

  10. Apparatus for preparing a solution of a hyperpolarized noble gas for NMR and MRI analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2008-06-10

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  11. Enhancement of NMR and MRI in the presence of hyperpolarized noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2004-11-16

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  12. Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Feedback JGI Intro to NERSC Data Transfer and Archiving Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Data Day Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Need Help? Out-of-hours Status and Password help Call operations: 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov

  13. Chemistry and Material Sciences Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGI Intro to NERSC Data Transfer and Archiving Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Data Day Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Need Help? Out-of-hours Status and Password help Call operations: 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov accounts@nersc.gov

  14. Cray Reveal Tool Training: Sept 18, 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using the Cray XE6 NERSC User Group Training Remote Setup 2010 Training Events Data Day Online Tutorials Courses NERSC Training Accounts Request Form Training Links OSF HPC Seminars Software Policies User Surveys NERSC Users Group Help Staff Blogs Request Repository Mailing List Need Help? Out-of-hours Status and Password help Call operations: 1-800-66-NERSC, option 1 or 510-486-6821 Account Support https://nim.nersc.gov accounts@nersc.gov 1-800-66-NERSC, option 2 or 510-486-8612 Consulting and

  15. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, Samuel M.; Maier, II, William B.; Holland, Redus F.; Beattie, Willard H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (.about.2 ppm) present in commercial Xe and ppm levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  16. A room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source for the DC-110 cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efremov, A. Bogomolov, S.; Lebedev, A.; Loginov, V.; Yazvitsky, N.

    2014-02-15

    The project of the DC-110 cyclotron facility to provide applied research in the nanotechnologies (track pore membranes, surface modification of materials, etc.) has been designed by the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna). The facility includes the isochronous cyclotron DC-110 for accelerating the intensive Ar, Kr, Xe ion beams with 2.5 MeV/nucleon fixed energy. The cyclotron is equipped with system of axial injection and ECR ion source DECRIS-5, operating at the frequency of 18 GHz. This article reviews the design and construction of DECRIS-5 ion source along with some initial commissioning results.

  17. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  18. Gauged B-xiL origin of R parity and its implications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Ma, Ernest

    2010-05-01

    Gauged B-L is a popular candidate for the origin of the conservation of R parity, i.e.R=(-)3B+L+2j, in supersymmetry, but it fails to forbid the effective dimension-five terms arising from the superfield combinations QQQL, ucucdcec, and ucdcdcNc, which allow the proton to decay. Changing it to B-xiL, where xe+xμ+xτ=3 (with xi≠1) for the three families, would forbid these terms while still serving as a gauge origin of Rparity. We show how this is achieved in two minimal models with realistic neutrino mass matrices, and discuss their phenomenological implications.

  19. Cluster Consolidation at NERSC - HEPiX Spring 2014 Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEPiX Spring 2014 Cluster Consolidation at NERSC Located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, NERSC is the production computing facility for the US DOE Office of Science NERSC serves ~5000 users, ~400 projects, and ~500 codes Focus is on "unique" resources: Expert computing and other services 24x7 monitoring High-end computing and storage systems Known for: Excellent services and user support Diverse workload NERSC provides Hopper (a Cray XE6), Edison (a Cray XC30), and three

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Balraj; Abriola, Daniel; Baglin, Coral; Demetriou, Vivian; Johnson, Timothy; McCutchan, Elizabeth; Mukherjee, Gopal; Singh, Sukhjeet; Sonzogni, Alejandro; Tuli, Jagdish

    2013-06-15

    The evaluated spectroscopic data are presented for 11 known nuclides of mass 211 (Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po, At, Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, Th). The {sup 211}Pa nuclide is included here but its identification remains uncertain. For {sup 211}Hg, {sup 211}Tl, {sup 211}Ac and {sup 211}Th nuclei, only the groundstate information is available. Their decay characteristics are mostly unknown. {sup 211}Fr is suggested to decay partially through ? decay mode, but its decay scheme remains poorly known. While highspin excitations, including several isomers, are well studied in {sup 211}Pb, {sup 211}Bi, {sup 211}Po, {sup 211}At, {sup 211}Rn and {sup 211}Fr, the particletransfer data are available for only {sup 211}Po and {sup 211}Bi. This evaluation was carried out as part of joint IAEAICTP workshop for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data, organized and hosted by the IAEA, Vienna and ICTP, Trieste, August 617, 2012. This work supersedes previous A=211 evaluation (2004Br45) published by E. Browne which covered literature before January 2003.

  1. Experimental Approach to Study the Colloid Generation From the Bentonite Barrier to Quantify the Source Term and to Assess Its Relevance on the Radionuclide Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, Ursula; Missana, Tiziana; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel

    2007-07-01

    To guarantee the long-term safety of a high-level waste repository, all mechanisms that could affect the radionuclide (RN) migration rate must be well defined and quantified. The particular interest of this study lies on the possible contribution of bentonite colloids, generated at the compacted bentonite barrier, to RN transport. The main parameters necessary to assess the colloid-mediated transport are the source term and the stability behavior in the medium geochemical conditions. In the present work, two experimental set-ups were designed with the aim of quantifying the bentonite colloid generation rates, at laboratory scale and under 'realistic' conditions, by static hydration (no flow) of the compacted bentonite, in a confined system. Preliminary results showed that bentonite particles were generated with an average size in the colloid range, equivalent to that of bentonite colloids prepared in the laboratory. At the same time, the experimental set-up allowed performing stability studies which indicated that the colloids generated in the lower strength waters remained stable over months. The possible mechanisms responsible of colloid generation are discussed according to the obtained results in different experimental conditions. (authors)

  2. Weldon Spring Site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the environmental monitoring programs at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The objectives of these programs are to assess actual or potential exposure to contaminant effluents from the project area by providing public use scenarios and dose estimates, to demonstrate compliance with Federal and State permitted levels and regulations, and to summarize trends and/or changes in contaminant concentrations identified through environmental monitoring. Comprehensive monitoring indicated that emissions of radiological compounds in airborne and surface water discharges from the Weldon Spring site consisted primarily of Rn-220 gas, isotopes of thorium and radium, and natural uranium. Airborne Rn-220 emissions were estimated to be 42 Ci (1.6E12 Bq), while emissions from a combination of thorium, radium, and natural uranium isotopes to air and surface water were estimated to be 0.018 Ci (6.7E8 Bq), for a total of 25,000 g (25 kg). There was no measurable impact to any drinking water source.

  3. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Shelley A. . E-mail: saharris@vcu.edu; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-07-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482{+-}1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750{+-}5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R {sup 2}) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  4. Single crystalline multi-petal Cd nanoleaves prepared by thermal reduction of CdO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Waheed S.; National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering , P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad ; Cao, Chuanbao; Aslam, Imran; Ali, Zulfiqar; Butt, Faheem K.; Mahmood, Tariq; Nabi, Ghulam; Ihsan, Ayesha; Usman, Zahid; Rehman, Asma

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? Cd nanoleaves are obtained on abraded Cu substrate by thermal reduction of CdO. ? Vapour solid (VS) growth mechanism governs the formation of Cd nanoleaves (CdNLs). ? PL spectrum for CdNLs exhibits a strong ultraviolet (UV) emission band at 353 nm. ? UV band is attributed to interband radiative recombination under Xe illumination. -- Abstract: Multi-petal cadmium metal nanoleaves with 3040 nm thickness were fabricated on abraded copper substrate by simple thermal reduction of cadmium oxide (CdO) powder at 1050 C inside horizontal tube furnace (HTF) under nitrogen gas flow. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations of the as-prepared cadmium nanoleaves (CdNLs) were performed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Non-catalytic vapoursolid (VS) process based growth mechanism governing the formation of CdNLs has been proposed and discussed briefly. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum for CdNLs measured at room temperature exhibited a single prominent emission band at 353 nm which may either be ascribed to surface oxidation effects or interband radiative recombination under Xe light illumination.

  5. Underground Sources of Radioactive Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, James C.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Misner, Alex C.; Olsen, Khris B.; Woods, Vincent T.; Emer, Dudley

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that radon is present in relatively high concentrations below the surface of the Earth due to natural decay of uranium and thorium. However, less information is available on the background levels of other isotopes such as 133Xe and 131mXe produced via spontaneous fission of either manmade or naturally occurring elements. The background concentrations of radioxenon in the subsurface are important to understand because these isotopes potentially can be used to confirm violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) during an On-Site Inspection (OSI). Recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured radioxenon concentrations from the subsurface at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS—formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) to determine whether xenon isotope background levels could be detected from spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium or legacy 240Pu as a result of historic nuclear testing. In this paper, we discuss the results of those measurements and review the sources of xenon background that must be taken into account during OSI noble gas measurements.

  6. Thermodynamics of fission products in dispersion fuel designs - first principles modeling of defect behavior in bulk and at interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-yand; Uberuaga, Blas P; Nerikar, Pankaj; Sickafus, Kurt E; Stanek, Chris R

    2009-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of fission product (Xe, Sr, and Cs) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} oxides, and the MgO/(U, Hf, Ce)O{sub 2} interfaces have been carried out. In the case of UO{sub 2}, the calculations were performed using spin polarization and with a Hubbard U term characterizing the on-sit Coulomb repulsion between the localized 5f electrons. The fission product solution energies in bulk UO{sub 2{+-}x} have been calculated as a function of non-stoichiometry x, and were compared to that in MgO. These calculations demonstrate that the fission product incorporation energies in MgO are higher than in HfO{sub 2}. However, this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth oxides with larger cation sizes. The solution energies of fission products in MgO are substantially higher than in UO{sub 2{+-}x}, except for the case of Sr in the hypostoichiometric case. Due to size effects, the thermodynamic driving force of segregation for Xe and Cs from bulk MgO to the MgO/fluorite interface is strong. However, this driving force is relatively weak for Sr.

  7. THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN XENON AND POSITIVE SILVER CLUSTERS IN GAS PHASE AND ON THE (001) CHABAZITE SURFACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, D.

    2009-03-16

    A systematic study on the adsorption of xenon on silver clusters in the gas phase and on the (001) surface of silver-exchanged chabazite is reported. Density functional theory at the B3LYP level with the cluster model was employed. The results indicate that the dominant part of the binding is the {sigma} donation, which is the charge transfer from the 5p orbital of Xe to the 5s orbital of Ag and is not the previously suggested d{sub {pi}}-d{sub {pi}} back-donation. A correlation between the binding energy and the degree of {sigma} donation is found. Xenon was found to bind strongly to silver cluster cations and not to neutral ones. The binding strength decreases as the cluster size increases for both cases, clusters in the gas-phase and on the chabazite surface. The Ag{sup +} cation is the strongest binding site for xenon both in gas phase and on the chabazite surface with the binding energies of 73.9 and 14.5 kJ/mol, respectively. The results also suggest that the smaller silver clusters contribute to the negative chemical shifts observed in the {sup 129}Xe NMR spectra in experiments.

  8. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation-theory calculations of photoionization cross sections from quasicontinuum oscillator strengths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Savukov, I. M.; Filin, D. V.

    2014-12-29

    Many applications are in need of accurate photoionization cross sections, especially in the case of complex atoms. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation theory (CI-RMBPT) has been successful in predicting atomic energies, matrix elements between discrete states, and other properties, which is quite promising, but it has not been applied to photoionization problems owing to extra complications arising from continuum states. In this paper a method that will allow the conversion of discrete CI-(R)MPBT oscillator strengths (OS) to photoionization cross sections with minimal modifications of the codes is introduced and CI-RMBPT cross sections of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated. A consistent agreementmore » with experiment is found. RMBPT corrections are particularly significant for Ar, Kr, and Xe and improve agreement with experimental results compared to the particle-hole CI method. As a result, the demonstrated conversion method can be applied to CI-RMBPT photoionization calculations for a large number of multivalence atoms and ions.« less

  9. Radio frequency emission from high-pressure xenon arcs: A systematic experimental analysis of the underlying near-anode plasma instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hechtfischer, Ulrich

    2011-10-01

    High-pressure Xe discharge lamps at DC operation can show unwanted strong RF (radio-frequency) emission to beyond 1 GHz, correlated to a sharp periodic lamp-voltage instability in the near-anode plasma with a pulse repetition rate {epsilon} of 1-10 MHz. The physical origin of the instability is unclear. Here, its existence and pulse rate have been measured as a function of arc current I = 0.2-1.2 A and anode temperature T{sub a} = 1700-3400 K independently, in experimental lamps with pure-tungsten electrodes and a Xe operating pressure around p = 10 MPa. Surprisingly, the instability is not affected by I or current density j but exists if T{sub a} is lower than a threshold value around 2800-2900 K. The pulse rate {epsilon} is simply a rising linear function of the inverse anode temperature 1/T{sub a}, with only a small I-dependent correction. The average anode heat load is slightly lower in the unstable regime and possibly depends on {epsilon}. The results allow a consistent re-interpretation of earlier and present experimental observations and should be both a valuable help in practical lamp engineering and a tight constraint for future theories of this effect.

  10. FASTGRASS implementation in BISON and Fission gas behavior characterization in UO2 and connection to validating MARMOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Di; Mo, Kun; Ye, Bei; Jamison, Laura M.; Miao, Yinbin; Lian, Jie; Yao, Tiankei

    2015-09-30

    This activity is supported by the US Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Product Line (FPL). Two major accomplishments in FY 15 are summarized in this report: (1) implementation of the FASTGRASS module in the BISON code; and (2) a Xe implantation experiment for large-grained UO2. Both BISON AND MARMOT codes have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to enable next generation fuel performance modeling capability as part of the NEAMS Program FPL. To contribute to the development of the Moose-Bison-Marmot (MBM) code suite, we have implemented the FASTGRASS fission gas model as a module in the BISON code. Based on rate theory formulations, the coupled FASTGRASS module in BISON is capable of modeling LWR oxide fuel fission gas behavior and fission gas release. In addition, we conducted a Xe implantation experiment at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) in order to produce the needed UO2 samples with desired bubble morphology. With these samples, further experiments to study the fission gas diffusivity are planned to provide validation data for the Fission Gas Release Model in MARMOT codes.

  11. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Hoffman, Ian; Korpach, E.; Yi, Jing; Miley, Harry S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Ungar, R. Kurt; White, Brian; Woods, Vincent T.

    2014-01-01

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  12. Preparation of blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors in reverse micellar system and their application to transparent emissive display devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Sungho; Tae, Se-Won; Seo, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ha-Kyun

    2011-06-15

    Blue-emitting Eu{sup 2+}-doped CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} phosphors were prepared by the reverse micelle method. The resultant particles were nanocrystalline with a grain size of about <300 nm and exhibited a characteristic blue emission spectrum centered at 445 nm induced by the oxygen coordinated Eu{sup 2+} ions. By using the corresponding nanophosphors followed by the formation of a uniform phosphor layer, we have demonstrated the mini-sized transparent plasma-discharge panels and investigated their luminance characteristics. Phosphor coated panel is properly transparent, {>=}65%, at the visible wavelength region and illuminates a characteristic blue emission under Ne/Xe plasma discharge conditions. Thus, we can obtain a fast decaying, robust blue-emitting silicate phosphor layer under excited plasma radiation for upcoming emissive display devices like as transparent and three-dimensional plasma display panels. - Graphical abstract: Blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors coated transparent luminescent layers can be obtained. It illuminates the characteristic blue emission, spectrum centered at 425 nm wavelength, under the Ne-Xe mixed gas plasma discharge condition. Highlights: > Blue-emitting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Eu{sup 2+} nanophosphors via reverse micelle method. > Transparent blue-emitting layer was prepared by using corresponding phosphors. > Fast decaying with degradation-free luminescent layer under plasma radiation. > Promising luminescent layer for the upcoming plasma discharged transparent displays.

  13. Spectral calculation of thermal performance of solar pond and comparison of the results with the experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X.Y.; Kanayama, Kimio; Baba, Hiromu

    1999-07-01

    This paper deals with the method and the result of the spectroscopic calculation on the heat balance of a salt-gradient solar pond under the conditions of spectral solar radiation. Furthermore, the reflection of the rays incident upon the surface of the pond water, the refraction of the rays within the salt water layer and the diffusion of the salt in the pond water are considered. On the other hand, in order to make clear the mechanism of heat collection and heat storage of a solar pond, the authors conducted the indoor experiment and numerical analysis on a small scale model of salt-gradient solar pond with 2 m{sup 2} surface area and 1.6 m depth, under incident ray from a Xe-lamp solar simulator. According to above experimental analysis, the authors made a simulation model of thermal performance for a solar pond and calculated the heat balance in it. They found that the simulation calculations correspond well to the experimental result, so that their thermal simulation model might be correct. Furthermore, the authors also did the thermal calculation by changing the incident ray from Xe-lamp into natural ray, and found that the temperature distributions were notably different due to spectral characteristics of the incident ray. Therefore, the spectroscopic consideration for thermal performance of any solar pond is necessary to obtain a correct solution under the spectral incidence of special distributions.

  14. Operation of cover-gas system during SLSF tests. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W1 and P4), high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to detect pin failure by observing radioactive fission product isotopes of Kr and Xe from exposed fuel. A continuous stream of argon cover gas from the in-pile loop was transferred to a shielded sample volume. Two germanium crystal spectrometers continuously recorded spectra of gamma rays in the energy range 80 keV to approx. 2.7 MeV. A very wide range of signal strength was accommodated without saturation by dilution of the sample, reduction of the sample chamber volume and insertion of detecter collimators. The cover gas system provided an unambiguous indication of fuel failure during a series of boiling tests in W1. In P4, spectra were recorded after a power transient that released molten fuel and from a mass of exposed fuel at a range of reactor power levels. Gamma rays were observed from isotopes of Kr and Xe with half-lives from 3.8 m to 5.2 d.

  15. Axial asymmetry in the IBA and an extensive new 0(6) region near A=130

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry arising from zero point motion in a ..gamma..-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms ..gamma... In the consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA, most results of calculation depend only on one parameter chi. A relation will be established between chi and the effective asymmetry parameter ..gamma... The relation between the asymmetry occurring naturally in IBA-1 and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian will be discussed. It will be shown that ..gamma..-band energy staggering is a particularly sensitive indicator of the degree of ..gamma.. rigidity. Finally, an extensive new region of 0(6) like Xe and Ba nuclei near A=130 will be discussed. Their remarkable similarity to Pt will be explored. Deviations from the strict 0(6) limit can be described in terms of the interplay of soft and rigid axial asymmetry and calculations will be presented that interpret the Xe, Ba and Pt isotopes in this way. 25 references.

  16. Axial asymmetry in the IBA and an extensive new 0(6) region near A = 130

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casten, R.F.

    1985-01-15

    Although the IBA-1 contains no solutions corresponding to a rigid triaxial shape, it does contain an effective asymmetry arising from zero point motion in a ..gamma..-soft potential leading to a non-zero mean or rms ..gamma... In the Consistent Q Formalism (CQF) of the IBA, most results of a calculation depend only on one parameter chi. A relation will be established between chi and the effective asymmetry parameter ..gamma... The relation between the asymmetry occurring naturally in IBA-1 and the triaxiality arising from the introduction of cubic terms into the IBA Hamiltonian will be discussed. It will be shown that ..gamma..-band energy staggering is a particularly sensitive indicator of the degree of ..gamma.. rigidity. Finally, an extensive new region of 0(6) like Xe and Ba nuclei near A = 130 will be discussed. Their remarkable similarity to Pt will be explored. Deviations from the strict 0(6) limit can be described in terms of the interplay of soft and rigid axial asymmetry and calculations will be presented that interpret the Xe, Ba and Pt isotopes in this way.

  17. Studies of heavy-ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, W.U.

    1993-08-01

    This report contain papers on the following topics: The Cold-Fusion Saga; Decay Patterns of Dysprosium Nuclei Produced in {sup 32}S + {sup 118,124}Sn Fusion Reactions; Unexpected Features of Reactions Between Very Heavy Ions at Intermediate Bombarding Energies; Correlations Between Neutrons and Charged Products from the Dissipative Reaction {sup 197}Au+{sup 208}Pb at E/A = 29 MeV; Dissipative Dynamics of Projectile-Like Fragment Production in the Reaction {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe at E/A = 28.2 MeV; Dynamical Production of Intermediate-Mass Fragments in Peripheral {sup 209}Bi+{sup 136}Xe Collisions at E{sub lab}/A = 28.2 MeV; The Rochester 960-Liter Neutron Multiplicity Meter; A Simple Pulse Processing Concept for a Low-Cost Pulse-Shape-Based Particle Identification; A One-Transistor Preamplifier for PMT Anode Signals; A Five-Channel Multistop TDC/Event Handler for the SuperBall Neutron Multiplicity Meter; Construction of the SuperBall -- a 16,000-Liter Neutron Detector for Calorimetric Studies of Intermediate-Energy Heavy-Ion Reactions; A Computer Code for Light Detection Efficiency Calculations for Photo-multipliers of a Neutron Detector; Evaluation of Gd-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for the SuperBall Neutron Calorimeter; and Measurement of the Interaction of Cosmic-Ray {mu}{sup {minus}} with a Muon Telescope.

  18. Noble gas atmospheric monitoring at reprocessing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakhleh, C.W.; Perry, R.T. Jr.; Poths, J.; Stanbro, W.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Fearey, B.L.

    1997-05-01

    The discovery in Iraq after the Gulf War of the existence of a large clandestine nuclear-weapon program has led to an across-the-board international effort, dubbed Programme 93+2, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. One particularly significant potential change is the introduction of environmental monitoring (EM) techniques as an adjunct to traditional safeguards methods. Monitoring of stable noble gas (Kr, Xe) isotopic abundances at reprocessing plant stacks appears to be able to yield information on the burnup and type of the fuel being processed. To estimate the size of these signals, model calculations of the production of stable Kr, Xe nuclides in reactor fuel and the subsequent dilution of these nuclides in the plant stack are carried out for two case studies: reprocessing of PWR fuel with a burnup of 35 GWd/tU, and reprocessing of CAND fuel with a burnup of 1 GWd/tU. For each case, a maximum-likelihood analysis is used to determine the fuel burnup and type from the isotopic data.

  19. Estimates of Radioxenon Released from Southern Hemisphere Medical isotope Production Facilities Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Friese, Judah I.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive-Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty monitors the atmosphere for radioactive xenon leaking from underground nuclear explosions. Emissions from medical isotope production represent a challenging background signal when determining whether measured radioxenon in the atmosphere is associated with a nuclear explosion prohibited by the treaty. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a reactor and medical isotope production facility in Lucas Heights, Australia. This study uses two years of release data from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility and Xe-133 data from three IMS sampling locations to estimate the annual releases of Xe-133 from medical isotope production facilities in Argentina, South Africa, and Indonesia. Atmospheric dilution factors derived from a global atmospheric transport model were used in an optimization scheme to estimate annual release values by facility. The annual releases of about 6.8×1014 Bq from the ANSTO medical isotope production facility are in good agreement with the sampled concentrations at these three IMS sampling locations. Annual release estimates for the facility in South Africa vary from 1.2×1016 to 2.5×1016 Bq and estimates for the facility in Indonesia vary from 6.1×1013 to 3.6×1014 Bq. Although some releases from the facility in Argentina may reach these IMS sampling locations, the solution to the objective function is insensitive to the magnitude of those releases.

  20. Unique light-induced degradation in yellow-emitting K₂SiF₆:Mn²⁺ phosphor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, Takuya; Adachi, Sadao

    2014-10-07

    Photo-induced luminescence intensity degradation in yellow-emitting K₂SiF₆:Mn²⁺ phosphor is studied using x-ray diffraction measurement, photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, PL decay analysis, and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement. The yellow-emitting K₂SiF₆:Mn²⁺ phosphor exhibits remarkable degradation in the PL intensity under Xe lamp exposure. Coherent laser irradiation also induces degradation and its degree is in the order of He–Cd (λ = 325 nm) > Ar⁺ (488 nm) > He–Ne laser (632.8 nm). The degradation mechanism is proposed to be due to change in the valence state of manganese ions from Mn²⁺ to Mn³⁺ by the photooxidation (Mn²⁺ → Mn³⁺) or disproportionation reaction (2Mn²⁺ → Mn⁺ + Mn³⁺). The ESR measurement confirms the decreased Mn²⁺ spin density in the sample exposed with Xe lamp. The PLE spectrum suggests that the excitation of Mn³⁺ ions occurs through energy transfer upon absorption of exciting radiation by the Mn²⁺ ions. Thermal annealing of the degraded samples at ≥200 °C causes a blueshift in the PL emission band with an appearance of the Mn⁴⁺-related sharp red emission lines.

  1. Effect of flash lamp annealing on electrical activation in boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Woori; Jin, Won-Beom; Choi, Jungwan; Bae, Seung-Muk; Kim, Hyoung-June; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Park, Seungho; Hwang, Jin-Ha

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Intensified visible light irradiation was generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. • The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intensified visible light. • The rapid heating activates electrically boron-implanted Si thin films. • Flash lamp heating is applicable to low temperature polycrystalline Si thin films. - Abstract: Boron-implanted polycrystalline Si thin films on glass substrates were subjected to a short duration (1 ms) of intense visible light irradiation generated via a high-powered Xe arc lamp. The disordered Si atomic structure absorbs the intense visible light resulting from flash lamp annealing. The subsequent rapid heating results in the electrical activation of boron-implanted Si thin films, which is empirically observed using Hall measurements. The electrical activation is verified by the observed increase in the crystalline component of the Si structures resulting in higher transmittance. The feasibility of flash lamp annealing has also been demonstrated via a theoretical thermal prediction, indicating that the flash lamp annealing is applicable to low-temperature polycrystalline Si thin films.

  2. Light-emitting Si nanostructures formed in SiO{sub 2} on irradiation with swift heavy ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kachurin, G. A. Cherkova, S. G.; Skuratov, V. A.; Marin, D. V.; Cherkov, A. G.

    2010-04-15

    SiO{sub 2} layers containing implanted excess Si are irradiated with Xe ions with an energy of 130 MeV and doses of 3 x 10{sup 12}-10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. In the samples irradiated with a dose of 3 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, {approx}10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} segregated clusters 3-4 nm in dimension are detected by transmission electron microscopy. With increasing dose, the dimensions and number of these clusters increase. In the photoluminescence spectrum, a 660- to 680-nm band is observed, with the intensity dependent on the dose. After passivation of the sample with hydrogen at 500 deg. C, the band disappears, but a new {approx}780-nm band typical of Si nanocrystals becomes evident. On the basis of the entire set of data, it is concluded that the 660- to 680-nm band is associated with imperfect Si nanocrystals grown in the tracks of Xe ions due to high ionization losses. The nonmonotonic dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on the dose is attributed to the difference between the diameters of tracks and the diameters of the displacements' cascades responsible for defect formation.

  3. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 222

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S.; Tuli, J.; Jain,A.K.; Tuli,J.K.

    2011-11-01

    The ENSDF evaluation for A=222 mass chain (1996El01) has been updated on the basis of the experimental results, since September 1995 (literature cutoff date in 1996El01), from various reaction and decay studies for all nuclides in A=222 mass chain (Z=84 to 92). A new nuclide ({sup 222}Po) has since been observed. In addition, new measurements have been reported in Rn, Th and Ra nuclides. The results obtained from various theoretical studies are given as comments. The updated level and decay schemes, and experimental decay and reaction data on which they are based, are summarized and presented for all the nuclides with mass number A=222. The adopted values of level energies, level spins and parities are given, and {gamma}-ray energies, intensities, as well as other nuclear properties are presented.

  4. N;-23

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    / N;-23 ;:v,c, li .' ;[kai-itrl~~:CarnpbClJiLibr;:-:,, b;;;: :,::::j:t;;< 1.2 d~teyr,i:.? if ~,r".'.~i! cz! .~ i : ?r;sL:". :;,;! ir!,jlc;.+.< Jo; ,d': ;y;.;yt;.: i;, ij&i;h:;-;',.'. F';;:,:':+:,<, e;~,<. tt,(j i&:per,iour dlrcu~~~o~;:~enclbsed~ioLs~~lsrsnary 6f:nly:telephono.rntbrv,$ewsr I.. '.: Tklth yori.and:.threei:fo~raRnM.clnp1oyees1 rihese 4nterviews:were conducted Ias, part of the Department~of Energy's (DOE) Foneerly~Utilized:Sftes ~Remedial Actldn Program

  5. OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS P. 0. HOX E OAK RID~F'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    N ,-, :; j L.j U?.!IT~D ,C,-r,QTES . . EI~:ERC~Y m3mm-i A~I D~.G~-OWENT ~n~~r~~s-rn~\?-r(,~~ OAK RIDGE OPERATIONS P. 0. HOX E OAK RID~F' C, TEVKESf,FE 37830 September 12, 1977 t?; H. Kennedy, Division of Environmental Control Technology, HQ, GTN. !qS E-201 REPORT OF FINDINGS - WESTINGHOUSE, BL00:1FIELD, NEW JERSEY E.REI\ C' iLJC (;I, ,E, Cd&r:,:.? .:%' BG, - On r3ctaber 21, 1976, Howard Dickson, ORI',IL, and I visited Westinghouse located at 1 Westinghouse Plaza, Bloomfield, New Jersey, to

  6. Voyager 2 observations of plasmas and flows out to 104 AU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, J. D.; Decker, R. B. E-mail: robert.decker@apljhu.edu

    2014-09-10

    Voyager 2 has crossed through 20 AU of the heliosheath; assuming the same heliosheath thickness as at Voyager 1, it is now two-thirds of the way to the heliopause. The plasma data are generally of good quality, although the increasing flow angle of the plasma makes analysis more difficult. The average plasma speed has remained constant but the flow angles have increased to almost 60 in the RT plane and to almost 30 in the RN plane. The average density and thermal speed have been constant since a density increase observed in 2011. Comparison of V2 plasma flows derived from plasma science experiment (PLS) data and Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) proton anisotropies give good agreement except when heavy ion contributions or non-convective proton anisotropies are observed in the LECP data.

  7. Kinetically balanced Gaussian basis-set approach to relativistic Compton profiles of atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, Prerit; Shukla, Alok

    2007-02-15

    Atomic Compton profiles (CPs) are a very important property which provide us information about the momentum distribution of atomic electrons. Therefore, for CPs of heavy atoms, relativistic effects are expected to be important, warranting a relativistic treatment of the problem. In this paper, we present an efficient approach aimed at ab initio calculations of atomic CPs within a Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) formalism, employing kinetically balanced Gaussian basis functions. The approach is used to compute the CPs of noble gases ranging from He to Rn, and the results have been compared to the experimental and other theoretical data, wherever possible. The influence of the quality of the basis set on the calculated CPs has also been systematically investigated.

  8. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  9. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ?20 reduction at its output, from 7.470.56 to 0.370.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  10. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  11. Microsoft Word - DOE_science_kits.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C M E T is (T T in S "I a S u a In th U.S. Carls Wast P.O. Carls CARLSBAD Mexico will h Energy's (DO The DOE ov s America's TRU) radioa The kits, targ ncluding nu Southeaster t encourag nd what the Science topi sing electri lso corresp n addition to he other kits Departmen sbad Field O te Isolation Box 3090 sbad, New M WIPP O For D, N.M., Jul have a lot to OE) Carlsb versees the s only deep active wast geted for th clear, but ta rn New Mex es the disc eir impact is ics include city from co

  12. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For a Tech. This is a Library Circulating Copy which may be borrowed for t w o weeks. personal retention copy, call Info. Division, Ext. 5545 BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA U-i~IvERSITY 03' C k L I F O r n l k R a d i a t i o n L a b o r a t o r y Contract flo. '?1'-7405-t?ng-48 m PATH OF C r n O r J ITJ F'HOTOS'rnESIS. VI . ?ii. Calvin June 30, 1949 Berkeley , California THE PATH OF CkRBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS. VI.* Ni. Calvin Radiation Laboratory and Department o f Chemistry, University of California,

  13. Pre-operational survey of a U mine near Val Vedello, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenzi, A.

    1986-08-01

    Results obtained from radiometric research carried out from 1980-81 in the region of U mines in the Val Vedello are provided. Data are presented on /sup 2/)2''/sup 2/Rn, /sup 226/Ra and natural U concentrations in spring and surface waters. Concentrations were found to be relatively low. There is some increase in the vicinity of the exploratory U mine but this is, at least up to the present, only of a local character. Data are presented on external gamma exposure, /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in foodstuffs and in the urine of normal and exposed population as well as /sup 226/Ra in milk and vegetable samples. The aim of this study is to outline a preliminary map of natural radioactivity on the site before starting the mining activity. This will enable us later to detect changes caused by the U mining, milling and mill-tailing disposal operations.

  14. Soil Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Soil Series and Phase D Bae D Da rn Fa D FuB D LuB ~ 09 _ Pk _ TrB _ TuE DUo _ vee D VeD o o * '='1 ~*.1* **..oC'" ~) OJ rI.:) o.Q 600 1200 Soils n O~:-* ilL 10., 1800 O~ c? ~ 0 ~ O~ Community _ Loblolly Pine D Mixed Pine/Hardwood o Upland Hardwood D Bottomland Hardwood _ Water a Bottomland HardwoodlPine o Monitoringwells .._.' *** TES Plants (1) :l!.-.~I ... 0 TES Plants (2) :='.Y-r::.: ~ Streams ){" ~ Rails . :1'\;:'/ Utility ROW ""If WasteSItes III NPDES outfalls CZI

  15. Flim3.l Elaenbud

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Fe 66 i.. y, N&i) -, mc . _ Flim3.l Elaenbud w. B. Ra* ' PBBDBm $ToIB SlllJBoLI 3!3HtwR3thaah ,- ". i ti?-,J~ -; Awvt 3% 1951 on hg?mt mlh, a visit Ma zsRcb to t&m ?!bylmd cha cQulpa?zy T&en3 Mnotfte r;au%s am proce88ed for the 8xtrac?tion of ru% sa2ar and lnuttle-gracie timrim ni*tratea. ?kywuod Chsrdcal Co. has been process- ~tharsmrtrrlalsforrpp~~ly50pacln~dbu&rcarjr~ 8t8xtiAl backgroMd in tlha haa.ing of tlLuhmbe8ring naataia&. mr this rn8oxl# it unb thopght aM8abls

  16. Transferability and accuracy by combining dispersionless density functional and incremental post-Hartree-Fock theories: Noble gases adsorption on coronene/graphene/graphite surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Castells, María Pilar de Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Mitrushchenkov, Alexander O.; Stoll, Hermann

    2015-11-21

    The accuracy and transferability of the electronic structure approach combining dispersionless density functional theory (DFT) [K. Pernal et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 263201 (2009)] with the method of increments [H. Stoll, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8449 (1992)], are validated for the interaction between the noble-gas Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe atoms and coronene/graphene/graphite surfaces. This approach uses the method of increments for surface cluster models to extract intermonomer dispersion-like (2- and 3-body) correlation terms at coupled cluster singles and doubles and perturbative triples level, while periodic dispersionless density functionals calculations are performed to estimate the sum of Hartree-Fock and intramonomer correlation contributions. Dispersion energy contributions are also obtained using DFT-based symmetry-adapted perturbation theory [SAPT(DFT)]. An analysis of the structure of the X/surface (X = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) interaction energies shows the excellent transferability properties of the leading intermonomer correlation contributions across the sequence of noble-gas atoms, which are also discussed using the Drude oscillator model. We further compare these results with van der Waals-(vdW)-corrected DFT-based approaches. As a test of accuracy, the energies of the low-lying nuclear bound states supported by the laterally averaged X/graphite potentials (X = {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) are calculated and compared with the best estimations from experimental measurements and an atom-bond potential model using the ab initio-assisted fine-tuning of semiempirical parameters. The bound-state energies determined differ by less than 6–7 meV (6%) from the atom-bond potential model. The crucial importance of including incremental 3-body dispersion-type terms is clearly demonstrated, showing that the SAPT(DFT) approach effectively account for these terms. With the deviations from the best experimental-based estimations smaller than 2.3 meV (1.9%), the

  17. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  18. Molecular and Electronic Structure of Cyclic Trinuclear Gold(I) Carbeniate Complexes: Insights for Structure/Luminescence/Conductivity Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDougaldJr, Roy N; Chilukuri, Bhaskar; Jia, Huiping; Perez, Michael R; Rabaa, Hassan; Wang, Xiaoping; Nesterov, Vladimir; Cundari, Thomas R.; Gnade, Bruce E; Omary, Mohammad A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental and computational study of correlations between solid-state structure and optical/electronic properties of cyclotrimeric gold(I) carbeniates, [Au-3(RN=COR')(3)] (R, R' = H, Me, Bu-n, or (c)Pe), is reported. Synthesis and structural and photophysical characterization of novel complexes [Au-3(MeN=(COBu)-Bu-n)(3)], [Au-3((BuN)-Bu-n=COMe)(3)], [Au-3((BuN)-Bu-n=(COBu)-Bu-n)(3)], and [Au-3((c)PeN=COMe)(3)] are presented. Changes in R and R' lead to distinctive variations in solid-state stacking, luminescence spectra, and conductive properties. Solid-state emission and excitation spectra for each complex display a remarkable dependence on the solid-state packing of the cyclotrimers. The electronic structure of [Au-3(RN=COR')(3)] was investigated via molecular and solid-state simulations. Calculations on [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)] models indicate that the infinitely extended chain of eclipsed structures with equidistant Au-Au intertrimer aurophilic bonding can have lower band gaps, smaller Stokes shifts, and reduced reorganization energies (lambda). The action of one cyclotrimer as a molecular nanowire is demonstrated via fabrication of an organic field effect transistor and shown to produce a p-type field effect. Hole transport for the same cyclotrimer-doped within a poly(9-vinylcarbazole) host-produced a colossal increase in current density from similar to 1 to similar to 1000 mA/cm(2). Computations and experiments thus delineate the complex relationships between solid-state morphologies, electronic structures, and optoelectronic properties of gold(I) carbeniates.

  19. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  20. Multi-core Performance Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extreme Scaling on Petascale-class Systems Cray XE/XT Porting, Scaling, and Optimization 46 VECTORIZATION: LOOP ORDER MATTERS 47 55. 1 ii = 0 56. 1 2-----------< do b = abmin, abmax 57. 1 2 3---------< do j=ijmin, ijmax 58. 1 2 3 ii = ii+1 59. 1 2 3 jj = 0 60. 1 2 3 4-------< do a = abmin, abmax 61. 1 2 3 4 r8----< do i = ijmin, ijmax 62. 1 2 3 4 r8 jj = jj+1 63. 1 2 3 4 r8 f5d(a,b,i,j) = f5d(a,b,i,j) + tmat7(ii,jj) 64. 1 2 3 4 r8 f5d(b,a,i,j) = f5d(b,a,i,j) - tmat7(ii,jj) 65. 1 2 3

  1. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remaindermore » is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.« less

  2. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  3. Formation of a metastable crystalline phase during ion irradiation of spinel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, R.; Yu, Ning; Sickafus, K.; Nastasi, M.

    1995-12-31

    We have examined the radiation resistance of magnesio-aluminate spinel by irradiating single crystals of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 400 keV Xe++ions at 100 K. At low irradiation doses, the material transformed into a metastable crystalline phase with half the lattice spacing of the original crystal. Electron diffraction analysis revealed that this structural change can be explained in terms of the redistribution of cations among octahedral, tetrahedral, and three- fold coordinated interstitial sites of the close-packed anion lattice. Corresponding to this transformation, the hardness and elastic modulus increased with dose to values about 10% greater than those of unirradiated spinel. We believe that the formation of this metastable phase plays an important role in determining the radiation resistance of spinel.

  4. Rotating Aperture System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusnak, Brian; Hall, James M.; Shen, Stewart; Wood, Richard L.

    2005-01-18

    A rotating aperture system includes a low-pressure vacuum pumping stage with apertures for passage of a deuterium beam. A stator assembly includes holes for passage of the beam. The rotor assembly includes a shaft connected to a deuterium gas cell or a crossflow venturi that has a single aperture on each side that together align with holes every rotation. The rotating apertures are synchronized with the firing of the deuterium beam such that the beam fires through a clear aperture and passes into the Xe gas beam stop. Portions of the rotor are lapped into the stator to improve the sealing surfaces, to prevent rapid escape of the deuterium gas from the gas cell.

  5. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  6. Optimization of Xenon Biosensors for Detection of ProteinInteractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowery, Thomas J.; Garcia, Sandra; Chavez, Lana; Ruiz, E.Janette; Wu, Tom; Brotin, Thierry; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; King, David S.; Schultz, Peter G.; Pines, Alex; Wemmer, David E..

    2005-08-03

    Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR can detect the presence of specific low-concentration biomolecular analytes by means of the xenon biosensor, which consists of a water-soluble, targeted cryptophane-A cage that encapsulates xenon. In this work we use the prototypical biotinylated xenon biosensor to determine the relationship between the molecular composition of the xenon biosensor and the characteristics of protein-bound resonances. The effects of diastereomer overlap, dipole-dipole coupling, chemical shift anisotropy, xenon exchange, and biosensor conformational exchange on protein-bound biosensor signal were assessed. It was found that optimal protein-bound biosensor signal can be obtained by minimizing the number of biosensor diastereomers and using a flexible linker of appropriate length. Both the linewidth and sensitivity of chemical shift to protein binding of the xenon biosensor were found to be inversely proportional to linker length.

  7. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, R.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Otani, M.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamauchi, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshido, S.; Fushimi, K.; Banks, T. I.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Winslow, L. A.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0??? decay half-life of T0?1/2 > 2.61025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are also presented.

  8. NEW OF SCHWINGER VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR K-SHELL EXCITATION OF CA{sup 18+} (1S{sup 2}) IONS BY IMPACT OF VARIOUS ATOMS AT 8.6 MeV/amu

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasri, B.; Hanssen, J.

    2011-10-27

    A new variational impact parameter approach to the process of direct electronic excitation of atoms by impact of ions at intermediate velocities regimes was shown to be very successful in predicting the saturation of cross sections when the projectile charge is increased [1-4]. In our approach, this new procedure is based on the fractional form of the Schwinger variational principle and applied to study K-shell excitation of Ca{sup 18+} (1s{sup 2}) ions impinging at 8.6 MeV/amu on various gases (H{sub 2}, He, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe). The excitation cross sections are compared with another theoretical approaches, like Born approximation. All obtained results stay in good agreement with experimental data of Xiang-Yuan Xu et al.[5].

  9. Orientation and alignment effects in ion-induced fragmentation of water: A triple coincidence study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajput, Jyoti; Safvan, C. P.

    2014-10-28

    The technique of recoil ion momentum spectroscopy is employed to determine the complete momentum vectors for three fragment dissociation channels, [D{sub 2}O]{sup (q+2)} ? (D{sup +} + D{sup +} + O{sup q+}) with q = 1, 2, or 3 formed in collisions of isolated water molecules with 450 keV Xe{sup 9+} ions. The kinetic energy released in each of these dissociation channels is measured and angular correlations between the fragment momenta are determined. From the angular correlations of the three fragment ions with the direction of the incoming beam, a strong anisotropy in the emission of recoil fragments is reported. It is inferred that the molecular plane prefers to lie orthogonal to the incoming beam direction with certain orientations being more preferred than others and a clear signature of non-coplanar dissociation is also observed.

  10. Detailed optical characterization of a near diffraction limited xenon fluoride laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Londono, C. ); Smith, M.J.; Trainor, D.W.; Itzkan, I. ); Berggren, R. ); Fulghum, S.F. )

    1988-12-01

    A 1 m gain length, electron beam pumped xenon fluoride laser (lambda = 353, 351 nm) utilizing two laser mixtures of lean and rich NF/sub 3/, with Xe and balance Ne, was operated with a confocal unstable resonator with magnification of 2.24. The resultant beam quality was diagnosed with both shearing interferometry to measure near-field phase and far-field focal spot evaluation techniques. These measurements resulted in a beam quality of <1.15 times the diffraction limit with no evidence of the wide angle energy loss. This laser device was fully characterized with regard to electron beam deposition uniformity, transient refractive index effects, and optical quality of the resonator and diagnostic components.

  11. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtime variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.

  12. Location of the spinal cerebellar ataxia 2 locus to a 1 cM interval on chromsome 12q23-24.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allotey, R.; Twells, R.; Orozco, G.

    1994-09-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria and dysdiadochokinesia. We have previously assigned the disease locus to chromosome 12q23-24.1 in a population from the Holguin province, Cuba, within a 31 cM interval flanked by the anonymous marker D12S53 and the phospholipase A2 gene (PLA2). Clinical as much as genealogical and geographical evidence indicate that the Cuban pedigrees are homogeneous and descend from a common ancestor. We now report fine genetic mapping of the disease locus with fourteen microsatellite loci known to span this region, which positions SCA2 in a 1 cM interval defined by the loci D12S84-AFM291xe9. Observation of a common haplotype segregating with the disease supports the existence of a founder effect in the Holguin pedigrees.

  13. Local search to improve coordinate-based task mapping

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balzuweit, Evan; Bunde, David P.; Leung, Vitus J.; Finley, Austin; Lee, Alan C. S.

    2015-10-31

    We present a local search strategy to improve the coordinate-based mapping of a parallel job’s tasks to the MPI ranks of its parallel allocation in order to reduce network congestion and the job’s communication time. The goal is to reduce the number of network hops between communicating pairs of ranks. Our target is applications with a nearest-neighbor stencil communication pattern running on mesh systems with non-contiguous processor allocation, such as Cray XE and XK Systems. Utilizing the miniGhost mini-app, which models the shock physics application CTH, we demonstrate that our strategy reduces application running time while also reducing the runtimemore » variability. Furthermore, we further show that mapping quality can vary based on the selected allocation algorithm, even between allocation algorithms of similar apparent quality.« less

  14. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  15. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  16. The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in gas mixtures in weakly ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiflikian, R.V.

    1995-10-01

    The analog of Blanc`s law for drift velocities of electrons in multicomponent gas mixtures in weakly ionized spatially homogeneous low-temperature plasma is derived. The obtained approximate-analytical expressions are valid for average electron energy in the 1--5 eV range typical for plasma conditions of low-pressure direct current (DC) discharges. The accuracy of these formulas is {plus_minus}5%. The analytical criterion of the negative differential conductivity (NDC) of electrons in binary mixtures of gases is obtained. NDC of electrons is predicted in He:Kr and He:Xe rare gas mixtures. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  17. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N{sub 2}), Oxygen (O{sub 2}), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  18. Probing particle and nuclear physics models of neutrinoless double beta decay with different nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fogli, G. L.; Rotunno, A. M. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica 'Michelangelo Merlin', Via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Lisi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Half-life estimates for neutrinoless double beta decay depend on particle physics models for lepton-flavor violation, as well as on nuclear physics models for the structure and transitions of candidate nuclei. Different models considered in the literature can be contrasted - via prospective data - with a 'standard' scenario characterized by light Majorana neutrino exchange and by the quasiparticle random phase approximation, for which the theoretical covariance matrix has been recently estimated. We show that, assuming future half-life data in four promising nuclei ({sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 136}Xe), the standard scenario can be distinguished from a few nonstandard physics models, while being compatible with alternative state-of-the-art nuclear calculations (at 95% C.L.). Future signals in different nuclei may thus help to discriminate at least some decay mechanisms, without being spoiled by current nuclear uncertainties. Prospects for possible improvements are also discussed.

  19. Energy Density Functional Study of Nuclear Matrix Elements for Neutrinoless {beta}{beta} Decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Tomas R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); CEA, Irfu, SPhN, Centre de Saclay, F-911191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64259 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-12-17

    We present an extensive study of nuclear matrix elements (NME) for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the nuclei {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 116}Cd, {sup 124}Sn, {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, and {sup 150}Nd based on state-of-the-art energy density functional methods using the Gogny D1S functional. Beyond-mean-field effects are included within the generating coordinate method with particle number and angular momentum projection for both initial and final ground states. We obtain a rather constant value for the NMEs around 4.7 with the exception of {sup 48}Ca and {sup 150}Nd, where smaller values are found. We analyze the role of deformation and pairing in the evaluation of the NME and present detailed results for the decay of {sup 150}Nd.

  20. Plasma focus ion beam fluence and fluxFor various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Saw, S. H. [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia) [Centre for Plasma Research, INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone 3148 (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    A recent paper derived benchmarks for deuteron beam fluence and flux in a plasma focus (PF) [S. Lee and S. H. Saw, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112703 (2012)]. In the present work we start from first principles, derive the flux equation of the ion beam of any gas; link to the Lee Model code and hence compute the ion beam properties of the PF. The results show that, for a given PF, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow, and damage factors are relatively constant from H{sub 2} to N{sub 2} but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper provides much needed benchmark reference values and scaling trends for ion beams of a PF operated in any gas.

  1. HopperToEdison.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving from Hopper (Cray XE6) to Edison (Cray XC30) --- 1 --- NUG 2 013, F ebruary 2 5, 2 013 Edison-NERSC Newest HPC Machine * Easy to use - Edison p rogramming e nvironment i s r emarkably s imilar t o t hat o f Hopper * Supports a rich set of produc=on so?ware applica=ons, libraries, a nd t ools n eeded b y t he e n=re N ERSC w orkload - A r obust s et o f p rogramming l anguages, m odels - A r ich s et o f h ighly o p=mized l ibraries, t ools a nd a pplica=ons - Community a nd p

  2. Demonstration of neutron detection utilizing open cell foam and noble gas scintillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavelle, C. M. Miller, E. C.; Coplan, M.; Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Yue, A. T.; Kowler, A. L.; Koeth, T.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Clark, Charles W.

    2015-03-02

    We present results demonstrating neutron detection via a closely spaced converter structure coupled to low pressure noble gas scintillation instrumented by a single photo-multiplier tube (PMT). The converter is dispersed throughout the gas volume using a reticulated vitreous carbon foam coated with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). A calibrated cold neutron beam is used to measure the neutron detection properties, using a thin film of enriched {sup 10}B as a reference standard. Monte Carlo computations of the ion energy deposition are discussed, including treatment of the foam random network. Results from this study indicate that the foam shadows a significant portion of the scintillation light from the PMT. The high scintillation yield of Xe appears to overcome the light loss, facilitating neutron detection and presenting interesting opportunities for neutron detector design.

  3. Ultrabright multikilovolt x-ray source: saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith

    2004-02-17

    An apparatus and method for the generation of ultrabright multikilovolt x-rays from saturated amplification on noble gas transition arrays from hollow atom states is described. Conditions for x-ray amplification in this spectral region combine the production of cold, high-Z matter, with the direct, selective multiphoton excitation of hollow atoms from clusters using ultraviolet radiation and a nonlinear mode of confined, self-channeled propagation in plasmas. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of saturated amplification on several transition arrays of the hollow atom Xe(L) spectrum (.lambda..about.2.9 .ANG.). An estimate of the peak brightness achieved is .about.10.sup.29 .gamma..multidot.s.sup.-1.multidot.mm.sup.-2.multidot.mr.sup.-2 (0.1% Bandwidth).sup.-1, that is .about.10.sup.5 -fold higher than presently available synchotron technology.

  4. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1x10{sup 13} and 1x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The Xe{sup +}-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p{sup 6} {sup 2}S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  6. Remote NMR/MRI detection of laser polarized gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pines, Alexander; Saxena, Sunil; Moule, Adam; Spence, Megan; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pierce, Kimberly L.; Han, Song-I; Granwehr, Josef

    2006-06-13

    An apparatus and method for remote NMR/MRI spectroscopy having an encoding coil with a sample chamber, a supply of signal carriers, preferably hyperpolarized xenon and a detector allowing the spatial and temporal separation of signal preparation and signal detection steps. This separation allows the physical conditions and methods of the encoding and detection steps to be optimized independently. The encoding of the carrier molecules may take place in a high or a low magnetic field and conventional NMR pulse sequences can be split between encoding and detection steps. In one embodiment, the detector is a high magnetic field NMR apparatus. In another embodiment, the detector is a superconducting quantum interference device. A further embodiment uses optical detection of Rb--Xe spin exchange. Another embodiment uses an optical magnetometer using non-linear Faraday rotation. Concentration of the signal carriers in the detector can greatly improve the signal to noise ratio.

  7. RangeTables.xls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 4 He 14 N 22 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 LET (MeVcm²/mg) Range in Silicon (µm) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 600 1200 1800 2400 3000 3600 Range in Silicon (µm) 129 Xe 30 40 50 60 (MeVcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 25 MeV SEE Beams After aramica

  8. RangeTables.xlsx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 15 MeV SEE Beams (low LET) 4 He 14 N 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Range in Silicon (µm) 4 He 14 N 20 Ne 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 LET (MeV Range in Silicon (µm) After aramica window and 30 mm of air 141 Pr 165 Ho 181 Ta 197 Au 50 60 70 80 90 100 Vcm²/mg) LET vs. Range in Si for 15 MeV SEE Beams After aramica window and 30 mm of air 40 Ar 84 Kr 129 Xe 63 Cu 109 Ag 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250

  9. Performance Tuning of Fock Matrix and Two-Electron Integral Calculations for NWChem on Leading HPC Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan, Hongzhan; Austin, Brian M.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Oliker, Leonid; Wright, Nicholas J.; Apra, Edoardo

    2014-10-01

    Attaining performance in the evaluation of two-electron repulsion integrals and constructing the Fock matrix is of considerable importance to the computational chemistry community. Due to its numerical complexity improving the performance behavior across a variety of leading supercomputing platforms is an increasing challenge due to the significant diversity in high-performance computing architectures. In this paper, we present our successful tuning methodology for these important numerical methods on the Cray XE6, the Cray XC30, the IBM BG/Q, as well as the Intel Xeon Phi. Our optimization schemes leverage key architectural features including vectorization and simultaneous multithreading, and results in speedups of up to 2.5x compared with the original implementation.

  10. Lasing in the UV, IR and visible spectral ranges in a runaway-electron-preionised diffuse dischrage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vil'tovskii, P O; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Panchenko, N A; Rybka, D V; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    2013-07-31

    Lasers on the mixtures of inert gases, H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and nitrogen with NF{sub 3} and (or) SF{sub 6} are studied under pumping by the volume (diffusive) discharge formed in a nonuniform electric field due to runaway-electron preionisation. Generation in the IR, visible and UV spectral ranges is obtained on atomic transitions of neon ({lambda} = 585.3 nm), argon (750.3 nm) and fluorine (712.8 and 731.1 nm), and on molecular transitions of N2 (337.1 nm), XeF * (351 and 353 nm), HF (2.8 - 3.2 {mu}m) and DF (3.8 - 4.2 {mu}m). It is shown that in N{sub 2} - SF{sub 6}, H{sub 2} - SF{sub 6} and D{sub 2} - SF{sub 6} mixtures the generation efficiency approaches the limiting values. (lasers)

  11. Heavy-ion excitation of rare-gas excimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulrich, A.; Koerner, H.J.; Kroetz, W.; Ribitzki, G.; Murnick, D.E.; Matthias, E.; Kienle, P.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.

    1987-07-15

    Beams of high-energy heavy ions (Ar and U) from the UNILAC accelerator have been used to excite rare gases at pressures near 1 bar. The dominant spectroscopic feature observed in Ar, Kr, and Xe gases was molecular excimer emission at the second excimer continuum at 130, 150, and 170 nm, respectively. The excimer radiation was studied as a function of time (with respect to the excitation pulse), ion-beam current, pressure, and excitation density. The efficiency of excimer production from heavy-ion-beam energy was found to be several percent. Details of spectral shape, especially the ratio of first-to-second continuum emission, were found to depend on pressure and exciting beam type.

  12. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories%3CU%2B2019%3E trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  13. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  14. Results from KamLAND-Zen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; et al

    2015-07-15

    KamLAND-Zen reports on a preliminary search for neutrinoless double-beta decay with 136Xe based on 114.8 live-days after the purification of the xenon loaded liquid scintillator. In this data, the problematic 110mAg background peak identified in previous searches is reduced by more than a factor of 10. By combining the KamLAND-Zen pre- and post-purification data, we obtain a preliminary lower limit on the 0νββ decay half-life of T0ν1/2 > 2.6×1025 yr at 90% C.L. The search sensitivity will be enhanced with additional low background data after the purification. As a result, prospects for further improvements with future KamLAND-Zen upgrades are alsomore » presented.« less

  15. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, August 1, 1979-July 31, 1980. [Univ. of Rochester, New York, 8/1/79-7/31/80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizenga, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    The study of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms at the SuperHILAC and LAMPF is reported. Preprints of five articles and manuscripts of four recent conference papers are given, along with complete citations of publications and a list of personnel. Significant work was performed in the following areas: the bombarding energy dependence of the /sup 209/Bi + /sup 136/Xe reaction; the fragment yields for specific Z and A for projectile-like fragments produced in the reaction of 8.3-MeV/u /sup 56/Fe ions with targets of /sup 56/Fe, /sup 165/Ho, /sup 209/Bi, and /sup 238/U; and time distributions of fragments from delayed fission after muon capture for muonic /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, /sup 237/Np, /sup 239/Pu, and /sup 242/Pu. (RWR)

  16. Multiphase imaging of gas flow in a nanoporous material usingremote detection NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harel, Elad; Granwehr, Josef; Seeley, Juliette A.; Pines, Alex

    2005-10-03

    Pore structure and connectivity determine how microstructured materials perform in applications such as catalysis, fluid storage and transport, filtering, or as reactors. We report a model study on silica aerogel using a recently introduced time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance imaging technique to characterize the flow field and elucidate the effects of heterogeneities in the pore structure on gas flow and dispersion with Xe-129 as the gas-phase sensor. The observed chemical shift allows the separate visualization of unrestricted xenon and xenon confined in the pores of the aerogel. The asymmetrical nature of the dispersion pattern alludes to the existence of a stationary and a flow regime in the aerogel. An exchange time constant is determined to characterize the gas transfer between them. As a general methodology, this technique provides new insights into the dynamics of flow in porous media where multiple phases or chemical species may be present.

  17. Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Shiyu; Andersson, Anders D.; Germann, Timothy C.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-05-02

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

  18. First-principles study of noble gas impurities and defects in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Alexander E.; Wolverton, C.

    2011-10-01

    We performed a series of density functional theory + U (DFT + U) calculations to explore the energetics of various defects in UO{sub 2}, i.e., noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe), Schottky defects, and the interaction between these defects. We found the following: (1) collinear antiferromagnetic UO{sub 2} has an energy-lowering distortion of the oxygen sublattice from ideal fluorite positions; (2) DFT + U qualitatively affects the formation volume of Schottky defect clusters in UO{sub 2} (without U the formation volume is negative, but including U the formation volume is positive); (3) the configuration of the Schottky defect cluster is dictated by a competition between electrostatic and surface energy effects; (4) the incorporation energy of inserting noble gas atoms into an interstitial site has a strong dependence on the volume of the noble gas atom, corresponding to the strain it causes in the interstitial site, from He (0.98 eV) to Xe (9.73 eV); (5) the energetics of each of the noble gas atoms incorporated in Schottky defects show strong favorable binding, due to strain relief associated with moving the noble gas atom from the highly strained interstitial position into the vacant space of the Schottky defect; and (6) for argon, krypton, and xenon, the binding energy of a noble gas impurity with the Schottky defect is larger than the formation energy of a Schottky defect, thereby making the formation of Schottky defects thermodynamically favorable in the presence of these large impurities.

  19. Final Report: Computer Simulation of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis in Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohail Murad

    2012-01-03

    Molecular simulation methods were developed as part of this project to increase our fundamental understanding of membrane based separation systems. Our simulations clarified for example that steric (size) effects had a significant impact on the desalination membranes. Previously it was thought the separation was entirely driven by coulombic force (attractive/repulsive forces at the membrane surfaces). Steric effects played an important role, because salt ions in brackish water are never present alone, but are strongly hydrated which effectively increases their size, and makes it impossible to enter a membrane, while the smaller water molecules can enter more readily. Membrane surface effects did play a role in increasing the flux of water, but not in the separation itself. In addition we also developed simulation methods to study ion exchange, gas separations, and pervaporation. The methods developed were used to once again increase our fundamental understanding of these separation processes. For example our studies showed that when the separation factor of gases in membranes can be significantly affected by the presence of another gas, it is generally because the separation mechanism has changed. For example in the case of nitrogen and carbon dioxide, in their pure state the separation factor is determined by diffusion, while in mixtures it is influenced more by adsorption in the membrane (zeolite in our case) Finally we developed a new technique using the NMR chemical shift to determine intermolecular interactions for mixtures. For polar-nonpolar systems such as Xe dissolved in water we were able to significantly improve the accuracy of gas solubilities, which are very sensitive to the cross interaction between water and Xe.

  20. Low energy beam transport system developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup ?} beams up to 60?mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100?mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 ? mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1?m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup ?} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup ?} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup ?} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  1. Beta-decay measurements of neutron-deficient cesium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, R.F.

    1983-03-01

    Beta decay endpoint energy measurements of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes were done using an energy spectrum shape fitting technique. This was a departure from the typical method of endpoint energy analysis, the Fermi-Kurie plot. A discussion of the shape fitting procedure and its improved features are discussed. These beta endpoint measurements have led to total decay energies (Q/sub EC/) of the neutron deficient /sup 119/ /sup 123/Cs isotopes. The total decay energies of /sup 122m/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.95 +- 0.25 MeV) and /sup 119/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.26 +- 0.29 MeV) were new measurements. The total decay energies of /sup 123/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 4.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 122g/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 121/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 5.21 +- 0.22 MeV), and /sup 120/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.38 +- 0.23 MeV) were measurements with significantly improved uncertainties as compared to the literature. Further, a combination of the energy levels derived from previous literature gamma-gamma coincident measurements and the experimental beta-coincident gamma decay energies has supported an improved level scheme for /sup 121/Xe and the proposal of three new energy levels in /sup 119/Xe. Comparison of the experimental cesium mass excesses (determined with our Q/sub EC/ values and known xenon mass excesses) with both the literature and theoretical predicted values showed general agreement except for /sup 120/Cs. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed.

  2. Design of Solid Form Xenon-124 Target for Producing I-123 Radioisotope Using Computer Simulation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamali Moghaddam, K.; Sadeghi, M.; Kakavand, T.; Shokri Bonab, S.

    2006-07-01

    Recently in Cyclotron and Nuclear Medicine Department of NRCAM, at Atomic Energy organization of Iran (AEOI), a system for producing 1-123 via Xe-124 gas target technology, has been constructed and installed. One of the major problems in this system is the highly expensive cost of the enriched Xenon-124 gas. Therefore, saving this gas inside the system is very important. Unfortunately, by accidental rupture of the window foil or bad function of O-rings, the whole Xenon gas will escape from the system immediately. In this paper, by using computer codes; ALICE91, SRIM and doing some calculations we are going to demonstrate our latest effort for feasibility study of producing I-123 with the above mentioned reactions, but using Xe-124 solid target instead. According to our suggested design, a conical shaped irradiation vessel made of copper with 1 mm thickness, 1 cm outlet diameter, 5 cm length and 12 deg. angle at summit can be fixed inside a liquid nitrogen housing chamber. The Xenon-124 gas will be sent to the inside of this very cold conical trap and eventually deposited on its surface in solid form. Our calculation shows that during bombardment with 17-28 MeV proton energy, the thickness of solidified Xenon layer will remain around .28 mm. Likewise; thermo-dynamical calculation shows that in order to prevent the evaporation of solidified Xenon, the maximum permissible proton beam current for this system should be less than 1.4 {mu}A. According to these working conditions, the production yield of I-123 can be predicted to be around 150 mCi/{mu}Ah. (authors)

  3. Repository performance confirmation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-09-01

    Repository performance confirmation links the technical bases of repository science and societal acceptance. This paper explores the myriad aspects of what has been labeled performance confirmation in U.S. programs, which involves monitoring as a collection of distinct activities combining technical and social significance in radioactive waste management. This paper is divided into four parts: (1) A distinction is drawn between performance confirmation monitoring and other testing and monitoring objectives; (2) A case study illustrates confirmation activities integrated within a long-term testing and monitoring strategy for Yucca Mountain; (3) A case study reviews compliance monitoring developed and implemented for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and (4) An approach for developing, evaluating and implementing the next generation of performance confirmation monitoring is presented. International interest in repository monitoring is exhibited by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme 'Monitoring Developments for Safe Repository Operation and Staged Closure' (MoDeRn) Project. The MoDeRn partners are considering the role of monitoring in a phased approach to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. As repository plans advance in different countries, the need to consider monitoring strategies within a controlled framework has become more apparent. The MoDeRn project pulls together technical and societal experts to assimilate a common understanding of a process that could be followed to develop a monitoring program. A fundamental consideration is the differentiation of confirmation monitoring from the many other testing and monitoring activities. Recently, the license application for Yucca Mountain provided a case study including a technical process for meeting regulatory requirements to confirm repository performance as well as considerations related to the preservation of retrievability. The performance confirmation plan developed as part of the

  4. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 3, Results, Variability, and Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part three of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I and 90Sr-90Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part two described the methods used to organize the data collected in part one and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent doses to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV), assuming all variance is due to variability. Most of the data were for adult males, whose average annual effective dose is estimated to be 337 ?Sv (CV = 0.65, geometric mean = 283 ?Sv, geometric

  5. Potential Radon-222 Emissions from the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, J.W.

    2003-09-04

    The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC), a field level activity of the Defense Logistics Agency, has stewardship of a stockpile of thorium nitrate that has been in storage for decades. The thorium nitrate stockpile was produced from 1959 to 1964 for the Atomic Energy Commission and previously has been under the control of several federal agencies. The stockpile consists of approximately 7 million pounds of thorium nitrate crystals (hydrate form) stored at two depot locations in the United States (75% by weight at Curtis Bay, Maryland, and 25% by weight at Hammond, Indiana). The material is stored in several configurations in over 21,000 drums. The U.S. Congress has declared the entire DNSC thorium nitrate stockpile to be in excess of the needs of the Department of Defense. Part of DNSC's mission is to safely manage the continued storage, future sales, and/or disposition of the thorium nitrate stockpile. Historically, DNSC has sold surplus thorium nitrate to domestic and foreign companies, but there is no demand currently for this material. Analyses conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2001 demonstrated that disposition of the thorium nitrate inventory as a containerized waste, without processing, is the least complex and lowest-cost option for disposition. A characterization study was conducted in 2002 by ORNL, and it was determined that the thorium nitrate stockpile may be disposed of as low-level waste. The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was used as a case study for the disposal alternative, and special radiological analyses and waste acceptance requirements were documented. Among the special radiological considerations is the emission of {sup 220}Rn and {sup 222}Rn from buried material. NTS has a performance objective on the emissions of radon: 20 pCi m{sup -2} sec{sup -1} at the surface of the disposal facility. The radon emissions from the buried thorium nitrate stockpile have been modeled. This paper presents background information and summarizes

  6. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclides bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready to be

  7. SU-E-J-182: Reproducibility of Tumor Motion Probability Distribution Function in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Using Real-Time Tumor-Tracking Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiinoki, T; Hanazawa, H; Park, S; Takahashi, T; Shibuya, K; Kawamura, S; Uehara, T; Yuasa, Y; Koike, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We aim to achieve new four-dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT) using the next generation real-time tumor-tracking (RTRT) system and flattening-filter-free techniques. To achieve new 4DRT, it is necessary to understand the respiratory motion of tumor. The purposes of this study were: 1.To develop the respiratory motion analysis tool using log files. 2.To evaluate the reproducibility of tumor motion probability distribution function (PDF) during stereotactic body RT (SBRT) of lung tumor. Methods: Seven patients having fiducial markers closely implanted to the lung tumor were enrolled in this study. The positions of fiducial markers were measured using the RTRT system (Mitsubishi Electronics Co., JP) and recorded as two types of log files during the course of SBRT. For each patients, tumor motion range and tumor motion PDFs in left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions were calculated using log files of all beams per fraction (PDFn). Fractional PDF reproducibility (Rn) was calculated as Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence between PDF1 and PDFn of tumor motion. The mean of Rn (Rm) was calculated for each patient and correlated to the patient’s mean tumor motion range (Am). The change of Rm during the course of SBRT was also evluated. These analyses were performed using in-house developed software. Results: The Rm were 0.19 (0.07–0.30), 0.14 (0.07–0.32) and 0.16 (0.09–0.28) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The Am were 5.11 mm (2.58–9.99 mm), 7.81 mm (2.87–15.57 mm) and 11.26 mm (3.80–21.27 mm) in LR, AP and SI directions, respectively. The PDF reproducibility decreased as the tumor motion range increased in AP and SI direction. That decreased slightly through the course of RT in SI direction. Conclusion: We developed the respiratory motion analysis tool for 4DRT using log files and quantified the range and reproducibility of respiratory motion for lung tumors.

  8. An accreting white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar limit in the Andromeda galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Sumin; Bildsten, Lars; Wolf, William M.; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Perley, Daniel A.; Prince, Thomas A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; De Cia, Annalisa; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason; Nugent, Peter E.

    2014-05-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) detection of the most recent outburst of the recurrent nova (RN) system RX J0045.4+4154 in the Andromeda galaxy has enabled the unprecedented study of a massive (M > 1.3 M {sub ☉}) accreting white dwarf (WD). We detected this nova as part of the near-daily iPTF monitoring of M31 to a depth of R ≈ 21 mag and triggered optical photometry, spectroscopy and soft X-ray monitoring of the outburst. Peaking at an absolute magnitude of M{sub R} = –6.6 mag, and with a decay time of 1 mag per day, it is a faint and very fast nova. It shows optical emission lines of He/N and expansion velocities of 1900-2600 km s{sup –1} 1-4 days after the optical peak. The Swift monitoring of the X-ray evolution revealed a supersoft source (SSS) with kT {sub eff} ≈ 90-110 eV that appeared within 5 days after the optical peak, and lasted only 12 days. Most remarkably, this is not the first event from this system, rather it is an RN with a time between outbursts of approximately 1 yr, the shortest known. Recurrent X-ray emission from this binary was detected by ROSAT in 1992 and 1993, and the source was well characterized as a M > 1.3 M {sub ☉} WD SSS. Based on the observed recurrence time between different outbursts, the duration and effective temperature of the SS phase, MESA models of accreting WDs allow us to constrain the accretion rate to M-dot >1.7×10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and WD mass >1.30 M {sub ☉}. If the WD keeps 30% of the accreted material, it will take less than a Myr to reach core densities high enough for carbon ignition (if made of C/O) or electron capture (if made of O/Ne) to end the binary evolution.

  9. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël; Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S.; Jost, Rémy; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from −40 to −74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying

  10. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1998-12-22

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with theJ.J.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975, the University of Washington (UW) assumed responsibility for the network and subsequently expanded it. In 1979, the Basalt Waste o Isolation Program (13WIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the Hdord Site as part of site " characterization activities. Rockwell Htiord Operations, followed by Westinghouse Ha&ord Company . (WHC), operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network @wRN) operated and maintained by the UW. Funding for BWIP ended in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and responsibility for the University of Washington contract were then trans- ferred to WHC'S Environmental Division. Maintenance responsibilities for the EWRN were also Assigned to WHC, who made major upgrades to EWRN sites. Effective October 1,1996, Seismic Monitoring was transfemed to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PI@lL*). Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group, Energy Technology Division. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer network was constructed during 1997 and came online in May 1997. It operated continuously until September 30, 1997, when it was mothballed due to can- . cellation of fimding. Funding was restored on October 1, 1998, by joint agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and PNNL. Operation of the free-field sites resumed on November 20, 1998.

  11. Obelix, a new low-background HPGe at Modane Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, P.; Piquemal, F.; Warot, G.; Zampaolo, M.

    2015-08-17

    An ultra-low background coaxial HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with a relative efficiency of 160%, corresponding to a 600 cm{sup 3} Ge crystal, was installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (4800 m.w.e). To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination. A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. We present the constructional details which lead to a remarkable low detector background of 73 cts/kg·d in [40, 3000] keV. Measured samples showed that sensitivities about 100 μBq/kg in {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th are reached for samples of some kg and 30 days of lifetime.

  12. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  13. Radiopurity measurement of acrylic for DEAP-3600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nantais, C. M.; Boulay, M. G.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2013-08-08

    The spherical acrylic vessel that contains the liquid argon target is the most critical detector component in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment. Alpha decays near the inner surface of the acrylic vessel are one of the main sources of background in the detector. A fraction of the alpha energy, or the recoiling nucleus from the alpha decay, could misreconstruct in the fiducial volume and result in a false candidate dark matter event. Acrylic has low levels of inherent contamination from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th. Another background of particular concern is diffusion of {sup 222}Rn during manufacturing, leading to {sup 210}Pb contamination. The maximum acceptable concentrations in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel are ppt levels of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th equivalent, and 10{sup −8} ppt {sup 210}Pb. The impurities in the bulk acrylic will be measured by vaporizing a large quantity of acrylic and counting the concentrated residue with ultra-low background HPGe detectors and a low background alpha spectrometer. An overview of the acrylic assay technique is presented.

  14. Calculation of Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1980-12-08

    Version: 00 MILDOS estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This is a multi-purpose code system, within the range of its proper application, and can be used to evaluate population doses formore » NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. The MILDOS package includes models for both point sources (stacks, vents) and area sources (ore pads, tailings areas). Gaseous releases are limited to consideration of 222Rn plus ingrowth of daughters. Exposure pathways of concern are assumed to be inhalation of airborne radioactive material, ingestion of vegetables, meat, and milk contaminated via deposition, and external exposure to radiation emitted by airborne activity and activity deposited on ground surfaces. Liquid exposure pathways are not treated by MILDOS.« less

  15. QER- Comment of Beth Markens 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    I'm writing to state that New England does not need to draw energy from "natural" gas out of the Marcellus Shale. This so called "natural" gas is increasingly unconventional gas. It is well known that gas from the Marcellus Shale is exponentially higher in radioactivity. This poses a severe health risk to Massachusetts residents in a number of ways. Pipelines leak. And proposed pipelines will run through all of our aquifers and watersheds. There is a disproportionately high level of environmental damage, ruining of drinking water, difficulties of disposing of ruined drinking water, and an obscenely high emission from both wellheads and pipelines. As a Master's level nursing professional, I feel this is incredibly dangerous and a foolhardy method for a small number of individuals to gain an obscene amount of private wealth while the rest of us face enormous consequences. Massachusetts does not need to become the shipping grid for the Marcellus Shale. And this seems like a ploy by two big investment companies to exploit eminent domain for private profit. I have great concern for the health and well-being of citizens of Massachusetts. It certainly seems like a plan to euthanize citizens. --Beth Ashley Markens, RN

  16. Summary of the Special Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide Demonstrating the Before and After Impacts on the DOE Order 435.1 Performance Objective and the Peak Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, G.J.

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the special analysis (SA) of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 1) demonstrating the before and after impacts of the waste stream to the DOE Order 435.1 performance objective at the disposal facility, and the peak dose. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requested this SA and asked the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to run the SA deterministically and assume that all the model conditions remain the same regardless of the length of time to the peak dose. Although the NDEP accepts that DOE Order 435.1 requires a compliance period of 1,000 years, it also requested to know what year, if any, the specific DOE performance objectives will be exceeded. Given the NDEP’s requested model conditions, the SA demonstrates the Rn-222 peak dose will occur in about 2 million years and will exceed the performance objective in about 6,000 years. The 0.25 mSv y-1 all-pathway performance objective was not exceeded for the resident scenario after reaching the 4 million year peak dose.

  17. Residence times of fine tropospheric aerosols as determined by {sup 210}Pb progeny.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.; Cunningham, M. M.; Mielcarek, C.; Ravelo, R.; Wagner, C.

    1999-10-05

    Fine tropospheric aerosols can play important roles in the radiative balance of the atmosphere. The fine aerosols can act directly to cool the atmosphere by scattering incoming solar radiation, as well as indirectly by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Fine aerosols, particularly carbonaceous soots, can also warm the atmosphere by absorbing incoming solar radiation. In addition, aerosols smaller than 2.5 {micro}m have recently been implicated in the health effects of air pollution. Aerosol-active radioisotopes are ideal tracers for the study of atmospheric transport processes. The source terms of these radioisotopes are relatively well known, and they are removed from the atmosphere only by radioactive decay or by wet or dry deposition of the host aerosol. The progeny of the primordial radionuclide {sup 238}U are of particular importance to atmospheric studies. Uranium-238 is common throughout Earth's crust and decays to the inert gas {sup 222}Rn, which escapes into the atmosphere. Radon-222 decays by the series of alpha and beta emissions shown in Figure 1 to the long-lived {sup 210}Pb. Once formed, {sup 210}Pb becomes attached to aerosol particles with average attachment times of 40 s to 3 min.

  18. Hybrid Composite Ni(OH)(2)@NiCo2O4 Grown on Carbon Fiber Paper for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, L; Chen, DC; Ding, Y; Wang, ZL; Zeng, ZZ; Liu, ML

    2013-11-13

    We have successfully fabricated and tested the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes consisting of Ni(OH)(2) nanosheets coated on NiCo2O4 nanosheets grown on carbon fiber paper (CFP) current collectors. When the NiCo2O4 nanosheets are replaced by Co3O4 nanosheets, however, the energy and power density as well as the rate capability of the electrodes are significantly reduced, most likely due to the lower conductivity of Co3O4 than that of NiCo2O4. The 3D hybrid composite Ni(OH)(2)/ NiCo2O4/CFP electrodes demonstrate a high areal capacitance of 5.2 F/cm(2) at a cycling current density of 2 rnA/cm(2), with a capacitance retention of 79% as the cycling current density was increased from 2 to 50 mA/cm(2). The remarkable performance of these hybrid composite electrodes implies that supercapacitors based on them have potential for many practical applications.

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shott, Gregory J.

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  20. Radon emanation from giant landslides of Koefels (Tyrol, Austria) and Langtang Himal (Nepal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purtscheller, F.; Pirchl, T.; Sieder, G.

    1995-07-01

    The identification of extremely high indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (Tyrol, Austria) initiated a scientific program to get information about the source and distribution of this noble gas. The high concentrations can not be related to U anomalies or large-scale fault zones. The nearby giant landslide of Koefels, with its highly fractured and crushed orthogneisses, are the only possible source of radon, despite the fact that the U and Ra content of the rocks is by no means exceptional. The reasons for the high emanation rates from the landslide are discussed and compared to results gained from a similar examination of the giant landslide of Langtang Himal (Nepal). The exceptional geologic situation in both cases, as well as the spatial distribution of different concentration levels, indicate that both landslides must be considered as the production sites of radon. Independent of the U and Ra contents of the rocks, the most important factors producing high emanation rates are the production of a high active surface area in circulation pathways for Rn-enriched soil air by brittle deformation due to the impact of the landslidemass. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. C) C)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -, n z =) C: c Cl C11 0 rn4LT n C) C) 7.- C: C -~ c~72 -LU C= 0 0C1 C) -~ ~ C. COC:) \ - C:> ( mN Ut - - ' r C) 0 C l O l O - C C7 0 O Cl7 -0 -~ 't C) C 't C: O O - n Vn- C) n - r r tr) C: CD c) C:) C: Cl: C V) - 00 0 ) 0 C C ) C cz t! 2 0 cz C ; C3 C.) - C) C:) C: C) C) C) -0 -0 0D 0: 0 7t 00 o- 0 CDc C: 0 C = C-4 N C14 NC _ oC oC C7C 0 l CC C)C CA CIA CC 0 CC C CCA N C14 0A V0 CC kr)C CC) C: CC CC ~0 Cr 4 CCr CC) CC CC 0 CC C CC0 0 0 C C C CC C ~1- ~- CC CC 0 C1 4 11n -0 0 1 C Yo Co C) 0)

  2. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  3. Decontamination of hot cells K-1, K-3, M-1, M-3, and A-1, M-Wing, Building 200: Project final report Argonne National Laboratory-East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheever, C.L.; Rose, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to remove radioactively contaminated materials and equipment from the hot cells, to decontaminate the hot cells, and to dispose of the radioactive waste. The goal was to reduce stack releases of Rn-220 and to place the hot cells in an emptied, decontaminated condition with less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general radiation background. The following actions were needed: organize and mobilize a decontamination team; prepare decontamination plans and procedures; perform safety analyses to ensure protection of the workers, public, and environment; remotely size-reduce, package, and remove radioactive materials and equipment for waste disposal; remotely decontaminate surfaces to reduce hot cell radiation background levels to allow personnel entries using supplied air and full protective suits; disassemble and package the remaining radioactive materials and equipment using hands-on techniques; decontaminate hot cell surfaces to remove loose radioactive contaminants and to attain a less than 10 {micro}Sv/h (1 mrem/h) general background level; document and dispose of the radioactive and mixed waste; and conduct a final radiological survey.

  4. Study of Complete Fusion Reactions Leading to the Production of Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roman N. Sagaidak

    1999-12-31

    Cross section values for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in complete fusion reactions induced by heavy ions on spherical and deformed target nuclei are analyzed in the framework of barrier penetration and statistical model approximations. For the reactions leading to Rn-Pa nuclei, a strong influence of the entrance channel on the measured cross section values is observed for nearly symmetric projectile-target combinations. In order to reproduce the observed excitation functions in such combinations we had to introduce the quantity of fusion probability. Considering the asymmetric reactions leading to the heaviest nuclei we also had to use the fusion probability to reproduce the cross section values obtained for cold fusion reactions induced by {sup 50}Ti and heavier projectiles on the Pb and Bi target nuclei, and also the values obtained for hot fusion reactions induced by {sup 34}S on actinide target nuclei. The scaling of fusion probabilities derived for both the reactions allowed us to predict the values of cross sections for superheavy elements (SHE) produced in the {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on actinide target nuclei and in the cold fusion reactions induced by the Zn and heavier projectiles.

  5. Study of complete fusion reactions leading to the production of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagaidak, Roman N.

    1999-11-16

    Cross section values for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in complete fusion reactions induced by heavy ions on spherical and deformed target nuclei are analyzed in the framework of barrier penetration and statistical model approximations. For the reactions leading to Rn-Pa nuclei, a strong influence of the entrance channel on the measured cross section values is observed for nearly symmetric projectile-target combinations. In order to reproduce the observed excitation functions in such combinations we had to introduce the quantity of fusion probability. Considering the asymmetric reactions leading to the heaviest nuclei we also had to use the fusion probability to reproduce the cross section values obtained for cold fusion reactions induced by {sup 50}Ti and heavier projectiles on the Pb and Bi target nuclei, and also the values obtained for hot fusion reactions induced by {sup 34}S on actinide target nuclei. The scaling of fusion probabilities derived for both the reactions allowed us to predict the values of cross sections for superheavy elements (SHE) produced in the {sup 48}Ca induced reactions on actinide target nuclei and in the cold fusion reactions induced by the Zn and heavier projectiles.

  6. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  7. Operation of Lanzhou all permanent electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 2 on 320 kV platform with highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, L.; Liu, H. P.; Li, H.; Li, J. D.; Sun, L. T.; Ma, X. W.

    2014-02-15

    The 320 kV platform for multi-discipline research with highly charged ions is a heavy ion beam acceleration instrument developed by Institute of Modern Physics, which is dedicated to basic scientific researches such as plasma, atom, material physics, and astrophysics, etc. The platform has delivered ion beams of 400 species for 36?000 h. The average operation time is around 5000 h/year. With the beams provided by the platform, lots of outstanding progresses were made in various research fields. The ion source of the platform is an all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source, LAPECR2 (Lanzhou All Permanent ECR ion source No. 2). The maximum axial magnetic fields are 1.28 T at injection and 1.07 T at extraction, and the radial magnetic field is up to 1.21 T at the inner wall of the plasma chamber. The ion source is capable to produce low, medium, and high charge state gaseous and metallic ion beams, such as H{sup +}, {sup 40}Ar{sup 8+}, {sup 129}Xe{sup 30+}, {sup 209}Bi{sup 33+}, etc. This paper will present the latest result of LAPECR2 and the routine operation status for the high voltage platform.

  8. Fragmentation and systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance in the stable N=82 isotones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savran, D.; Loeher, B.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Fritzsche, M.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Romig, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Sonnabend, K.

    2011-08-15

    The low-lying electric dipole (E1) strength in the semimagic nucleus {sup 136}Xe has been measured, which finalizes the systematic survey to investigate the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in all stable even N=82 isotones with the method of nuclear resonance fluorescence using real photons in the entrance channel. In all cases, a fragmented resonance-like structure of E1 strength is observed in the energy region 5-8 MeV. An analysis of the fragmentation of the strength reveals that the degree of fragmentation decreases toward the proton-deficient isotones, while the total integrated strength increases, indicating a dependence of the total strength on the neutron-to-proton ratio. The experimental results are compared to microscopic calculations within the quasiparticle phonon model. The calculation includes complex configurations of up to three phonons and is able to reproduce also the fragmentation of the E1 strength, which allows us to draw conclusions on the damping of the PDR. Calculations and experimental data are in good agreement on the degree of fragmentation and also on the integrated strength if the sensitivity limit of the experiments is taken into account.

  9. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  10. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.; Koo, J.C.; Rosencwaig, A.

    A method is described for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500..mu.. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4/sub ..mu../) and thick walls (5 to 20/sub ..mu../) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, D, H/sub 2/, DT, He, N/sub 2/, Ne, CO/sub 2/, etc., in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-form-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace.

  11. A gas-loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Lloyd Lee; Bartram, Brian Douglas; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Lang, John Michael; Morris, John Scott

    2015-09-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures.The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez® and Teflon®. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown.

  12. Intensity-resolved ionization yields of aniline with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Hart, N.; Zhu, F.; Nava, R.; Pham, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Paulus, G. G.; Schuessler, H. A.; Mohamed, T.; Schroeder, H.

    2011-12-15

    We present experimental results for the ionization of aniline and benzene molecules subjected to intense ultrashort laser pulses. Measured parent molecular ions yields were obtained using a recently developed technique capable of three-dimensional imaging of ion distributions within the focus of a laser beam. By selecting ions originating from the central region of the focus, where the spatial intensity distribution is nearly uniform, volumetric-free intensity-dependent ionization yields were obtained. The measured data revealed a previously unseen resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI)-like process. Comparison of benzene, aniline, and Xe ion yields demonstrates that the observed intensity-dependent structures are not due to geometric artifacts in the focus. Finally for intensities greater than {approx}3x10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, we attribute the ionization of aniline to a stepwise process going through the {pi}{sigma}{sup *} state which sits three photons above the ground state and two photons below the continuum.

  13. Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2013-11-21

    We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Nuclear quadrupole moment-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Li-juan E-mail: juha.vaara@iki.fi; Vaara, Juha E-mail: juha.vaara@iki.fi

    2014-01-14

    Nuclear magneto-optic effects could make important contributions to novel, high-sensitivity, and high-resolution spectroscopic and imaging methods that provide nuclear site-specific structural and dynamic information on molecular and materials systems. Here we present a first-principles electronic structure formulation of nuclear quadrupole moment-induced Cotton-Mouton effect in terms of response theory, as well as ab initio and density-functional theory calculations of this phenomenon for a series of molecular liquids: H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, C{sub 6}H{sub 12} (cyclohexane), HI, XeF{sub 2}, WF{sub 5}Cl, and Pt(C{sub 2}dtp){sub 2}. The roles of basis-set convergence, electron correlation, and relativistic effects are discussed. The estimated order of magnitude of the overall ellipticities induced to linearly polarized light is 10{sup ?3}10{sup ?7} rad/(Mcm) for fully spin polarized nuclei. The cases with the largest presently obtained ellipticities should be detectable with modern instrumentation in the Voigt magneto-optic setup, particularly for the heavy nuclei.

  15. Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu; Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

  16. Band gap and defect states of MgO thin films investigated using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heo, Sung; Cho, Eunseog; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Gyeong Su; Kang, Hee Jae; Nagatomi, T.; Choi, Pyungho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-07-15

    The band gap and defect states of MgO thin films were investigated by using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and high-energy resolution REELS (HR-REELS). HR-REELS with a primary electron energy of 0.3 keV revealed that the surface F center (FS) energy was located at approximately 4.2 eV above the valence band maximum (VBM) and the surface band gap width (E{sub g}{sup S}) was approximately 6.3 eV. The bulk F center (F{sub B}) energy was located approximately 4.9 eV above the VBM and the bulk band gap width was about 7.8 eV, when measured by REELS with 3 keV primary electrons. From a first-principles calculation, we confirmed that the 4.2 eV and 4.9 eV peaks were F{sub S} and F{sub B}, induced by oxygen vacancies. We also experimentally demonstrated that the HR-REELS peak height increases with increasing number of oxygen vacancies. Finally, we calculated the secondary electron emission yields (γ) for various noble gases. He and Ne were not influenced by the defect states owing to their higher ionization energies, but Ar, Kr, and Xe exhibited a stronger dependence on the defect states owing to their small ionization energies.

  17. Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: Consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    El-Atwani, O.; Norris, S. A.; Ludwig, K.; Gonderman, S.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-12-16

    In this study, several proposed mechanisms and theoretical models exist concerning nanostructure evolution on III-V semiconductors (particularly GaSb) via ion beam irradiation. However, making quantitative contact between experiment on the one hand and model-parameter dependent predictions from different theories on the other is usually difficult. In this study, we take a different approach and provide an experimental investigation with a range of targets (GaSb, GaAs, GaP) and ion species (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) to determine new parametric trends regarding nanostructure evolution. Concurrently, atomistic simulations using binary collision approximation over the same ion/target combinations were performed to determine parametric trends onmore » several quantities related to existing model. A comparison of experimental and numerical trends reveals that the two are broadly consistent under the assumption that instabilities are driven by chemical instability based on phase separation. Furthermore, the atomistic simulations and a survey of material thermodynamic properties suggest that a plausible microscopic mechanism for this process is an ion-enhanced mobility associated with energy deposition by collision cascades.« less

  18. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  19. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  20. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Betamore » Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.« less