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1

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Wednesday, 26...

2

X-ray streak and framing camera techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews recent developments and applications of ultrafast diagnostic techniques for x-ray measurements. These techniques, based on applications of image converter devices, are already capable of significantly important resolution capabilities. Techniques capable of time resolution in the sub-nanosecond regime are being considered. Mechanical cameras are excluded from considerations as are devices using phosphors or fluors as x-ray converters.

Coleman, L.W.; Attwood, D.T.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

3

Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ultra fast x-ray streak camera for ten inch manipulator based platforms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

Marley, E. V. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Shepherd, R.; Fulkerson, S.; James, L.; Emig, J.; Norman, D. [Physics and Life Science, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, M.S. L-490, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve the ultrafast details of the dynamical processes. ALS researchers are taking the second path but adding a spatial resolution capability; that is, they are developing a high-speed x-ray streak camera with high spatial resolution to watch, in real time, the motion of the atoms in materials. So far, a temporal resolution of 233 fs and a spatial resolution of 10 mm have been demonstrated. This is the first time that such a high temporal resolution has been combined with high spatial resolution in a streak camera.

6

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve the ultrafast details of the dynamical processes. ALS researchers are taking the second path but adding a spatial resolution capability; that is, they are developing a high-speed x-ray streak camera with high spatial resolution to watch, in real time, the motion of the atoms in materials. So far, a temporal resolution of 233 fs and a spatial resolution of 10 mm have been demonstrated. This is the first time that such a high temporal resolution has been combined with high spatial resolution in a streak camera.

7

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Print Studying the world of the ultrasmall and the ultrafast is at the frontier of scientific research. Two x-ray approaches can be used for ultrafast examinations. The first entails developing sources that have short x-ray pulses such as free-electron lasers and slicing sources, which will provide the ultrafast temporal information. The other approach is to develop a detector that is fast enough to resolve the ultrafast details of the dynamical processes. ALS researchers are taking the second path but adding a spatial resolution capability; that is, they are developing a high-speed x-ray streak camera with high spatial resolution to watch, in real time, the motion of the atoms in materials. So far, a temporal resolution of 233 fs and a spatial resolution of 10 mm have been demonstrated. This is the first time that such a high temporal resolution has been combined with high spatial resolution in a streak camera.

8

X-ray Streak Camera Cathode Development and Timing Accuracy of the 4w UV Fiducial System at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4-{omega} (263nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, Titanium, Gold and Silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data was analyzed to determine the centroiding a statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps respectively.

Opachich, Y P; Palmer, N; Homoelle, D; Hatch, B W; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Kalantar, D; Browning, D; Landen, O

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

X-ray streak camera cathode development and timing accuracy of the 4{omega} ultraviolet fiducial system at the National Ignition Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convergent ablator experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are designed to measure the peak velocity and remaining ablator mass of an indirectly driven imploding capsule. Such a measurement can be performed using an x-ray source to backlight the capsule and an x-ray streak camera to record the capsule as it implodes. The ultimate goal of this experiment is to achieve an accuracy of 2% in the velocity measurement, which translates to a {+-}2 ps temporal accuracy over any 300 ps interval for the streak camera. In order to achieve this, a 4{omega} (263 nm) temporal fiducial system has been implemented for the x-ray streak camera at NIF. Aluminum, titanium, gold, and silver photocathode materials have been tested. Aluminum showed the highest relative quantum efficiency, with five times more peak signal counts per fiducial pulse when compared to Gold. The fiducial pulse data were analyzed to determine the centroiding statistical accuracy for incident laser pulse energies of 1 and 10 nJ, showing an accuracy of {+-}1.6 ps and {+-}0.7 ps, respectively.

Opachich, Y. P.; Palmer, N.; Homoelle, D.; Hatch, B.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Kalantar, D.; Browning, D.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Zuegel, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Ultra-fast image converter streak cameras for laser fusion diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a 10-ps resolution optical streak camera used to characterize laser pulses and other transient optical signals in fusion research is discussed. Performance characteristics are presented. The design, operation, and application of an x-ray streak camera used to study laser-produced plasmas in the x-ray spectral region of 1 to 10 keV with temporal and spatial resolutions of approximately 20 ps and approximately 10 $mu$m is also discussed. (auth)

Houghton, J.W.; Thomas, S.W.; Attwood, D.T.; Coleman, L.W.

1975-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

11

Performance comparison of streak camera recording systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Streak camera based diagnostics are vital to the inertial confinement fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories. Performance characteristics of various readout systems coupled to an EGG-AVO streak camera were analyzed and compared to scaling estimates. The purpose of the work was to determine the limits of the streak camera performance and the optimal fielding conditions for the Amador Valley Operations (AVO) streak camera systems. The authors measured streak camera limitations in spatial resolution and sensitivity. Streak camera limits on spatial resolution are greater than 18 lp/mm at 4% contrast. However, it will be difficult to make use of any resolution greater than this because of high spatial frequency variation in the photocathode sensitivity. They have measured a signal to noise of 3,000 with 0.3 mW/cm{sup 2} of 830 nm light at a 10 ns/mm sweep speed. They have compared lens coupling systems with and without micro-channel plate intensifiers and systems using film or charge coupled device (CCD) readout. There were no conditions where film was found to be an improvement over the CCD readout. Systems utilizing a CCD readout without an intensifier have comparable resolution, for these source sizes and at a nominal cost in signal to noise of 3, over those with an intensifier. Estimates of the signal-to-noise for different light coupling methods show how performance can be improved.

Derzon, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Diagnostics and Target Experiment Dept.; Barber, T. [K-tech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Energy Sharing in the 2-Electron Attosecond Streak Camera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the recently developed concept of the 2-electron streak camera (see NJP 12, 103024 (2010)), we have studied the energy-sharing between the two ionizing electrons in single-photon double ionization of He(1s2s). We find that the most symmetric and asymmetric energy sharings correspond to different ionization dynamics with the ion's Coulomb potential significantly influencing the latter. This different dynamics for the two extreme energy sharings gives rise to different patterns in asymptotic observables and different time-delays between the emission of the two electrons. We show that the 2-electron streak camera resolves the time-delays between the emission of the two electrons for different energy sharings.

Price, H; Emmanouilidou, A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

15

Beam based calibration of X-ray pinhole camera in SSRF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) contains a 3.5-GeV storage ring serving as a national X-ray synchrotron radiation user facility characterized by a low emittance and a low coupling. The stability and quality of the electron beams are monitored continuously by an array of diagnostics. In particular, an X-ray pinhole camera is employed in the diagnostics beamline of the ring to characterize the position, size, and emittance of the beam. The performance of the measurement of the transverse electron beam size is given by the width of the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray pinhole camera. Typically the point spread function of the X-ray pinhole camera is calculated via analytical or numerical method. In this paper we will introduce a new beam based calibration method to derive the width of the PSF online.

Leng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Man-Zhou; Chen, Zhi-Chu; Chen, Jie; Ye, Kai-Rong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Beam based calibration of X-ray pinhole camera in SSRF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) contains a 3.5-GeV storage ring serving as a national X-ray synchrotron radiation user facility characterized by a low emittance and a low coupling. The stability and quality of the electron beams are monitored continuously by an array of diagnostics. In particular, an X-ray pinhole camera is employed in the diagnostics beamline of the ring to characterize the position, size, and emittance of the beam. The performance of the measurement of the transverse electron beam size is given by the width of the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray pinhole camera. Typically the point spread function of the X-ray pinhole camera is calculated via analytical or numerical method. In this paper we will introduce a new beam based calibration method to derive the width of the PSF online.

Yong-Bin Leng; Guo-Qing Huang; Man-Zhou Zhang; Zhi-Chu Chen; Jie Chen; Kai-Rong Ye

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Ten-picosecond streak camera for the laser fusion program at LLL  

SciTech Connect

From electro-optical systems design conference; New York, New York. USA (18 Sep 1973). The development and operation of 10-picosecond streak cameras in the LLL laser fusion program are described. In addition, modifications to two TRW Model 1-D high-speed streak cameras are discussed. The compact cameras are completely self-contained, weigh about 27 kg, and occupy about 1/6 m/sup 2/ of bench space. Power consumption is less than 10 W. (auth)

Thomas, S.W.; Carman, R.L.; Spracklen, H.R.; Tripp, G.R.; Coleman, L.W.

1973-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

20

An ultrafast x-ray detector system at an elliptically polarizing undulator beamline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

has been developed at the ALS for the study of ultrafastAdvanced Light Source (ALS). A streak camera is a detector2 Experimental setup The ALS ultrafast x-ray detector system

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing development and optimizations, such as the use of single photon counting mode to enhance spectral resolution.

Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

22

Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called “comb” pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber.

Ronald Justin, Terence Davies, Frans Janson, Bruce Marshall, Perry Bell, Daniel Kalantar, Joseph Kimbrough, Stephen Vernon, Oliver Sweningsen

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

23

Operation of a Single-Photon-Counting X-Ray Charge-Coupled Device Camera Spectrometer in a Petawatt Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD (charge-coupled device) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon-counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment.

Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Sangster, T.C.; Key, M.H.; Patel, P.; Zhang, B.B.; Clarke, R.; Karsch, S.; Norreys, P.

2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ultrafast x-ray diagnostics for laser fusion experiments  

SciTech Connect

Temporally, spectrally, and spatially resolved x-ray emission diagnostics are important tools in the study of the heating and compression of laser fusion targets by sub-nanosecond laser pulses. The use of the Livermore 15 psec resolution x-ray streak camera to make such measurements is reviewed. Temporal histories of spectrally resolved x-ray emission in the 1 to 10 keV range have been obtained. These data have served to further define the x-ray streak camera as a quantative diagnostic tool and have also provided data relating to the absorption and compression phases of laser heating. The x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with a specially designed pinhole imaging system to temporally record images of laser compressed targets with a spatial resolution of approximately 6 ..mu..m. Implosion characteristics are presented for experiments with glass microshell targets. The concept, development, and testing of an ultrafast framing camera for full two-dimensional time resolved imaging is discussed. A prototype camera, based on the image dissection-restoration concept, has achieved an approximately 200 psec frame period with a resolution of 50 ..mu..m.

Coleman, L.W.

1976-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Synchroscan streak camera imaging at a 15-MeV photoinjector with emittance exchange  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the Fermilab A0 photoinjector facility, bunch-length measurements of the laser micropulse and the e-beam micropulse have been done in the past with a fast single-sweep module of the Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera with an intrinsic shot-to-shot trigger jitter of 10 to 20 ps. We have upgraded the camera system with the synchroscan module tuned to 81.25 MHz to provide synchronous summing capability with less than 1.5-ps FWHM trigger jitter and a phase-locked delay box to provide phase stability of {approx}1 ps over 10s of minutes. These steps allowed us to measure both the UV laser pulse train at 263 nm and the e-beam via optical transition radiation (OTR). Due to the low electron beam energies and OTR signals, we typically summed over 50 micropulses with 0.25-1 nC per micropulse. The phase-locked delay box allowed us to assess chromatic temporal effects and instigated another upgrade to an all-mirror input optics barrel. In addition, we added a slow sweep horizontal deflection plug-in unit to provide dual-sweep capability for the streak camera. We report on a series of measurements made during the commissioning of these upgrades including bunch-length and phase effects using the emittance exchange beamline and simultaneous imaging of a UV drive laser component, OTR, and the 800-nm diagnostics laser.

Lumpkin, A.H.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; /Fermilab

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Slit-mounted LED fiducial system for rotating mirror streak cameras  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a fiducial system for rotating mirror streak cameras that utilizes light emitting diodes mounted at the slit position of the camera. The diodes are driven to the required high brightness by a unique pulse power circuit designed to provide high voltage, high current pulses 18 nanoseconds in length at a frequency of up to 2.5 megahertz. The availability of super bright light emitting diodes with a wavelength of 630 to 640 nanometers allows us to record fiducial pulses, at streaking speeds in excess of 20mm per microsecond, on all the black and white films commonly used in high speed photography. The time marks on the film record are referenced to the real time of the experiment from a clock-driver that controls the start and frequency of the fiducial pulse train and by three adjustable and discreet blanked fiducials. This paper discusses the development of this system and describes the full setup as used at LLNL. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Shaw, L.L.; Muelder, S.A.; Rivera, A.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Initial Tests Of The Dual-Sweep Streak Camera System Planned For Aps Particle-Beam Diagnostics*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Initial tests of a dual-sweep streak system planned for use on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been performed using assets of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. The short light pulses from the photoelectric injector drive laser in both the visible (l=496 nm, Dt~1.5 ps (FWHM)), and the ultraviolet (l= 248 nm, Dt~5 ps (FWHM)) were used. Both a UV-visible S20 photocathode streak tube and a UV-tox -ray Au photocathode streak tube were tested. Calibration data with an etalon were also obtained. A sample of dualsweep streak data using optical synchrotron radiation on the APS injector synchrotron is also presented. I. INTRODUCTION The Advanced Photon Source will be a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility for the hard x-ray (10-100 keV) research community. The need to measure and monitor particle and photon beam parameters in the single bunch (10 ps), bunch-to-bunch (3 to 180 ns), and turn-by-turn (3.68 s) timescales has resulted in the choice of a dual-sweep s...

Lumpkin Yang And; A. Lumpkin; B. Yang; W. Gai; W. Cieslik

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Operational experience of a large area x-ray camera for protein crystallography.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After 3 years experience of operating very large area (210mm x 210mm) CCD-based detectors at the Advanced Photon Source, operational experience is reported. Four such detectors have been built, two for Structural Biology Center (APS-1 and SBC-2), one for Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotrons Radiation Center (Gold-2) at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source and one for Osaka University by Oxford Instruments, for use at Spring 8 (PX-21O). The detector is specifically designed as a high resolution and fast readout camera for macromolecular crystallography. Design trade-offs for speed and size are reviewed in light of operational experience and future requirements are considered. Operational data and examples of crystallography data are presented, together with plans for more development.

Joachimiak, A.; Jorden, A. R.; Loeffen, P. W.; Naday, I.; Sanishvili, R.; Westbrook, E. M.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

29

Detecting gamma-ray bursts from M31 with the wide field X-ray cameras on board BeppoSAX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gamma-ray bursters emit a small fraction of their flux in X rays, and because X-ray detectors are often very sensitive they may probe the gamma-ray burst universe more deeply than the current best gamma-ray instruments. On the reasonable assumptions that spectra of bursts observed by BATSE may be used to predict the X-ray fluxes of gamma-ray bursts, and that any corona of bursts around M31 is similar to the one around the Milky Way, we predict the rate at which the wide field cameras on board BeppoSAX should detect bursts from the Milky Way and M31. These rates are such that a one-month observation of M31 would have to either detect bursts from M31 or exclude most galactic models of gamma-ray bursts. (It is shown how the remainder can be dealt with.) Therefore such an observation would settle the long-standing dispute over their location.

Mateusz Ruszkowski; Ralph A. M. J. Wijers

1997-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

30

Detection of atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt projectiles using an x-ray charged coupled device camera  

SciTech Connect

We show that an x-ray charge coupled device (CCD) may be used as a particle detector for atomic and molecular mega-electron-volt (MeV) projectiles of around a few hundred keV per atomic mass unit. For atomic species, spectroscopic properties in kinetic energy measurements (i.e., linearity and energy resolution) are found to be close to those currently obtained with implanted or surface barrier silicon particle detectors. For molecular species, in order to increase the maximum kinetic energy detection limit, we propose to put a thin foil in front of the CCD. This foil breaks up the molecules into atoms and spreads the charges over many CCD pixels and therefore avoiding saturation effects. This opens new perspectives in high velocity molecular dissociation studies with accelerator facilities.

Chabot, M.; Martinet, G.; Bouneau, S.; Genolini, B.; Grave, X.; Nguyen, K.; Le Gailliard, C.; Rosier, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d'Orsay, IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Beroff, K.; Pino, T.; Feraud, G.; Friha, H. [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d'Orsay, INP-CNRS, Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay cedex (France); Villier, B. [Hamamatsu Photonics (France)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

X-ray Diffraction Crystal Calibration and Characterization  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies’ X-ray Laboratory is comprised of a multi-anode Manson type source and a Henke type source that incorporates a dual goniometer and XYZ translation stage. The first goniometer is used to isolate a particular spectral band. The Manson operates up to 10 kV and the Henke up to 20 kV. The Henke rotation stages and translation stages are automated. Procedures have been developed to characterize and calibrate various NIF diagnostics and their components. The diagnostics include X-ray cameras, gated imagers, streak cameras, and other X-ray imaging systems. Components that have been analyzed include filters, filter arrays, grazing incidence mirrors, and various crystals, both flat and curved. Recent efforts on the Henke system are aimed at characterizing and calibrating imaging crystals and curved crystals used as the major component of an X-ray spectrometer. The presentation will concentrate on these results. The work has been done at energies ranging from 3 keV to 16 keV. The major goal was to evaluate the performance quality of the crystal for its intended application. For the imaging crystals we measured the laser beam reflection offset from the X-ray beam and the reflectivity curves. For the curved spectrometer crystal, which was a natural crystal, resolving power was critical. It was first necessary to find sources of crystals that had sufficiently narrow reflectivity curves. It was then necessary to determine which crystals retained their resolving power after being thinned and glued to a curved substrate.

Michael J. Haugh; Richard Stewart; Nathan Kugland

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Neutron streak camera  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

Wang, C.L.

1981-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

34

Wolter-like high resolution x-ray imaging microscope for Rayleigh Taylor instabilities studies  

SciTech Connect

In the context of the inertial confinement fusion, experiments have been carried out on the Phebus laser facility to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (RTIs) at the ablation front. Premodulated brominated plastic targets (25 {mu}m thick) with a modulation wavelength between 12 and 50 {mu}m were accelerated with a temporally shaped soft x-ray pulse emitted from a hohlraum with a maximum radiation temperature of about 115 eV. The RTI growth was measured by face-on radiography using a microscope coupled with an x-ray streak camera, which has spatial and temporal resolutions of about 5 {mu}m and 50 ps, respectively. The acceleration was derived from side-on velocity measurements. The microscope we have developed is a Wolter-like microscope which consists of two toroiedal mirrors. We will present the experimental and theoretical potentialities of this microscope: characterization with an x-ray generator and plasma laser x-ray source (Phebus facility) for two-dimensional (2D) and 1D time-resolved imaging studies. Spatial resolution of about 4 {mu}m was achieved in the 1-5 keV range. The Wolter-like constitutes an interesting device for laser plasma diagnostics and will be very useful in the Laser Megajoules experiments conducted with more powerful lasers.

Troussel, Ph.; Meyer, B.; Reverdin, R.; Angelier, B.; Lidove, G.; Salvatore, P.; Richard, A. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DAM-Ile de France, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-les-Chatel (France); Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Saclay 91191 (France); Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CESTA, BP2, 33114 Le Barp (France)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

X-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes developed for the LIL program  

SciTech Connect

This article describes x-ray imaging with grazing-incidence microscopes, developed for the experimental program carried out on the Ligne d'Integration Laser (LIL) facility [J. P. Le Breton et al., Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2001 (Elsevier, Paris, 2002), pp. 856-862] (24 kJ, UV--0.35 nm). The design includes a large target-to-microscope (400-700 mm) distance required by the x-ray ablation issues anticipated on the Laser MegaJoule facility [P. A. Holstein et al., Laser Part. Beams 17, 403 (1999)] (1.8 MJ) which is under construction. Two eight-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766 (1948)] with different spectral wavelength ranges and with a 400 mm source-to-mirror distance image the target on a custom-built framing camera (time resolution of {approx}80 ps). The soft x-ray version microscope is sensitive below 1 keV and its spatial resolution is better than 30 {mu}m over a 2-mm-diam region. The hard x-ray version microscope has a 10 {mu}m resolution over an 800-{mu}m-diam region and is sensitive in the 1-5 keV energy range. Two other x-ray microscopes based on an association of toroidal/spherical surfaces (T/S microscopes) produce an image on a streak camera with a spatial resolution better than 30 {mu}m over a 3 mm field of view in the direction of the camera slit. Both microscopes have been designed to have, respectively, a maximum sensitivity in the 0.1-1 and 1-5 keV energy range. We present the original design of these four microscopes and their test on a dc x-ray tube in the laboratory. The diagnostics were successfully used on LIL first experiments early in 2005. Results of soft x-ray imaging of a radiative jet during conical shaped laser interaction are shown.

Rosch, R.; Boutin, J. Y.; Le Breton, J. P.; Gontier, D.; Jadaud, J. P.; Reverdin, C.; Soullie, G.; Lidove, G.; Maroni, R. [CEA/DIF, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

X-Ray Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 17, 2009 ... Stress Mapping Analysis by Ray Tracing (SMART): A New Technique ... technique of synchrotron X-ray topography, where a grid made out of ...

38

X-ray flashes and X-ray rich gamma ray bursts. Memorie della Societa’ Astronomica Italiana  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. X-ray flashes are detected in the Wide Field Cameras on BeppoSAX in the energy range 2-25 keV as bright X-ray sources lasting of the order of minutes, but remaining undetected in the Gamma Ray Bursts Monitor on BeppoSAX. They have properties very similar to the x-ray counterparts of GRBs and account for some of the Fast X-ray Transient events seen in almost every x-ray satellite. We review their X-ray properties and show that x-ray flashes are in fact very soft, x-ray rich, untriggered gamma ray bursts, in which the peak energy in 2-10 keV x-rays could be up to a factor of 100 larger than the peak energy in the 50-300 keV gamma ray range. The frequency is ? 100 yr ?1. 1 Fast X-ray Transients/High-latitude X-ray Transients Fast X-ray Transients have been observed with many x-ray satellites. In particular they are seen with x-ray instruments that scan the entire sky on a regular basis. Such events are detected in one sky scan and disappeared in the next, typically limiting the duration to be longer than a minute and shorter than a few hours. For this reason they are called Fast Transients. The first transients

John Heise; Jean In ’t Z; Peter M. Woods

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

X-ray generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

Dawson, John M. (Los Angeles, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: 2-BM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BM BM Introduction The 2-BM beamline offers measurement capabilities for x-ray microtomography, x-ray topography and x-ray microdiffraction. X-ray microtomography and x-ray diffraction instruments are installed on separate optical tables for independent operation with fast switch over time. Optically-coupled high-resolution CCD system is used for microtomography and topography with up to 1 micron spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction setup consists of KB microfocussing mirrors (~3 micron minimum spot), four-circle Huber diffractometer, high-precision translation sample stage, two orthogonally-mounted video cameras for viewing sample, fluorescence detector (Si-drift diode) and diffraction detector (a scintillation detector or a CCD). Three different levels of monochromaticity are available. Conventional monochromatic x-rays from a double-bounced Si (111) crystal monochromator (DCM, D E/E=1E-4), wide band-pass monochromatic x-rays from a double multilayer monochromator (DMM, D E/E=1~4E-2) and pink beam. The available x-ray range is from 5 keV to 30 keV. The lower limit is due to the x-ray windows and the upper limit is due to the critical angle of the x-ray mirror. Two different coatings (Cr and Pt) for the x-ray mirror allow either 20 keV or 30 keV energy cutoff.

42

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

43

X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d'astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

X-ray microtomography  

SciTech Connect

In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

Landis, Eric N., E-mail: landis@maine.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, 5711 Boardman Hall, Orono, Maine 04469 (United States); Keane, Denis T., E-mail: dtkeane@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University (United States); DND-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Bldg. 432/A002, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Design and assembly of a telecentric zoom lens for the Cygnus x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to collect x-ray images of different sized targets, which are positioned inside a containment vessel, onto different sized CCD cameras.

Malone, R M; Brown, K K; Curtis, A H; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Frogget, B C; Garten, J R; Howe, R A; Huerta, J A; Kaufman, M I; Lutz, S S; McGillivray, K D; Smith, S S; Furlanetto, M R; Haines, T J

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Electro-optic Phase Grating Streak Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The electro-optic phase grating streak spectrometer (EOPGSS) generates a time-resolved spectra equivalent to that obtained with a conventional spectrometer/streak camera combination, but without using a streak camera (by far the more expensive and problematic component of the conventional system). The EOPGSS is based on a phase, rather than an amplitude grating. Further, this grating is fabricated of electro-optic material such as, for example, KD*P, by either etching grooves into an E-O slab, or by depositing lines of the E-O material onto an optical flat. An electric field normal to the grating alters the material’s index of refraction and thus affects a shift (in angle) of the output spectrum. Ramping the voltage streaks the spectrum correspondingly. The streak and dispersion directions are the same, so a second (static, conventional) grating disperses the spectrum in the orthogonal direction to prevent different wavelengths from “overwriting” each other. Because the streaking is done by the grating, the streaked output spectrum is recorded with a time-integrating device, such as a CCD. System model, typical design, and performance expectations will be presented.

Goldin, F. J.

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect

The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

48

X-ray Security Screening  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National and International Standards for X-ray Security Screening Applications. Summary: The primary objective of this ...

2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

49

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Scanning x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning x-ray microscope is described including: an x-ray source capable of emitting a beam of x-rays; a collimator positioned to receive the beam of x-rays and to collimate this beam, a focusing cone means to focus the beam of x-rays, directed by the collimator, onto a focal plane, a specimen mount for supporting a specimen in the focal plane to receive the focused beam of x-rays, and x-ray beam scanning means to relatively move the specimen and the focusing cone means and collimator to scan the focused x-ray beam across the specimen. A detector is disposed adjacent the specimen to detect flourescent photons emitted by the specimen upon exposure to the focused beam of x-rays to provide an electrical output representative of this detection. Means are included for displaying and/or recording the information provided by the output from the detector, as are means for providing information to the recording and/or display means representative of the scan rate and position of the focused x-ray beam relative to the specimen whereby the recording and/or display means can correlate the information received to record and/or display quantitive and distributive information as to the quantity and distribution of elements detected in the specimen. Preferably there is provided an x-ray beam modulation means upstream, relative to the direction of emission of the xray beam, of the focusing cone means.

Wang, C.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

X-ray lithography source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

55

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Ultra-Short Electron Bunch and X-Ray Temporal Diagnostics with an X-Band Transverse Deflector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of ultra-short electron bunches on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), generation of sub-ten femtosecond X-ray pulses is possible, and some efforts have been put into both ultra-short electron and X-ray beam diagnostics. Here we propose a single-shot method using a transverse rf deflector (X-band) after the undulator to reconstruct both the electron bunch and X-ray temporal profiles. Simulation studies show that about 1 fs (rms) time resolution may be achievable in the LCLS and is applicable to a wide range of FEL wavelengths and pulse lengths. The jitter, resolution and other related issues will be discussed. The successful operation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), with its capability of generating free-electron laser (FEL) X-ray pulses from a few femtoseconds (fs) up to a few hundred fs, opens up vast opportunities for studying atoms and molecules on this unprecedented ultrashort time scale. However, tremendous challenges remain in the measurement and control of these ultrashort pulses with femtosecond precision, for both the electron beam (e-beam) and the X-ray pulses. For ultrashort e-beam bunch length measurements, a standard method has been established at LCLS using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) deflector, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as {approx} 10 fs rms. However, the e-beam with low charges of 20 pC at LCLS, which is expected to be less than 10 fs in duration, is too short to be measured using this transverse deflector. The measurement of the electron bunch length is helpful in estimating the FEL X-ray pulse duration. However, for a realistic beam, such as that with a Gaussian shape or even a spiky profile, the FEL amplification varies along the bunch due to peak current or emittance variation. This will cause differences between the temporal shape or duration of the electron bunch and the X-ray pulse. Initial experiments at LCLS have revealed that characterization of the X-ray pulse duration on a shot-by-shot basis is critical for the interpretation of the data. However, a reliable x-ray pulse temporal diagnostic tool is not available so far at the LCLS. We propose a novel method in this paper to characterize the FEL X-ray pulse duration and shape. A transverse rf deflector is used in conjunction with an e-beam energy spectrometer, located after the FEL undulator. By measuring the difference in the e-beam longitudinal phase space between FEL-on and FEL-off, we can obtain the time-resolved energy loss and energy spread induced from the FEL radiation, allowing the FEL X-ray temporal shape to be reconstructed.

Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Huang, Z.; Loos, H.; Krejcik, P.; Wang, M-H.; /SLAC; Behrens, C.; /DESY

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

57

Synchrotron X-ray Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy; (3) variable kinetic energy X-ray ... advanced materials is critical to the development and optimization of products ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

58

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

CALIBRATION OF X-RAY IMAGING DEVICES FOR ACCURATE INTENSITY MEASUREMENT  

SciTech Connect

National Security Technologies (NSTec) has developed calibration procedures for X-ray imaging systems. The X-ray sources that are used for calibration are both diode type and diode/fluorescer combinations. Calibrating the X-ray detectors is key to accurate calibration of the X-ray sources. Both energy dispersive detectors and photodiodes measuring total flux were used. We have developed calibration techniques for the detectors using radioactive sources that are traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The German synchrotron at Physikalische Technische Bundestalt (PTB) is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes over the energy range from 50 eV to 60 keV. The measurements on X-ray cameras made using the NSTec X-ray sources have included quantum efficiency averaged over all pixels, camera counts per photon per pixel, and response variation across the sensor. The instrumentation required to accomplish the calibrations is described. X-ray energies ranged from 720 eV to 22.7 keV. The X-ray sources produce narrow energy bands, allowing us to determine the properties as a function of X-ray energy. The calibrations were done for several types of imaging devices. There were back illuminated and front illuminated CCD (charge coupled device) sensors, and a CID (charge injection device) type camera. The CCD and CID camera types differ significantly in some of their properties that affect the accuracy of X-ray intensity measurements. All cameras discussed here are silicon based. The measurements of quantum efficiency variation with X-ray energy are compared to models for the sensor structure. Cameras that are not back-thinned are compared to those that are.

Haugh, M J; Charest, M R; Ross, P W; Lee, J J; Schneider, M B; Palmer, N E; Teruya, A T

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

60

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray micro-probe. Twelve invited speakers discussed the important scientific applications of these techniques, and also predicted the future scientific directions with the advance of instrumentation and x-ray sources. The workshop was well attended with over fifty registered attendees.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

X-ray Transition Energies Search Form  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

[skip navigation] X-ray Transition Energies Database Main Page Search for X-ray transition energies by element(s), transition ...

64

Compact x-ray source and panel  

SciTech Connect

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

Dane V. Morgan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

**TITLE** ASP Conference Series, Vol. **VOLUME**, **PUBLICATION YEAR** **EDITORS** X-ray Transients from X-ray Binaries to Gamma Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. We discuss three classes of x-ray transients to highlight three new types of transients found with the Wide Field Cameras onboard BeppoSAX. First there are the transients related to Low Mass X-ray Binaries in outburst, typically lasting weeks to months and reaching luminosities of the Eddington limit for a few solar masses. Recently another subclass of outbursts in such binaries has been discovered, which are an order of magnitude fainter and last shorter than typical hours to days. We discuss whether they constitute a separate subset of x-ray binaries. A second class of x-ray transients are the x-ray bursts. Thermonuclear explosions on a neutron star (type I x-ray bursts) usually last of order minutes or less. We discovered a second type (called super x-ray bursts) with a duration of several hours. They relate to thermonuclear detonations much deeper in the neutron star atmosphere, possibly burning on the nuclear ashes of normal x-ray bursts. The third class are the enigmatic Fast X-ray Transients occurring at all galactic latitudes. We found that the bright ones are of two types only: either nearby coronal sources (lasting hours) or the socalled x-ray flashes (lasting minutes). The new class, the X-ray flashes, may be a new type of cosmic explosion, intermediate between supernovae and gamma ray bursts, or they may be highly redshifted gamma ray bursts. It thus appears that the three classes of x-ray transients each come in two flavors: long and short. 1.

John Heise; Jean In ’t Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

An Optical Streaking Method for Measuring Femtosecond Electron Bunches  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of the ultra-short electron bunch length on the femtosecond time scale constitutes a very challenging problem. In the x-ray free electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source, generation of a sub-ten femtoseconds electron beam with 20pC charge is possible, but direct measurements are very difficult due to the resolution limit of the present diagnostics. We propose a new method here based on the measurement of the electron beam energy modulation induced from laser-electron interaction in a short wiggler. A typical optical streaking method requires a laser wavelength much longer than the electron bunch length. In this paper a laser with its wavelength shorter than the electron bunch length has been adopted, while the slope on the laser intensity envelope is used to distinguish the different periods. With this technique it is possible to reconstruct the bunch longitudinal profile from a single shot measurement. Generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses at femtoseconds (fs) scale is of great interest within synchrotron radiation and free electron laser (FEL) user community. One of the simple methods is to operate the FEL facility at low charge. At the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), we have demonstrated the capability of generating ultrashort electron-beam (e-beam) with a duration of less than 10 fs fwhm using 20 pC charge. The x-ray pulses have been delivered to the x-ray users with a similar or even shorter pulse duration. However, The measurement of such short electron or x-ray pulse length at the fs time-scale constitutes a challenging problem. A standard method using an S-band radio-frequency (rf) transverse deflector has been established at LCLS, which works like a streak camera for electrons and is capable of resolving bunch lengths as short as 25 fs fwhm. With this device, the electrons are transversely deflected by the high-frequency time-variation of the deflecting fields. Increasing the deflecting voltage and rf frequency are the right direction to achieve a better resolution. For example, by choosing an X-band transverse deflecting cavity, the expected resolution for LCLS beam with 4.3 GeV is about 1 fs rms. Typically the rf breakdown threshold and the power source availability prevent going to even higher voltage and frequency. With the highly-developed laser techniques, we can choose to streak the beam at optical frequencies. By jumping from rf to optical frequency, the wavelength is shortening by 4 to 5 orders. With an electron bunch length shorter than half period of the laser, we can apply the similar rf deflecting or zero-phasing method for e-beam bunch length measurements using a high-power laser. A short wiggler is required to provide interaction between the electron and the laser. For example, to measure the e-beam at the order of 1 m rms length, a laser with its wavelength of 10 {mu}m may be considered. For a typical few GeV e-beam, the wiggler period has to be large to satisfy the resonance condition. Also, if the e-beam is longer than one laser period, the different modulation periods will overlap and we cannot distinguish them. So this method is so far limited by the achievable long-wavelength laser power. To get an effective modulation on an e-beam of 4.3 GeV, the required laser power is about a few tens GW. In this paper we propose to adopt a high-power Ti:Sapphire laser (wavelength of 800 nm), and use the slope in the intensity envelope to distinguish the different modulation periods. First an ultrashort electron beam interacts with the Ti:Sapphire laser in a wiggler, where the electron energy is modulated at the same periods of the laser. If the laser pulse is long and the short electron bunch is overlapped (in time) with the middle part of the laser, such as the setup at LCLS laser heater, the different energy modulation periods on the electron beam will be overlapped on the energy profile. In this conditionwe typically have a double-horn distribution of the energy profile, and the electron-bunch length information cannot be retrieved. But if the laser pulse (

Ding, Yuantao; Bane, Karl L.F.; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Chest x-Rays | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest x-Rays Chest X-ray B-Reading The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica. The B-reading is considered a special reading because doctors who are certified by NIOSH to perform B-readings use a specific protocol to read and record the findings as developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO). The ILO's protocol provides rules for systematically examining the x-ray in a step-by-step method and recording certain abnormalities or changes on the chest x-ray that can be attributable to

70

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, R.B.

1996-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

73

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Analysis of neon soft x-ray spectra from short-pulse laser-produced plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report preliminary results from the analysis of streaked soft x-ray neon spectra obtained from the interaction of a picosecond Nd:glass laser with a gas jet target. In these experiments streaked spectra show prompt harmonic emission followed by longer time duration soft x-ray line emission. The majority of the line emission observed was found to originate from Li- and Be-like Ne and the major transitions in the observed spectra have been identified. Li-like emission lines were observed to decay faster in time than Be-like transitions, suggesting that recombination is taking place. Line ratios of n=4-2 and n=3-2 transitions supported the view that these lines were optically thin and thick, respectively. The time history of Li-like Ne 2p-4d and 2p-3d lines is in good agreement with a simple adiabatic expansion model coupled to a time dependent collisional-radiative code. Further x-ray spectroscopic analysis is underway which is aimed at diagnosing plasma conditions and assessing the potential of this recombining neon plasma as a quasi-steady-state recombination x-ray laser medium.

Abare, A.C. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Keane, C.J.; Crane, J.K.; DaSilva, L.B.; Lee, R.W.; Perry, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Falcone, R.W. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines  

SciTech Connect

A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Gated X-ray Detector for the National Ignition Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two new gated x-ray imaging cameras have recently been designed, constructed and delivered to the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, CA. These Gated X-ray Detectors are each designed to fit within an aluminum airbox with a large capacity cooling plane and are fitted with an array of environmental housekeeping sensors. These instruments are significant different from earlier generations of gated x-ray images due in parts to an innovative impendence matching scheme, advanced phosphor screens, pulsed phosphor circuits, precision assembly fixturing, unique system monitoring and complete remote computer control. Preliminary characterization has shown repeatable uniformity between imaging strips, improved spatial resolution and no detectable impendence reflections.

Oertel, J A; Barnes, C; Archuleta, T; Casper, L; Fatherley, V; Heinrichs, T; King, R; Landers, D; Lopez, F; Sanchez, P; Sandoval, G; Schrank, L; Walsh, P; Bell, P; Brown, M; Costa, R; Holder, J; Montalongo, S; Pederson, N

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

77

X-ray data booklet. Revision  

SciTech Connect

A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

Vaughan, D. (ed.)

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with the International System of measurement ... titled "X-ray transition energies: new approach ... and by NIST's Systems Integration for Manufacturing ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

X-ray Line Profile Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic Composite Materials · X-Ray Studies of Structural Effects Induced by Pulsed (30 Tesla), High Magnetic Fields at the Advanced Photon Source ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST reserves the right to charge for these data in the ... ?/? and the mass energy-absorption coefficient ... The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

82

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray...

83

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator  

Technology Development and Commercialization Division One of the best ways to obtain small?size x?ray beams for structural biology research is to ...

84

X?ray Fluorescence (XRF) Assay Using Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Compton Scattered (LCS) X?rays are produced as a result of the interaction between accelerated electrons and a laser beam. The yield of LCS X?rays is dependent on the laser power

Syed F. Naeem; Khalid Chouffani; Douglas P. Wells

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

X-Ray Multilayer Database from the LBL Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

An important activity of the Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO) is research on x-ray mirrors and their use in optical devices to focus and deflect x-ray beams. The two kinds of mirrors most widely used are glancing incidence reflectors and multilayer coatings. The X-Ray Multilayer Database is based on the results of surveys taken at the biennial Physics of X-Ray Multilayer Structures conferences. It contains measured x-ray reflectances reported for various multilayers. The database is provided as a service to the x-ray and multilayer research communities and is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in multilayer x-ray mirrors. (Specialized Interface)

87

Streaked radiography measurements of convergent ablator performance (invited)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The velocity and remaining ablator mass of an imploding capsule are critical metrics for assessing the progress toward ignition of an inertially confined fusion experiment. These and other ablator rocket parameters have been measured using a single streaked x-ray radiograph. A regularization technique has been used to determine the ablator density profile {rho}(r) at each time step; moments of {rho}(r) then provide the areal density, average radius, and mass of the unablated, or remaining, ablator material, with the velocity determined from the time derivative of the average radius. The technique has been implemented on experiments at the OMEGA laser facility.

Hicks, D. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Spears, B. K.; Braun, D. G.; Olson, R. E.; Sorce, C. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Materials Analysis by Soft x-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

89

Advanced experimental applications for x-ray transmission gratings spectroscopy using a novel grating fabrication method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel fabrication method for soft x-ray transmission grating and other optical elements is presented. The method uses focused-ion-beam technology to fabricate high-quality free standing grating bars on transmission electron microscopy grids. High quality transmission gratings are obtained with superb accuracy and versatility. Using these gratings and back-illuminated CCD camera, absolutely calibrated x-ray spectra can be acquired for soft x-ray source diagnostics in the 100-3000 eV spectral range. Double grating combinations of identical or different parameters are easily fabricated, allowing advanced one-shot application of transmission grating spectroscopy. These applications include spectroscopy with different spectral resolutions, bandwidths, dynamic ranges, and may serve for identification of high-order contribution, and spectral calibrations of various x-ray optical elements.

Hurvitz, G.; Ehrlich, Y.; Shpilman, Z.; Levy, I.; Fraenkel, M. [Plasma Physics Department, Applied Physics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne (Israel); Strum, G. [Solid State Department, Applied Physics Division, Soreq NRC, Yavne (Israel)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

91

Defects and Polytypism in SiC: The Role of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stacking faults (SFs) and the 3C-6H polytypic transition in thick (001)-oriented 3C-SiC crystals are studied by means of diffuse X-ray scattering. The presence of SFs lying in the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes gives rise to streaked reciprocal lattice points with the streaks being parallel to the directions. In the case of low SF densities the defects are uncorrelated and the simulation of the diffuse intensity distribution allows to derive the SF density. In partially transformed crystals, the SFs are spatially correlated which gives rise to an intense and asymmetric diffuse scattering distribution. Its simulation allows to determine both the transformation mechanism and the transformation level.

Boulle, A.; Dompoint, D. [Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de surface (SPCTS-CNRS UMR 6638), ENSCI 47 avenue Albert Thomas 87065 Limoges Cedex (France); Galben-Sandulache, I.; Chaussende, D. [Laboratoires des Materiaux et du Genie Physique (LMGP-CNRS UMR 5628), Grenoble INP, Minatec 3 parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble Cedex 01 (France)

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

APS Bending Magnet X-rays and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with Irradiation of Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets with APS Bending Magnet X-rays and 60 Co γ-rays J. Alderman and P.K. Job APS Operations Division Advanced Photon Source J. Puhl Ionizing Radiation Division National Institute of Standards and Technology June 2000 Table of Contents Introduction Radiation-Induced Demagnetization of Permanent Magnets Resources Required γ-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of γ-ray Irradiation X-ray Irradiation Results and Analysis of X-ray Irradiation Summary and Conclusions Acknowledgements References Tables and Figures Introduction The Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as other third-generation synchrotron light sources, uses permanent magnets in the insertion devices to produce x-rays for scientific

93

High-Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In support of these efforts, we also maintain laboratory x-ray sources from 1 keV to 300 keV, energy and intensity calibration facilities, and a vacuum ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

94

X-ray image intensifier phosphor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

D' Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Kaonic Atom X?ray Spectra  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In kaonic atoms energy displacement and broadening of states result from the strong interaction. The most simple kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen and deuterium open the possibility to measure this strong interaction induced shift and width by x?ray spectroscopy. In the SIDDHARTA experiment al LNF (Frascati) the DA?NE electron?positron collider delivers nearly mono?energetic negatively charged kaons from ? meson decay. This unique kaon source is used to form kaonic atoms. New high performance x?ray detectors (silicon drift detectors) arranged in an array allow x?ray spectroscopy with high energy resolution combined with timing capability. High precision x?ray measurements like SIDDHARTA at LNF will open the way to study the low energy regime of the strong force in the antikaon?nucleon interaction. The experiment and its current status is presented in this talk.

J. Marton; on behalf of the SIDDHARTA Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

World's First Hard X-ray Laser  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LCLS is the world's most powerful X-ray laser. Its highly focused beam, which arrives in staccato bursts a few quadrillionths of a second long, allows researchers to probe complex,...

97

X-ray grid-detector apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

98

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

99

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY Beamline X1A2 - Soft x-ray diffraction and nano-imaging Beamline X17 - X-ray powder diffraction Beamline X22C - Resonant x-ray...

100

X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

Cominsky, L

2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Argonne CNM: X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Microscopy Facilities X-Ray Microscopy Facilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample density. Elemental constituents can be located by using differential edge contrast in this mode. Phase contrast can be highly sensitive to edges and interfaces even when the X-ray absorption is weak. These contrast mechanisms are exploited to image samples rapidly in full-field transmission mode under various environmental conditions, or combined with nanotomography methods to study the three-dimensional structure of complex and amorphous nanomaterials with the HXN.

102

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

103

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

104

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

105

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

108

Copper Ridges Nearly Double X-ray Sensor Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Physics Letters,* can measure X-ray energies with an ... X-rays and measure the energy based on ... by NASA and the NIST Office of Microelectronics ...

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sandia National Laboratories X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron ...  

... for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National ... high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency through ...

110

Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beamlines Divisions Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group...

111

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

X-ray Scattering Reveals Unusual Growth of Lead on Silicon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Scattering Reveals Unusual Growth of Lead on Silicon X-ray Scattering Reveals Unusual Growth of Lead on Silicon Most thin films grow on substrates in only three ways: layer by layer, formation of atomic islands, or layers followed by islands. The particular growth mode that a given material will follow crucially depends on the relative magnitudes of the surface energy of the film versus the interfacial energy of the film on the substrate. Recently, a team of researchers from the University of Illinois, Academica Sinica in Taiwan, Georgia Tech, and the City University of Hong Kong has discovered a remarkable anomaly. By means of real-time x-ray scattering measurements, the researchers found that lead films grown on silicon adopt a completely novel pattern of growth. X-ray diffraction images taken with a CCD camera during growth of Pb films on Si(111). The interference fringes yield information about island height and layer thickness. Fig. 1. X-ray diffraction images taken with a CCD camera during growth of Pb films on Si(111). The interference fringes yield information about island height and layer thickness.

113

Radiographic X-Ray Pulse Jitter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources. Major components of the machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 60-ns. Each source has the following x-ray parameters: 1-mm-diameter spot size, 4-rad at 1 m, 50-ns full width half max. The x-ray pulse is measured with PIN diode detectors. The sources were developed to produce high resolution images on single-shot, high-value experiments. For this application it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. X-ray pulse jitter is a key metric for analysis of reproducibility. We will give measurements of x-ray jitter for each machine. It is expected that x-ray pulse jitter is predominantly due to PFL switch jitter, and therefore a correlation of the two will be discussed.

Mitton, C. V., Good, D. E., Henderson, D. J., Hogge, K. W.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

2D Optical Streaking for Ultra-Short Electron Beam Diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

We propose a novel approach to measure short electron bunch profiles at micrometer level. Low energy electrons generated during beam-gas ionization are simultaneously modulated by the transverse electric field of a circularly-polarized laser, and then they are collected at a downstream screen where the angular modulation is converted to a circular shape. The longitudinal bunch profile is simply represented by the angular distribution of the electrons on the screen. We only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration and there is no phase synchronization problem. Meanwhile the required laser power is also relatively low in this setup. Some simulations examples and experimental consideration of this method are discussed. At Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an S-band RF transverse deflector (TCAV) is used to measure the bunch length with a resolution 10 femtosecond (fs) rms. An X-band deflector (wavelength 2.6cm) is proposed recently to improve the resolution. However, at the low charge operation mode (20pC), the pulse length can be as short as fs. It is very challenging to measure femtosecond and sub-femtosecond level bunch length. One of the methods is switching from RF to {mu}m level wavelength laser to deflect the bunch. A powerful laser ({approx}10s GW) is required to deflect such a high energy beam (GeV) in a wiggler. Synchronization is another difficulty: the jitter between the bunch and the laser can be larger than the laser wavelength, which makes single-shot measurement impossible. To reduce the laser power, we propose to use ionized electrons from high energy electron beam and gas interaction for high energy electron bunch diagnostics. Similarly, the femtosecond X-ray streak camera uses X-ray ionization electrons to measure the X-ray pulse. The electrons generated by beam-gas ionization have low energy (eVs). Therefore, a lower laser power is possible to deflect such low energy electrons. Note that there is no field ionization in our case. To avoid field ionization, which occurs in plasma case, gases species with high field ionization threshold should be considered. For a linear polarized laser, the kick to the ionized electrons depends on the phase of the laser when the electrons are born and the unknown timing jitter between the electron beam and laser beam makes the data analysis very difficult. Here we propose to use a circular polarized laser to do a 2-dimensional (2D) streaking (both x and y) and measure the bunch length from the angular distribution on the screen, where the phase jitter causes only a rotation of the image on the screen without changing of the relative angular distribution. Also we only need to know the laser wavelength for calibration. A similar circular RF deflecting mode was used to measure long bunches. We developed a numerical particle-in-Cell (PIC) code to study the dynamics of ionization electrons with the high energy beam and the laser beam.

Ding, Y.T.; Huang, Z.; Wang, L.; /SLAC

2011-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

115

X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

116

Frontiers in X-Ray Science  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

Linda Young

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

X-ray Science Division: Groups  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Division: Groups Division: Groups Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (AMO) Primary Contact: Stephen Southworth Work focuses on understanding how strong optical and x-ray fields interact with matter, with an emphasis on photonic control of electronic, atomic and molecular motion. Chemical and Materials Science (CMS) Primary Contact: Randy Winans Research Disciplines: Chemistry, Materials Science Detectors (DET) Primary Contact: Antonino Miceli GMCA Structural Biology Facility (MX) Primary Contact: Robert Fischetti Research Disciplines: Biology, Life Sciences Imaging (IMG) Primary Contact: Francesco DeCarlo Research Disciplines: Materials Science, Biology, Physics, Life Sciences Inelastic X-ray & Nuclear Resonant Scattering (IXN) Primary Contact: Thomas Gog Research Disciplines: Condensed Matter Physics, Geophysics, Materials

119

Real-time Studies of Shocked Polycrystalline Materials with Single-Pulse X-ray Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristic K-? x-rays used for single-pulse XRD are conventionally produced by a 37-stage high-voltage Marx pulse generator coupled to a vacuum needle-and-washer x-ray diode via coaxial transmission line. A large field-of-view x-ray image plate detection system typically enables observation of several Debye-Scherrer rings. Recently, we have developed a fiber-optic reducer, coupled to a CCD camera, to obtain low-noise, large field-of-view images. The direct beam spot is produced by bremsstrahlung radiation attenuated by a twomillimeter tungsten beam stop. Determination of the direct beam position is necessary to perform the ring integration.

Dane V. Morgan

2011-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Soft-X-Ray Spectral Shape of X-Ray-Weak Seyferts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(I) We observed eight Seyfert~2s and two X--ray--weak Seyfert~1/QSOs with the ROSAT PSPC, and one Seyfert~2 with the ROSAT HRI. These targets were selected from the Extended 12\\um\\ Galaxy Sample. (II) Both Seyfert~1/QSOs vary by factors of 1.5---2. The photon indices steepen in the more luminous state, consistent with the variability being mainly due to the softest X--rays, which are confined to a size of less than a parsec. (III) Both the Seyfert~2s and Seyfert~1/QSOs are best fit with a photon index of $\\Gamma\\sim3$, which is steeper than the canonical value of $\\Gamma\\sim1.7$ measured for X--ray--strong Seyferts by ROSAT and at higher energies. Several physical explanations are suggested for the steeper slopes of X--ray--weak objects. (IV) We observed one Seyfert~2, NGC~5005, with the ROSAT HRI, finding about 13\\% of the soft X--rays to come from an extended component. This and other observations suggest that different components to the soft X--ray spectrum of some, if not all, X--ray--weak Seyferts may come from spatially distinct regions.

Brian Rush; Matthew A. Malkan

1995-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sharper Focusing of Hard X-rays FROM: Physics News Update Number 773 #1, April 12, 2006, by Phil Schewe and Ben Stein Note: This text has been slightly modified from the original. Sharper focusing of hard x-rays has been achieved with a device developed at Argonne National Lab. Because of their high energy, x-rays are hard to focus: they can be reflected from a surface but only at a glancing angle (less than a tenth of a degree); they can be refracted but the index of refraction is very close to 1, so that making efficient lenses becomes a problem; and they can be diffracted, but the relatively thick, variable pitch grating required for focusing is tricky to achieve. The Argonne device is of the diffraction type, and it consists of a stack of alternating layers of metal and silicon, made by depositing progressively thicker layers. When the x-rays fall on such a structure, nearly edge-on, what they see is a grating (called a linear zone plate) consisting of a sort of bar-code pattern.

122

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Multiple wavelength x-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Massively parallel X-ray scattering simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although present X-ray scattering techniques can provide tremendous information on the nano-structural properties of materials that are valuable in the design and fabrication of energy-relevant nano-devices, a primary challenge remains in the analyses ...

Abhinav Sarje; Xiaoye S. Li; Slim Chourou; Elaine R. Chan; Alexander Hexemer

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Advanced X-Ray Scattering Techniques for Multi-Length Scale ... ?-Ti using the 3DXRD station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. ... Research at APS 34-ID-E, partly funded by BES/DOE.

126

Soft x-ray laser microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

X-Ray Interactions with Matter  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented. (Taken from the abstract in OSTI Record 6131765) (Specialized Interface)

Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

129

Design and Assembly of a Telecentric Zoom Lens for the Cygnus X-ray Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cygnus is a high-energy radiographic x-ray source. The rod-pinch x-ray diode produces a point source measuring 1 mm diameter. The target object is placed 1.5 m from the x-ray source, with a large LYSO scintillator at 2.4 m. Different-sized objects are imploded within a containment vessel. A large pellicle deflects the scintillator light out of the x-ray path into an 11-element zoom lens coupled to a CCD camera. The zoom lens and CCD must be as close as possible to the scintillator to maximize light collection. A telecentric lens design minimizes image blur from a volume source. To maximize the resolution of test objects of different sizes, the scintillator and zoom lens can be translated along the x-ray axis. Zoom lens magnifications are changed when different-sized scintillators and recording cameras are used (50 or 62 mm square format). The LYSO scintillator measures 200 × 200 mm and is 5 mm thick. The scintillator produces blue light peaking at 435 nm, so special lens materials are required. By swapping out one lens element and allowing all lenses to move, the zoom lens can also use a CsI(Tl) scintillator that produces green light centered at 550 nm. All lenses are coated with anti-reflective coating for both wavelength bands. Two sets of doublets, the stop, and the CCD camera move during zoom operations. One doublet has XY compensation. The first three lenses use fused silica for radiation damage control. The 60 lb of glass inside the 340 lb mechanical structure is oriented vertically.

Malone, R M; Brown, K K; Curtis, A H; Esquibel, D L; Frayer, D K; Frogget, B C; Furlanetto, M R; Garten, J R; Haines, T J; Howe, R A; Huerta, J A; Kaufman, M I; King, N.S. P; Lutz, S S; McGillivray, K D

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

MiniMAX: A Compact, Portable X-Ray System For Field Inspection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MiniMAX: A Compact, Portable X-Ray System For Field Inspection MiniMAX: A Compact, Portable X-Ray System For Field Inspection MiniMAX: A Compact, Portable X-Ray System For Field Inspection MiniMAX takes x-ray images that are as detailed or even better than conventional hospital systems. However, unlike such systems, MiniMAX is easy to use, portable, lightweight, and inexpensive. MiniMAX takes advantage of the form factor of x-ray film, the physics of computed radiography (CR), and the compact technology of digital radiography (DR) panels to implement the benefits of each in a very simple, reliable, and compact system. July 11, 2013 Complete , 6.5lb, MiniMAX portable radiography system including Leica M9 camera, Jenoptik lens, JDSU dichroic filter, LED flash, CsBr storage phosphor, and 57-Co source. Complete, 6.5lb, MiniMAX portable radiography system including Leica M9

131

X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Related Links: Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of Mechanical Theorems, one of Archimedes' most important works, which was probably copied out by a scribe in the tenth century. The parchment on which it was written was later scraped down and reused as pages in a twelfth century prayer book, producing a document known as a palimpsest (which comes from the Greek,

132

HIGH BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR BRILLIANCE X-RAY SCATTERING FOR LIFE SCIENCES (LIX) Group Leader: Lin Yang Proposal Team: O. Bilsel 1 , B. Hsiao 2 , H. Huang 3 , T. Irving 4 , A. Menzel 5 , L. Pollack 6 , C. Riekel 7 , J. Rubert 8 , H. Tsuruta 9 , L. Yang 10 1 University of Massachusetts, 2 Stony Brook University, 3 Rice University, 4 IIT, 5SLS, 6 Cornell University, 7 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 8 NEU, 9 Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, 10 Brookhaven National Laboratory TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS ADDITIONAL INFORMATION * Energy range 2-20keV using undulator source. Simultaneous SAXS/WAXS to cover 0.003-3Å -1 at 12keV with 1 micron spot size * Time-resolved solution scattering with resolution of (1) microseconds to milliseconds using continuous-flow mixing (5µm x 10µm spot size) and (2) milliseconds using stopped-

133

High resolution x-ray microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

134

Sample holder for x-ray diffractometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sample holder for use with x-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

Hesch, V.L.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

On?line tangential soft x?ray/VUV tomography on COMPASS?C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tangentially viewing pinhole camera has been used to image the COMPASS?C plasma in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x?ray spectral regions with framing rates up to 330 Hz. The PC?based system acquires up to 256 128×128 pixel images per shot and incorporates an array processor to allow on?line tomographic reconstructions. Data compression is used to reduce the data load by a factor of 4.

R. D. Durst; The COMPASS Group

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

On-line tangential soft x-ray/VUV tomography on COMPASS-C  

SciTech Connect

A tangentially viewing pinhole camera has been used to image the COMPASS-C plasma in the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions with framing rates up to 330 Hz. The PC-based system acquires up to 256 128{times}128 pixel images per shot and incorporates an array processor to allow on-line tomographic reconstructions. Data compression is used to reduce the data load by a factor of 4.

Durst, R.D. (AEA Fusion/Euratom Association, Culham Laboratory, Abingdon (Great Britain)); The COMPASS Group

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION TENDER ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY (TES) Project Team: S. Bare 1,2 , J. Brandes 3 , T. Buonassisi 4 , J. Chen 5,2 , M. Croft 6 , E. DiMasi 7 , A. Frenkel 8,2 , D. Hesterberg 9 , S. Hulbert 7,2 , S. Khalid 7 , S. Myneni 10 , P. Northrup 7,11 , E.T. Rasbury 11 , B. Ravel 12 , R. Reeder 11 , J. Rodriguez 7,2 , D. Sparks 5,13 , V. Stojanoff 7 , G. Waychunas 14 1 UOP LLC, 2 Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium, 3 Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, 4 MIT Laboratory for Photovoltaics Research, 5 Univ. of Delaware, 6 Rutgers Univ., 7 Brookhaven National Lab, 8 Yeshiva Univ., 9 North Carolina State Univ., 10 Princeton Univ., 11 Stony Brook Univ., 12 NIST, 13 Delaware Environmental Inst., 14 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab TECHNIQUES: High performance and in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy and spatially-resolved XAS of

138

Hard X-ray Variability of AGN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aims: Active Galactic Nuclei are known to be variable throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. An energy domain poorly studied in this respect is the hard X-ray range above 20 keV. Methods: The first 9 months of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey are used to study the 14 - 195 keV variability of the 44 brightest AGN. The sources have been selected due to their detection significance of >10 sigma. We tested the variability using a maximum likelihood estimator and by analysing the structure function. Results: Probing different time scales, it appears that the absorbed AGN are more variable than the unabsorbed ones. The same applies for the comparison of Seyfert 2 and Seyfert 1 objects. As expected the blazars show stronger variability. 15% of the non-blazar AGN show variability of >20% compared to the average flux on time scales of 20 days, and 30% show at least 10% flux variation. All the non-blazar AGN which show strong variability are low-luminosity objects with L(14-195 keV) < 1E44 erg/sec. Conclusions: Concerning the variability pattern, there is a tendency of unabsorbed or type 1 galaxies being less variable than the absorbed or type 2 objects at hardest X-rays. A more solid anti-correlation is found between variability and luminosity, which has been previously observed in soft X-rays, in the UV, and in the optical domain.

V. Beckmann; S. D. Barthelmy; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; N. Gehrels; S. Soldi; J. Tueller; G. Wendt

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

139

Energy Determination of X-Ray Transition Energies Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... We chose to measure x-ray transition energies from NIST ... This resulted in the production of x-ray emission ... would yield not only an energy scale for ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

140

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC's X-ray Laser Explores...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Laser Explores Big Data Frontier By Glenn Roberts Jr. June 12, 2013 It's no surprise that the data systems for SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser have drawn...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

142

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - SLAC X-rays Help Discover...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

which pulses 120 times a second. In the instant before the intense X-rays destroy a nanocrystal, detectors record a flash of X-ray diffraction information. Finally, scientists use...

143

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light...

144

Microstructural Mapping Using High-Energy X-Ray Scattering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Advanced characterization methods at the APS permit unique in- situ ... The combination of an undulator source, brilliance preserving optics and focusing .... Ultra-Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering—X-Ray Photon Correlation ...

145

Strengthened lithium for x-ray blast windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lithium's high x-ray transparency makes it an attractive material for windows intended to protect soft x-ray diagnostics in high energy density experiments. Pure lithium is soft and weak, but lithium mixed with lithium hydride powder becomes harder and stronger, in principle without any additional x-ray absorption. A comparison with the standard material for x-ray windows, beryllium, suggests that lithium or lithium strengthened by lithium hydride may well be an excellent option for such windows.

Pereira, N. R. [Ecopulse Inc., P.O. Box 528, Springfield, Virginia 22150 (United States); Imam, M. A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... Recent Advances in Structural Characterization of Materials: Electron and X-Ray Microscopy: Structural Characterization of Nanoscale ...

147

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calibration ­ Uses up part of dynamic range · Solution: ­ Soft x-rays: Back side Illumination ­ Hard xPhase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector Benjamin Hornberger ­ Phase Contrast 101 · A Segmented Detector for Hard X-ray Microprobes ­ Segmented Silicon Chip ­ Charge

Homes, Christopher C.

148

Quantitative Analysis of Mt. St. Helens Ash by X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quantitative study by x-ray diffraction, optical polarizing microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of fallout and ambient ash from three Mt. St. Helens eruptions has revealed a consistent picture of the mineralogical and elemental ...

Briant L. Davis; L. Ronald Johnson; Dana T. Griffen; William Revell Phillips; Robert K. Stevens; David Maughan

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Apparatus for monitoring x-ray beam alignment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an x-ray beam in an instrument employing an x-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of x-ray beam intensities from the x-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low x-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high x-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of x-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to x-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the x-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the x-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1989-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

151

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction o f the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce an image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe HXN: Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe beamline and endstation instruments (HXN) will be designed and constructed to explore new frontiers of hard x-ray microscopy applications with the highest achievable spatial resolution. Currently the available spatial resolution for scientific applications, provided by scanning x-ray microscopes in the hard x-ray regime, is limited to ~50nm, which is still insufficient for probing the nanoscale interfacial structures critical in determining properties and functionalities of material and biological systems. The HXN beamline aims to enable x-ray experiments at spatial resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm with an ultimate goal of ~1 nm. Beamline Description

153

Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scattering Studies of Thin Scattering Studies of Thin Polymer Films Introduction to Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Sunil K. Sinha UCSD/LANL Acknowledgements: Prof. R.Pynn( Indiana U.) Prof. M.Tolan (U. Dortmund) Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1845-1923 1895: Discovery of X-Rays 1901 W. C. Röntgen in Physics for the discovery of x-rays. 1914 M. von Laue in Physics for x-ray diffraction from crystals. 1915 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg in Physics for crystal structure determination. 1917 C. G. Barkla in Physics for characteristic radiation of elements. 1924 K. M. G. Siegbahn in Physics for x-ray spectroscopy. 1927 A. H. Compton in Physics for scattering of x-rays by electrons. 1936 P. Debye in Chemistry for diffraction of x-rays and electrons in gases.

154

X-ray chemistry in envelopes around young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present chemical models of the envelope of a young stellar object (YSO) exposed to a central X-ray source. The models are applied to the massive star-forming region AFGL 2591 for different X-ray fluxes. The total X-ray ionization rate is dominated by the `secondary' ionization rate of H2 resulting from fast electrons. The carbon, sulphur and nitrogen chemistries are discussed. It is found that He+ and H3+ are enhanced and trigger a peculiar chemistry. Several molecular X-ray tracers are found and compared to tracers of the far ultraviolet (FUV) field. Like ultraviolet radiation fields, X-rays enhance simple hydrides, ions and radicals. In contrast to ultraviolet photons, X-rays can penetrate deep into the envelope and affect the chemistry even at large distances from the source. Whereas the FUV enhanced species cover a region of 200-300 AU, the region enhanced by X-rays is >1000 AU. Best-fit models for AFGL 2591 predict an X-ray luminosity LX > 1e+31 ergs/s with a hard X-ray spectrum TX > 3e+07 K. Furthermore, we find LX/Lbol ~ 1e-6. The chemistry of the bulk of the envelope mass is dominated by cosmic-ray induced reactions rather than by X-ray induced ionization for X-ray luminosities LX < 1e+33 ergs/s. The calculated line intensities of HCO+ and HCS+ show that high-J lines are more affected than lower J lines by the presence of X-rays due to their higher critical densities, and that such differences are detectable even with large aperture single-dish telescopes. Future instruments such as Herschel-HIFI or SOFIA will be able to observe X-ray enhanced hydrides whereas the sensitivity and spatial resolution of ALMA is well-suited to measure the size and geometry of the region affected by X-rays.

P. Staeuber; S. D. Doty; E. F. van Dishoeck; A. O. Benz

2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

155

X-Ray Diffraction on NIF  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

Eggert, J H; Wark, J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Monte Carlo Simulation of the Conversion X-Rays from the Electron Beam of PFMA-3  

SciTech Connect

PFMA-3, a dense Plasma Focus device, is being optimized as an X-ray generator. X-rays are obtained from the conversion of the electron beam emitted in the backward direction and driven to impinge on a 50 {mu}m brass foil. Monte Carlo simulations of the X-ray emission have been conducted with MCNPX. The electron spectrum had been determined experimentally and is used in the present work as input to the simulations. Dose to the brass foil has been determined both from simulations and from measurements with a thermographic camera, and the two results are found in excellent agreement, thus validating further the electron spectrum assumed as well as the simulation set-up. X-ray emission has been predicted both from bremsstrahlung and from characteristic lines. The spectrum has been found to be comprised of two components of which the one at higher energy, 30 divide 70 keV, is most useful for IORT applications. The results are necessary to estimate penetration in and dose to Standard Human Tissue.

Ceccolini, E.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Rocchi, F. [Montecuccolino Nuclear Engineering Laboratory, University of Bologna, via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); UTFISSM-PRONOC, ENEA, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tartari, A. [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

157

Proton induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams for soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and selective x-ray fluorescence analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the analytical features and performance of an x-ray spectroscopy end station of moderate energy resolution operating with proton-induced quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams. The apparatus was designed, installed and operated at the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG Accelerator Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos,' Athens. The setup includes a two-level ultrahigh vacuum chamber that hosts in the lower level up to six primary targets in a rotatable holder; there, the irradiation of pure element materials-used as primary targets-with few-MeV high current ({approx}{mu}A) proton beams produces intense quasi-monochromatic x-ray beams of selectable energy. In the chamber's upper level, a six-position rotatable sample holder hosts the targets considered for x-ray spectroscopy studies. The proton-induced x-ray beam, after proper collimation, is guided to the sample position whereas various filters can be also inserted along the beam's path to eliminate the backscattered protons or/and to absorb selectively components of the x-ray beam. The apparatus incorporates an ultrathin window Si(Li) spectrometer (FWHM 136 eV at 5.89 keV) coupled with low-noise electronics capable of efficiently detecting photons down to carbon K{alpha}. Exemplary soft x-ray spectroscopy studies and results of selective x-ray fluorescence analysis are presented.

Sokaras, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch. [PANalytical B.V., 7600 AA Almelo (Netherlands); Fliegauf, R.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Karydas, A. G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Dilation X-ray Imager (DIXI) - A Sub-10ps X-ray Framing Camera for the NIF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 56, 261 (2011)53rd American Physical Society Annual Meeting of Division of Plasma Physics Salt Lake City Utah, US, 2011999618966

Hilsabeck, T.J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Shannon-Nyquist Theory for the X-Ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.

E. Wang, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, L.F. Delgado-Aprico, K.W. Hill and N. Pablant

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Optimization of the Configuration of Pixilated Detectors Based on the Sgabbib-Nyquist Theory for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Hot Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an optimization of the detector configuration, based on the Shannon-Nyquist theory, for two major x-ray diagnostic systems on tokamaks and stellarators: x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers and x-ray pinhole cameras. Typically, the spectral data recorded with pixilated detectors are oversampled, meaning that the same spectral information could be obtained using fewer pixels. Using experimental data from Alcator C-Mod, we quantify the degree of oversampling and propose alternate uses for the redundant pixels for additional diagnostic applications.

: E. Wang, P. Beiersdorfer, M. Bitter, L.F. Delgado-Apricio, K.W. Hill and N. Pablant

2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Gray scale x-ray mask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

163

Definition: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to obtain specific information about the crystalline material under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances (typically in less than 20 minutes). A pure, finely ground, and homogenized sample is required for determination of the bulk composition. Additional uses include detailed

164

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

165

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a laboratory-based technique commonly used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. One of two primary types of XRD analysis (X-ray powder diffraction and single-crystal XRD) is commonly applied to samples to

166

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering  

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IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering IXS: Inelastic X-ray Scattering Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Many hot topics related to the high frequency dynamics of condensed matter require both a narrower and steeper resolution function and access to a broader dynamic range than what are currently available. This represents a sort of "no man's land" that falls right in the dynamic gap lying between the high frequency spectroscopies, such as inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), and the low frequency ones. New IXS spectrometers with improved energy and momentum resolutions would be required to fill this gap. To achieve this goal, a new x-ray optics concept for both the monochromatization and energy analysis of x-rays will be implemented at the NSLS-II Inelastic X-ray Scattering beamline. This solution exploits the

167

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Rock Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Rock Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Bulk and trace element analysis of rocks, minerals, and sediments. Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): X-Ray Fluorescence is a lab-based technique used for bulk chemical analysis of rock, mineral, sediment, and fluid samples. The technique depends on the fundamental principles of x-ray interactions with solid materials, similar

168

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

169

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

170

APS 7-BM Beamline: X-Ray Resources  

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Useful Websites Useful Websites X-Ray Interactions with Matter from CRXO at LBNL. Intuitive interface for x-ray transmission and reflectivity for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Data Booklet from LBNL. Slightly outdated in places, but many useful tables of edge energies, fluorescence lines, and crystal lattice spacings. NIST XCOM Database. Powerful database of photoelectric absorption, elastic scattering, and Compton scattering cross-sections for a wide range of materials. X-Ray Server. Maintained by Sergey Stepanov at GMCA at the APS, this website has several powerful calculators for simulating x-ray reflection and diffraction. Software X-Ray Oriented Programs (XOP). This program, written by scientists at the ESRF and APS, is widely used in the synchrotron research community.

171

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

172

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the electron density of complicated molecules. The formula used to make these calculations contains terms that relate to the electron spin of magnetic atoms, but these terms are traditionally ignored since coherent x-ray diffraction has not been used to retrieve magnetic information. Using the full formula allows for the determination of not only the electron density, but also the magnetic spin distribution and its orientation.

173

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

174

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

176

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Field Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Data Collection and Mapping Parent Exploration Technique: Data Collection and Mapping Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rapid and unambiguous identification of unknown minerals.[1] Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD): Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction,

177

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

178

Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.

Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J; Walton, C C; Kjornrattanawanich, B; Aquila, A; Dollar, F; Gullikson, E; Tarrio, C

2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

180

NIST X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... year, month day with database access date.) Hubbell, JH and Seltzer, SM (2004), Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy- ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

4D Functional Materials Science with X-ray Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast Electron Diffraction Studies of Lattice Dynamics in Thin Bismuth Films · Understanding Fatigue and Corrosion-Fatigue Behavior by In Situ 3D X-ray ...

182

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultrafast X-ray and 2-dimensional UV Spectroscopy of TiO2 Nanoparticles: Majed Chergui1; 1Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne Mesoporous titanium ...

183

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2010 ... Strain Determination in Nanoscale Microelectronic Materials Using X-Ray Diffraction: Conal Murray1; 1IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

184

High Temperature X-ray Diffraction Characterization of Thermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Application of Conical Beam X-Ray Tomography to Multi-Phase Materials ... Digital Construction and Characterization of Reticulated Porous Microstructures ...

185

dosimetry of x-rays, gamma rays and electrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST and BIPM Standards for Air Kerma in Medium-Energy X-rays ... of the codes are available from the Government Printing Office, Washington, DC ...

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

186

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Investigations of Microscopic Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Case Study in Future Energy Challenges: Towards In Situ Hard X-ray Microscopy of ... of Crystal Structure and Domain Character in Lead Free Piezoceramics.

187

APS X-ray Optics Fabrication and Characterization Facility  

SciTech Connect

The APS is in the process of assembling an X-ray Optics Fabrication and characterization Facility. This report will describe its current (as of February 1993) design.

Davey, S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide/ Reservoir...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Interfaces Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to:...

190

Phase Sensitive X-ray Imager for More Accurate Digital ...  

Livermore Lab Report. News Archive. News ... use of higher energy X-rays which would result in a lower amount of absorbed radiation to the ... testing ...

191

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proceedings of the 12th International Clay Conference, Bahia Blanca, Argentina, July 22-28, 2001. Gibbs, D. X-ray magnetic scattering. Synchrotron Radiation News...

192

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials IV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to organize a seven-session Symposium on Neutron and X-Ray ... the advent of new powerful neutron sources such as the Spallation Neutron ...

193

Available Technologies: High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ...  

High Temperature Strain Cell for X-ray ... Six hexapole infrared lamps focus inside the sample chamber onto a ceramic material sample with a spherical ...

194

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inelastic X-ray Scattering Reveals Microscopic Transport Properties of Molten Aluminum Oxide The transport properties of high-temperature oxide melts are of considerable interest...

196

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Pulses in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SLAC researchers have demonstrated for the first time how to produce pairs of X-ray laser pulses in slightly different wavelengths, or colors, with finely adjustable intervals...

197

NIST X-Ray Transition Energies Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Jr., P. Indelicato, L. de Billy, E. Lindroth, and J. Anton, "X-ray transition energies: new approach to a ... [Type of medium] Available: URL [Access date]. ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

198

Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hyperspectral CARS Microscopy in the Fingerprint Region · In Situ X-ray ... Opportunities for Multimodal CARS Microscopy in Materials Science · Photoemission ...

199

Particle Accelerator & X-Ray Optics | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hard X-Ray Quad Collimator Facilitates Microcrystallography Experiments Isotopic Abundance in Atom Trap Trace Analysis Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope...

200

X RAY TU E WITH MAGNETI ELE TRON STEERING  

Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range ... escape the anode and cause electron h ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Temporal multiplexing radiography for dynamic x-ray imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All current x-ray imaging devices acquire images sequentially, one at a time. Using a spatially distributed multibeam x-ray source we recently demonstrated the feasibility for multiplexing x-ray imaging, which can significantly increase the data collection speed. Here we present a general methodology for dynamic x-ray imaging of an object in cyclic motion with temporal multiplexing. Compared to the conventional sequential imaging technique, where 2N-1 phase images are required and N exposures are needed for a single phase image, a temporal multiplexing of dimension 2N-1 can reduce the imaging time by a factor of N while maintaining the temporal resolution.

Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhou, Otto; Lu Jianping [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Refractive Optics for Hard X-ray Transmission Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For hard x-ray transmission microscopy at photon energies higher than 15 keV we design refractive condenser and imaging elements to be used with synchrotron light sources as well as with x-ray tube sources. The condenser lenses are optimized for low x-ray attenuation--resulting in apertures greater than 1 mm--and homogeneous intensity distribution on the detector plane, whereas the imaging enables high-resolution (condenser and imaging lenses are being developed. The imaging lenses (compound refractive lenses, CRLs) are made of SU-8 negative resist by deep x-ray lithography. SU-8 shows high radiation stability. The fabrication technique enables high-quality lens structures regarding surface roughness and arrangement precision with arbitrary 2D geometry. To provide point foci, crossed pairs of lenses are used. Condenser lenses have been made utilizing deep x-ray lithographic patterning of thick SU-8 layers, too, whereas in this case, the aperture is limited due to process restrictions. Thus, in terms of large apertures, condenser lenses made of structured and rolled polyimide film are more attractive. Both condenser types, x-ray mosaic lenses and rolled x-ray prism lenses (RXPLs), are considered to be implemented into a microscope setup. The x-ray optical elements mentioned above are characterized with synchrotron radiation and x-ray laboratory sources, respectively.

Simon, M.; Last, A.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E. [Institute for Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ahrens, G.; Voigt, A. [Microresist Technology, Koepenikerstrasse 325, 12555 Berlin (Germany)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

203

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

energy technologies. SLAC's unique X-ray facilities - the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) - attract thousands of...

204

New Directions in X-ray Scattering - SSRL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

associated with chemically and radioactively contaminated ground-water. Ability to probe weak scattering from single crystals as function of energy (resonance) and x-ray...

205

Bibliography of NRL Works on X-Ray Fluorescence Authored ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... LS Birks, and EJ Brooks, "Grain-Boundary Diffusion of Zinc in Copper ... 111 J. Gilfrich, "X-Ray Diffraction Studies on the Titanium-Nickel System," in ...

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

206

In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to accurately characterize the dynamic electrochemical processes at the nanometer and atomic level, we have employed a set of complementary, in situ X-ray characterization...

207

For Prospective Users: Learn about x-ray research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

research in the fields of materials science; biological science; physics; chemistry; environmental, geophysical, and planetary science; and innovative x-ray instrumentation....

208

Staff at sector 30, inelastic x-ray scattering  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Status and Schedule Safety and Training Divisions APS Engineering Support Division AES Groups Accelerator Systems Division ASD Groups X-ray Science Division XSD Groups...

209

Improved Treatment of X-ray Resistant & Inoperable Cancers ...  

If the electron beam can be transported to the internal cancer without exposure to tissue, ... This figure shows a comparison of X-ray radiation ...

210

Spatially-Resolved X-Ray Microdiffraction Studies Inside Individual ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will describe recent advances including increased scanning speed, and will describe the use of this x-ray microscope to study mesoscale structural ...

211

Development of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy and Its ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials III. Presentation Title, 2010 ...

212

Background X-ray Spectrum of Radioactive Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) is commonly used with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyze the elemental compositions and microstructures of a variety of samples. For example, the microstructures of nuclear fuels are commonly investigated with this technique. However, the radioactivity of some materials introduces additional X-rays that contribute to the EDS background spectrum. These X-rays are generally not accounted for in spectral analysis software, and can cause misleading results. X-rays from internal conversion [1], Bremsstrahlung [2] radiation associated with alpha ionizations and beta particle interactions [3], and gamma rays from radioactive decay can all elevate the background of radioactive materials.

Shannon Yee; Dawn E. Janney

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Grain Boundary Deformation Analyzed Via X-Ray Diffraction ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modeling the Influence of the Second Phase Particle Spatial Distribution on Recrystallization of AA 7050 · Near-Field High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy ...

214

Applications of High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... data, including concentration profiles from x-ray absorption measurements during ... Dynamic Evolution of Liquid-liquid Phase Separation While Cooling in a

215

Determining the Uncertainty of X-Ray Absorption ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The apparatus uses a tungsten filament and a tungsten target to generate x rays and the detector contains a CZT crystal. ...

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

X-ray Detection with Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The primary photon detector was a 12-element ... The overall energy range for the experiment was ... to directly detect X-rays with energies between 0.3 ...

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

Spectrometry of X-Ray Beams Used for Calibrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and used to calibrate a wavelength-dispersive crystal x-ray spectrograph used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to diagnose ...

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

218

X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy ...  

The high average power large area X-ray tube provides ... Solar Photovoltaic; Solar ... Description This invention consists of a cathode and anode ...

219

Angular Correlations of the X-Ray Background and Clustering of Extragalactic X-Ray Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The information content of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of intensity fluctuations of the X-ray background (XRB) is analyzed. The tight upper limits set by ROSAT deep survey data on the ACF at arcmin scales imply strong constraints on clustering properties of X-ray sources at cosmological distances and on their contribution to the soft XRB. If quasars have a clustering radius r_0=12-20 Mpc (H_0=50), and their two point correlation function, is constant in comoving coordinates as indicated by optical data, they cannot make up more 40-50% of the soft XRB (the maximum contribution may reach 80% in the case of stable clustering, epsilon=0). Active Star-forming (ASF) galaxies clustered like normal galaxies, with r_0=10-12 Mpc can yield up to 20% or up to 40% of the soft XRB for epsilon=-1.2 or epsilon=0, respectively. The ACF on degree scales essentially reflects the clustering properties of local sources and is proportional to their volume emissivity. The upper limits on scales of a few degrees imply that hard X-ray selected AGNs have r_06 deg, if real, may be due to AGNs with r_0=20 Mpc; the contribution from clusters of galaxies with r_0~50 Mpc is a factor 2 lower.

L. Danese; L. Toffolatti; A. Franceschini; J. M. Martin-Mirones; G. De Zotti

1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

220

X-ray Methods in High-Intensity Discharges and Metal-Halide Lamps: X-ray Induced Fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

We describe the use of x-ray induced fluorescence to study metal-halide high-intensity discharge lamps and to measure equilibrium vapor pressures of metal-halide salts. The physical principles of metal-halide lamps, relevant aspects of x-ray-atom interactions, the experimental method using synchrotron radiation, and x-ray induced fluorescence measurements relevant to metal-halide lamps are covered.

Curry, John J.; Lapatovich, Walter P.; Henins, Albert (NIST)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

X-ray spectral states of microquasars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the origin of the dramatically different X-ray spectral shapes observed in the Low Hard State (LHS: dominated by thermal comptonisation) and the High Soft State (HSS: dominated by the accretion disc thermal emission and non-thermal comptonisation in the corona). We present numerical simulations using a new code accounting for the so-called synchrotron boiler effect. These numerical simulations when compared to the data allow us to constrain the magnetic field and temperature of the hot protons in the corona. For the hard state of Cygnus X-1 we find a magnetic field below equipartition with radiation, suggesting that the corona is not powered through magnetic field dissipation (as assumed in most accretion disc corona models). On the other hand, our results also point toward proton temperatures that are substantially lower than typical temperatures of the ADAF models. Finally, we show that in both spectral states Comptonising plasma could be powered essentially through power-law acceleration of non-thermal electrons, which are then partly thermalised by the synchrotron and Coulomb boiler. This suggests that, contrary to current beliefs, the corona of the HSS and that of the LHS could be of very similar nature. The differences between the LHS and HSS coronal spectra would then be predominantly caused by the strong disc soft cooling emission which is present in the HSS and absent in the LHS.

Julien Malzac; Renaud Belmont

2008-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

222

X-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel (u)  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steel vessels are used to enclose solid materials for studying x-ray radiolysis that involves gas release from the materials. Commercially available stainless steel components are easily adapted to form a static or a dynamic condition to monitor the gas evolved from the solid materials during and after the x-ray irradiation. Experimental data published on the x-ray attenuation properties of stainless steel, however, are very scarce, especially over a wide range of x-ray energies. The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data that will be used to determine how a poly-energetic x-ray beam is attenuated by the stainless steel container wall. The data will also be used in conjunction with MCNP (Monte Carlos Nuclear Particle) modeling to develop an accurate method for determining energy absorbed in known solid samples contained in stainless steel vessels. In this study, experiments to measure the attenuation properties of stainless steel were performed for a range of bremsstrahlung x-ray beams with a maximum energy ranging from 150 keV to 10 MeV. Bremsstrahlung x-ray beams of these energies are commonly used in radiography of engineering and weapon components. The weapon surveillance community has a great interest in understanding how the x-rays in radiography affect short-term and long-term properties of weapon materials.

Wang, Lily L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berry, Phillip C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast -Techniques and Applications -  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques and Applications - A Dissertation Presented of the Graduate School ii #12;Abstract of the Dissertation Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Microscopy - Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.2.4 Reconstruction Example for Integration Method . . . . 59 3.2.5 The Imaginary Part

224

High-energy x-ray production with pyroelectric crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention of pyroelectric x-ray generator technology has enabled researchers to develop ultraportable, low-power x-ray sources for use in imaging, materials analysis, and other applications. For many applications, the usefulness of an x-ray source is determined by its yield and endpoint energy. In x-ray fluorescence, for example, high-energy sources enable the excitation of the K-shell x-ray peaks for high-Z materials as well as the lower-energy L-shell peaks, allowing more positive sample identification. This report shows how a paired-crystal pyroelectric source can be used to approximately double the endpoint x-ray energy, in addition to doubling the x-ray yield, versus a single-crystal source. As an example of the advantage of a paired-crystal system, we present a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of thorium using a pyroelectric source, as well as a spectrum showing the fluorescence of the K shell of lead. Also shown is an x-ray spectrum with an endpoint energy of 215 keV.

Geuther, Jeffrey A.; Danon, Yaron [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

96 ESRF HIGHLIGHTS 2005 X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC SCATTERING References [1] C. Antoniak, J to original phenomena. These effects are observed in charge-density wave (CDW) materials. Upon cooling of the screw like dislocation shown in Figure 121b. #12;97 HIGHLIGHTS 2005 ESRF X-RAY ABSORPTION AND MAGNETIC

Paris-Sud 11, Université de

226

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to determine structures due to their incapability to crystallize or change of configuration during crystallization. In this talk, I will present the application of X-ray reflectivity and a newly developed fluctuation X-ray scattering technique to study the structures of lipid membranes and randomly oriented nanoparticles. Three different types of domain registrations occurring with

227

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure of materials. Resonant absorption edges in the soft x-ray regime are especially interesting as they allow the study of the lighter elements, such as in organic or organo-metallic substances, as well as important L-edges of the 3d transition metals important in magnetic and oxide systems. Measurements of soft x-ray absorption spectra are inherently surface sensitive, and are plagued by issues such as extinction (in electron yield measurements) or self absorption (in fluorescence yield

228

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observational status of the X-ray afterglow emission, its mean properties (detection rate, continuum spectra, line features, and light curves), and the X-ray constraints on theoretical models of gamma-ray bursters and their progenitors. I also discuss the early onset afterglow emission, the remaining questions, and the role of future X-ray afterglow observations.

Filippo Frontera

2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

230

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays

232

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations imposed by lens-based optical systems. Researchers from Stony Brook University, in collaboration with scientists at the ALS and Cornell University, have taken a large step in this direction by using a lensless x-ray diffraction microscope to image a freeze-dried yeast cell to better than 30-nm resolution. Images were made at several angular orientations of the cell.

233

Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Delay X-ray Holography Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow penetration into materials and the ability to probe structure at and below the nanometer scale. Their ultra-short duration gives information about this structure at the fundamental time-scales of atoms and molecules. The extreme intensity of the pulses will allow this information to be acquired in a single shot, so that these studies can be carried out on non-repeatable processes or on weakly-scattering objects that will be modified by the pulse. A fourth property of XFEL pulses is their high transverse coherence, which brings the promise of decades of innovation in visible optics to the X-ray regime, such as holography, interferometry, and laser-based imaging. Making an effective use of XFEL pulses, however, will benefit from innovations that are new to both X-ray science and coherent optics. One such innovation is the new method of time-delay X-ray holography [i], recently demonstrated at the FLASH FEL at DESY in Hamburg, to measure the evolution of objects irradiated by intense pulses.

234

Resonant Auger Effect at High X-Ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect

The resonant Auger effect of atomic neon exposed to high-intensity x-ray radiation in resonance with the 1s {yields} 3p transition is discussed. High intensity here means that the x-ray peak intensity is sufficient ({approx} 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) to induce Rabi oscillations between the neon ground state and the 1s{sup -1}3p ({sup 1}P) state within the relaxation lifetime of the inner-shell vacancy. For the numerical analysis presented, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. Both coherent and chaotic x-ray pulses are treated. The latter are used to simulate radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers based on the principle of self-amplified spontaneous emission. Observing x-ray-driven atomic population dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic pulse ensembles. A more practical option for experiments using x-ray free-electron lasers is to measure the line profiles in the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron. This provides information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.

Rohringer, N; Santra, R

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

235

X-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The intensity and spectral characteristics of x-ray emitted from laser-produced plasmas have been investigated computatinoally and experimentally. a two-dimensional implosi code was used successfully to calculate laser-plasma radiation characteristics and to aid in the design of laser targets for high-yield x-ray production. Other computer codes, in use or under development predict lime strengths and energies for laser-plasma x-ray emission. An experimental effort is aimed at reliable measurements of x-ray yields and spectra. a wide variety of x-ray detection methods have been evaluated, and x-ray yields have been measured from plasmas produced with two dissimilar laser systems. The high energy x-ray spectrum, from about 10 to 140 keV, has been studied using high-gain scintillatino detectors and thick K-edge filters. Various supplementary measurements have provided information concerning characteristics of the target-reflected laser light, the ion energies, and the laser intensity patterns.

Violet, C.E. [ed.

1974-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu/Ni (8 keV), Mo/Zr (18 keV), and Ag/Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L. [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Alfred Building 2-409, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction. (LEW)

Howells, M.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The MOXE X-ray all-sky monitor for Spectrum-X-Gamma  

SciTech Connect

MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor to be flown on the Russian Spectrum-X-Gamma satellite, to be launched in a few years. It will monitor several hundred X-ray sources on a daily basis, and will be the first instrument to monitor most of the X-ray sky most of the time. MOXE will alert users of more sensitive instruments on Russia`s giant high energy astrophysics observatory and of other instruments to transient activity. MOXE consists of an array of 6 X-ray pinhole cameras, sensitive from 3 to 25 keV, which views 4{pi} steradians (except for a 20{degree} {times} 80{degree} patch which includes the Sun). The pinhole apertures of 0.625 {times} 2.556 cm{sup 2} imply an angular resolution of 2{degree}.4 {times} 9{degree}.7 (on-axis). The MOXE hardware program includes an engineering model, now delivered, and a flight model. The flight instrument will mass approximately 118 kg and draw 38 Watts. For a non-focusing all-sky instrument that is limited by sky background, the limiting sensitivity is a function only of detector area. MOXE, with 6,000 cm{sup 2} of detector area, will, for a 24 hrs exposure, have a sensitivity of approximately 2 mCrab. MOXE distinguishes itself with respect to other all-sky monitors in its high duty cycle, thus being particularly sensitive to transient phenomena with time scales between minutes and hours.

In`t Zand, J.J.M.; Priedhorsky, W.C.; Moss, C.E. [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

X-ray afterglows from gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider possible interpretations of the recently detected X- ray afterglow from the gamma-ray burst source GRB 970228. Cosmological and Galactic models of gamma-ray bursts predict different flux and spectral evolution of X-ray afterglows. We show that models based on adiabatic expansion of relativistic forward shocks require very efficient particle energization or post-burst re-acceleration during the expansion. Cooling neutron star models predict a very distinctive spectral and flux evolution that can be tested in current X-ray data.

M. Tavani

1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

240

Ten years of Vela x-ray observations  

SciTech Connect

The Vela spacecraft, particularly Vela 5B, produced all-sky X-ray data of unprecedented length and completeness. The data led to the discovery of X-ray bursts and numerous transient outbursts. Recent re-analysis has put the data in the form of 10-day skymaps covering a 7-year period, which have led to the discovery or confirmation of a number of long-term periodicities, and have made possible a time-lapse movie of the X-ray sky.

Terrell, J.; Priedhorsky, W.C.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Sixth International Conference on X-ray Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

More than 180 participants from around the world crowded the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from August 1-6, 1999 for the Sixth International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy (XRM99). Held every three years since 1983, the XRM conferences have become the primary international forum for the presentation and discussion of advances in high-spatial-resolution x-ray imaging and applications (including the use of x-ray spectroscopic and analytical techniques) in biological and medical sciences, environmental and soil sciences, and materials and surface sciences.

Robinson, Arthur L.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

242

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Kästner, J H; Vrtilek, S D; Dgani, R; Kastner, Joel H.; Soker, Noam; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Dgani, Ruth

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Chandra X-ray Observatory Detection of Extended X-ray Emission from the Planetary Nebula BD+303639  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the detection of well resolved, extended X-ray emission from the young planetary nebula BD+303639 using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The X-ray emission from BD+303639 appears to lie within, but is concentrated to one side of, the interior of the shell of ionized gas seen in high-resolution optical and IR images. The relatively low X-ray temperature (Tx ~ 3x10^6 K) and asymmetric morphology of the X-ray emission suggests that conduction fronts are present and/or mixing of shock-heated and photoionized gas has occurred and, furthermore, hints at the presence of magnetic fields. The ACIS spectrum suggests that the X-ray emitting region is enriched in the products of helium burning. Our detection of extended X-ray emission from BD+303639 demonstrates the power and utility of Chandra imaging as applied to the study of planetary nebulae.

Joel H. Kastner; Noam Soker; Saeqa Vrtilek; Ruth Dgani

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

244

Active pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An active pixel sensor array, APS-1, has been fabricated for the purpose of scientific x-ray detection. This thesis presents the results of testing the device. Alternate design architectures are explored. Recommendations ...

Cohen, Matthew (Matthew L.)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is a field-based technique that can be used for identification of crystalline materials and analysis of unit cell dimensions. Portable XRD analysis is similar to X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances. Portable XRD analysis allows for simpler sample preparation, faster analytical times than traditional methods (less than 2 minutes), and can be performed at the sampling site in the field. A pure, finely ground

246

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Fifth X-ray Instrument...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and more.) The technique has been used for years to probe materials with visible-light lasers, and more recently with X-ray light from synchrotrons. But the LCLS is the first...

247

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Vision Exposes Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

up exciting possibilities in the study of aerosol dynamics using highly focused X-ray lasers, such as SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). "Our study shows that LCLS can...

248

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems....

249

Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of...

250

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ocko, B.M., Wen, K., Maoz, R., Cohen, H., and Sagiv, J. Non-destructive chemical modification of a preassembled silane multilayer: structural study by combined FTIR, x-ray...

251

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rupted full-Sun coverage of major solar X-ray ?are activity.of Ulysses from the Sun in AU, and its solar longitude andof the solar disk shows the view of the Sun from Earth,

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Linda Young Named to Head X-ray Science Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to the APS Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Earns an R&D 100 Award Winans of XSD Elected to ACS Fellowship Gluskin of Photon Sciences named Argonne Distinguished Fellow UChicago...

253

Radiological Safety Training for Radiation-Producing (X-Ray)...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for General Radiation Safety Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MEV, ANSI Standard N43.3, American National Standards...

254

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of Soft X Rays...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Soft X-Rays and Ions Irradiation in a Model of V79 Mammalian Cell Authors: B. Ginovska, J.H. Miller, D. J. Lynch and W. E. Wilson Institutions: School of Electrical...

255

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Reveal How Soil...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Researchers working at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have used powerful X-rays to help decipher how certain...

256

Argonne TDC: Large Area CCD X-Ray Detector  

Large-Area CCD X-Ray Detector Opening Up New Horizons in the Study of Cellular and Metabolic Processes, Genetics, and Drug Development 2000 R&D 100 Award Winner!

257

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Takes Aim...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laser Takes Aim at Cosmic Mystery December 12, 2012 Menlo Park, Calif. - Scientists have used powerful X-rays from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the U.S. Department of...

259

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Sees Photosynthesis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new window on the way plants generate the oxygen we breathe, researchers used an X-ray laser at the Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory to...

260

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Brings Cellular...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a March experiment indicates it has, for the first time, used an X-ray free-electron laser - SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source - to reconstitute the structure of a G...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Material Characterization with X-ray and Optical Techniques I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells: Mariana Bertoni1; ... a strong modeling tool for predicting and optimizing solar cell efficiency. ... levels (11 steps up to 55%) in order to understand the sequential damage process.

262

X-Ray Scattering Group, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D.F. Inelastic x-ray scattering investigations of lattice dynamics in SmFeAsO1-xFy superconductors. Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spectroscopies in Novel...

263

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-rays Capture Electron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-rays Capture Electron 'Dance' By Glenn Roberts Jr. January 30, 2013 The way electrons move within and between molecules, transferring energy as they go, plays an important role...

264

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

265

Heat conduction in X-ray clusters: Spitzer over 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective heat conduction in a random variable magnetic field should be equal to one third of the Spitzer's value. Recent observations indicate that this heat conduction is sufficient to account for the bremsstrahlung in cooling X-ray clusters.

Andrei Gruzinov

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

266

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

Logan, C.M.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Ulysses Catalog of Solar Hard X-Ray Flares  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

its Solar X-ray/Cosmic Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment (GRB) hasInstrument The Ulysses Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) instrument, hasrate due to a cosmic gamma-ray burst or a solar ?are, but we

Tranquille, C.; Hurley, K.; Hudson, H. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Challenges & Opportunities for an Advanced X-ray Free-electron Laser Wednesday, October 2, 2013 - 3:00pm SLAC, Kavli 3rd Floor Conference Room Robert Schoenlein, Lawrence...

270

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - X-ray Laser Research Ranks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

selected science "Breakthrough of the Year": the discovery of what appears to be the Higgs boson. Scientists aimed the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray laser at thousands of tiny...

271

Calibration of High-Resolution X-Ray Tomography With ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The x-ray attenuation of the sample at this energy was close to the ... J. Coal Geol. ... G. Xu, DE Eastman, I. McNulty, SP Frigo, Y. Wang, CC Retsch, IC ...

2001-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

272

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy SRX: Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope Scientific communities such as environmental sciences, life sciences, and material sciences have identified the need to develop analytical resources to advance the understanding of complex natural and engineered systems that are heterogeneous on the micron to nanometer scale. These needs for high intensity x-ray nanoprobes resulted in the commitment of the NSLS-II Project to build the Submicron Resolution X-ray (SRX) Spectroscopy beamline showing a unique combination of high spectral resolution over a very broad energy range and very high beam intensity in a sub-micrometer spot. NSLS-II will provide one of the best sources in the world for such an instrument.

273

Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

G. R. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy: A newwith the scanning transmission X-ray microscope at BESSY II.T. et al. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy imaging of

Moffet, Ryan C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Argonne CNM Highlight: World?s Most Precise ?Hard X-Ray?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

World's Most Precise "Hard X-Ray" Nanoprobe Activated X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the front end window of the nanoprobe beamline. X-rays from an APS undulator exiting the...

275

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Science Division: Mission and Goals The mission of the X-ray Science Division (XSD) is to enable and perform world class research using x-rays. This mission is accomplished...

276

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that the soft X-ray excesses observed in many Seyfert galaxies may be composed of similar emission features. Modelling the RGS spectra in terms of emission from photoionized and photoexcited gas in an ionization cone reproduces all of the hydrogen-like and helium-like emission features observed in the soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 in detail and confirms the correspondence between the soft X-ray emission in NGC 4151 and NGC 1068.

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

Apparatus for obtaining an X-ray image  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A computed tomography apparatus in which a fan-shaped X-ray beam is caused to pass through a section of an object, enabling absorption detection on the opposite side of the object by a detector comprising a plurality of discrete detector elements. An electron beam generating the X-ray beam by impacting upon a target is caused to rotate over the target.

Watanabe, Eiji (Tokyo, JP)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation specroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

Sandy, A.R.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Narayanan, S.; Sprung, M.; Su, J.D; Isakovic, A.F.; Stein, A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

280

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

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281

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Light to Control How X Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light. However, it has been unclear whether similar optical control schemes could be used to modify how x rays interact with matter. In a dramatic breakthrough demonstration at the ALS, a Berkeley Lab-Argonne National Laboratory group has now used powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications.

282

X-ray emission from colliding laser plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Colliding Au, CD and Ti-Cr plasmas have been generated by illuminating two opposing foils each with a {approximately} 100J, 0.5 nsec, 2{omega} Nd-glass laser beam from the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos. The plasmas are being used to study plasma interactions which span the parameter regime from interpenetrating to collisional stagnation. X-ray emission during the laser target interaction and the subsequent collision is used to diagnose the initial plasma conditions and the colliding plasma properties. X-ray instrumentation consists of a 100 ps gated x-ray pinhole imager, a time-integratcd bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrograph and a gated x-ray spectrograph used to record isoelectronic spectra from the Ti-Cr plasmas. The imager has obtained multi-frame images of the collision and therefore, a measure of the stagnation length which is a function of the ion charge state and density and a strong function of the electron temperature. Other instrumentation includes a Thomson scattering spectrometer with probe beam, neutron detectors used to monitor the CD coated foil collisions and an ion spectrometer. We will describe the current status of the experiments and current results with emphasis on the x-ray emission diagnostics. We will also briefly describe the modeling using Lasnex and ISIS, a particle-in-cell code with massless fluid electrons and inter particle (classical) collisions.

Wilke, M.; Obst, A.W.; Winske, D. [and others

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Quiet Sun X-rays as Signature for New Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have studied published data from the Yohkoh solar X-ray mission, with the purpose of searching for signals from radiative decays of new, as yet undiscovered massive neutral particles. This search is based on the prediction that solar axions of the Kaluza-Klein type should result in the emission of X-rays from the Sun direction beyond the limb with a characteristic radial distribution. These X-rays should be observed more easily during periods of quiet Sun. An additional signature is the observed emission of hard X-rays by SMM, NEAR and RHESSI. The recent observation made by RHESSI of a continuous emission from the non-flaring Sun of X-rays in the 3 to ~15 keV range fits the generic axion scenario. This work also suggests new analyses of existing data, in order to exclude instrumental effects; it provides the rationale for targeted observations with present and upcoming (solar) X-ray telescopes, which can provide the final answer on the nature of the signals considered here. Such measurements become more promising during the forthcoming solar cycle minimum with an increased number of quiet Sun periods.

K. Zioutas; K. Dennerl; L. DiLella; D. H. H. Hoffmann; J. Jacoby; Th. Papaevangelou

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

284

Dilation x-ray imager a new/faster gated x-ray imager for the NIF  

SciTech Connect

As the yield on implosion shots increases it is expected that the peak x-ray emission reduces to a duration with a FWHM as short as 20 ps for {approx}7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} neutron yield. However, the temporal resolution of currently used gated x-ray imagers on the NIF is 40-100 ps. We discuss the benefits of the higher temporal resolution for the NIF and present performance measurements for dilation x-ray imager, which utilizes pulse-dilation technology [T. J. Hilsabeck et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10E317 (2010)] to achieve x-ray imaging with temporal gate times below 10 ps. The measurements were conducted using the COMET laser, which is part of the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

Nagel, S. R.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Felker, B.; Smith, R. F.; Collins, G. W.; Jones, O. S.; Piston, K.; Raman, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Title Understanding Water Uptake and Transport in Nafion Using X-ray Microtomography Publication Type...

286

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

287

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and x-ray polarization, but their orientation relative to the crystallographic axes must be taken into account for accurate interpretation of XMLD data. Magnetism and X Rays The ancient Greeks and also the Chinese knew about strange and rare stones with the power to attract iron. Moreover, when freely suspended these objects pointed north-south. Throughout the past, we have used this phenomenon-magnetism-for navigation and more recently for power production and digital information storage, all while trying to explore and understand its origins. In 1986 researchers at a facility similar to the ALS observed for the first time that the absorption of x rays depends not only on the composition of a material-that is, if it contains iron, nickel, or other elements-but also on its magnetism. The effect is unique in that it allows us to distinguish which atomic species magnetism originates from and provides information about their local atomic environment-for example, whether a magnetic species is surrounded by 4 or 6 oxygen atoms. A research team at the ALS has now shown that the relationship between magnetic order and absorption of x rays is even more complex and exciting than has been assumed for the past 20 years, leading to a reassessment of previous results.

288

Tokamak physics studies using x-ray diagnostic methods  

SciTech Connect

X-ray diagnostic measurements have been used in a number of experiments to improve our understanding of important tokamak physics issues. The impurity content in TFTR plasmas, its sources and control have been clarified through soft x-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) measurements. The dependence of intrinsic impurity concentrations and Z/sub eff/ on electron density, plasma current, limiter material and conditioning, and neutral-beam power have shown that the limiter is an important source of metal impurities. Neoclassical-like impurity peaking following hydrogen pellet injection into Alcator C and a strong effect of impurities on sawtooth behavior were demonstrated by x-ray imaging (XIS) measurements. Rapid inward motion of impurities and continuation of m = 1 activity following an internal disruption were demonstrated with XIS measurements on PLT using injected aluminum to enhance the signals. Ion temperatures up to 12 keV and a toroidal plasma rotation velocity up to 6 x 10/sup 5/ m/s have been measured by an x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) with up to 13 MW of 85-keV neutral-beam injection in TFTR. Precise wavelengths and relative intensities of x-ray lines in several helium-like ions and neon-like ions of silver have been measured in TFTR and PLT by the XCS. The data help to identify the important excitation processes predicted in atomic physics. Wavelengths of n = 3 to 2 silver lines of interest for x-ray lasers were measured, and precise instrument calibration techniques were developed. Electron thermal conductivity and sawtooth dynamics have been studied through XIS measurements on TFTR of heat-pulse propagation and compound sawteeth. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution function has been measured, and evidence of the Parail-Pogutse instability identified by hard x-ray PHA measurements on PLT during lower-hybrid current-drive experiments.

Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Fredrickson, E.; Hsuan, H.; McGuire, K.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Sesnic, S.; Stevens, J.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Water destruction by X-rays in young stellar objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the H2O chemistry in star-forming environments under the influence of a central X-ray source and a central far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The gas-phase water chemistry is modeled as a function of time, hydrogen density and X-ray flux. To cover a wide range of physical environments, densities between n_H = 10^4-10^9 cm^-3 and temperatures between T = 10-1000 K are studied. Three different regimes are found: For T water abundance is of order 10^-7-10^-6 and can be somewhat enhanced or reduced due to X-rays, depending on time and density. For 100 K 10^-3 ergs s-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^4 yrs) and for F_X > 10^-4 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^5 yrs). At higher temperatures (T > 250 K) and hydrogen densities, water can persist with x(H2O) ~ 10^-4 even for high X-ray fluxes. The X-ray and FUV models are applied to envelopes around low-mass Class 0 and I young stellar objects (YSOs). Water is destroyed in both Class 0 and I envelopes on relatively short timescales (t ~ 5000 yrs) for realistic X-ray fluxes, although the effect is less prominent in Class 0 envelopes due to the higher X-ray absorbing densities there. FUV photons from the central source are not effective in destroying water. The average water abundance in Class I sources for L_X > 10^27 ergs s^-1 is predicted to be x(H2O) < 10^-6.

P. Stauber; J. K. Jorgensen; E. F. van Dishoeck; S. D. Doty; A. O. Benz

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

290

Formation and destruction of jets in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Neutron-star and black-hole X-ray binaries (XRBs) exhibit radio jets, whose properties depend on the X-ray spectral state and history of the source. In particular, black-hole XRBs emit compact, steady radio jets when they are in the so-called hard state, the jets become eruptive as the sources move toward the soft state, disappear in the soft state, and re-appear when the sources return to the hard state. On the other hand, jets from neutron-star X-ray binaries are typically weaker radio emitters than the black-hole ones at the same X-ray luminosity and in some cases radio emission is detected in the soft state. Significant phenomenology has been accumulated so far regarding the spectral states of neutron-star and black-hole XRBs, and there is general agreement about the type of the accretion disk around the compact object in the various spectral states. Our aim is to investigate whether the phenomenology regarding the X-ray emission on one hand and the jet appearance and disappearance on the other can be put...

Kylafis, N D; Kazanas, D; Christodoulou, D M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment marks the basic unit for magnetic properties of matter. Magnetism, in particular ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism is described by a collective order of these spins, where the interaction between individual spins reflects a competition between exchange, anisotropy and dipolar energy terms. As a result the energetically favored ground state of a ferromagnetic system is a rather complex spin configuration, the magnetic domain structure. Magnetism is one of the eldest scientific phenomena, yet it is one of the most powerful and versatile utilized physical effects in modern technologies, such as in magnetic storage and sensor devices. To achieve highest storage density, the relevant length scales, such as the bit size in disk drives is now approaching the nanoscale and as such further developments have to deal with nanoscience phenomena. Advanced characterization tools are required to fully understand the underlying physical principles. Magnetic microscopes using polarized soft X-rays offer a close-up view into magnetism with unique features, these include elemental sensitivity due to X-ray magnetic dichroism effects as contrast mechanism, high spatial resolution provided by state-of-the-art X-ray optics and fast time resolution limited by the inherent time structure of current X-ray sources, which will be overcome with the introduction of ultrafast and high brilliant X-ray sources.

Fischer, Peter

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Neutron and X-Ray Scattering - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Home Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering Science Recent advances in neutron and x-ray scattering instrumentation at major DOE facilities such as the Spallation Neutron Source and Advanced Photon Source provide unprecedented insights into complex phenomena in bulk and interfacial materials. The vision of our group is to harness the complementarity of neutrons and x-rays to study how materials respond on a range of length and time scales to phase competition, so that we can learn to control emergent behavior and generate functional properties in energy-related materials. We use neutrons and x-rays to investigate the structure and dynamics of bulk and interfacial materials with properties that are useful for energy applications, such as superconductivity, magnetism and thermoelectricity. Phase competition can generate or enhance such properties, but it is extremely challenging to characterize fluctuations in the competing order, whether in bulk disordered materials, or artificial heterostructures. Our goal is to utilize efficient techniques that we have been developing for measuring nanoscale phase fluctuations, both static and dynamic, to enable the rational design of new materials for energy within MSD.

293

YOHKOH remnants: partially occulted flares in hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flares being partially occulted by the solar limb, are the best reservoir of our knowledge about hard X-ray loop-top sources. Recently, the survey of partially occulted flares observed by the RHESSI has been published (Krucker & Lin 2008). The extensive YOHKOH database still awaits such activities. This work is an attempt to fill this gap. Among from 1286 flares in the YOHKOH Hard X-ray Telescope Flare Catalogue, for which the hard X-ray images had been enclosed, we identified 98 events that occurred behind the solar limb. We investigated their hard X-ray spectra and spatial structure. We found that in most cases the hard X-ray spectrum of partially occulted flares consists of two components, non-thermal and thermal, which are co-spatial. The photon energy spectra of the partially occulted flares are systematically steeper than spectra of the non-occulted flares. Such a difference we explain as a consequence of intrinsically dissimilar conditions ruling in coronal parts of flares, in comparison with the f...

Tomczak, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

295

Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

296

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ?100-1000 km s ?1, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV spectrum of NGC 4151 (Kriss et al. 1995), suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics from the observed helium-like triplets, imply a range of electron temperatures of ?1-5×10 4 K and electron densities of between 10 8-10 10 cm ?3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, both in terms of the atomic species present and in terms of the relative strengths

N. J. Schurch; R. S. Warwick; R. E. Griffiths; S. M. Kahn

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detailed analysis of the complex soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 measured by the RGS instruments aboard XMM-Newton. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra demonstrate that the soft X-ray emission is extremely rich in X-ray emission lines and radiative recombination continua (RRC), with no clear evidence for any underlying continuum emission. Line emission, and the associated RRC, are clearly detected from hydrogen-like and helium-like ionization states of neon, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. The measured lines are blueshifted with a velocity of between ~100-1000 km/s, with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151, approximately consistent with the outflow velocities of the absorption lines observed in the UV, suggestive of an origin for the UV and soft X-ray emission in the same material. Plasma diagnostics imply a range of electron temperatures of ~1-5x10^4 K and electron densities of between 10^8-10^10 cm^-3. The soft X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is extremely similar to that of NGC 1068, suggesting that th...

Schurch, N J; Griffiths, R E; Kahn, S M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-crystal wavelength dispersive hard x-ray spectrometer with high-energy resolution and large solid angle collection is described. The instrument is specifically designed for time-resolved applications of x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) at X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. It also simplifies resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) studies of the whole 2d RIXS plane. The spectrometer is based on the Von Hamos geometry. This dispersive setup enables an XES or XRS spectrum to be measured in a single-shot mode, overcoming the scanning needs of the Rowland circle spectrometers. In conjunction with the XFEL temporal profile and high-flux, it is a powerful tool for studying the dynamics of time-dependent systems. Photo-induced processes and fast catalytic reaction kinetics, ranging from femtoseconds to milliseconds, will be resolvable in a wide array of systems circumventing radiation damage.

Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Montanez, Paul; Delor, James; Bergmann, Uwe [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kern, Jan [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States); Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis [SSRL, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Tran, Rosalie; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Yano, Junko [Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8099 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.

Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E.; Anderson, E.H.

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BioCAT BioCAT X-ray movies reveal insect flight, muscle motion Photo credit: Michael Dickinson Watching flies fly may not seem like high-tech science, but for researchers using the Western Hemisphere's most brilliant X-rays, from the Advanced Photon Source located at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory, it not only helps explain how insects fly but also may someday aid in understanding human heart function. The researchers, from the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Caltech and the University of Vermont, merged two distinct technologies, intense X-ray beams and electronic flight simulators, to study how insect muscles can generate such extraordinary levels of power. The results are published in the the January 20,. 2005, issue of the journal Nature.

303

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Imaging (XMI) Imaging (XMI) About XMI Science and Research Beamlines Highlights Software and Tools Intranet Search APS... Argonne Home > Advanced Photon Source > Contacts FAQs Beamlines News Publications APS Email Portal APS Intranet APS Phonebook APS Quick Links for Users APS Safety and Training Welcome to the X-ray Microscopy and Imaging group (XMI)! X-ray Microscopy and Imaging is part of the X-ray Science Division at the Advanced Photon Source. We develop and support a diverse and multidisciplinary user research program at Sectors 2 and 32 of the APS, with the overall goal to image and study materials structures at spatial and temporal resolutions that are most scientifically relevant to the cutting-edge advances in materials, biological, environmental, and biomedical sciences. To achieve this goal, we actively engage in various research activities including

304

Photon Sciences | Beamlines | XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction XPD: X-ray Powder Diffraction Poster | Fact Sheet | Preliminary Design Report Scientific Scope XPD is a tunable facility with the ability to collect diffraction data at high x-ray energies (40keV-80keV), offering rapid acquisition (millisecond) and high angular resolution capabilities on the same instrument. XPD addresses future scientific challenges in, for example, hydrogen storage, CO2 sequestration, advanced structural ceramics, catalysis, and materials processing. Such materials of high technological value often are complex, nanostructured and heterogeneous. The scientific grand challenge is to obtain robust and quantitative (micro)structural information, not only in the ground state at ambient conditions, but also in situ or in operando with varying temperature, pressure, magnetic/electric/stress

305

Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Beamlines Time-Resolved Beamlines Advisory Committee Workshop Home Workshop Chairs: Lin Chen (Argonne National Laboratory) Steve Milton (Advanced Photon Source) David Reis (University of Michigan) Linda Young (Argonne National Laboratory) Workshop on Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques August 29 September 1, 2004, The Abbey, Fontana, Lake Geneva Area, Wisconsin A workshop on "Time Domain Science Using X-ray Techniques" was held from August 29 September 1, 2004 , welcoming both experts and beginners in the field. This is one of the concurrently held workshops in the series on "Future Scientific Directions for the Advanced Photon Source." The goal of the workshop was to identify future directions in scientific research using time resolved x-ray techniques and to address possiblities to produce ps

306

X-RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) RAY FLUORESCENCE MICROPROBE (XFM) TECHNIQUES AND CAPABILITIES APPLICATIONS WORLD-LEADING MICROFOCUSED EXAFS SPECTROSCOPY * XFM is an optimized three-pole wiggler beamline for the characterization of materials in an "as-is" state that are chemically heterogeneous at the micrometer scale via synchrotron induced X-ray fluorescence. * XFM includes instrumentation for microbeam X-ray fluorescence (µXRF), diffraction (µXRD) and fluorescence computed microtomography (FCMT) . However, it is optimized to provide users state-of-the-art microfocused Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (µEXAFS) spectroscopy between 4 to 20 keV. * XFM will trade-off beam size and flux for sample configuration flexibility. This includes more readily achievable stability

307

X-ray and Optical Filaments in M87  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare a very deep X-ray image of M87, at the center of the Virgo Cluster, to high-quality optical images of the low excitation emission-line gas in the same region. There are striking coincidences of detail between the two. We explore the possiblity that this represents a thermal interaction between hot gas at 10^7 K and warm gas at 10^4 K. We find two temperatures are present in the X-ray gas, with the lower more prevelant in the vicinity of the optical filaments. Electron conduction from the hot phase to the cooler one provides a quantitatively acceptable energy source for the optical filaments, and we show additionally that it can do so for the brightest X-ray cluster, Perseus. If operative, conduction in the presence of gas-rich galaxy mergers, may explain the presence of "cool cores" in clusters of galaxies.

William B. Sparks; Megan Donahue; Andres Jordan; Laura Ferrarese; Patrick Cote

2004-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Composite structure development decisions using X-ray CT measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides measurement data useful for making composite manufacturing development decisions. X-ray CT measurements of material characteristics are quantitative in terms of the dimensions, density, and composition. The CT data on internal conditions, such as consolidation, gaps, delaminations, cracks, porosity and detail placement can be applied to the refinement of production techniques for composite manufacture. The key item of interest is the effect of variations in pressure loading, temperature, mold shape, material surface preparation, and bond layer thickness on the resulting consolidation or bondline quality in new composite manufacturing processes. X-ray CT measurements of densification and defect presence as a function of technique parameters are of critical importance to processes such as resin transfer molding, injection molding, composite welding, composite layup and advanced bonding methods.

Bossi, R.H.; Georgeson, G.E. [Boeing Defense and Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

An X-ray photometry system I: Chandra ACIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a system of X-ray photometry for the Chandra satellite. X-ray photometry can be a powerful tool to obtain flux estimates, hardness ratios, and colors unbiased by assumptions about spectral shape and independent of temporal and spatial changes in instrument characteristics. The system we have developed relies on our knowledge of effective area and the energy-to-channel conversion to construct filters similar to photometric filters in the optical bandpass. We show that the filters are well behaved functions of energy and that this X-ray photometric system is able to reconstruct fluxes to within about 20%, without color corrections, for non-pathological spectra. Even in the worst cases it is better than 50%. Our method also treats errors in a consistent manner, both statistical as well as systematic.

Grimm, H -J; Fabbiano, G; Elvis, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

X-ray Detection of a Rotating Radio Transient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract “Rotating RAdio Transients ” (RRATs) are a newly discovered astronomical phenomenon, characterised by occasional brief radio bursts, with average intervals between bursts ranging from minutes to hours. The burst spacings allow identification of periodicities, which fall in the range 0.4 to 7 seconds. The RRATs thus seem to be rotating neutron stars, albeit with properties very different from the rest of the population. We here present the serendipitous detection with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of a bright point-like X-ray source coincident with one of the RRATs. We discuss the temporal and spectral properties of this X-ray emission, consider counterparts in other wavebands, and interpret these results in the context of possible explanations for the RRAT population.

Bryan M. Gaensler; Maura Mclaughlin; Stephen Reynolds Kazik; Borkowski N; Burgay Fern; Andrew Lyne; Ingrid Stairs; B. M. Gaensler; S. Chatterjee; M. Mclaughlin; S. Reynolds; K. Borkowski; N. Rea; A. Possenti; M. Burgay; Osservatorio Astronomico Di Roma; F. Camilo; M. Kramer; A. Lyne

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Bonded multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard x-rays.  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi{sub 2} and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 {micro}m wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays.

Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.; Advanced Photonics Research Institute; Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

312

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

313

Laser assisted Compton scattering of X-ray photons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Compton scattering of X-ray photons, assisted by a short intense optical laser pulse is discussed. The differential scattering cross section reveals the interesting feature that the main Klein-Nishina line is accompanied by a series of side-lines forming a broad plateau where up to ${\\cal O} (10^3)$ laser photons participate simultaneously in a single scattering event. Due to the non-linear mixing of X-ray and laser photons a frequency dependent rotation of the polarization of the final state photons relative to the scattering plane emerges. A consistent description of the scattering process with short laser pulses requires to work with X-ray pulses. An experimental investigation can be accomplished, e.g., at LCLS or the European XFEL in the near future.

D. Seipt; B. Kampfer

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Use of X-Ray Microbeams in Materials Science  

SciTech Connect

Most materials are heterogeneous on mesoscopic length scales (tenths-to-tens of microns), and materials properties depend critically on mesoscopic structures such as grain sizes, texture, and impurities. The recent availability of intense, focused x-ray microbeams at synchrotron facilities has enabled new techniques for mesoscale materials characterization. We describe instrumentation and experiments on the MHATT-CAT and UNICAT undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source which use micron and submicron-size x-ray beams to investigate the grain orientation, local strain and defect content in a variety of materials of technological interest. Results from a combinatorial study on epitaxial growth of oxide films on textured metal substrates will be described to illustrate x-ray microbeam capabilities.

Budai, J.D.; Chung, J.-S.; Ice, G.E.; Larson, B.C.; Lowe, W.P.; Norton, D.P.; Tamura, N.; Tischler, J.Z.; Williams, E.L.; Yoon, M.; Zschack, P.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

315

Explosive hydrogen burning during type I X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive hydrogen burning in type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) comprise charged particle reactions creating isotopes with masses up to A~100. Since charged particle reactions in a stellar environment are very temperature sensitive, we use a realistic time-dependent general relativistic and self-consistent model of type I x-ray bursts to provide accurate values of the burst temperatures and densities. This allows a detailed and accurate time-dependent identification of the reaction flow from the surface layers through the convective region and the ignition region to the neutron star ocean. Using this, we determine the relative importance of specific nuclear reactions in the X-ray burst.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Hendrik Schatz; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

316

On burning regimes and long duration X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and helium accreted onto a neutron star undergo thermonuclear burning. Explosive burning is observed as a type I X-ray burst. We describe the different burning regimes and focus on some of the current inconsistencies between theory and observations. Of special interest are the rare kinds of X-ray bursts such as carbon-fueled superbursts and helium-fueled intermediately long X-ray bursts. These bursts are thought to originate deeper in the neutron star envelope, such that they are probes of the thermal properties of the crust. We investigate the possibility of observing superbursts with the wide-field instruments INTEGRAL-ISGRI and Swift-BAT. We find that only the brightest bursts are detectable.

L. Keek; J. J. M. in 't Zand

2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

Fast microtomography using bright monochromatic x-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fast microtomography system for high-resolution high-speed imaging has been developed using bright monochromatic x-rays at the BL29XU beamline of SPring-8. The shortest scan time for microtomography we attained was 0.25 s in 1.25 {mu}m effective pixel size by combining the bright monochromatic x-rays, a fast rotating sample stage, and a high performance x-ray imaging detector. The feasibility of the tomography system was successfully demonstrated by visualization of rising bubbles in a viscous liquid, an interesting issue in multiphase flow physics. This system also provides a high spatial (a measurable feature size of 300 nm) or a very high temporal (9.8 {mu}s) resolution in radiographs.

Jung, J. W.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. J.; Chang, S.; Pyo, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, N.; Kim, J. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kohmura, Y.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Ishikawa, T. [RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Je, J. H. [X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); RIKEN/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experiment Hazard Class 8.3 - X-Ray Generators  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 - X-Ray Generators 3 - X-Ray Generators Applicability This hazard classification applies to all experiments involving the use of X-Ray Generators (other than the APS storage ring). As specified in LMS-PROC-109 a Radiation Generating Device (RGD) must be registered with the Argonne RGD Safety Officer using the ANL-847 form. The RGD will be assigned an inventory number, hazard class, RWP requirement, and inspection and survey frequencies. Experiment Category Experiments the Experiment Hazard Class are always categorized as High Risk. Experiment Hazard Control Verification Statements Engineered Controls - As determined in LMS-PROC-109. Samples chambers and all beam paths are fully enclosed by barriers. Class 2 and higher RGDs require an interlock to fail-safe beam shutter/beam stop or radiation

319

Real-time X-ray Diffraction Measurements of Shocked Polycrystalline Tin and Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35-ns pulse. The characteristic K? lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic K? line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3-mm by 6-mm spot and 1° full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera through a coherent fiberoptic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1-mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

Dane V. Morgan, Don Macy, Gerald Stevens

2008-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

320

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector A Dissertation Contrast Microscopy with Soft and Hard X-rays Using a Segmented Detector by Benjamin Hornberger Doctor. In the hard x-ray range (multi-keV), the main focus lies on trace ele- ment mapping by x-ray fluorescence

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF MICROFLARES Jiong Qiu,1, 2 Chang Liu,2 Dale E. Gary,2 Gelu, we study solar microflares using the coordinated hard X-ray and microwave observations obtained the time derivative of soft X-rays and 14­20 keV hard X-rays, i.e., the Neupert effect, in about one

322

Concave Accretion Discs and X-ray Reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly a fraction of the cosmological X-ray background. There is some observational motivation to at least consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $\\gsim 1/2$ in some Seyferts and possibly in the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons, but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by Doppler and gravitational effects. If the X-ray source is isotropic, the reprocessed fraction is directly determined by the concavity. If the X-ray source is anisotropic, the location of iron line peak can still be determined by concavity but the total reflected fraction need not be as large as for the isotropic emitter case. The geometric calculations herein are applicable to general accretion disc systems illuminated from the center.

Eric G. Blackman

1999-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

323

X-ray Diagnostics of Broad Absorption Line Quasar Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new generation of sensitive X-ray measurements are indicating that the existence of X-ray attenuation column densities, $N_{H}>10^{24}\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$ is quite common amongst broad absorption line quasars (BALQSOs). This is significant to the geometry of the broad absorption line (BAL) outflow. In particular, such an X-ray shield also shields equatorial accretion disk winds from the UV, thereby preventing high velocity equatorial outflows from being launched. By contrast, bipolar winds initiated by continuum radiation pressure from the funnel of a slim accretion disk flare outward (like a trumpet) and offer vastly different absorbing columns to the X-ray and UV emission which are emitted from distinct regions of the disk, $\\sim 6M$ and $\\sim 10M-40M$, respectively (where $M$ is the radius of the black hole). Recent numerical work indicates that it is also possible to launch bipolar outflows from the inner regions of a thin disk. The recent discovery with VLBI that the Galactic analog of a BALQSO, the X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (with high velocity P Cygni X-ray absorption lines) is viewed virtually along the radio jet axis (and therefore along the spin axis of the black hole and the normal to the accretion disk) has rekindled interest in the bipolar models of BALQSOs. We explore this possibility by studying the nearest BAL QSO, MRK 231. High resolution 2-D optical spectroscopy and VLBI mappings of the radio jet axis indicates that the BAL outflow is parallel to the parsec scale radio jet.

Brian Punsly; Sebastian Lipari

2005-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

Electronic Structure of Dense Plasmas by X-Ray Scattering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present an improved analytical expression for the x-ray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret x-ray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equation-of-state models for carbon plasmas.

Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rogers, F J; Pollaine, S M; Froula, D H; Blancard, C; Faussurier, G; Renaudin, P; Kuhlbrodt, S; Redmer, R; Landen, O L

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

X-ray Time Lags in TeV Blazars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use Monte Carlo/Fokker-Planck simulations to study the X-ray time lags. Our results show that soft lags will be observed as long as the decay of the flare is dominated by radiative cooling, even when acceleration and cooling timescales are similar. Hard lags can be produced in presence of a competitive achromatic particle energy loss mechanism if the acceleration process operates on a timescale such that particles are slowly moved towards higher energy while the flare evolves. In this type of scenario, the {\\gamma} -ray/X-ray quadratic relation is also reproduced.

Chen, Xuhui; Liang, Edison; Böttcher, Markus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Opportunities for X-ray Science in Future Computing Architectures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world of computing continues to evolve rapidly. In just the past 10 years, we have seen the emergence of petascale supercomputing, cloud computing that provides on-demand computing and storage with considerable economies of scale, software-as-a-service methods that permit outsourcing of complex processes, and grid computing that enables federation of resources across institutional boundaries. These trends show no sign of slowing down. The next 10 years will surely see exascale, new cloud offerings, and other terabit networks. This talk reviews various of these developments and discusses their potential implications for x-ray science and x-ray facilities.

Foster, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory

2011-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

328

The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser  

SciTech Connect

The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

Galayda, John; /SLAC

2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

329

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

Logan, C.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Einstein x-ray observations of cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

Observations with the imaging x-ray detectors on the Einstein Observatory have led to a large increase in the number of low luminosity x-ray sources known to be associated with cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The high sensitivity of the Einstein instrumentation has permitted study of their short timescale variability and spectra. The data are adding significantly to our knowledge of the accretion process in cataclysmic variables and forcing some revision in our ideas concerning the origin of the optical variability in these stars.

Mason, K.O.; Cordova, F.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF CDZNTE CRYSTALS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals can be used for the room temperature-based detection of {gamma}-radiation. Structural/morphological heterogeneities within CZT, such as twinning, inclusions, and polycrystallinity can affect detector performance. We used a synchrotron-based X-ray technique, specifically extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, to determine whether there are differences on a local structural level between intact CZT of high and low radiation detector performance. These studies were complemented by data on radiation detector performance and transmission IR imaging. The EXAFS studies revealed no detectable local structural differences between the two types of CZT materials.

Duff, M

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

333

PBFA II lithium beam characterization from inner-shell x-ray images  

SciTech Connect

The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II) is not driving targets with ICF-relevant lithium ion beams. During the most recent lithium beam target series, time-integrated x-ray pinhole cameras viewed the ion-induced inner-shell x-ray fluorescence from the central gold cone target and a titanium-coated strip. Ion beam profiles at a nominal 10 mm radius and fixed azimuthal direction were obtained from images of the Ti K{sub {alpha}}, fluorescence of a Ti-coated Al diagnostic wire. The gold cone gave us beam profiles at a nominal 3 mm radius and at all azimuthal angles from the Au L{sub {alpha}} fluorescence. From these profiles, we obtained the ion beam vertical focus position, full-width-at-half-maximum, and the degree of azimuthal uniformity for the lithium target shots. For these initial results, beam steering problems were evident. Azimuthal uniformity was measured from the ion beam footprint on the outer Au case (predominantly Au L{sub {alpha}}) of the hohlraum target and were found to be in the same range (up to 30%) as for previous proton beam target series. We then present plans for Li beam diagnostics for an upcoming target experimental series.

Moats, A.R.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.; Dukart, R.J.; Haill, T.A.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Developing small vacuum spark as an x-ray source for calibration of an x-ray focusing crystal spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

A new technique of x-ray focusing crystal spectrometers' calibration is the desired result. For this purpose the spectrometer is designed to register radiated copper K{alpha} and K{beta} lines by using a flat {alpha}-quartz crystal. This experiment uses pre-breakdown x-ray emissions in low vacuum of about 2.5-3 mbar. At this pressure the pinch will not form so the plasma will not radiate. The anode material is copper and the capacity of the capacitor bank is 22.6 nF. This experiment designed and mounted a repetitive triggering system to save the operator time making hundreds of shots. This emission amount is good for calibration and geometrical adjustment of an optical crystal x-ray focusing spectrometer.

Ghomeishi, Mostafa; Adikan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd [Photonic Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Karami, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

335

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for sub-cellular metal quantification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined use of hard X-ray phase contrast imaging and X-ray fluorescence microscopy for subSurface Science Laboratory at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France Abstract Hard X of the details of cells are undetectable in hard X-ray microscopy due to the weak absorption contrast between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Restoration of X-ray fluorescence images of hidden paintings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes our methods for repairing and restoring images of hidden paintings (paintings that have been painted over and are now covered by a new surface painting) that have been obtained via noninvasive X-ray fluorescence imaging of their ... Keywords: Art restoration, Artifact correction, Image restoration, Underdetermined source separation

Anila Anitha; Andrei Brasoveanu; Marco Duarte; Shannon Hughes; Ingrid Daubechies; Joris Dik; Koen Janssens; Matthias Alfeld

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Calibration of X-ray absorption in our Galaxy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prediction of the soft X-ray absorption along lines of sight through our Galaxy is crucial for understanding the spectra of extragalactic sources, but requires a good estimate of the foreground column density of photoelectric absorbing species. Assuming uniform elemental abundances this reduces to having a good estimate of the total hydrogen column density, N(Htot)=N(HI)+2N(H2). The atomic component, N(HI), is reliably provided using the mapped 21 cm radio emission but estimating the molecular hydrogen column density, N(H2), expected for any particular direction, is difficult. The X-ray afterglows of GRBs are ideal sources to probe X-ray absorption in our Galaxy because they are extragalactic, numerous, bright, have simple spectra and occur randomly across the entire sky. We describe an empirical method, utilizing 493 afterglows detected by the Swift XRT, to determine N(Htot) through the Milky Way which provides an improved estimate of the X-ray absorption in our Galaxy and thereby leads to more reliable meas...

Willingale, R; Beardmore, A P; Tanvir, N R; O'Brien, P T

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Concave accretion discs and X-ray reprocessing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spectra of Seyfert Is are commonly modelled as emission from an X-ray illuminated flat accretion disc orbiting a central black hole. This provides both a reprocessed and direct component of the X-ray emission as required by observations of individual objects and possibly of the cosmological X-ray background. However, there is observational motivation to consider the role that an effectively concave disc surface might play: (1) a reprocessed fraction $> 1$ in individual Seyferts and the X-ray background, and (2) the commonality of a sharp iron line peak for Seyferts at 6.4KeV despite a strong dependence of peak location on inclination angle for flat disc models. Here it is shown that a concave disc may not only provide a larger total fraction of reprocessed photons but can also reprocess a much larger fraction of photons in its outer regions when compared to a flat disc. This reduces the sensitivity of the 6.4KeV peak location to the inner disc inclination angle because the outer regions are less affected by D...

Blackman, E G

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Shaping X-rays by diffractive coded nano-optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report results obtained in the fabrication and use of novel coded diffractive nano-optics that, beyond focusing, can perform new optical functions. In particular, the intensity of light in the space beyond the optical elements can be ... Keywords: X-ray beamshaping, coded diffractive optical element, nano-optics

E. Di Fabrizio; S. Cabrini; D. Cojoc; F. Romanato; L. Businaro; M. Altissimo; B. Kaulich; T. Wilhein; J. Susini; M. De Vittorio; E. Vitale; G. Gigli; R. Cingolani

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report  

SciTech Connect

This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Spectral unfolds of PITHON Flash X-ray source.  

SciTech Connect

Using a differential absorption spectrometer we obtained experimental spectral information for the PITHON Flash X-ray Machine located in San Leandro, California at L-3 Communications. Spectral information we obtained pertained to the 200 keV to 800 keV endpoint operation of PITHON. We also obtained data on the temporal behavior of high energy and low energy spectral content.

Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Sheridan, Timothy J.; Hartman, E. Frederick; Riordan, John C. (L-3 Pulse Sciences)

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique over the last 50 years is traced. The fundamentals of this technique and ways to implement it experimentally are considered, and its potential for studying the real structure of crystals is analyzed in detail.

Lider, V. V., E-mail: lider@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

345

Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions.

Nilsen, J.

1991-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

346

High Energy X-ray Diffraction Microscopy Microstructure Mapping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P1-04: 3D Microstructural Characterization of Uranium Oxide as a Surrogate Nuclear ... P1-15: Gating System Optimisation Design Study of a Cast Automobile ... P2-27: Characterization of Carbonate Rocks through X-ray Microtomography.

347

Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode  

SciTech Connect

The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

K. Sun, L. MacNeil

2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

X-ray astronomy in the new Millenium. A Summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent X-ray observations have had a major impact on topics ranging from protostars to cosmology. They have also drawn attention to important and general physical processes that currently limit our understanding of thermal and nonthermal X-ray sources. These include unmeasured atomic astrophysics data (wavelengths, oscillator strengths etc.), basic hydromagnetic processes (e.g. shock structure, reconnection), plasma processes (such as electron-ion equipartition and heat conduction) and radiative transfer (in disks and accretion columns). Progress on these problems will probably come from integrative studies that draw upon observations, throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, of different classes of source. X-ray observations are also giving a new perspective on astronomical subjects, like the nature of galactic nuclei and the evolution of stellar populations. They are contributing to answering central cosmological questions including the measurement of the matter content of the universe, understanding its overall luminosity density, describing its chemical evolution and locating the first luminous objects. X-ray astronomy has a healthy future with several international space missions under construction and in development.

Roger Blandford

2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

350

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics along with novel methodology has made it possible to extract information that is related to different interactions between the X-rays and the specimen at very fine spatial resolution. The energy tunability of the X-rays has made it possible to combine the energy scan with imaging technique. And the brilliance of the X-ray source has made it practical for many sophisticated

351

A Lensless X-ray Camera for Nanoscale Materials and Biological...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel injectors for automobiles? Poxvirus Potency Uncovered in New Atomic Map Striking Nano Gold Oldest Known Magnet's Secrets Revealed Under High Pressures Shedding Light on...

352

Computer analysis of four channel x-ray microscopy images to obtain source and spectral emission data on laser fusion  

SciTech Connect

It is possible to analyze the images obtained from the four- channel x- ray microscope to obtain reasonable estimates of source spatial and energy emission. The technique shown here is particularly useful when relative comparisons are desired in which, from shot to shot, few parameters are changed. These data are of use in fuel pellet design and in checking design code predictions. The technique should also apply to pinhole camera data. Largest uncertainties appear to be due to film energy/handling calibration and mirror efficiency measurements. (auth)

Harper, T.L.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Kinematics of Compton backscattering x-ray source for angiography  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of X-Ray production rates, energy spread, and spectrum of Compton-backscattered photons from a Free Electron Laser on an electron beam in a low energy (136-MeV) compact (8.5-m circumference) storage ring indicate that an X-Ray intensity of 34.6 10{sup 7} X-Ray photons per 0.5-mm {times} 0.5-mm pixel for Coronary Angiography near the 33.169-keV iodine K-absorption edge can be achieved in a 4-msec pulse within a scattering cone of 1-mrad half angle. This intensity, at 10-m from the photon-electron interaction point to the patient is about a factor of 10 larger than presently achieved from a 4.5-T superconducting wiggler source in the NSLS 2.5-GeV storage ring and over an area about 5 times larger. The 2.2-keV energy spread of the Compton-backscattered beam is, however, much larger than the 70-eV spread presently attained form the wiggler source and use of a monochromator. The beam spot at the 10-m interaction point-to-patient distance is 20-mm diameter; larger spots are attainable at larger distances but with a corresponding reduction in X-Ray flux. Such a facility could be an inexpensive clinical alternative to present methods of non-invasive Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA), small enough to be deployed in an urban medical center, and could have other medical, industrial and aerospace applications. Problems with the Compton backscattering source include laser beam heating of the mirror in the FEL oscillator optical cavity, achieving a large enough X-Ray beam spot at the patient, and obtaining radiation damping of the transverse oscillations and longitudinal emittance dilution of the storage ring electron beam resulting from photon-electron collisions without going to higher electron energy where the X-Ray energy spread becomes excessive for DSA. 38 refs.

Blumberg, L.N.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Refractive optical elements and optical system for high energy x-ray microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In material science, X-ray radiation with photon energies above 25 keV is used because of its penetration into high density materials. Research of the inner structure of novel materials, such as electrodes in high power batteries for engines, require X-ray microscopes operating in the hard X-ray energy range. A flexible X-ray microscope for hard X-rays with photon energies higher than 25 keV will be realized at the synchrotron source ANKA in Karlsruhe, Germany. The device will use refractive X-ray lenses as condenser as well as objective lenses.

Simon, M.; Altapova, V.; Baumbach, T.; Kluge, M.; Last, A.; Marschall, F.; Mohr, J.; Nazmov, V.; Vogt, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation, Engesser Strasse 15, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Microstructure Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

355

Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray International Workshop on the Interactions of Intense Sub-Picosecond X-Ray Pulses with Matter (SLAC, January 23-24, 1997) During the last five years studies have been conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg concerning the feasibility of driving an Angstrom-wavelength Free-Electron Laser (FEL) with a high energy rf linac. Recent promising advances in linac, rf gun, and insertion device technologies make it seem likely that such a device can be constructed. The output radiation predicted for this type of source will be characterized by full transverse coherence, extreme pulse brevity (~50-100 fs), high peak power (10-100 GW), and very high unfocused peak power density (0.4-4.1013

356

X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism MAY 11, 2007 Bookmark and Share By observing changes in coherent x-ray speckle pattern, such as the one shown above, researchers are able for the first time to investigate nanoscale dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls, and observe a cross over from classical to quantum behavior. (Credit: O. Shpyrko)

357

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials Analysis Using New X-ray Microbeams Materials ranging from massive steel girders to the microscopic aluminum wires in computer chips are made of grains - tiny crystals with diameters measured in millionths of a meter (microns). If scientists could "see" these individual grains, they could determine their orientation, as well as the effects of stress and chemical activity on them. They might also be able to determine how best to jam more circuits together in microelectronic components, making them smaller and faster, so computers could perform complex functions - such as speech recognition - more quickly. They could also find out to what extent grains of a superconducting material mimic the alignment of the substrate on which the material is grown; discovery of

358

LCLS - The X-ray Laser Has Turned On  

SciTech Connect

On April 10, 2009 the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first hard x-ray free electron laser, was brought to lasing. Producing an x-ray beam with over a billion times higher peak brightness that then most powerful existing syncrotron sources, it marked the beginning of a new era of science. The LCLS pulses arrive at a rate of 60 - 120 Hz in an energy range from 480 eV to 10 keV, with pulse lengths as short as a few fs to about 300 fs. Since October 2009, users have been performing experiments at the LCLS, and currently three of the six planned instruments are available. Although we stand only at the beginning of LCLS science, there is no doubt about the strong sense of early excitement.

Bergmann, Uwe [Linac Coherent Light Source

2010-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

359

Rapid determination of uranium by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a method for rapidly determining the amount of uranium using x-ray fluorescence. We add an aliquot of sample solution plus the internal standard element, yttrium, to a 10-ml volumetric flask. We transfer this solution to an x-ray cell and read the L..cap alpha..1 line of uranium and the K..cap alpha..1 line of yttrium. We then compare the ratio of uranium to yttrium for the sample with the ratios obtained from standards. This rapid, highly accurate procedure has a relative standard deviation of 0.69% for samples containing 1 to 5 mg U/ml. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Martell, C.J.; Hansel, J.M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Segmentation of x-ray images using Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling  

SciTech Connect

Segmentation is a process of separating objects of interest from their background or from other objects in an image. Without a suitable segmentation scheme, it is very difficult to detect contraband in X-rays images. In this paper, a Probabilistic Relaxation Labeling (PRL) segmentation scheme is presented and compared with other segmentation methods. PRL segmentation is an interative algorithm that labels each pixel in an image by cooperative use of two information sources: the pixel probability and the degree of certainty of its probability supported by the neighboring pixels. The practical implementation and results of the PRL segmentation on X-ray baggage images are also discussed and compared with other segmentation methods. 13 refs., 12 figs.

Thai, T.Q.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Search for serendipitous TNO occultation in X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To study the population properties of small, remote objects beyond Neptune's orbit in the outer solar system, of kilometer size or smaller, serendipitous occultation search is so far the only way. For hectometer-sized Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs), optical shadows actually disappear because of diffraction. Observations at shorter wave lengths are needed. Here we report the effort of TNO occultation search in X-rays using RXTE/PCA data of Sco X-1 taken from June 2007 to October 2011. No definite TNO occultation events were found in the 334 ks data. We investigate the detection efficiency dependence on the TNO size to better define the sensible size range of our approach and suggest upper limits to the TNO size distribution in the size range from 30 m to 300 m. A list of X-ray sources suitable for future larger facilities to observe is proposed.

Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Chen, Kuan-Ting

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Neutron and Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering Studies of Superconductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superconductors hold the promise for a more stable and efficient electrical grid, but new isotropic, high-temperature superconductors are needed in order to reduce cable manufacturing costs. The effort to understand high-temperature superconductivity, especially in the layered cuprates, provides guidance to the search for new superconductors. Neutron scattering has long provided an important probe of the collective excitations that are involved in the pairing mechanism. For the cuprates, neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques also provide information on competing types of order, such as charge and spin stripes, that appear to be closely connected to the superconductivity. Recently, inelastic x-ray scattering has become competitive for studying phonons and may soon provide valuable information on electronic excitations. Examples of how these techniques contribute to our understanding of superconductivity are presented.

Tranquada,J.M.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A New Measurement of Kaonic Hydrogen X rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The $\\bar{K}N$ system at threshold is a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD, especially for the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Therefore, we have measured the $K$-series x rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms at the DA$\\Phi$NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and have determined the most precise values of the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the $1s$ atomic state. As x-ray detectors, we used large-area silicon drift detectors having excellent energy and timing resolution, which were developed especially for the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift and width were determined to be $\\epsilon_{1s} = -283 \\pm 36 \\pm 6 {(syst)}$ eV and $\\Gamma_{1s} = 541 \\pm 89 {(stat)} \\pm 22 {(syst)}$ eV, respectively. The new values will provide vital constraints on the theoretical description of the low-energy $\\bar{K}N$ interaction.

M. Bazzi; G. Beer; L. Bombelli; A. M. Bragadireanu; M. Cargnelli; G. Corradi; C. Curceanu; A. d'Uffizi; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; F. Ghio; B. Girolami; C. Guaraldo; R. S. Hayano; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Iwasaki; P. Kienle; P. Levi Sandri; A. Longoni; V. Lucherini; J. Marton; S. Okada; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; A. Rizzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. L. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; H. Tatsuno; A. Tudorache; V. Tudorache; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

365

Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre' , Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomographic Nanoimaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron-based full-field tomographic microscopy established itself as a tool for noninvasive investigations. Many beamlines worldwide routinely achieve micrometer spatial resolution while the isotropic 100-nm barrier is reached and trespassed only by few instruments, mainly in the soft x-ray regime. We present an x-ray, full-field microscope with tomographic capabilities operating at 10 keV and with a 3D isotropic resolution of 144 nm recently installed at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Custom optical components, including a beam-shaping condenser and phase-shifting dot arrays, were used to obtain an ideal, aperture-matched sample illumination and very sensitive phase-contrast imaging. The instrument has been successfully used for the nondestructive, volumetric investigation of single, unstained cells.

Stampanoni, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Marone, F.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gorelick, S.; David, C.; Mokso, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Trtik, P.; Jefimovs, K. [EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

367

An X-ray Polarimeter for Constellation-X  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarimetry remains a largely unexploited technique in observational X-ray astronomy which could provide insight in the study of the strong gravity and magnetic fields at the core of the Constellation-X observational program. Adding a polarization capability to the Constellation-X instrumentation would be immensely powerful. It would make Constellation the first space observatory to simultaneously measure all astrophysically relevant parameters of source X-ray photons; their position (imaging), energy (spectroscopy), arrival time (timing), and polarization. Astrophysical polarimetry requires sensitive well-calibrated instruments. Many exciting objects are extra-galactic (i.e. faint) and may have small polarization. Recent advances in efficiency and bandpass make it attractive to consider a polarimetry Science Enhancement Package for the Constellation-X mission.

K. Jahoda; K. Black; P. Deines-Jones; J. E. Hill; T. Kallman; T. Strohmayer; J. H. Swank

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

368

Ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. Here, we introduce an ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray CT method based on electron beam scanning, which achieves volume rates of 500 s{sup -1}. Primary experiments revealed the capability of this method to recover the structure of phase boundaries in gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flows, which undergo three-dimensional structural changes in the millisecond scale.

Bieberle, Martina; Barthel, Frank; Hampel, Uwe [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Menz, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Hans-Georg [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

369

X-ray absorption studies of battery materials  

SciTech Connect

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is ideal for {ital in}{ital situ} studies of battery materials because both the probe and signal are penetrating x rays. The advantage of XAS being element specific permits investigation of the environment of a constituent element in a composite material. This makes it very powerful for studying electrode additives and corrosion of individual components of complex metal hydride alloys. The near edge part of the spectrum (XANES) provides information on oxidation state and site symmetry of the excited atom. This is particularly useful in study of corrosion and oxidation changes in cathode materials during charge/discharge cycle. Extended fine structure (EXAFS) gives structural information. Thus the technique provides both chemical and structural information. Since XAS probes only short range order, it can be applied to study of amorphous electrode materials and electrolytes. This paper discusses advantages and limitations of the method, as well as some experimental aspects.

McBreen, J.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer ``wavetrap`` deposited over the surface of a layered synthetic microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 {Angstrom} wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 {Angstrom} has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, their number and distance for the ``wavetrap.``

Bloch, J.J.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.W.

1990-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

371

ON THE TRUE SHAPE OF X-RAY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect

A method for obtaining the true shape of x-ray spectra was developed for the particular case of dispersive distortions. The method is of value in the correction of the shape of the spectrum for the distortion introduced by the outside level of the atom and in showing the correct shape of the energy dependence of the density of states n(E)p(E) where p(E) is the probability of the corresponding transition. (J.S.R.)

Blokhin, M.A.

1956-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Nuclear transitions induced by synchrotron x-rays.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We discuss two rare but interesting processes by which synchrotron x-rays with energies up to about 100 keV may be used to induce nuclear transitions. In the NEET (Nuclear Excitation by Electronic Transition) process, an intense x-ray beam is employed to make vacancies, e.g. K-holes, in the atoms of a specific nuclear isotope. When a vacancy is filled by an electronic transition from a higher atomic level, there is some probability that instead of the usual x-ray or Auger emission, the nucleus of the atom itself will be excited. This is then followed by a nuclear decay exhibiting characteristic gamma-rays or other types of radiation, with time delays typical of the nuclear states involved. The probability for NEET increases when the energies of the atomic and the nuclear transitions become close. We address some theoretical aspects of the process and describe experimental efforts to observe it in {sup 189}Os and {sup 197}Au. The second process to be discussed is the possibility of ''triggering'' the decay of a nuclear isomer by irradiation with an x-ray beam. We focus on the case of the 31-year, 2.4-MeV, 16+ isomer of {sup 178}Hf. There has been speculation that if one could isolate gram quantities, say, of this isomer and then have the capability to accelerate its decay in a controlled way, one would have a powerful triggerable source of enormous energy. This could be used to generate explosions, for rapid irradiations, or for more general energy-storage applications, depending on the rate of energy release. We describe attempts to observe this process.

Gemmell, D. S.

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

373

X-Ray Absorption Characterization of Diesel Exhaust Particulates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have characterized particulates from a 1993 11.1 Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine with electronic unit injectors operated using fuels with and without methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) and overbased calcium sulfonate added. X-ray photoabsorption (XAS) spectroscopy was used to characterize the diesel particulates. Results reveal a mixture of primarily Mn-phosphate with some Mn-oxide, and Ca-sulfate on the surface of the filtered particulates from the diesel engine.

Nelson, A J; Ferreira, J L; Reynolds, J G; Roos, J W

1999-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

1990-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

Statistical Analysis of X-ray Speckle at the NSLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a statistical analysis of the static speckle produced by illuminating a disordered aerogel sample by a nominally coherent x-ray beam at wiggler beamline X25 at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The results of the analysis allow us to determine that the coherence delivered to the X25 hutch is within 35% of what is expected. The rate of coherent photons is approximately two times smaller than expected on the basis of the X25 wiggler source brilliance.

Ophelia K. C. Tsui; S. G. J. Mochrie; L. E. Berman

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

X-ray Flares in Orion Low Mass Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. X-ray flares are common phenomena in pre-main sequence stars. Their analysis gives insights into the physics at work in young stellar coronae. The Orion Nebula Cluster offers a unique opportunity to study large samples of young low mass stars. This work is part of the Chandra Orion Ultradeep project (COUP), an ~10 day long X-ray observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). Aims. Our main goal is to statistically characterize the flare-like variability of 165 low mass (0.1-0.3 M_sun) ONC members in order to test and constrain the physical scenario in which flares explain all the observed emission. Methods. We adopt a maximum likelihood piece-wise representation of the observed X-ray light curves and detect flares by taking into account both the amplitude and time derivative of the count-rate. We then derive the frequency and energy distribution of the flares. Results. The high energy tail of the energy distribution of flares is well described by a power-law with index 2.2. We test the hypothesis that light curves are built entirely by overlapping flares with a single power law energy distribution. We constrain the parameters of this simple model for every single light curve. The analysis of synthetic light curves obtained from the model indicates a good agreement with the observed data. Comparing low mass stars with stars in the mass interval (0.9-1.2M_sun), we establish that, at ~1 Myr, low mass and solar mass stars of similar X-ray luminosity have very similar flare frequencies. Conclusions. Our observational results are consistent with the following model/scenario: the light curves are entirely built by over- lapping flares with a power-law intensity distribution; the intense flares are individually detected, while the weak ones merge and form a pseudo-quiescent level, which we indicate as the characteristic level.

M. Caramazza; E. Flaccomio; G. Micela; F. Reale; S. J. Wolk; E. D. Feigelson

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

377

Sensitivity in X-ray grating interferometry on compact systems  

SciTech Connect

The optimization of compact X-ray grating interferometry systems is crucial for the progress of this technique in industrial devices. Here, an analytical formulation for the sensitivity of the phase contrast image acquisition is derived using previous results from noise analyses. Furthermore, experimental measurements of the sensitivity for different configurations are compared, providing further insight into the dependence on polychromatic radiation. Finally, strategies for the geometrical optimization are given.

Thuering, Thomas; Modregger, Peter; Haemmerle, Stefan; Weiss, Stephan; Nueesch, Joachim; Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland) and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); School of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); SCANCO Medical AG, Bruettisellen (Switzerland)

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

CONSTRAINTS ON THE UBIQUITY OF CORONAL X-RAY CYCLES  

SciTech Connect

Stellar activity cycles are known to be a widespread phenomenon amongst moderately active solar- and late-type stars from long-term periodic variations in chromospheric Ca II H and K emission lines, yet to date, only a handful of coronal X-ray cycles are known. We have surveyed serendipitously observed stellar sources in fields observed multiple times in the last decade by XMM-Newton and present our analysis of nine stars from six fields. Since our sample is flux-limited, it is strongly biased toward higher levels of X-ray activity. We fit a single temperature APEC spectrum to each source and search for significant periodicities using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram. We use a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm to yield robust analysis of the statistical significance of cycle detections and non-detections. None of the nine stellar light curves show any convincing indications of periodicity. From MC simulations, we simulate the detection capabilities of our methodology and, assuming a uniform distribution of cycle periods and strengths over the domain searched, we conclude with 95% confidence that less than 72% of the stars represented by our sample of active stars have 5-13 year coronal X-ray cycles.

Hoffman, John [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Guenther, Hans M.; Wright, Nicholas J., E-mail: hoffma24@illinois.edu, E-mail: guenther@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: nwright@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

379

Computational Simulations of High Intensity X-Ray Matter Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Free electron lasers have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity short pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1-10 keV energy range. For example, the Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford is being designed to produce an output intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in a 230 fs pulse. These sources will open the door to many novel research studies. However, the intense x-ray pulses may damage the optical components necessary for studying and controlling the output. At the full output intensity, the dose to optical components at normal incidence ranges from 1-10 eV/atom for low-Z materials (Z < 14) at photon energies of 1 keV. It is important to have an understanding of the effects of such high doses in order to specify the composition, placement, and orientation of optical components, such as mirrors and monochromators. Doses of 10 eV/atom are certainly unacceptable since they will lead to ablation of the surface of the optical components. However, it is not precisely known what the damage thresholds are for the materials being considered for optical components for x-ray free electron lasers. In this paper, we present analytic estimates and computational simulations of the effects of high-intensity x-ray pulses on materials. We outline guidelines for the maximum dose to various materials and discuss implications for the design of optical components.

London, R A; Rionta, R; Tatchyn, R; Roessler, S

2001-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler  

SciTech Connect

A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

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381

X-ray diffraction data for plutonium compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of x-ray diffraction information relating to powder photographs of plutonium compounds. The information is presented in a format and style substantially as recommended by the International Centre for Diffraction Data. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has been very much involved in the study of the properties of plutonium and its compounds. During the past 45 years the Powder Diffraction File of the Laboratory has grown to more than 20,000 films. F.H. Ellinger and his coworkers have used this data to establish a large number of plutonium binary phase diagrams. A phase diagram, however, should never be regarded as really complete as new techniques of alloy preparation or x-ray and optical metallography continually discover new phases that must be incorporated in the diagram. In addition to the phase diagrams, the crystal structure of a number of plutonium intermetallic compounds have been determined at Los Alamos. Due to the importance of plutonium as a representative of the actinide series of elements, it is deemed advisable to have available information on the x-ray diffraction of plutonium and its compounds for the purpose of identification of these materials. It is hoped that the information presented here will be of value in this regard.

Roof, R.B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

XIPE: the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray polarimetry, sometimes alone, and sometimes coupled to spectral and temporal variability measurements and to imaging, allows a wealth of physical phenomena in astrophysics to be studied. X-ray polarimetry investigates the acceleration process, for example, including those typical of magnetic reconnection in solar flares, but also emission in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars and white dwarfs. It detects scattering in asymmetric structures such as accretion disks and columns, and in the so-called molecular torus and ionization cones. In addition, it allows fundamental physics in regimes of gravity and of magnetic field intensity not accessible to experiments on the Earth to be probed. Finally, models that describe fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity and the extension of the Standard Model) can be tested. We describe in this paper the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE), proposed in June 2012 to the first ESA call for a small mission with a launch in 2017 but not selected. XIPE ...

Soffitta, Paolo; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Braga, João; Costa, Enrico; Fraser, George W; Gburek, Szymon; Huovelin, Juhani; Matt, Giorgio; Pearce, Mark; Poutanen, Juri; Reglero, Victor; Santangelo, Andrea; Sunyaev, Rashid A; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Weisskopf, Martin; Aloisio, Roberto; Amato, Elena; Attiná, Primo; Axelsson, Magnus; Baldini, Luca; Basso, Stefano; Bianchi, Stefano; Blasi, Pasquale; Bregeon, Johan; Brez, Alessandro; Bucciantini, Niccoló; Burderi, Luciano; Burwitz, Vadim; Casella, Piergiorgio; Churazov, Eugene; Civitani, Marta; Covino, Stefano; da Silva, Rui Miguel Curado; Cusumano, Giancarlo; Dadina, Mauro; D'Amico, Flavio; De Rosa, Alessandra; Di Cosimo, Sergio; Di Persio, Giuseppe; Di Salvo, Tiziana; Dovciak, Michal; Elsner, Ronald; Eyles, Chris J; Fabian, Andrew C; Fabiani, Sergio; Feng, Hua; Giarrusso, Salvatore; Goosmann, René W; Grandi, Paola; Grosso, Nicolas; Israel, Gianluca; Jackson, Miranda; Kaaret, Philip; Karas, Vladimir; Kuss, Michael; Lai, Dong; La Rosa, Giovanni; Larsson, Josefin; Larsson, Stefan; Latronico, Luca; Maggio, Antonio; Maia, Jorge; Marin, Frédéric; Massai, Marco Maria; Mineo, Teresa; Minuti, Massimo; Moretti, Elena; Muleri, Fabio; O'Dell, Stephen L; Pareschi, Giovanni; Peres, Giovanni; Pesce, Melissa; Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier; Pinchera, Michele; Porquet, Delphine; Ramsey, Brian; Rea, Nanda; Reale, Fabio; Rodrigo, Juana Maria; Ró?a?ska, Agata; Rubini, Alda; Rudawy, Pawel; Ryde, Felix; Salvati, Marco; Júnior, Valdivino Alexandre de Santiago; Sazonov, Sergey; Sgró, Carmelo; Silver, Eric; Spandre, Gloria; Spiga, Daniele; Stella, Luigi; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamborra, Francesco; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Dias, Teresa Teixeira; van Adelsberg, Matthew; Wu, Kinwah; Zane, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

X-ray Microspectroscopy and Chemical Reactions in Soil Microsites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soils provide long-term storage of environmental contaminants, which helps to protect water and air quality and diminishes negative impacts of contaminants on human and ecosystem health. Characterizing solid-phase chemical species in highly complex matrices is essential for developing principles that can be broadly applied to the wide range of notoriously heterogeneous soils occurring at the earth's surface. In the context of historical developments in soil analytical techniques, we describe applications of bulk-sample and spatially resolved synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) for characterizing chemical species of contaminants in soils, and for determining the uniqueness of trace-element reactivity in different soil microsites. Spatially resolved X-ray techniques provide opportunities for following chemical changes within soil microsites that serve as highly localized chemical micro- (or nano-)reactors of unique composition. An example of this microreactor concept is shown for micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis of metal sulfide oxidation in a contaminated soil. One research challenge is to use information and principles developed from microscale soil chemistry for predicting macroscale and field-scale behavior of soil contaminants.

D Hesterberg; M Duff; J Dixon; M Vepraskas

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

384

THz Pump and X-Ray Probe Development at LCLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on measurements of broadband, intense, coherent transition radiation at terahertz frequencies, generated as the highly compressed electron bunches in Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) pass through a thin metal foil. The foil is inserted at 45{sup o} to the electron beam, 31 m downstream of the undulator. The THz emission passes downward through a diamond window to an optical table below the beamline. A fully compressed 350-pC bunch produces up to 0.5 mJ in a nearly half-cycle pulse of 50 fs FWHM with a spectrum peaking at 10 THz. We estimate a peak field at the focus of over 2.5 GV/m. A 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser oscillator has recently been installed for electro-optic measurements. We are developing plans to add an x-ray probe to this THz pump, by diffracting FEL x rays onto the table with a thin silicon crystal. The x rays would arrive with an adjustable time delay after the THz. This will provide a rapid start to user studies of materials excited by intense single-cycle pulses and will serve as a step toward a THz transport line for LCLS-II.

Fisher, Alan S; /SLAC, LCLS; Durr, Hermann; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Lindenberg, Aaron; Stanford U., Materials Sci.Dept.; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Reis, David; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Dept. Appl. Phys.; Frisch, Josef; Loos, Henrik; Petree, Mark; /SLAC, LCLS; Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Fuchs, Matthias; /SLAC, PULSE; Ghimire, Shambhu; /SLAC, PULSE; Goodfellow, John; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

385

UPDATE: Oil set for longest weekly loss streak since 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

UPDATE: Oil set for longest weekly loss streak since 1998,Read most current stock market news, Get stock, fund, etf analyst reports from an ...

386

Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room...

387

Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The...

388

The accretion process in neutron-star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There had been long-standing fundamental problems in the spectral studies of accreting neutron stars (NSs) in low-mass X-ray binaries involving the X-ray spectral decomposition, the relations between subtypes (mainly atoll ...

Lin, Dacheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Synchrotron X-ray scattering techniques for microelectronics-related materials studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction techniques using synchrotron radiation play a vital role in the understanding of structural behavior for a wide range of materials important in microelectronics. The extremely high flux of X-rays produced by synchrotron storage rings ...

J. L. Jordan-Sweet

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bendable X-ray Optics at the ALS: Design, Tuning, Performance and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-RAY OPTICS AT THE ALS: DESIGN, TUNING, PERFORMANCE ANDat the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of bendable x- ray opticsof a bendable optic used at ALS beamline 5.0.2. The mirror

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser We have demonstrated flash diffractive imaging of nanostructures using pulses from the first soft-X-ray free-electron...

392

Design and development of a 3D X-ray microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid development of needle-free injection systems demands better and faster imaging systems, capable of imaging the transient and steady state response of an injection into real tissue. X-ray radiography, x-ray ...

Brayanov, Jordan, 1981-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Note: Experiments in hard x-ray chemistry: In situ production of molecular hydrogen and x-ray induced combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have successfully loaded H{sub 2} into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. In a second set of studies, radiation-assisted release of O{sub 2} from KCLO{sub 3}, H{sub 2} release from NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}, and reaction of these gases in a mixture of the reactants to form liquid water using x-rays at ambient conditions was observed. Similar observations were made using a KCLO{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} mixture. Depending on reaction conditions, an explosive or far slower reaction producing water was observed.

Pravica, Michael; Bai Ligang; Liu Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center (HiPSEC) and Department of Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4002 (United States); Park, Changyong [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60437 (United States); Hatchett, David [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

A CATALOG OF SOLAR X-RAY PLASMA EJECTIONS OBSERVED BY THE SOFT X-RAY TELESCOPE ON BOARD YOHKOH  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalog of X-ray plasma ejections (XPEs) observed by the Soft X-ray Telescope on board the Yohkoh satellite has been recently developed in the Astronomical Institute of University of Wroclaw. The catalog contains records of 368 events observed in years 1991-2001 including movies and cross-references to associated events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). One hundred sixty-three XPEs out of 368 in the catalog were not reported until now. A new classification scheme of XPEs is proposed in which morphology, kinematics, and recurrence are considered. The relation between individual subclasses of XPEs and the associated events was investigated. The results confirm that XPEs are strongly inhomogeneous, responding to different processes that occur in the solar corona. A subclass of erupting loop-like XPEs is a promising candidate to be a high-temperature precursor of CMEs.

Tomczak, M.; Chmielewska, E., E-mail: tomczak@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: chmielewska@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, ul. Kopernika 11, PL-51-622 Wroclaw (Poland)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Note: Experiments in hard x-ray chemistry: In situ production of molecular hydrogen and x-ray induced combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have successfully loaded H{sub 2} into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. In a second set of studies, radiation-assisted release of O{sub 2} from KCLO{sub 3}, H{sub 2} release from NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}, and reaction of these gases in a mixture of the reactants to form liquid water using x-rays at ambient conditions was observed. Similar observations were made using a KCLO{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} mixture. Depending on reaction conditions, an explosive or far slower reaction producing water was observed.

Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Hatchett, David (UNLV); (CIW)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

396

High Flux Water Window X-rays Driven by Ultrashort 1.8mm Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

397

In Situ X-ray Nanocharacterization of Defects in Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Optical and X-ray Imaging Techniques for Material Characterization.

398

Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Experimental validation of a radiographic simulation code using breast phantom for X-ray imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computer models and simulations of X-ray imaging systems are becoming a very precious tool during the development and evaluation of new X-ray imaging techniques. To provide, however, a faithful simulation of a system, all components must be accurately ... Keywords: Breast phantoms, Experimental verification, Synchrotron radiation, X-ray imaging simulation

K. Bliznakova; R. Speller; J. Horrocks; P. Liaparinos; Z. Kolitsi; N. Pallikarakis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and strong field gravity in X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past five years observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer have revealed fast quasi-periodic oscillations in the X-ray flux of about 20 X-ray binaries. Thought to originate close to the surface of a neutron star, these oscillations provide unique information about the strong gravitational field in which they are produced.

Mariano Mendez

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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401

Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography.

Schulze, D. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA)); Anderson, S. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (USA)); Mattigod, S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Imaging of micro-and nano-structures with hard X-rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

object with the hard X-ray microscope A horizontal line profile is inserted in the upper right partImaging of micro- and nano-structures with hard X-rays C. Rau, V. Crecea, C.-P. Richter, K Abstract: Imaging of micro- and nano-structures of opaque samples is demonstrated using hard X-rays. Two

Braun, Paul

403

Focal plane instrumentation for the Wide-Field X-ray Telescope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three X-ray imaging focal planes of the Wide-Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) Mission will each have a field of view up to 1 degree square, pixel pitch smaller than 1 arcsec, excellent X-ray detection efficiency and spectral ...

Bautz, Marshall W.

404

X-ray timing of the accreting millisecond pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a 7 yr timing study of the 2.5 ms X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658, an X-ray transient with a recurrence time of =2 yr, using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer covering 4 transient outbursts (1998-2005). ...

Hartman, Jacob M., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their efficiency and low risk of environmental pollution. These materials are important to solar cells as a result of their remarkable combination of optical and electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency in the spectrum of visible light. TCs provide a transparent window, which allows sunlight to pass through while also allowing electricity to conduct out of the cell. Spinel materials have the chemical form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and are made of a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice of oxygen anions and cations in specific interstitial sites. A normal spinel has all A cations on tetrahedral sites and B cations on octahedral sites. In contrast; an inverse spinel has the A and half of the B cations on octahedral sites and the other half of the B cations on tetrahedral sites; a mixed spinel lies between. In the spinel structure, 8 of 64 possible tetrahedral sites and 16 of 32 possible octahedral sites are filled. Normal spinels have particularly high conduction as the linear octahedral chains of B cations likely serve as conduction paths. In this paper we present how the data obtained with AXRD is used to analyze TCs properties as they apply to photovoltaic applications. One of the materials used for this analysis is zinc oxide. It has been loaded with 5% and 10% of Ga, which has an absorption edge of 10367 eV. The peak (100) was measured for the zinc oxide loaded with 10% Ga. In the case of 5% Ga, we measured peaks (100) and (101). With the information provided by the AXRD we can identify if Ga is being incorporated in the ZnO crystal structure. The analysis of 311 plane in the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel shows if Co is in tetrahedral or octahedral site.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

406

X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-B RADIO PULSARS  

SciTech Connect

The study of high-magnetic-field pulsars is important for examining the relationships between radio pulsars, magnetars, and X-ray-isolated neutron stars (XINSs). Here, we report on X-ray observations of three such high-magnetic-field radio pulsars. We first present the results of a deep XMM-Newton observation of PSR J1734-3333, taken to follow up on its initial detection in 2009. The pulsar's spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a temperature of 300 {+-} 60 eV, with bolometric luminosity L{sub bb}=2.0{sub -0.7}{sup +2.2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}{approx}0.0036 E-dot for a distance of 6.1 kpc. We detect no X-ray pulsations from the source, setting a 1{sigma} upper limit on the pulsed fraction of 60% in the 0.5-3 keV band. We compare PSR J1734-3333 to other rotation-powered pulsars of similar age and find that it is significantly hotter, supporting the hypothesis that the magnetic field affects the observed thermal properties of pulsars. We also report on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of PSRs B1845-19 and J1001-5939. We do not detect either pulsar, setting 3{sigma} upper limits on their blackbody temperatures of 48 and 56 eV, respectively. Despite the similarities in rotational properties, these sources are significantly cooler than all but one of the XINSs, which we attribute to the two groups having been born with different magnetic fields and hence evolving differently.

Olausen, S. A.; Kaspi, V. M. [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Zhu, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Espinoza, C. M.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)] [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Manchester, R. N. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)] [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, White Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

407

DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION IN SOFT X-RAYS  

SciTech Connect

We have explored the interplay of star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in soft X-rays (0.5-2 keV) in two samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s). Using a combination of low-resolution CCD spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton, we modeled the soft emission of 34 Sy2s using power-law and thermal models. For the 11 sources with high signal-to-noise Chandra imaging of the diffuse host galaxy emission, we estimate the luminosity due to star formation by removing the AGN, fitting the residual emission. The AGN and star formation contributions to the soft X-ray luminosity (i.e., L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF}) for the remaining 24 Sy2s were estimated from the power-law and thermal luminosities derived from spectral fitting. These luminosities were scaled based on a template derived from XSINGS analysis of normal star-forming galaxies. To account for errors in the luminosities derived from spectral fitting and the spread in the scaling factor, we estimated L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF} from Monte Carlo simulations. These simulated luminosities agree with L{sub x,AGN} and L{sub x,SF} derived from Chandra imaging analysis within a 3{sigma} confidence level. Using the infrared [Ne II]12.8 {mu}m and [O IV]26 {mu}m lines as a proxy of star formation and AGN activity, respectively, we independently disentangle the contributions of these two processes to the total soft X-ray emission. This decomposition generally agrees with L{sub x,SF} and L{sub x,AGN} at the 3{sigma} level. In the absence of resolvable nuclear emission, our decomposition method provides a reasonable estimate of emission due to star formation in galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs.

LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Heckman, T. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ptak, A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

408

TW Hya: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY, X-RAYS, AND ACCRETION DIAGNOSTICS  

SciTech Connect

The nearest accreting T Tauri star, TW Hya was intensively and continuously observed over {approx}17 days with spectroscopic and photometric measurements from four continents simultaneous with a long segmented exposure using the Chandra satellite. Contemporaneous optical photometry from WASP-S indicates a 4.74 day period was present during this time. The absence of a similar periodicity in the H{alpha} flux and the total X-ray flux which are dominated by accretion processes and the stellar corona, respectively, points to a different source of photometric variations. The H{alpha} emission line appears intrinsically broad and symmetric, and both the profile and its variability suggest an origin in the post-shock cooling region. An accretion event, signaled by soft X-rays, is traced spectroscopically for the first time through the optical emission line profiles. After the accretion event, downflowing turbulent material observed in the H{alpha} and H{beta} lines is followed by He I ({lambda}5876) broadening near the photosphere. Optical veiling resulting from the heated photosphere increases with a delay of {approx}2 hr after the X-ray accretion event. The response of the stellar coronal emission to an increase in the veiling follows {approx}2.4 hr later, giving direct evidence that the stellar corona is heated in part by accretion. Subsequently, the stellar wind becomes re-established. We suggest a model that incorporates the dynamics of this sequential series of events: an accretion shock, a cooling downflow in a supersonically turbulent region, followed by photospheric and later, coronal heating. This model naturally explains the presence of broad optical and ultraviolet lines, and affects the mass accretion rates determined from emission line profiles.

Dupree, A. K.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Cranmer, S. R.; Luna, G. J. M.; Schneider, E. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Australian National Observatory, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bonanos, A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens (Greece); Crause, L. A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Lawson, W. A. [School of Physical, Environmental, and Math Sciences, University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600 (Australia); Mallik, S. V. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560034 (India); Schuler, S. C. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Direct and bulk-scattered forward-shock emissions: sources of X-ray afterglow diversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I describe the modifications to the standard forward-shock model required to account for the X-ray light-curve features discovered by Swift in the early afterglow emission and propose that a delayed, pair-enriched, and highly relativistic outflow, which bulk-scatters the forward-shock synchrotron emission, yields sometimes a brighter X-ray emission, producing short-lived X-ray flares, X-ray light-curve plateaus ending with chromatic breaks, and fast post-plateau X-ray decays.

A. Panaitescu

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

410

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

411

Characterization of fuel cell electrocatalysts using x-ray methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High surface area electrocatalysts are critical components of high efficiency low cost polymer membrane fuel cells. The platinum and/or platinum alloy catalysts are typically prepared as nanocrystalline carbon supported and unsupported anode and cathode materials. The choice of catalyst type depends on whether the application is for hydrogen or direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). 2 nm crystallite size Pt supported on Vulcan XC-72 carbon is the anode and cathode catalyst most commonly used for hydrogen fuel cells while Pt-Ru alloys of 3-5 nm are currently being used for anode catalysts in DMFC systems. Key parameters for successful catalyst design are average alloy composition, crystal structure, crystallite composition crystallite size and size distribution. All of the aforementioned parameters can be efficently and nondistructively measured using laboratory scale X-ray analysis methods. Recent advances in personal computer technology allow for full profile (Rietveld) and Warren-Averbach Fourier transform X-ray diffraction methods to be performed quickly and routinely. Full profile, also known as whole pattern analysis methods, model the entire X-ray diffraction pattern rather than just peak maxima. Highly overlapped diffraction patterns are very common in nanocrystalline materials due to size related line broadening phenomena. Full profile methods allow for the precise determination of lattice parameters and accurate measurement of individual diffraction line intensities. Phase fractions and percentages of amorphous material can also be estimated using full profile analysis techniques. Warren-Averbach Fourier transform methods allow for the determination of particle size distributions. This method offers advantages in speed and cost over electron microscopic analysis methods to obtain crystallite size distributions. Fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy methods allows for the rapid accurate determination of catalyst composition and mass loadings on raw materials and membrane electrode assemblies. Another advantage of this method over older empirical standard methods is the elimination of many calibration standards of different compositions. The fundamental parameter method needs only a single standard per element for calibration. We have analyzed a large number of Pt and Pt/Ru based catalysts prepared by various synthesis techniques. These methods include unsupported and supported catalysts prepared by: colloidal precipitation, spray pyrolysis and ultrasonic atomization freeze drying methods. As prepared catalysts vary substantially crystallite size and size distribution. The degree of crystallinity, alloy composition and oxidation state also vary substantially with preparation method.

Garzon, F. H. (Fernando H.); Brosha, E. L. (Eric L.); Zawodzinski, C. (Christine); Ren, X. (Xiaoming)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX simulations will be benchmarked against measurements taken at Oak Ridge. Analysis of the feasibility of XRFs role in spent nuclear fuel safeguards efforts, particularly in the context of the overall NGSI effort will be discussed.

Freeman, Corey Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Julia M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, Alissa [TAMU; Charlton, William [TAMU

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique  

SciTech Connect

This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F. (Denmark)

2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

414

X-ray Variability in M87 1992-1998  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Beginning in 1995 June, we have obtained an observation of M87 with the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) every 6 months. We present the measurements of X-ray intensity for the core and knot A through 1998 January. We find significant changes in both components. For the core, intensities measured in 95 Jun, 96 Dec, and 97 Dec are roughly 30% higher than values obtained at three intervening times. For knot A, a secular decrease of approximately 15% is interrupted only by an intensity jump (3 sigma) in 1997 Dec. Because the background used for subtraction is probably underestimated, we suspect the actual variation is somewhat greater than these values indicate.

Harris, D E; Junor, W

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Solar X-rays as Signature for New Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive axions of the Kaluza-Klein type, created inside the solar core, can be gravitationally trapped by the Sun itself in orbits inside/outside the Sun, where they accumulate over cosmic times. Their radiative decay can give rise to various solar phenomena, like the celebrated solar coronal heating, which lacks a conventional explanation since its first observation in 1939. Such and other recent observations favour the existence of a halo of exotic particles near the Sun. X-ray telescopes can provide novel and important information. The underlying solar axion scenario is presented in details in ref.'s [4,15

K. Zioutas

2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

416

GAMMA AND X-RAY DOSIMETER AND DOSIMETRIC METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in colorimetric gamma and x-ray dosimeter systems and a self-contained. hand carried dostmeter of the afore-mentioned type ts described. A novel point of the invention ltes in the addition of specific quantities of certain normalizing agents to the two phase chlorinated hydro-carbon-aqueous dyc colortmetric dosimeter to eliminate the after reaction and thereby extend the utility of such systein. The structure of the two phase colorimetric dosimeter tubes and the carrying case for the tubes of the portable dosimeter are unique features.

Taplin, G.V.; Douglas, C.H.; Sigoloff, S.C.

1958-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

417

Feature - Argonne's TTRDC Now Equipped With "X-Ray Vision"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Now Equipped With "X-Ray Vision" Now Equipped With "X-Ray Vision" TTRDC's X-ray beamline Argonne mechanical engineer Alan Kastengren, Ph.D., examines a diesel injection nozzle used in Argonne's X-ray spray research. TTRDC's new beamline Argonne engine research scientist Christopher Powell, Ph.D., fits a specially designed X-ray pressure window to a high-pressure chamber used in diesel spray research. These windows allow Argonne researchers to use X-rays to probe diesel sprays under the high-density conditions found in diesel engines. Engineers at Argonne's Transportation Technology Research & Development Center (TTRDC) now have another invaluable research tool at their disposal - regular access to the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere. In March 2009, TTRDC researchers began conducting research at their new

418

Low dose hard x-ray contact microscopy assisted by a photoelectric conversion layer  

SciTech Connect

Hard x-ray contact microscopy provides images of dense samples at resolutions of tens of nanometers. However, the required beam intensity can only be delivered by synchrotron sources. We report on the use of a gold photoelectric conversion layer to lower the exposure dose by a factor of 40 to 50, allowing hard x-ray contact microscopy to be performed with a compact x-ray tube. We demonstrate the method in imaging the transmission pattern of a type of hard x-ray grating that cannot be fitted into conventional x-ray microscopes due to its size and shape. Generally the method is easy to implement and can record images of samples in the hard x-ray region over a large area in a single exposure, without some of the geometric constraints associated with x-ray microscopes based on zone-plate or other magnifying optics.

Gomella, Andrew; Martin, Eric W.; Lynch, Susanna K.; Wen, Han [Imaging Physics Laboratory, Biophysics and Biochemistry Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 (United States); Morgan, Nicole Y. [Intramural Research Programs, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892 (United States)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Method and apparatus for molecular imaging using X-rays at resonance wavelengths  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Holographic X-ray images are produced representing the molecular structure of a microscopic object, such as a living cell, by directing a beam of coherent X-rays upon the object to produce scattering of the X-rays by the object, producing interference on a recording medium between the scattered X-rays from the object and unscattered coherent X-rays and thereby producing holograms on the recording surface, and establishing the wavelength of the coherent X-rays to correspond with a molecular resonance of a constituent of such object and thereby greatly improving the contrast, sensitivity and resolution of the holograms as representations of molecular structures involving such constituent. For example, the coherent X-rays may be adjusted to the molecular resonant absorption line of nitrogen at about 401.3 eV to produce holographic images featuring molecular structures involving nitrogen.

Chapline, Jr., George F. (Alamo, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project LM Completes X-Ray Film Digitization Project January 7, 2013 - 12:02pm Addthis Nearly 400,000 x-rays of former DOE contractor employees have been digitized to support LM records retention requirements. Nearly 400,000 x-rays of former DOE contractor employees have been digitized to support LM records retention requirements. What does this project do? Goal 2. Preserve, protect, and share records and information The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) has successfully completed a project to digitize nearly 400,000 medical x-rays of former DOE contractor employees. The x-rays, from the Rocky Flats and Grand Junction, Colorado; Fernald, Mound, and Ashtabula, Ohio; and Pinellas, Florida; sites, are needed to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

PHYSICAL PROCESSES SHAPING GAMMA-RAY BURST X-RAY AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FROM THE SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHYSICAL PROCESSES SHAPING GAMMA-RAY BURST X-RAY AFTERGLOW LIGHT CURVES: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS August 15; accepted 2005 December 19 ABSTRACT With the successful launch of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst component is consistent with the tail emission of the prompt gamma-ray bursts and/or the X-ray flares

Zhang, Bing

422

Ultra-fast framing camera tube  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

Kalibjian, Ralph (1051 Batavia Ave., Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

X-ray Spectral Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We summarize the spectral characteristics of a sample of 22 bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2 - 400 keV range, providing a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low energy slope, a bend energy, and a high energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. However, below 20 keV we find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of our burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. There is a correlation (Pearson's r = -0.62) between the low energy slope and the bend energy. We find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma-rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for our sample is 24%.

T. E. Strohmayer; E. E. Fenimore; T. Murakami; A. Yoshida

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

424

Modeling broadband X-ray absorption of massive star winds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a method for computing the net transmission of X-rays emitted by shock-heated plasma distributed throughout a partially optically thick stellar wind from a massive star. We find the transmission by an exact integration of the formal solution, assuming the emitting plasma and absorbing plasma are mixed at a constant mass ratio above some minimum radius, below which there is assumed to be no emission. This model is more realistic than either the slab absorption associated with a corona at the base of the wind or the exospheric approximation that assumes all observed X-rays are emitted without attenuation from above the radius of optical depth unity. Our model is implemented in XSPEC as a pre-calculated table that can be coupled to a user-defined table of the wavelength dependent wind opacity. We provide a default wind opacity model that is more representative of real wind opacities than the commonly used neutral ISM tabulation. Preliminary modeling of \\textit{Chandra} grating data indicates that the ...

Leutenegger, Maurice A; Zsargó, Janos; Martell, Erin M; MacArthur, James P; Owocki, Stanley P; Gagné, Marc; Hillier, D John

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

Mosley, W.C.

1988-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

426

X-ray diffraction data for plutonium compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a compilation of x-ray diffraction information relating to powder photographs of plutonium compounds. The information is presented in a format and style substantially as recommended by the International Center for Diffraction Data. Los Alamos National Laboratory has been involved in the study of the properties of plutonium and its compounds. During the past 45 years, the Powder Diffraction File of the Laboratory has grown to more than 20,000 films. F.H. Ellinger and his coworkers have used this data to establish a large number of plutonium binary phase diagrams. These phase diagrams have been published in a special report of the Laboratory, LA-3870, Constitution of Plutonium Alloys,'' authored by F.H. Ellinger, W.N. Miner, D.R. O'Boyle, and F.W. Schonfeld. A phase diagram, however, should never be regarded as really complete as new techniques of alloy preparation or x-ray and optical metallography continually discover new phases that must be incorporated in the diagram. In addition to the phase diagrams, the crystal structures of a number of plutonium intermetallic compounds have been determined at Los Alamos and published in the general literature by D.T. Cromer, A.C. Larson, and R.B. Roof over the last 35 years.

Roof, R.B.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Gas Pixel Detectors for X-ray Polarimetry applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a new class of Micro Pattern Gas Detectors, the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), in which a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics has been reached. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) built in deep sub-micron technology has been developed to realize a monolithic device that is, at the same time, the pixelized charge collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics. The CMOS chip has the top metal layer patterned in a matrix of 80 micron pitch hexagonal pixels, each of them directly connected to the underneath electronics chain which has been realized in the remaining five layers of the 0.35 micron VLSI technology. Results from tests of a first prototype of such detector with 2k pixels and a full scale version with 22k pixels are presented. The application of this device for Astronomical X-Ray Polarimetry is discussed. The experimental detector response to polarized and unpolarized X-ray radiation is shown. Results from a full MonteCarlo simulation for two astronomical sources, the Crab Nebula and the Hercules X1, are also reported.

R. Bellazzini; F. Angelini; L. Baldini; F. Bitti; A. Brez; F. Cavalca; M. Del Prete; M. Kuss; L. Latronico; N. Omodei; M. Pinchera; M. M. Massai; M. Minuti; M. Razzano; C. Sgro; G. Spandre; A. Tenze; E. Costa; P. Soffitta

2005-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

428

Simulated X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on the Water Dimer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability of an individual H{sub 2}O molecule to form multiple hydrogen bonds with neighboring molecules makes it an ideal substance for the study of hydrogen bonding. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can be used to study what intermolecular structures the hydrogen-bonded water molecules form. XAS excites core electrons from the oxygen 1 s atomic orbital to an unoccupied orbital. The resulting absorption spectrum shows the energy levels of the unoccupied orbitals, which in turn is dependent on the intermolecular structure of the H{sub 2}O system. Previous studies using molecular dynamics computer simulations have concluded that the intermolecular structure of liquid water is a distorted tetrahedron. Yet x-ray absorption spectra show discrepancies between liquid water and ice Ih, which is already known to have a rigid tetrahedral structure. The research group, which is based in the University of Sweden in Stockholm and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, has studied the possible presence of broken hydrogen bonds in the liquid water intermolecular structure to explain these deviations. Computer simulations are used to construct theoretical absorption spectra for models of liquid water including broken hydrogen bonds. Creating such models requires controlling variables. The simplest method of isolating individual variables, such as hydrogen bond length and angles, is to study the water dimer. Here, the water dimer is used to study how the absorption spectra change with the way the water molecules are positioned and oriented relative to each other.

Wung, A

2004-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

429

Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a scheme to generate tunable coherent X-ray radiation for future light source applications. This scheme uses an energy chirped electron beam, a laser modulator, a laser chirper and two bunch compressors to generate a prebunched kilo-Ampere current electron beam from a few tens Ampere electron beam out of a linac. The initial modulation energy wavelength can be compressed by a factor of 1 + h{sub b}R{sub 56}{sup a} in phase space, where h{sub b} is the energy bunch length chirp introduced by the laser chirper, R{sub 56}{sup a} is the momentum compaction factor of the first bunch compressor. As an illustration, we present an example to generate more than 400 MW, 170 attoseconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 A electron beam out of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the proposed scheme are tunable by adjusting the compression factor and the laser parameters.

Qiang, Ji; /LBL, Berkeley; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

Inverse Compton X-ray signature of AGN feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bright AGN frequently show ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) with outflow velocities vout ! 0.1c. These outflows may be the source of AGN feedback on their host galaxies sought by galaxy formation modellers. The exact effect of the outflows on the ambient galaxy gas strongly depends on whether the shocked UFOs cool rapidly or not. This in turn depends on whether the shocked electrons share the same temperature as ions (one temperature regime; 1T) or decouple (2T), as has been recently suggested. Here we calculate the Inverse Compton spectrum emitted by such shocks, finding a broad feature potentially detectable either in mid-to-high energy X-rays (1T case) or only in the soft X-rays (2T). We argue that current observations of AGN do not seem to show evidence for the 1T component, while the limits on the 2T emission are far weaker. This suggests that UFOs are in the energy-driven regime outside the central few pc, and must pump considerable amounts of not only momentum but also energy into the ambient gas. We encoura...

Bourne, Martin A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Isotope and Temperature Effects in Liquid Water Probed by X-RayAbsorption and Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-resolution x-ray absorption and emission spectra ofliquid water exhibit a strong isotope effect. Further, the emissionspectra show a splitting of the 1b1 emission line, a weak temperatureeffect, and a pronounced excitation-energy dependence. They can bedescribed as a superposition of two independent contributions. Bycomparing with gasphase, ice, and NaOH/NaOD, we propose that the twocomponents are governed by the initial state hydrogen bondingconfiguration and ultrafast dissociation on the time scale of the O 1score hole decay.

Fuchs, O.; Zharnikov, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Blum, M.; Weigand, M.; Zubavichus, Y.; Bar, M.; Maier, F.; Denlinger, J.D.; Heske, C.; Grunze,M.; Umbach, E.

2007-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

432

RECENT X-RAY VARIABILITY OF {eta} CARINAE: THE QUICK ROAD TO RECOVERY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report continued monitoring of the superluminous binary system {eta} Car by the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-ray Timing Observatory (RXTE) through the 2009 X-ray minimum. The RXTE campaign shows that the minimum began on 2009 January 16, consistent with the phasings of the two previous minima, and overall, the temporal behavior of the X-ray emission was similar to that observed by RXTE in the previous two cycles. However, important differences did occur. The 2-10 keV X-ray flux and X-ray hardness decreased in the 2.5 year interval leading up to the 2009 minimum compared to the previous cycle. Most intriguingly, the 2009 X-ray minimum was about 1 month shorter than either of the previous two minima. During the egress from the 2009 minimum the X-ray hardness increased markedly as it had during egress from the previous two minima, although the maximum X-ray hardness achieved was less than the maximum observed after the two previous recoveries. We suggest that the cycle-to-cycle variations, especially the unexpectedly early recovery from the 2009 X-ray minimum, might have been the result of a decline in {eta} Car's wind momentum flux produced by a drop in {eta} Car's mass loss rate or wind terminal velocity (or some combination), though if so the change in wind momentum flux required to match the X-ray variation is surprisingly large.

Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K. [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pittard, J. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Russell, C. M. P.; Owocki, S. P. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Parkin, E. R. [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, 17, Allee du 6 Aout, B5c, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Okazaki, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan)

2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

X-RAY ABSORPTION OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS  

SciTech Connect

The soft X-ray photoelectric absorption of high-z quasars has been known for two decades, but has no unambiguous astrophysical context. We construct the largest sample to date of 58 high-redshift quasars (z > 0.45) selected from the XMM-Newton archive based on a high photon count criterion (>1800). We measure the optical depth {tau} at 0.5 keV and find that 43% of the quasars show significant absorption. We aim to find which physical parameters of the quasars, e.g., redshift, radio luminosity, radio loudness, or X-ray luminosity, drive their observed absorption. We compare the absorption behavior with redshift with the pattern expected if the diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) is responsible for the observed absorption. We also compare the absorption with a comparison sample of gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows. Although the z > 2 quasar opacity is consistent with diffuse IGM absorption, many intermediate-z (0.45 < z < 2) quasars are not sufficiently absorbed for this scenario, and are appreciably less absorbed than GRBs. Only 10/37 quasars at z < 2 are absorbed, and only 5/30 radio-quiet quasars are absorbed. We find a weak correlation between {tau} and z, and an even weaker correlation between {tau} and radio luminosity. These findings lead to the conclusion that although a diffuse IGM origin for the quasar absorption is unlikely, the optical depth does seem to increase with redshift, roughly as (1 + z){sup 2.2{+-}0.6}, tending to {tau} Almost-Equal-To 0.4 at high redshifts, similar to the high-z GRBs. This result can be explained by an ionized and clumpy IGM at z < 2, and a cold, diffuse IGM at higher redshift. If, conversely, the absorption occurs at the quasar, and owing to the steep L{sub x} {proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 7.1{+-}0.5} correlation in the present sample, the host column density scales as N{sub H}{proportional_to}L{sub x}{sup 0.7{+-}0.1}.

Eitan, Assaf; Behar, Ehud, E-mail: sassafe@tx.technion.ac.il, E-mail: behar@physics.technion.ac.il [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: Diagnosis and Treatment of Problem Structures: A Bruker Workshop on Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction May 30, 2008 Chemistry Department University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN This meeting focuses on the scientific resources of four ORNL user facilities funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Who Should Attend Synopsis Goals Scheduled Agenda Workshop Materials Confirmed Speakers Important Dates Registration - now open Location - Directions and Map Sponsors Organizing and Local Committee Contacts Relevant Literature, References, Websites Local Information Bruker - UT Workshop Who Should Attend? The Workshop is directed to the newcomer as well as the experienced user of a Bruker Apex / Apex-II system and SHELX software. It will concentrate on hard to solve and/or refine problem structures. We envision it to be

435

X-ray Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Chemotherapy Drugs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a method, employing Compton peak standardization and the use of matrix-matched spiked samples with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF), for the determination of platinum plasma concentrations of patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-bearing drugs. Direct blood plasma analysis attains Pt detection limits of 70 ng/ml. Measurement results of prescribed drug doses are compared to achieved blood Pt concentrations indicating a lack of expected correlations. Direct analysis of Pt-containing infused drugs from a variety of suppliers indicates cases of abnormal concentrations which raises quality control issues. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the method for pharmacokinetic studies or for routine optimization and quality control of Pt chemotherapy treatments.

Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Bermudez, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela); Angeli-Greaves, M. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 90373 Caracas 1083A (Venezuela)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

436

Soft x-ray undulator for the Siam Photon Source  

SciTech Connect

An undulator for production of intense soft x-rays has been designed for the Siam Photon Source. The construction of the undulator has been completed. It is now being characterized and prepared for installation. The device, named U60, is a pure permanent magnet planar undulator, consisting of 41 magnetic periods, with 60 mm period length. Utilization of the undulator radiation in the photon energy range of 30 - 900 eV is expected. The design studies of the magnetic structure, including investigation of perturbations arising from the magnetic field of the device, their effects on the SPS storage ring and compensation schemes are described. A magnetic measurement system has been constructed for magnetic characterization of the device. Partial results of magnetic measurements are presented.

Rugmai, S. [National Synchrotron Research Center, P.O. Box 93, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang Distrct, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Dasri, T. [School of Physics, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Muang Distrct, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Prawanta, S.; Siriwattanapaitoon, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Sooksrimuang, V.; Chachai, W.; Suradet, N.; Juthong, N.; Tancharakorn, S. [National Synchrotron Research Center, P.O. Box 93, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand)

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

437

X-Ray Shines Light on Water Mystery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water is the key compound for our existence on this planet and it is involved in many important physical, chemical, biological and geological processes. Although water is the most common molecular substance it is also most unusual with many anomalies in its thermodynamic properties such as compressibility, density variation and heat capacity. The question of the structure of the hydrogen bonding network in water has been discussed intensively for over 100 years and has not yet been resolved. This talk will describe recent x-ray spectroscopy and scattering measurements showing that the liquid can be described as fluctuations between two types of local hydrogen bonded structures driven by in commensurate requirements for minimizing enthalpy and maximizing entropy.

Nilsson, Anders (SLAC)

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

438

The autocorrelation function of the soft X-ray background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first positive detection of the X-ray background fluctuations at small angular scales is reported. ROSAT PSPC archive pointed observations are used to measure fluctuations at scales of 0.03 - 0.4 deg. The pointings have been selected from an area free from galactic contamination. At separations below 0.1 deg clusters of galaxies become a substantial source of the background fluctuations. The autocorrelation function of the fluctuations in the power law approximation has a slope of ~1 for all the data but is substantially flatter (with slope of ~0.7) when pointings containing bright clusters are removed. At separations 0.3 - 0.4 deg where the ACF estimates based on the ROSAT pointings and All-Sky Survey are available, both data sets give consistent results.

Andrzej M. Soltan; Michael J. Freyberg

2000-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

439

Transverse Coherence of the LCLS X-Ray Beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-amplifying spontaneous radiation free-electron lasers, such as the LCLS or the European X-FEL, rely on the incoherent, spontaneous radiation as the seed for the amplifying process. Though this method overcomes the need for an external seed source one drawback is the incoherence of the effective seed signal. The FEL process allows for a natural growth of the coherence because the radiation phase information is spread out within the bunch due to slippage and diffraction of the radiation field. However, at short wavelengths this spreading is not sufficient to achieve complete coherence. In this presentation we report on the results of numerical simulations of the LCLS X-ray FEL. From the obtained radiation field distribution the coherence properties are extracted to help to characterize the FEL as a light source.

Not Available

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray streak camera" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solar X-rays as Signature for New Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive axions of the Kaluza-Klein type, created inside the solar core, can be gravitationally trapped by the Sun itself in orbits inside/outside the Sun, where they accumulate over cosmic times. Their spontaneous or ”induced ” radiative decay can give rise to various solar phenomena, like the celebrated solar coronal heating, which lacks a conventional explanation since its first observation in 1939. Such and other recent observations favour the existence of a halo of exotic particles near the Sun. X-ray (solar) telescopes can provide novel and important informations for astroparticle physics and cosmology. The underlying solar axion scenario is presented in details in ref.’s [4, 15], which can be consulted for further reading. 1

K. Zioutas

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Short Pulse X-rays at the APS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Short Pulse X-rays at the APS Workshop Summary Friday, May 9, 2008 Building 401, Room A5000 Organizers: Jin Wang (Argonne National Laboratory), Lin Chen (Argonne National Laboratory), David Reis ( University of Michigan ), Paul Evans ( University of Wisconsin ), Ali Nassiri (Argonne National Laboratory), and Linda Young ( Argonne National Laboratory) Agenda Registration - complete the visitor registration form. For "purpose of visit," please enter "APS SPX Workshop" https://www.aps.anl.gov/About/Visiting/visitor_registration.php On-site lodging is at the Argonne Guest House http://www.anlgh.org/ Travel to Argonne National Laboratory http://www.aps.anl.gov/About/Visiting/Directions/ Fees There is no charge for this workshop. Since the 2004 Lake Geneva Workshop, the APS has performed three years of

444

Novel Approaches to Soft X-ray Spectroscopy: Scanning TransmissionX-ray Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray PhotoelectronSpectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This workshop focused on novel spectroscopies at Beamlines 11.0.2, 5.3.2 and 9.3.2 at the ALS. The workshop brought together users from a wide range of fields to highlight recent experimental and technical developments both in scanning transmission X-ray spectroscopy (STXM) and ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES). The morning session featured talks on experiments involving new developments at the STXM, while the afternoon session was devoted to those using APXPS. In the morning session, Tolek Tyliszczak discussed the improved detector developments at the STXM, such as an avalanche photodiode detector and fluorescence and electron detection, as well as the continued development of in situ cells for heating, gas flow, and electrochemical cells. Of these, only the avalanche photodiode in combination with a novel multichannel photon-counting system is in routine use in time-resolved studies. Bartel Van Waeyenberge (Ghent University) presented results of magnetic imaging with a time resolution of 70-100 ps combined with a lateral resolution of 20-40 nm performed with the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). As a complement to the time-domain ''pump-and-probe'' measurements, they developed a frequency-domain ''sine-excitation'' technique in order to study specific eigenmodes of these ferromagnetic patterns with high spatial resolution. This new approach was used to study the gyrotropic vortex motions in micron-sized ferromagnetic patterns. Adam Hitchcock (McMaster University) presented the development, in collaboration with Daniel Guay (INRS, Varennes) and Sherry Zhang, of the apparatus and techniques for applying STXM to in-situ studies of electrochemistry, in particular electrochromism in polyaniline. In addition, substantial progress was reported on a joint project to develop substrates and methods for chemically selective lithography of multilayer polymer systems. Selective patterns, such as that displayed in the figure, can now be written efficiently with the bend magnet STXM on Beamline 5.3.2. Yves Acremann (SSRL) discussed time and spatially resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments on spin transfer devices at the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). These elegant experiments explore time resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics within a 100 x 150 nm sample influenced by a spin-polarized current. This experiment shows that the magnetization in these magnetic nanostructures are not uniform, as they are influenced by the Oersted field of the charge current needed to generate the spin current. The implementation of a novel multichannel photon counting system in combination with an avalanche photon detector decreased the data-acquisition time by a factor of 10, owing to its ability to resolve the structure of multi bunch mode. Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University and SSRL) described ''Applications of STXM to Microbial Bioweathering and Biomineralization''. In the interaction of bacteria with ferrihydrite nanoparticles, microenvironments that were very different than the bulk material were observed, showing that bulk thermodynamics may not be useful for predicting micro phases. Gordon also presented work showing that iron nanoparticles are attracted to the negatively charged bacteria and form a coating that reduces iron oxide minerals. The afternoon session started with presentations by Simon Mun and Hendrik Bluhm, who discussed the current status and the future plans for the two APPES end-stations at the ALS, which are located at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2, respectively. In both end-stations, samples can be measured in gaseous environments at pressures of up to several Torr, which makes possible the investigation of numerous phenomena, in particular in the fields of atmospheric and environmental science as well as heterogeneous catalysis. Specific examples of the application of APPES were shown in the following presentations. John Hemminger (University of California, Irvine) reported on APPES investigations at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 of the interaction of alkali halide surfaces with water. The m

Bluhm, Hendrik; Gilles, Mary K.; Mun, Simon B.; Tyliszczak, Tolek

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF THE NEAREST ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES  

SciTech Connect

We present a photometric survey of the optical counterparts of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in nearby ({approx}<5 Mpc) galaxies. Of the 33 ULXs with HST and Chandra data, 9 have no visible counterpart, placing limits on their M{sub V} of {approx} -4 to -9, enabling us to rule out O-type companions in 4 cases. The refined positions of two ULXs place them in the nucleus of their host galaxy. They are removed from our sample. Of the 22 remaining ULXs, 13 have one possible optical counterpart, while multiple are visible within the error regions of other ULXs. By calculating the number of chance coincidences, we estimate that 13 {+-} 5 are the true counterparts. We attempt to constrain the nature of the companions by fitting the spectral energy distribution and M{sub V} to obtain candidate spectral types. We can rule out O-type companions in 20 cases, while we find that one ULX (NGC 253 ULX2) excludes all OB-type companions. Fitting with X-ray irradiated models provides constraints on the donor star mass and radius. For seven ULXs, we are able to impose inclination-dependent upper and/or lower limits on the black holes' mass, if the extinction to the assumed companion star is not larger than the Galactic column. These are NGC 55 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX1, NGC 253 ULX2, NGC 253 XMM6, Ho IX X-1, IC342 X-1, and NGC 5204 X-1. This suggests that 10 ULXs do not have O companions, while none of the 18 fitted rule out B-type companions.

Gladstone, Jeanette C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Cartwright, Taylor F. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Copperwheat, Chris [Department of Physics, Liverpool John Moores University, Wirral CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, Liverpool John Moores University, Wirral CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Roberts, Timothy P. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Levan, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7VL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7VL (United Kingdom); Goad, Mike R., E-mail: j.c.gladstone@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7AL (United Kingdom)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

GALACTIC ULTRACOMPACT X-RAY BINARIES: DISK STABILITY AND EVOLUTION  

SciTech Connect

We study the mass-transfer rates and disk stability conditions of ultracompact X-ray binaries (UCXBs) using empirical time-averaged X-ray luminosities from Paper I and compiled information from the literature. The majority of UCXBs are consistent with evolutionary tracks for white dwarf donors. Three UCXBs with orbital periods longer than 40 minutes have mass-transfer rates above 10{sup -10} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, inconsistent with white dwarf donor tracks. We show that if helium star donors can retain their initial high entropy, they can explain the observed mass-transfer rates of these UCXBs. Several UCXBs show persistent luminosities apparently below the disk instability limit for irradiated He accretion disks. We point out that a predominantly C and/or O disk (as observed in the optical spectra of several) lowers the disk instability limit, explaining this disagreement. The orbital period and low time-averaged mass-transfer rate of 2S 0918-549 provide evidence that the donor star is a low-entropy C/O white dwarf, consistent with optical spectra. We combine existing information to constrain the masses of the donors in 4U 1916-053 (0.064 {+-} 0.010 M{sub Sun }) and 4U 1626-67 (<0.036 M{sub Sun} for a 1.4 M{sub Sun} neutron star). We show that 4U 1626-67 is indeed persistent, and not undergoing a transient outburst, leaving He star models as the best explanation for the donor.

Heinke, C. O.; Ivanova, N.; Engel, M. C.; Pavlovskii, K.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Gladstone, J. C. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, 4-183 CCIS, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Cartwright, T. F., E-mail: heinke@ualberta.ca [International Space University, 1 rue Jean-Dominique Cassini, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden (France)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

447

X-ray Image Bank Open for Business - NERSC Center News, Feb 22, 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-ray Image Bank Open X-ray Image Bank Open for Business X-ray Image Bank Open for Business February 22, 2011 Filipe Maia is building a data bank where scientists from around the world can deposit and share images generated by coherent x-ray light sources. A post-doctoral researcher with the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Maia hopes the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank, or CXIDB (http://www.cxidb.org) can help researchers make the most of their valuable data. Scientists use light sources to shoot intense x-ray beams into molecules, such as proteins, in order to understand their shapes and structures. The resulting diffraction patterns are painstakingly reconstructed to deduce an image. "It kind of works like a microscope, but it has no lens," Maia says.

448

Lessening X-ray damage is healthy for protein discovery data too | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The brightness and energy of X-ray beams are critical properties for The brightness and energy of X-ray beams are critical properties for research. The APS Upgrade will make our X-ray beams brighter, meaning more X-rays can be focused onto a smaller, laser-like spot, allowing researchers to gather more data in greater detail in less time. Lessening X-ray damage is healthy for protein discovery data too December 16, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint New recommendations for using X-rays promise to speed investigations aimed at understanding the structure and function of biologically important proteins - information critical to the development of new drugs. Scientists from two U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories, Argonne and Brookhaven, and the University of Washington, Seattle, evaluated options to remedy problems affecting data collection in their new

449

Structural Characterization of Doped GaSb Single Crystals by X-ray Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We characterized GaSb single crystals containing different dopants (Al, Cd and Te), grown by the Czochralski method, by x-ray topography and high angular resolution x-ray diffraction. Lang topography revealed dislocations parallel and perpendicular to the crystal's surface. Double-crystal GaSb 333 x-ray topography shows dislocations and vertical stripes than can be associated with circular growth bands. We compared our high-angular resolution x-ray diffraction measurements (rocking curves) with the findings predicted by the dynamical theory of x-ray diffraction. These measurements show that our GaSb single crystals have a relative variation in the lattice parameter ({Delta}d/d) on the order of 10{sup -5}. This means that they can be used as electronic devices (detectors, for example) and as x-ray monochromators.

Honnicke, M.G.; Mazzaro, I.; Manica, J.; Benine, E.; M da Costa, E.; Dedavid, B. A.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X. R.

2009-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

450

X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds X-ray Imaging Shows Feather Patterns of First Birds June 30, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory A collage of images. Top, optical images of: blue jay feather, squid, and fossil fish with feather. Bottom: x-ray images showing the distribution of copper (red) in the same organisms. | Photo Courtesy of Gregory Stewart, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Through x-ray fluorescent imaging techniques developed at the

451

Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser Secretary Chu Dedicates World's Most Powerful X-ray Laser August 16, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today dedicated the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the world's first and most powerful X-ray laser, at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The LCLS will play an essential role in addressing the scientific needs of the 21st century by exploring new ways to create better energy sources and enabling advances in a range of scientific fields. The LCLS produces pulses of X-rays more than a billion times brighter than the most powerful existing sources. The ultrafast X-ray pulses are used much like flashes from a high-speed strobe light, enabling scientists to take

452

CCD Camera  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation emanating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other. 7 figs.

Roth, R.R.

1983-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

453

The Effect of Jet-Streak Curvature on Kinematic Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple two-layer primitive equation (PE) model is used to study the effect of curvature on jet-streak kinematics, specifically vertical motion. Three types of vertical motion are studied: kinematic (PE) vertical motion, quasigeostrophic (QG) ...

James T. Moore; Glenn E. Vanknowe

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

The soft x-ray instrument for materials studies at the linac coherent light source x-ray free-electron laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The soft x-ray materials science instrument is the second operational beamline at the linac coherent light source x-ray free electron laser. The instrument operates with a photon energy range of 480-2000 eV and features a grating monochromator as well as bendable refocusing mirrors. A broad range of experimental stations may be installed to study diverse scientific topics such as: ultrafast chemistry, surface science, highly correlated electron systems, matter under extreme conditions, and laboratory astrophysics. Preliminary commissioning results are presented including the first soft x-ray single-shot energy spectrum from a free electron laser.

Schlotter, W. F.; Turner, J. J.; Rowen, M.; Holmes, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Moeller, S.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, S.; Coffee, R.; Hays, G. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Heimann, P. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Krupin, O. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); European XFEL GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Soufli, R.; Fernandez-Perea, M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kelez, N. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Beye, M.; Gerken, N.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Wurth, W. [Institute for Experimental Physics and CFEL, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy-imaging fast spin dynamics inmagnetic nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy combines 15nm spatial resolution with 70ps time resolution and elemental sensitivity. Fresnel zone plates are used as X-ray optics and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism serves as magnetic contrast mechanism. Thus scientifically interesting and technologically relevant low dimensional nanomagnetic systems can be imaged at fundamental length and ultrafast time scales in a unique way. Studies include magnetization reversal in magnetic multilayers, nanopatterned systems, vortex dynamics in nanoelements and spin current induced phenomena.

Fischer, Peter; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Mesler, Brooke L.; Chao, Weilun; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; Anderson, Erik H.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Commissioning of soft and deep X-ray lithography beamline on Indus-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soft and Deep x-ray lithography (SDXRL) beamline is commissioned on Indus-2. The beamline can be operated between 1.5 to 20 keV and in white beam mode. Beamline consists of two x-ray mirrors, slits, Be-windows, beam diagnostics and filters assemblies and radiation safety systems. A custom built X-ray scanner is used to create 3-D high aspect ratio micro structures. The paper reports the commissioning results of this beamline.

Dhamgaye, V. P.; Sankar, B. Gowri; Garg, C. K.; Lodha, G. S. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

457

Probing buried layers by photoelectron spectromicroscopy with hard x-ray excitation  

SciTech Connect

We report about a proof-of-principle experiment which explores the perspectives of performing hard x-ray photoemission spectromicroscopy with high lateral resolution. Our results obtained with an energy-filtered photoemission microscope at the PETRA III storage ring facility using hard x-ray excitation up to 6.5 keV photon energy demonstrate that it is possible to obtain selected-area x-ray photoemission spectra from regions less than 500 nm in diameter.

Wiemann, C.; Patt, M.; Cramm, S. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [FOCUS GmbH, D-65510 Huenstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A. [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Thiess, S.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Fakultaet f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

Flow method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for screening chemicals using micro x-ray fluorescence. A method for screening a mixture of potential pharmaceutical chemicals for binding to at least one target binder involves flow separating a solution of chemicals and target binders into separated components, exposing them to an x-ray excitation beam, detecting x-ray fluorescence signals f