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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ultrafast x-rays, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, terawatt lasers, ultrafast reaction dynamics, atomic motion atomic motion by scrutinizing the changes in x- ray absorption spectra during reactions. FirstUltrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS) Guangjun

Guo, Ting

2

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type: Review X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Junko Yano andPhotosystem II; XAS, X-ray absorption spectroscopy; EXAFS,X-ray absorption fine structure; EPR, electron paramagnetic

Yano, Junko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Shifts in X-ray and Photo-Electron Spectroscopy: A Historical review Ingvar Lindgren 1 Introduction 2 2 Chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy 2 2.1 Discovery of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Interpretation of the chemical shift in X-ray spectroscopy

Lindgren, Ingvar

4

Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy studies of the electronic structure of silicon supersaturated with sulfur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We apply soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) to measure the electronic structure of crystalline silicon supersaturated with sulfur (up to 0.7 at. %), a candidate intermediate-band solar cell material. Si L[subscript ...

Sullivan, Joseph Timothy

5

X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

009-9473-8 REVIEW X-ray absorption spectroscopy Junko Yano Æand application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bothX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Low-Emittance Electron Bunches from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Measured using Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-Emittance Electron Bunches from a Laser-Plasma Accelerator Measured using Single-Shot X-Ray,8], x-ray [9­11], and -ray radiation [12,13]. The electron density wave gener- ated by an intense laser manuscript received 15 February 2012; published 10 August 2012) X-ray spectroscopy is used to obtain single

Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

7

Correlated single-crystal electronic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography at NSLS beamline X26-C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

Orville, A.M.; Buono, R.; Cowan, M.; Heroux, A.; Shea-McCarthy, G.; Schneider, D. K.; Skinner, J. M.; Skinner, M. J.; Stoner-Ma, D.; Sweet, R. M.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Correlated Single-Crystal Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography at NSLS Beamline X26-C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research philosophy and new capabilities installed at NSLS beamline X26-C to support electronic absorption and Raman spectroscopies coupled with X-ray diffraction are reviewed. This beamline is dedicated full time to multidisciplinary studies with goals that include revealing the relationship between the electronic and atomic structures in macromolecules. The beamline instrumentation has been fully integrated such that optical absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction images are interlaced. Therefore, optical changes induced by X-ray exposure can be correlated with X-ray diffraction data collection. The installation of Raman spectroscopy into the beamline is also briefly reviewed. Data are now routinely generated almost simultaneously from three complementary types of experiments from the same sample. The beamline is available now to the NSLS general user population.

A Orville; R Buono; M Cowan; A Heroux; G Shea-McCarthy; D Schneider; J Skinner; M Skinner; D Stoner-Ma; R Sweet

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

9

Electronic Structure of Transition Metal-Cysteine Complexes From X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structures of Hg{sup II}, Ni{sup II}, Cr{sup III}, and Mo{sup V} complexes with cysteine were investigated by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and density functional theory. The covalency in the metal-sulfur bond was determined by analyzing the intensities of the electric-dipole allowed pre-edge features appearing in the XANES spectra below the ionization threshold. Because of the well-defined structures of the selected cysteine complexes, the current work provides a reference set for further sulfur K-edge XAS studies of bioinorganic active sites with transition metal-sulfur bonds from cysteine residues as well as more complex coordination compounds with thiolate ligands.

Leung, B.O.; Jalilehvand, F.; Szilagyi, R.K.

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

10

Study of hard disk and slider surfaces using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray Photo Emission Electron Microscopy (X-PEEM) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to study the properties of amorphous hard carbon overcoats on disks and sliders, and the properties of the lubricant. The modification of lubricants after performing thermal desorption studies was measured by NEXAFS, and the results are compared to the thermal desorption data. The study of lubricant degradation in wear tracks is described. Sliders were investigated before and after wear test, and the modification of the slider coating as well as the transfer of lubricant to the slider was studied. The studies show that the lubricant is altered chemically during the wear. Fluorine is removed and carboxyl groups are formed.

Anders, S.; Stammler, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.; Bhatia, C.S. [SSD/IBM, San Jose, CA (United States); Stoehr, J. [IBM Research Div., San Jose, CA (United States). Almaden Research Center; Fong, W.; Chen, C.Y.; Bogy, D.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Monitoring Long-Range Electron Transfer Pathways in Proteins by Stimulated Attosecond Broadband X-ray Raman Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Long-range electron transfer (ET) plays a key role in many biological energy conversion and synthesis processes. We show that nonlinear spectroscopy with attosecond X-ray pulses provides a real time movie of the evolving oxidation states and electron densities around atoms, and can probe these processes with high spatial and temporal resolution. This is demonstrated in a simulation study of the stimulated X-ray Raman (SXRS) signals in Re-modified azurin, which had long served as a benchmark for long-range ET in proteins. Nonlinear SXRS signals are sensitive to the local electronic structure and should offer a novel window for long-range ET.

Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

12

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2/9/07 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 9, 07] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

13

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9/6/09 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 6, 09] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

14

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard 1 #12;EMSL XPS Instrumentation 2 Physical Electronics Quantera XPS High Energy Resolution Focused X-ray Beam Capability Catalysis reaction and processing chamber with inert atmosphere glove box connected to a PHI Quantera Scanning X-ray Microprobe

15

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cool Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has addressed not only various topics in coronal physics of stars, but has also uncovered important features relevant for our understanding of stellar evolution and the stellar environment. I summarize recent progress in coronal X-ray spectroscopy and in particular also discuss new results from studies of X-rays from pre-main sequence stars.

M. Guedel

2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

Femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy of solvated transition metal complexes: Deciphering the interplay of electronic and structural dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first implementation of femtosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy as an ultrafast direct probe of the excited-state valence orbitals in solution-phase molecules. This method is applied to photoinduced spin crossover of [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+, where the ultrafast spinstate conversion of the metal ion, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge-transfer excitation, is directly measured using the intrinsic spin-state selectivity of the soft X-ray L-edge transitions. Our results provide important experimental data concerning the mechanism of ultrafast spin-state conversion and subsequent electronic and structural dynamics, highlighting the potential of this technique to study ultrafast phenomena in the solution phase.

Huse, Nils; Cho, Hana; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Kim, Tae Kyu; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

17

X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study of the Effect of Doping on the Low Energy Electronic Structure of PrFeAsO1-[delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy Study of theusing soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. The2. (a) Oxygen 1s x-ray absorption spectra of PrFeAsO 1-? (?

Freelon, Byron

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Local versus global electronic properties of chalcopyrite alloys: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ab initio calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Element-specific unoccupied electronic states of Cu(In, Ga)S{sub 2} were studied as a function of the In/Ga ratio by combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. The S absorption edge shifts with changing In/Ga ratio as expected from the variation of the band gap. In contrast, the cation edge positions are largely independent of composition despite the changing band gap. This unexpected behavior is well reproduced by our calculations and originates from the dependence of the electronic states on the local atomic environment. The changing band gap arises from a changing spatial average of these localized states with changing alloy composition.

Sarmiento-Pérez, Rafael; Botti, Silvana, E-mail: silvana.botti@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière Matière and ETSF, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Schnohr, Claudia S., E-mail: c.schnohr@uni-jena.de [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lauermann, Iver [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Rubio, Angel [Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group and ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Física de Materiales, Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-MPC and DIPC, Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Avenida de Tolosa 72, E-20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Johnson, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.johnson@alumni.tu-berlin.de [Fritz Haber Institute, Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

19

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

X-ray spectroscopy study of electronic structure of laser-irradiated Au nanoparticles in a silica film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica film is studied, both before and after irradiation at 355 nm by a laser. The Au 5d occupied valence states are observed by x-ray emission spectroscopy. They show that before irradiation the gold atoms are in metallic states within the nanoparticles. After irradiation with a fluence of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}, it is found that gold valence states are close to those of a metal-poor gold silicide; thanks to a comparison of the experimental Au 5d states with the calculated ones for gold silicides using the density-functional theory. The formation of such a compound is driven by the diffusion of the gold atoms into the silica film upon the laser irradiation. At higher fluence, 1 J/cm{sup 2}, we find a higher percentage of metallic gold that could be attributed to annealing in the silica matrix.

Jonnard, P.; Bercegol, H.; Lamaignere, L.; Morreeuw, J.-P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Cottancin, E.; Pellarin, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matiere et Rayonnement, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unite Mixte de Recherche (CNRS UMR) 7614, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique/Centre d'Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d'Aquitaine (CEA/CESTA), BP 2, F-33114, Le Barp (France); Centre Agregat Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Ionique et Moleculaire (LASIM) et Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et Nanostructures (LPMCN), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Atomic resolution mapping of the excited-state electronic structure of Cu2O with time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of optically excited cuprous oxide at the O K-edge and the Cu L3-edge. The 400 nm optical excitation shifts the Cu and O absorptions to lower energy, but does not change the integrated x-ray absorption significantly for either edge. The constant integrated x-ray absorption cross-section indicates that the conduction-band and valence-band edges have very similar Cu 3d and O 2p orbital contributions. The 2.1 eV optical band gap of Cu2O significantly exceeds the one eV shift in the Cu L3- and O K-edges absorption edges induced by optical excitation, demonstrating the importance of core-hole excitonic effects and valence electron screening in the x-ray absorption process.

Hillyard, P. W.; Kuchibhatla, S. V. N. T.; Glover, T. E.; Hertlein, M. P.; Huse, Nils; Nachimuthu, P.; Saraf, L. V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gaffney, K. J.

2010-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

22

ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidates the impact of structural disorder on electron mobility in amorphous zinc-tin-oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the correlation between the atomic structures of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and their electronic transport properties. We perform synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the K-edges of Zn and Sn with varying [Zn]/[Sn] compositions in a-ZTO thin films. In extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, signal attenuation from higher-order shells confirms the amorphous structure of a-ZTO thin films. Both quantitative EXAFS modeling and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveal that structural disorder around Zn atoms increases with increasing [Sn]. Field- and Hall-effect mobilities are observed to decrease with increasing structural disorder around Zn atoms, suggesting that the degradation in electron mobility may be correlated with structural changes.

Siah, Sin Cheng, E-mail: siahsincheng@gmail.com, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio, E-mail: siahsincheng@gmail.com, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lee, Sang Woon; Gordon, Roy G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Heo, Jaeyeong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shibata, Tomohiro; Segre, Carlo U. [Physics Department and CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 606016 (United States)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 144147 (2005) 259269 Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biological  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the case of electron beam based techniques; radiation damage in the case of electron microscopy; lack. This requires a source of bright, continu- ouslytunablesoftX-rays(50­2000 eV),andthussynchrotron radiation spatial reso- lution in the case of IR, NMR and optical techniques; inabil- ity to couple to wet specimens

Hitchcock, Adam P.

25

Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

Guo, J.-H.

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

X-ray spectroscopy of low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using instruments onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). The first ...

Juett, Adrienne Marie, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Theoretical standards in x-ray spectroscopies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to extend our state-of-the-art, ab initio XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) codes, FEFF. Our current work has been highly successful in achieving accurate, user-friendly XAFS standards, exceeding the performance of both tabulated standards and other codes by a considerable margin. We now propose to add the capability to treat more complex materials. This includes multiple-scattering, polarization dependence, an approximate treatment of XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure), and other improvements. We also plan to adapt FEFF to other spectroscopies, e.g. photoelectron diffraction (PD) and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS).

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Transient x-ray absorption spectroscopy of hydrated halogen atom  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy has been used to observe the transient species generated by one-photon detachment of an electron from aqueous bromide. The K-edge spectrum of the short-lived Br(0) atom exhibits a resonant 1s-4p transition...

Elles, Christopher G.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Crowell, Robert A.; Arms, Dohn A.; Landahl, Eric C.

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Reactivity and Structural Dynamics of Supported Metal Nanoclusters Using Electron Microscopy, in situ X-Ray Spectroscopy, Electronic Structure Theories, and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The distinguishing feature of our collaborative program of study is the focus it brings to emergent phenomena originating from the unique structural/electronic environments found in nanoscale materials. We exploit and develop frontier methods of atomic-scale materials characterization based on electron microscopy (Yang) and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Frenkel) that are in turn coupled innately with advanced first principles theory and methods of computational modeling (Johnson). In the past year we have made significant experimental advances that have led to important new understandings of the structural dynamics of what are unquestionably the most important classes of heterogeneous catalysts—the materials used to both produce and mitigate the consequences of the use of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Judith C. Yang; Ralph G. Nuzzo, Duane Johnson, Anatoly Frenkel

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

X-ray absorption study of the electronic structure of Mn-doped amorphous Si  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption study of the electronic structure of Mn-?x ) is studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn Land featureless L 3,2 absorption peaks, corresponding to an

Zeng, Li

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Conduction-band electronic states of YbInCu{sub 4} studied by photoemission and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied conduction-band (CB) electronic states of a typical valence-transition compound YbInCu{sub 4} by means of temperature-dependent hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} core states taken at h{nu}=5.95 keV, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} core absorption region around h{nu}{approx}935 eV, and soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (SX-PES) of the valence band at the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} absorption edge of h{nu}=933.0 eV. With decreasing temperature below the valence transition at T{sub V}=42 K, we have found that (1) the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} and In 3d{sub 5/2} peaks in the HX-PES spectra exhibit the energy shift toward the lower binding-energy side by {approx}40 and {approx}30 meV, respectively, (2) an energy position of the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak in the XAS spectrum is shifted toward higher photon-energy side by {approx}100 meV, with an appearance of a shoulder structure below the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} main absorption peak, and (3) an intensity of the Cu L{sub 3}VV Auger spectrum is abruptly enhanced. These experimental results suggest that the Fermi level of the CB-derived density of states is shifted toward the lower binding-energy side. We have described the valence transition in YbInCu{sub 4} in terms of the charge transfer from the CB to Yb 4f states.

Utsumi, Yuki; Kurihara, Hidenao; Maso, Hiroyuki; Tobimatsu, Komei [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Sato, Hitoshi; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Hiraoka, Koichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kojima, Kenichi [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Ohkochi, Takuo; Fujimori, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Yukiharu; Saitoh, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Mimura, Kojiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Ueda, Shigenori; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke [NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Oguchi, Tamio [ISIR, Osaka University, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Taniguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

34

Influence of electron irradiation and heating on secondary electron yields from non-evaporable getter films observed with in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nonevaporable getter (NEG) film has been used for the beam ducts of particle accelerators as a pump having a large area. NEG film has been considered to have a low outgas rate induced by energetic particle irradiation and a low secondary electron yield (SEY). In this article, we focused on SEY measurements and in situ surface characterization of four NEG film samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The NEG samples were TiZrV thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering at 100 or 300 deg. C on stainless steel. In addition, NEG samples saturated by CO gas exposure were prepared. SEY and XPS measurements of the surfaces of NEG samples were carried out under the conditions of as received, after electron beam irradiation, and after heating at 200 deg. C for 24 h. The maximum SEY values of the primary electron energy dependence, {delta}{sub max}, of all NEG samples decreased to around 1 by electron beam irradiation owing to a change in the carbon impurities, such as carbon oxide, carbon hydroxide, and hydrocarbon, to graphite state (graphitization) during the irradiation. After heating, {delta}{sub max} values of the NEG samples without CO gas exposure were also around 1 owing to the carbonization of Ti, Zr, and V. The {delta}{sub max}{approx_equal}1 was remarkably lower than that of copper baked under the same conditions. However, in saturated NEG samples, metal carbides were not produced to a significant extent by heating, and the {delta}{sub max} values did not decrease, showing values of 1.5-1.7.

Nishiwaki, Michiru; Kato, Shigeki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan) and Department of Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

November 11-16 9 1979 X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THEUniversity of California. ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR THEand x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy. The first

Jaklevic, J. M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You Presentation given at DEER...

37

Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

X-ray Free-electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

Feldhaus, J.; /DESY; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

39

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular...

40

A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II ? lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

Brown, Matthew A.; Redondo, Amaia Beloqui; Duyckaerts, Nicolas; Mächler, Jean-Pierre [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)] [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Lee, Ming-Tao; Ammann, Markus; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Birrer, Mario; Honegger, Juri; Wetter, Reto [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)] [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland) [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectroscopy diagnostic system for the study of non-thermal electrons at Aditya tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silicon drift detector based X-ray spectrometer diagnostic was developed to study the non-thermal electron for Aditya tokamak plasma. The diagnostic was mounted on a radial mid plane port at the Aditya. The objective of diagnostic includes the estimation of the non-thermal electron temperature for the ohmically heated plasma. Bi-Maxwellian plasma model was adopted for the temperature estimation. Along with that the study of high Z impurity line radiation from the ECR pre-ionization experiments was also aimed. The performance and first experimental results from the new X-ray spectrometer system are presented.

Purohit, S., E-mail: pshishir@ipr.res.in; Joisa, Y. S.; Raval, J. V.; Ghosh, J.; Tanna, R.; Shukla, B. K.; Bhatt, S. B. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

Grush, M.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype Chemical Systems: Theory vs. Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acids by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype ChemicalGlaeser Spring 2010 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of

Schwartz, Craig Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ni-K edge in Stackhousia tryonii Bailey hyperaccumulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ni–K edge inin vivo by micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at theNi–K edge. Both x-ray absorption near edge structure and

Kachenko, A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Sapphire analyzers for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) analyzer for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with 31-meV energy resolution. The analyzer is designed for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the CuK{sub a} absorption edge near 8990 eV. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring phonon excitations in beryllium because of its known dynamical structure and high counting rates.

Yavas, H.; Alp, E.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Shvydko, Y.; Toellner, T.; Khachatryan, R.; Billinge, S.; Hasan, Z.; Sturhahn, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Princeton Univ.; DESY

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

46

SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwards SAGE Awards ,#2446Small Angle X-Ray

47

SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwards SAGE Awards ,#2446Small Angle X-RayEmission

48

X-ray spectroscopy of warm and hot electron components in the CAPRICE source plasma at EIS testbench at GSI  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental campaign aiming to detect X radiation emitted by the plasma of the CAPRICE source – operating at GSI, Darmstadt – has been carried out. Two different detectors (a SDD – Silicon Drift Detector and a HpGe – hyper-pure Germanium detector) have been used to characterize the warm (2–30 keV) and hot (30–500 keV) electrons in the plasma, collecting the emission intensity and the energy spectra for different pumping wave frequencies and then correlating them with the CSD of the extracted beam measured by means of a bending magnet. A plasma emissivity model has been used to extract the plasma density along the cone of sight of the SDD and HpGe detectors, which have been placed beyond specific collimators developed on purpose. Results show that the tuning of the pumping frequency considerably modifies the plasma density especially in the warm electron population domain, which is the component responsible for ionization processes: a strong variation of the plasma density near axis region has been detected. Potential correlations with the charge state distribution in the plasma are explored.

Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Neri, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Maimone, F.; Maeder, J.; Tinschert, K.; Spaedtke, K. P.; Rossbach, J.; Lang, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)] [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Romano, F. P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy) [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, – Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

AN X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF MANGANESE CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC SPINACH CHLOROPLASTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

II. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) TheoryIII. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) ExperimentIII. EXTENDED X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE (EXAFS) DATA

Kirby, Jon Allan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

52

How Can X-ray Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Aide Solar Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are from optimized on structural, energetic and dynamic parameters. Intense X-ray pulses from synchrotrons and X-ray free electrons lasers coupled with ultrafast lasers...

53

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Theta Car  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context : The peculiar hot star Theta Car in the open cluster IC2602 is a blue straggler as well as a single-line binary of short period (2.2d). Aims : Its high-energy properties are not well known, though X-rays can provide useful constraints on the energetic processes at work in binaries as well as in peculiar, single objects. Methods : We present the analysis of a 50ks exposure taken with the XMM-Newton observatory. It provides medium as well as high-resolution spectroscopy. Results : Our high-resolution spectroscopy analysis reveals a very soft spectrum with multiple temperature components (1--6MK) and an X-ray flux slightly below the `canonical' value (log[L_X(0.1-10.)/L_{BOL}] ~ -7). The X-ray lines appear surprisingly narrow and unshifted, reminiscent of those of beta Cru and tau Sco. Their relative intensities confirm the anomalous abundances detected in the optical domain (C strongly depleted, N strongly enriched, O slightly depleted). In addition, the X-ray data favor a slight depletion in neon and iron, but they are less conclusive for the magnesium abundance (solar-like?). While no significant changes occur during the XMM-Newton observation, variability in the X-ray domain is detected on the long-term range. The formation radius of the X-ray emission is loosely constrained to <5 R_sol, which allows for a range of models (wind-shock, corona, magnetic confinement,...) though not all of them can be reconciled with the softness of the spectrum and the narrowness of the lines.

Yael Naze; Gregor Rauw

2008-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

54

X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Role of defects in BiFeO{sub 3} multiferroic films and their local electronic structure by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Present study reports the role of defects in the electrical transport in BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) multiferroic films and its local electronic structure investigated by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Defects created by high energy 200?MeV Ag{sup +15} ion irradiation with a fluence of ?5?×?10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} results in the increase in structural strain and reduction in the mobility of charge carriers and enhancement in resistive (I-V) and polarization (P-E) switching behaviour. At higher fluence of ?5?×?10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}, there is a release in the structural strain due to local annealing effect, resulting in an increase in the mobility of charge carriers, which are released from oxygen vacancies and hence suppression in resistive and polarization switching. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure studies at Fe L{sub 3,2}- and O K-edges show a significant change in the spectral features suggesting the modifications in the local electronic structure responsible for changes in the intrinsic magnetic moment and electrical transport properties of BFO.

Ravalia, Ashish; Vagadia, Megha; Solanki, P. S.; Shah, N. A.; Kuberkar, D. G., E-mail: dgkuberkar@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Saurashtra University, Rajkot 360 005 (India); Gautam, S.; Chae, K. H. [Nano Material Analysis Centre, Korean Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-79 (Korea, Republic of); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

56

PROBING DYNAMICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION WITH RADIO AND X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY, IMAGING, AND TIMING IN THE 2002 APRIL 11 SOLAR FLARE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on detailed analysis of radio and X-ray observations of a flare on 2002 April 11 augmented by realistic three-dimensional modeling, we have identified a radio emission component produced directly at the flare acceleration region. This acceleration region radio component has distinctly different (1) spectrum, (2) light curves, (3) spatial location, and, thus, (4) physical parameters from those of the separately identified trapped or precipitating electron components. To derive evolution of physical parameters of the radio sources we apply forward fitting of the radio spectrum time sequence with the gyrosynchrotron source function with five to six free parameters. At the stage when the contribution from the acceleration region dominates the radio spectrum, the X-ray- and radio-derived electron energy spectral indices agree well with each other. During this time the maximum energy of the accelerated electron spectrum displays a monotonic increase with time from {approx}300 keV to {approx}2 MeV over roughly one minute duration indicative of an acceleration process in the form of growth of the power-law tail; the fast electron residence time in the acceleration region is about 2-4 s, which is much longer than the time of flight and so requires a strong diffusion mode there to inhibit free-streaming propagation. The acceleration region has a relatively strong magnetic field, B {approx} 120 G, and a low thermal density, n{sub e} {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. These acceleration region properties are consistent with a stochastic acceleration mechanism.

Fleishman, Gregory D.; Nita, Gelu M.; Gary, Dale E. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kontar, Eduard P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

57

X-ray Spectroscopy of O Supergiant Winds: Shock Physics, Clumping, and Mass-Loss Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Spectroscopy of O Supergiant Winds: Shock Physics, Clumping, and Mass-Loss Rates David Cohen Li (Swarthmore '16), Kelley Langhans (Swarthmore '16) #12;Talk Outline Context of O star X-ray emission: wind shocks 1. X-ray constraints on the shocked wind plasma 2. X-ray absorption as a mass

Cohen, David

58

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Two-dimensional stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy of molecules with broadband x-ray pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Expressions for the two-dimensional stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (181 as, 14.2 eV FWHM) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core-hole.

Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang Yu; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

60

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the investigation of the role of metals is to illustrate the potentialities of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) to investigate structural properties Protein and Zinc ions 2 Introduction to the X-ray Absorption Spec- troscopy XAS uses Synchrotron Radiation

Morante, Silvia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy under flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy was used to probe the diffusive dynamics of colloidal particles in a shear flow. Combining X-ray techniques with microfluidics is an experimental strategy that reduces the risk of x-ray induced beam damage and also allows time-resolved studies of processes taking place in flowcells. The experimental results and theoretical predictions presented here, show that in the low shear limit, for a ``transverse flow'' scattering geometry (scattering wave vector q perpendicular to the direction of flow) the measured relaxation times are independent of the flow rate and determined only by the diffusive motion of the particles. This is not generally valid and in particular, for a ``longitudinal flow'' (q || flow) scattering geometry, the relaxation times are strongly affected by the flow-induced motion of the particles. Our results show that the Brownian diffusion of colloidal particles can be measured in a flowing sample and that, up to flux limitations, the experimental conditions under which this is possible are easier to achieve at higher values of q.

Andrei Fluerasu; Abdellatif Moussaid; Henri Gleyzolle; Peter Falus; Anders Madsen

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

DEDUCING ELECTRON PROPERTIES FROM HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the accelerated electron distribution. Keywords: Sun: flares; Sun: X-rays; Sun: acceleration; Sun: energetic distribution 31 4.5 Low-energy cutoffs in the electron distribution 32 4.6 Temperature distribution of thermal-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function

Piana, Michele

64

Novel Approaches to Soft X-ray Spectroscopy: Scanning TransmissionX-ray Microscopy and Ambient Pressure X-Ray PhotoelectronSpectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This workshop focused on novel spectroscopies at Beamlines 11.0.2, 5.3.2 and 9.3.2 at the ALS. The workshop brought together users from a wide range of fields to highlight recent experimental and technical developments both in scanning transmission X-ray spectroscopy (STXM) and ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES). The morning session featured talks on experiments involving new developments at the STXM, while the afternoon session was devoted to those using APXPS. In the morning session, Tolek Tyliszczak discussed the improved detector developments at the STXM, such as an avalanche photodiode detector and fluorescence and electron detection, as well as the continued development of in situ cells for heating, gas flow, and electrochemical cells. Of these, only the avalanche photodiode in combination with a novel multichannel photon-counting system is in routine use in time-resolved studies. Bartel Van Waeyenberge (Ghent University) presented results of magnetic imaging with a time resolution of 70-100 ps combined with a lateral resolution of 20-40 nm performed with the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). As a complement to the time-domain ''pump-and-probe'' measurements, they developed a frequency-domain ''sine-excitation'' technique in order to study specific eigenmodes of these ferromagnetic patterns with high spatial resolution. This new approach was used to study the gyrotropic vortex motions in micron-sized ferromagnetic patterns. Adam Hitchcock (McMaster University) presented the development, in collaboration with Daniel Guay (INRS, Varennes) and Sherry Zhang, of the apparatus and techniques for applying STXM to in-situ studies of electrochemistry, in particular electrochromism in polyaniline. In addition, substantial progress was reported on a joint project to develop substrates and methods for chemically selective lithography of multilayer polymer systems. Selective patterns, such as that displayed in the figure, can now be written efficiently with the bend magnet STXM on Beamline 5.3.2. Yves Acremann (SSRL) discussed time and spatially resolved X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) experiments on spin transfer devices at the STXM (Beamline 11.0.2). These elegant experiments explore time resolved measurements of the magnetization dynamics within a 100 x 150 nm sample influenced by a spin-polarized current. This experiment shows that the magnetization in these magnetic nanostructures are not uniform, as they are influenced by the Oersted field of the charge current needed to generate the spin current. The implementation of a novel multichannel photon counting system in combination with an avalanche photon detector decreased the data-acquisition time by a factor of 10, owing to its ability to resolve the structure of multi bunch mode. Gordon E. Brown, Jr. (Stanford University and SSRL) described ''Applications of STXM to Microbial Bioweathering and Biomineralization''. In the interaction of bacteria with ferrihydrite nanoparticles, microenvironments that were very different than the bulk material were observed, showing that bulk thermodynamics may not be useful for predicting micro phases. Gordon also presented work showing that iron nanoparticles are attracted to the negatively charged bacteria and form a coating that reduces iron oxide minerals. The afternoon session started with presentations by Simon Mun and Hendrik Bluhm, who discussed the current status and the future plans for the two APPES end-stations at the ALS, which are located at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2, respectively. In both end-stations, samples can be measured in gaseous environments at pressures of up to several Torr, which makes possible the investigation of numerous phenomena, in particular in the fields of atmospheric and environmental science as well as heterogeneous catalysis. Specific examples of the application of APPES were shown in the following presentations. John Hemminger (University of California, Irvine) reported on APPES investigations at Beamlines 9.3.2 and 11.0.2 of the interaction of alkali halide surfaces with water. The m

Bluhm, Hendrik; Gilles, Mary K.; Mun, Simon B.; Tyliszczak, Tolek

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE VISIBILITIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELECTRON FLUX SPECTRAL IMAGING OF SOLAR FLARES THROUGH REGULARIZED ANALYSIS OF HARD X-RAY SOURCE a new method for imaging spectroscopy analysis of hard X-ray emission during solar flares. The method.e., the two-dimensional spatial Fourier transforms of the spectral image) to obtain smoothed (regularized

Piana, Michele

66

Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy of Fused-Ring Aromatic Molecules by Electron Energy Loss and X-ray Raman Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recorded under scattering conditions where electric dipole transitions dominate (2.5 keV residual energy aromatics in bulk samples that are opaque to soft X-rays, such as coals and heavy hydrocarbon deposits. 1

Hitchcock, Adam P.

67

The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC; ,

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

68

Dissimilar behavior of technetium and rhenium in borosilicate waste glass as determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy with a relativeuncertainty of 4%. XRF analyses utilized an ARL 9400X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with XRF composition values

Lukens, Wayne W.; McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Shuh, David K.; Pegg, Ian L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl{sub 2} aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented.

Schwanke, C.; Lange, K. M., E-mail: Kathrin.lange@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institute of Solar Fuels, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Golnak, R.; Xiao, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institute of Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Chandra High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of AM Her  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of high resolution spectroscopy of the prototype polar AM Herculis observed with Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating. The X-ray spectrum contains hydrogen-like and helium-like lines of Fe, S, Si, Mg, Ne and O with several Fe L-shell emission lines. The forbidden lines in the spectrum are generally weak whereas the hydrogen-like lines are stronger suggesting that emission from a multi-temperature, collisionally ionized plasma dominates. The helium-like line flux ratios yield a plasma temperature of 2 MK and a plasma density 1 - 9 x10^12 cm^-3, whereas the line flux ratio of Fe XXVI to Fe XXV gives an ionization temperature of 12.4 +1.1 -1.4 keV. We present the differential emission measure distribution of AM Her whose shape is consistent with the volume emission measure obtained by multi-temperature APEC model. The multi-temperature plasma model fit to the average X-ray spectrum indicates the mass of the white dwarf to be ~1.15 M_sun. From phase resolved spectroscopy, we find the line centers of Mg XII, S XVI, resonance line of Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI emission modulated by a few hundred to 1000 km/s from the theoretically expected values indicating bulk motion of ionized matter in the accretion column of AM Her. The observed velocities of Fe XXVI ions are close to the expected shock velocity for a 0.6 M_sun white dwarf. The observed velocity modulation is consistent with that expected from a single pole accreting binary system.

V. Girish; V. R. Rana; K. P. Singh

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

71

A compact x-ray free electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be concerted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high fields strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne. Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Barletta, W.; Attac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J.; Wang, X.; Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G.; Gallardo, J.; Pellegrini, C.; Westenskow, G.

1988-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

X-ray Spectroscopy of E2 and M3 Transitions in Ni-like W  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic octupole (M3) ground state transitions in Ni-like W{sup 46+} have been measured using high-resolution crystal spectroscopy at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility. The lines fall in the soft x-ray region near 7.93 {angstrom} and were originally observed as an unresolved feature in tokamak plasmas. Using flat ADP and quartz crystals the wavelengths, intensities, and polarizations of the two lines have been measured for various electron beam energies and compared to intensity and polarization calculations performed using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC).

Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

73

In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for electrochemical reactions in ordinary solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus, which allows XPS at solid/liquid interfaces under potential control, was constructed utilizing a microcell with an ultra-thin Si membrane, which separates vacuum and a solution. Hard X-rays from a synchrotron source penetrate into the Si membrane surface exposed to the solution. Electrons emitted at the Si/solution interface can pass through the membrane and be analyzed by an analyzer placed in vacuum. Its operation was demonstrated for potential-induced Si oxide growth in water. Effect of potential and time on the thickness of Si and Si oxide layers was quantitatively determined at sub-nanometer resolution.

Masuda, Takuya [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobata, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Noguchi, Hidenori [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 (Japan); Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kawasaki, Tadahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Uosaki, Kohei [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan) [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy Based on Nanomaterials Science (GREEN), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser HENRY N. CHAPMAN1 of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 Ã? 1013 W cm-2 pulse by one10 . X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expected to permit diffractive imaging at high

Loss, Daniel

75

Where Water is Oxidized to Dioxygen: Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Cluster from X-ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light-driven oxidation of water to dioxygen in plants, algae and cyanobacteria iscatalyzed within photosystem II (PS II) by a Mn4Ca cluster. Although the cluster has been studied by many different methods, the structure and the mechanism have remained elusive. X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy and EXAFS studies have been particularly useful in probing the electronic and geometric structure, and the mechanism of the water oxidation reaction. Recent progress, reviewed here, includes polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of PS II single crystals. Analysis of those results has constrained the Mn4Ca cluster geometry to a setof three similar high-resolution structures. The structure of the cluster from the present study is unlike either the 3.0 or 3.5 Angstrom-resolution X-ray structures or other previously proposed models. The differences between the models derived from X-rayspectroscopy and crystallography are predominantly because of damage to the Mn4Ca cluster by X-rays under the conditions used for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. X-ray spectroscopy studies are also used for studying the changes in the structure of the Mn4Ca catalytic center as it cycles through the five intermediate states known as the Si-states (i=0-4). The electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster has been studied more recently using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (RIXS), in addition to the earlier X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy methods. These studies are revealing that the assignment of formaloxidation states is overly simplistic. A more accurate description should consider the charge density on the Mn atoms that includes the covalency of the bonds and delocalization of the charge over the cluster. The geometric and electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster in the S-states derived from X-ray spectroscopy are leading to a detailed understanding of the mechanism of the O-O bond formation during the photosynthetic water splitting process.

Yano, Junko; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

76

ON THE USE OF EXTENDED X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE SPECTROSCOPY TO DETERMINE THE BONDING CONFIGURATIONS OF  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ON THE USE OF EXTENDED X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE SPECTROSCOPY TO DETERMINE THE BONDING Rights Reserved #12;ON THE USE OF EXTENDED X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE SPECTROSCOPY TO DETERMINE

Sparks, Donald L.

77

Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO?=?VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}?=?0.3?eV?±?0.1?eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0?eV?±?0.1?eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis Monday, June 30, 2014 Plants and other organisms use a process called photosynthesis to produce...

79

New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

80

X-ray ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy and S. Rusponi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-coupled multilayers,1,2,11,12 as well as current-induced magnetization excitations in spin-valve structures.13,14 Very at GHz frequencies. XMCD is defined as the dependence of the x-ray absorp- tion coefficient

Brune, Harald

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81

Deduction of the chemical state and the electronic structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level and valence-band spectra  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterization of chemical state and electronic structure of the technologically important Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is attractive for understanding the physical nature of its excellent magnetic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of such rare-earth compound is important and also challenging due to the easy oxidation of surface and small photoelectron cross-sections of rare-earth 4f electrons and B 2p electrons, etc. Here, we reported an investigation based on XPS spectra of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound as a function of Ar ion sputtering time. The chemical state of Fe and that of B in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound can be clearly determined to be 0 and ?3, respectively. The Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is found to have the chemical state of close to +3 instead of +3 as compared with the Nd in Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, by comparing the valence-band spectrum of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound to that of the pure Fe, the contributions from Nd, Fe, and B to the valence-band structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is made more clear. The B 2p states and B 2s states are identified to be at ?11.2 eV and ?24.6 eV, respectively, which is reported for the first time. The contribution from Nd 4f states can be identified both in XPS core-level spectrum and XPS valence-band spectrum. Although Nd 4f states partially hybridize with Fe 3d states, Nd 4f states are mainly localized in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound.

Wang, Jing; Liang, Le [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Lanting, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, Limin, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano, Shinichi [Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

Dynamics in shear flow studied by X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy was used to measure the diffusive dynamics of colloidal particles in a shear flow. The results presented here show how the intensity autocorrelation functions measure both the diffusive dynamics of the particles and their flow-induced, convective motion. However, in the limit of low flow/shear rates, it is possible to obtain the diffusive component of the dynamics, which makes the method suitable for the study of the dynamical properties of a large class of complex soft-matter and biological fluids. An important benefit of this experimental strategy over more traditional X-ray methods is the minimization of X-ray induced beam damage. While the method can be applied also for photon correlation spectroscopy in the visible domain, our analysis shows that the experimental conditions under which it is possible to measure the diffusive dynamics are easier to achieve at higher q values (with X-rays).

Sebastian Busch; Torben Haugaard Jensen; Yuriy Chushkin; Andrei Fluerasu

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.

Sun, Cheng-Jun, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zhang, Bangmin [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States) [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore); Venkatesan, T. [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore) [NUSNNI-Nanocore, National University of Singapore, 117411 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575 Singapore (Singapore)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons’ energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is ±0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi [Toyota Technical Development Corporation, 1-21 Imae, Hanamoto-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0334 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kato, Ryukou [The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

X-ray absorption spectroscopy and EPR studies of oriented spinach thylakoid preparations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, oriented Photosystem II (PS II) particles from spinach chloroplasts are studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to determine more details of the structure of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). The nature of halide binding to Mn is also studied with Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS (extended x-ray absorption fine structure) of Mn-Cl model compounds, and with Mn EXAFS of oriented PS II in which Br has replaced Cl. Attention is focused on the following: photosynthesis and the oxygen evolving complex; determination of mosaic spread in oriented photosystem II particles from signal II EPR measurement; oriented EXAFS--studies of PS II in the S{sub 2} state; structural changes in PS II as a result of treatment with ammonia: EPR and XAS studies; studies of halide binding to Mn: Cl K-edge and Mn EXAFS of Mn-Cl model compounds and Mn EXAFS of oriented Br-treated photosystem II.

Andrews, J.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Structural Biology Div.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Feasibility considerations of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser pumped by an x-ray free electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the feasibility of a soft-x-ray distributed feedback laser (DFL) pumped by an x-ray free electron laser (X-FEL). The DFL under consideration is a Mg/SiC bi-layered Bragg reflector pumped by a single X-FEL bunch at 57.4 eV, stimulating the Mg L2,3 emission at 49 eV corresponding to the 3s-3d â??2p1/2,3/2 transition. Based on a model developed by Yariv and Yeh and an extended coupled-wave theory, we show that it would be possible to obtain a threshold gain compatible with the pumping provided by available X-FEL facilities.

André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell A. Ewings 2008 #12;Abstract Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell-ray scattering and neutron scattering experiments on several strongly correlated transition metal oxides

Boothroyd, Andrew

89

Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

Seipt, D; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Dissertation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver Investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Dissertation Atmospheric corrosion is a costly problem. Accelerated laboratory tests, such as the salt fog chamber, have been created to predict corrosion of materials without the need to expose them over long periods

92

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic

93

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1 Xiaosong November 2009 Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially inexpensive alternatives to traditional semiconductor solar cells. In order to optimize dyes for solar cells we systematically investigate

Himpsel, Franz J.

94

Stereochemistry Determination by Powder X-ray Diffraction Analysis and NMR Spectroscopy Residual Dipolar Couplings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A matter of technique: For a new steroidal lactol, jaborosalactol 24 (1), isolated from Jaborosa parviflora, NMR spectroscopy residual dipolar couplings and powder X-ray diffraction analysis independently gave the same stereochemistry at C23-C26. Conventional NMR spectroscopic techniques, such as NOE and {sup 3}J coupling-constant analysis failed to unambiguously determine this stereochemistry.

Garcia, M.; Pagola, S; Navarro-Vasquez, A; Phillips, D; Gayathri, C; Krakauer, H; Stephens, P; Nicotra, V; Gil, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

HIV-1 Tat membrane interactions probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD spectroscopy and MD simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIV-1 Tat membrane interactions probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD spectroscopy and MD translocation, were provided by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and neutron scattering. CD spectroscopy for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 6102, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, United States d CHESS, Cornell

Nagle, John F.

96

Sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy setup for pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for sub-nanosecond time-resolved ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies with pulsed and constant wave X-ray light sources is presented. A differentially pumped hemispherical electron analyzer is equipped with a delay-line detector that simultaneously records the position and arrival time of every single electron at the exit aperture of the hemisphere with ?0.1 mm spatial resolution and ?150 ps temporal accuracy. The kinetic energies of the photoelectrons are encoded in the hit positions along the dispersive axis of the two-dimensional detector. Pump-probe time-delays are provided by the electron arrival times relative to the pump pulse timing. An average time-resolution of (780 ± 20) ps (FWHM) is demonstrated for a hemisphere pass energy E{sub p} = 150 eV and an electron kinetic energy range KE = 503–508 eV. The time-resolution of the setup is limited by the electron time-of-flight (TOF) spread related to the electron trajectory distribution within the analyzer hemisphere and within the electrostatic lens system that images the interaction volume onto the hemisphere entrance slit. The TOF spread for electrons with KE = 430 eV varies between ?9 ns at a pass energy of 50 eV and ?1 ns at pass energies between 200 eV and 400 eV. The correlation between the retarding ratio and the TOF spread is evaluated by means of both analytical descriptions of the electron trajectories within the analyzer hemisphere and computer simulations of the entire trajectories including the electrostatic lens system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the by far dominant contribution to the TOF spread is acquired within the hemisphere. However, both experiment and computer simulations show that the lens system indirectly affects the time resolution of the setup to a significant extent by inducing a strong dependence of the angular spread of electron trajectories entering the hemisphere on the retarding ratio. The scaling of the angular spread with the retarding ratio can be well approximated by applying Liouville's theorem of constant emittance to the electron trajectories inside the lens system. The performance of the setup is demonstrated by characterizing the laser fluence-dependent transient surface photovoltage response of a laser-excited Si(100) sample.

Shavorskiy, Andrey; Slaughter, Daniel S.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis; Rude, Bruce S.; Bluhm, Hendrik [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neppl, Stefan; Cryan, James P.; Siefermann, Katrin R.; Weise, Fabian; Lin, Ming-Fu; Bacellar, Camila; Ziemkiewicz, Michael P.; Fraund, Matthew W.; Khurmi, Champak; Wright, Travis W.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Gessner, Oliver, E-mail: ogessner@lbl.gov [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hertlein, Marcus P.; Tyliszczak, Tolek [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Huse, Nils [Ultrafast X-ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of Hamburg and Max-Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); and others

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Theoretical standards in x-ray spectroscopies. Annual progress report, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to extend our state-of-the-art, ab initio XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) codes, FEFF. Our current work has been highly successful in achieving accurate, user-friendly XAFS standards, exceeding the performance of both tabulated standards and other codes by a considerable margin. We now propose to add the capability to treat more complex materials. This includes multiple-scattering, polarization dependence, an approximate treatment of XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure), and other improvements. We also plan to adapt FEFF to other spectroscopies, e.g. photoelectron diffraction (PD) and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS).

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Standard practice for dosimetry in electron beam and X-Ray (Bremsstrahlung) irradiation facilities for food processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard practice for dosimetry in electron beam and X-Ray (Bremsstrahlung) irradiation facilities for food processing

International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Gas cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple gas cell design, constructed primarily from commercially available components, enables in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials in contact with gas at ambient temperature. The cell has a minimum X-ray path length of 1 mm and can hold gas pressures up to ?300 Torr, and could support higher pressures with simple modifications. The design enables cycling between vacuum and gas environments without interrupting the X-ray beam, and can be fully sealed to allow for measurements of air-sensitive samples. The cell can attach to the downstream port of any appropriate synchrotron beamline, and offers a robust and versatile method for in situ measurements of certain materials. The construction and operation of the cell are discussed, as well as sample preparation and proper spectral analysis, illustrated by examples of spectral measurements. Potential areas for improvement and modification for specialized applications are also mentioned.

Drisdell, W. S.; Kortright, J. B. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

SURFACE SEGREGATION STUDIES OF SOFC CATHODES: COMBINING SOFT X-RAYS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.

Miara, Lincoln J.; Piper, L.F.J.; Davis, Jacob N.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Basu, Soumendra; Smith, K. E.; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electronic states of NO{sub 2}-exposed H-terminated diamond/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterointerface studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy band-lineup and the electronic structure of NO{sub 2}-exposed H-terminated diamond/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterointerface have been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements. It is found that the energy band-lineup is stagger-type, so-called type-II, with its valence band discontinuity of as high as 3.9?eV and its conduction band discontinuity of 2.7?eV. The valence band maximum of the H-terminated diamond surface is positioned at Fermi level as a result of high-density hole accumulation on the diamond side. The XANES measurement has shown that the oxygen-derived interface state locates at about 1–3?eV above the Fermi level.

Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Imamura, Masaki [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Hirama, Kazuyuki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, Atsugi 243-0198 (Japan); Kasu, Makoto [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(II) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Kim, Tae Kyu; Groot, Frank M. F. de; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

103

The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SLAC, Redtail Conference Room (901-108) M. Altarelli, European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg, Germany The present status of the construction of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser in...

104

12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January (IAP) 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction to the theory of x-ray microanalysis through the electron microprobe including ZAF matrix corrections. Techniques to be discussed are wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning backscattered ...

Chatterjee, Nilanjan

105

Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.

Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

ON RELATIVISTIC DISK SPECTROSCOPY IN COMPACT OBJECTS WITH X-RAY CCD CAMERAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are the workhorse detectors of modern X-ray astronomy. Typically covering the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range, CCDs are able to detect photoelectric absorption edges and K shell lines from most abundant metals. New CCDs also offer resolutions of 30-50 (E/{Delta}E), which is sufficient to detect lines in hot plasmas and to resolve many lines shaped by dynamical processes in accretion flows. The spectral capabilities of X-ray CCDs have been particularly important in detecting relativistic emission lines from the inner disks around accreting neutron stars and black holes. One drawback of X-ray CCDs is that spectra can be distorted by photon 'pile-up', wherein two or more photons may be registered as a single event during one frame time. We have conducted a large number of simulations using a statistical model of photon pile-up to assess its impacts on relativistic disk line and continuum spectra from stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. The simulations cover the range of current X-ray CCD spectrometers and operational modes typically used to observe neutron stars and black holes in X-ray binaries. Our results suggest that severe photon pile-up acts to falsely narrow emission lines, leading to falsely large disk radii and falsely low spin values. In contrast, our simulations suggest that disk continua affected by severe pile-up are measured to have falsely low flux values, leading to falsely small radii and falsely high spin values. The results of these simulations and existing data appear to suggest that relativistic disk spectroscopy is generally robust against pile-up when this effect is modest.

Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D'Ai, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bautz, M. W.; Nowak, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, College Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Reis, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Freyberg, M. J.; Haberl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strohmayer, T. E. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tsujimoto, M., E-mail: jonmm@umich.ed [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronomical Sciences, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction X-Ray Properties of Elements Electron Binding Energies X-Ray Levels of Few Electron Ions Now Available Order X-Ray Data Booklet http://xdb.lbl.gov/ (1 of 3) [2

Meagher, Mary

108

Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimäki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR – Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

X-ray spectroscopy of the photosynthetic oxygen-evolving complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water oxidation to dioxygen in photosynthesis is catalyzed by a Mn4Ca cluster with O bridging in Photosystem II (PS II) of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. A variety of spectroscopic methods have been applied to analyzing the participation of the complex. X-ray spectroscopy is particularly useful because it is element-specific, and because it can reveal important structural features of the complex with high accuracy and identify the participation of Mn in the redox chemistry. Following a brief history of the application of X-ray spectroscopy to PS II, an overview of newer results will be presented and a description of the present state of our knowledge based on this approach.

Sauer, Ken; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K

2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

110

X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Photosynthetic Oxygen-Evolving Complex  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water oxidation to dioxygen in photosynthesis is catalyzed by a Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster with O bridging in Photosystem II (PS II) of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. A variety of spectroscopic methods have been applied to analyzing the participation of the complex. X-ray spectroscopy is particularly useful because it is element-specific, and because it can reveal important structural features of the complex with high accuracy and identify the participation of Mn in the redox chemistry. Following a brief history of the application of X-ray spectroscopy to PS II, an overview of newer results will be presented and a description of the present state of our knowledge based on this approach.

Sauer, K.; Yano, J.; Yachandra, V.K.

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

111

HARD X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF A JET AND ACCELERATED ELECTRONS IN THE CORONA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first hard X-ray observation of a solar jet on the limb with flare footpoints occulted, so that faint emission from accelerated electrons in the corona can be studied in detail. In this event on 2003 August 21, RHESSI observed a double coronal hard X-ray source in the pre-impulsive phase at both thermal and nonthermal energies. In the impulsive phase, the first of two hard X-ray bursts consists of a single thermal/nonthermal source coinciding with the lower of the two earlier sources, and the second burst shows an additional nonthermal, elongated source, spatially and temporally coincident with the coronal jet. Analysis of the jet hard X-ray source shows that collisional losses by accelerated electrons can deposit enough energy to generate the jet. The hard X-ray time profile above 20 keV matches that of the accompanying Type III and broadband gyrosynchrotron radio emission, indicating both accelerated electrons escaping outward along the jet path and electrons trapped in the flare loop. The double coronal hard X-ray source, the open field lines indicated by Type III bursts, and the presence of a small post-flare loop are consistent with significant electron acceleration in an interchange reconnection geometry.

Glesener, Lindsay; Lin, R. P.; Krucker, Saem, E-mail: glesener@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Science Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

112

Double-resonant x-ray and microwave absorption: Atomic spectroscopy of precessional orbital and spin dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Double-resonant x-ray and microwave absorption: Atomic spectroscopy of precessional orbital of atomic species driven to ferromagnetic resonance. X-ray absorption measurements performed as a function of paramagnetic atoms can be determined by de- tecting the absorption or emission of light modulated by a MW field

Brune, Harald

113

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the cubic and hexagonal polytypes of zinc sulfide B. Gilbert,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the cubic and hexagonal polytypes of zinc sulfide B. Gilbert,1 Received 18 June 2002; published 26 December 2002 We investigate the sensitivity of x-ray absorption. Experimental spectra and multiple-scattering calculations are reported at the major absorption edges

Haskel, Daniel

114

Atomic structure of machined semiconducting chips: An x-ray absorption spectroscopy study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to examine the atomic structure of chips of germanium that were produced by single point diamond machining. It is demonstrated that although the local (nearest neighbor) atomic structure is experimentally quite similar to that of single crystal specimens information from more distant atoms indicates the presence of considerable stress. An outline of the technique is given and the strength of XAS in studying the machining process is demonstrated.

Paesler, M.; Sayers, D.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlant 242-Z AmericiumandPolarized X-Rays Reveal

116

Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlant 242-Z AmericiumandPolarized X-Rays

117

Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlant 242-Z AmericiumandPolarized X-RaysPolarized

118

Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic TheoryPlant 242-Z AmericiumandPolarizedPolarized X-Rays

119

X-Ray Radiation from Nonlinear Thomson Scattering of an Intense Femtosecond Laser on Relativistic Electrons in a Helium Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Radiation from Nonlinear Thomson Scattering of an Intense Femtosecond Laser on Relativistic laser beam on plasma electrons. A collimated x-ray radiation with a broad continuous spectrum peaked by the ultraintense laser fields. The results show the existence of several physical mecha- nisms for the x-ray

Umstadter, Donald

120

Double-core excitations in formamide can be probed by X-ray double-quantum-coherence spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yu Zhang, Daniel Healion, Jason D. Biggs, and Shaul Mukamel Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 138, 144301 be probed by X-ray double-quantum-coherence spectroscopy Yu Zhang, Daniel Healion, Jason D. Biggs, and Shaul

Mukamel, Shaul

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies of the dynamics of self-assembling block copolymer structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several improvements presented to the emerging technique of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. These improvements enabled the study of polymer structures, in particular isotropic sponge phases of homo-polymer block ...

Falus, Péter, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

THE CHANDRA MULTI-WAVELENGTH PROJECT: OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND THE BROADBAND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF X-RAY-SELECTED AGNs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

From optical spectroscopy of X-ray sources observed as part of the Chandra Multi-wavelength Project (ChaMP), we present redshifts and classifications for a total of 1569 Chandra sources from our targeted spectroscopic ...

Trichas, Markos

123

Use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Inner And Outer-sphere Pb Adsorption Complexes on Montmorillonite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Distinguish Between Inner And Outer-sphere Pb Adsorption on the functional groups at the edges of the montmorillonite. At I = 0.002 M Pb absorption was less dependent

Sparks, Donald L.

124

Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

Wilkerson, Marianne P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conradson, Steven D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hobart, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kozimor, Stosh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

GEOC Thursday, March 25, 2010 192 -In situ characterization of environmental redox reactions using quick-scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quick-scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS) Donald L Sparks, Dr. Matthew Ginder-Vogel, Dr. In this presentation, we will describe the use of quick X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at a subsecond time by calculated rate constants that do not change with concentration. In addition to using X-ray absorption near

Sparks, Donald L.

126

Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Monitor the Kinetics of Metal Sorption Reactions at the Soil/Water Interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Use of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Monitor the Kinetics of Metal Sorption Reactions on the surface coordination environment of Ni sorbed onto clays and aluminum oxides using X-ray absorption fine

Sparks, Donald L.

127

PUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and DEMO, HXR spectrometry will be useful providing information on runaway electron energy, runaway beam as high as tens of MeV and the runaway current is more than 1 MA. The final runaway energy can becomePUBLISHED VERSION Study of runaway electrons with Hard X-ray spectrometry of tokamak plasmas

128

Electron beam-based sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of various methods for generation of ultrashort x-ray pulses using relativistic electron beam from conventional accelerators is presented. Both spontaneous and coherent emission of electrons is considered. The importance of the time-resolved studies of matter at picosecond (ps), femtosecond (fs), and atttosecond (as) time scales using x-rays has been widely recognized including by award of a Nobel Prize in 1999 [Zewa]. Extensive reviews of scientific drivers can be found in [BES1, BES2, BES3, Lawr, Whit]. Several laser-based techniques have been used to generate ultrashort x-ray pulses including laser-driven plasmas [Murn, Alte, Risc, Rose, Zamp], high-order harmonic generation [Schn, Rund, Wang, Arpi], and laser-driven anode sources [Ande]. In addition, ultrafast streak-camera detectors have been applied at synchrotron sources to achieve temporal resolution on the picosecond time scale [Wulf, Lind1]. In this paper, we focus on a different group of techniques that are based on the use of the relativistic electron beam produced in conventional accelerators. In the first part we review several techniques that utilize spontaneous emission of electrons and show how solitary sub-ps x-ray pulses can be obtained at existing storage ring based synchrotron light sources and linacs. In the second part we consider coherent emission of electrons in the free-electron lasers (FELs) and review several techniques for a generation of solitary sub-fs x-ray pulses. Remarkably, the x-ray pulses that can be obtained with the FELs are not only significantly shorter than the ones considered in Part 1, but also carry more photons per pulse by many orders of magnitude.

Zholents, A.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

129

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Slow dynamics of nanocomposite polymer aerogels as revealed by X-ray photocorrelation spectroscopy (XPCS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a novel slow dynamics of polymer xerogels, aerogels, and nanocomposite aerogels with iron oxide nanoparticles, as revealed by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The polymer aerogel and its nanocomposite aerogels, which are porous in nature, exhibit hyper-diffusive dynamics at room temperature. In contrast, non-porous polymer xerogels exhibit an absence of this peculiar dynamics. This slow dynamical process has been assigned to a relaxation of the characteristic porous structure of these materials and not to the presence of nanoparticles.

Hernández, Rebeca, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Mijangos, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, ICTP-CSIC, Juan de la Cierva, 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Nogales, Aurora, E-mail: rhernandez@ictp.csic.es, E-mail: aurora.nogales@csic.es; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sprung, Michael [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Petra III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

131

X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of electrochemically deposited thin oxide films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have utilized ''in situ'' X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy to investigate the structure and composition of thin oxide films of nickel and iron that have been prepared by electrodeposition on a graphite substrate from aqueous solutions. The films are generally disordered. Structural information has been obtained from the analysis of the data. We also present initial findings on the local structure of heavy metal ions, e.g. Sr and Ce, incorporated into the electrodeposited nickel oxide films. Our results are of importance in a number of technological applications, among them, batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic and ferroelectric materials, corrosion protection, as well as environmental speciation and remediation.

Balasubramanian, M.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

132

Core and Valence Excitations in Resonant X-ray Spectroscopy using Restricted Excitation Window Time-dependent Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur K and L2,3 edges. The simulated XANES signals from the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the static exchange (STEX) method are compared with experiments, showing that REW-TDDFT is more accurate and computationally less expensive than STEX. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals from REW-TDDFT give some insights on the correlation of different excitations in the molecule.

Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

133

In-situ stoichiometry determination using x-ray fluorescence generated by reflection-high-energy-electron-diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major challenge in the stoichiometric growth of complex oxide compounds is the control of the relative compositions of the constituent materials. A potential avenue for compositional analysis during growth is the use of x-ray fluorescence generated during reflection high energy electron diffraction measurements. Using this technique, relative compositions of Y and Mn in molecular beam epitaxy grown YMnO{sub 3} samples were studied. Comparing the results with Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy suggests that the technique has the potential for real-time analysis of elemental fluxes and stoichiometry control during sample growth.

Keenan, Cameron; Chandril, Sandeep; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Multifunctional Materials Laboratory, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Myers, T. H. [Department of Physics and Multifunctional Materials Laboratory, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Materials Science, Engineering, and Commercialization Program, Texas State University-San Marcos, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Investigating Silicon-Based Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and X-ray Micro-spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIGHT (X- RAYS , EUV, ULTRAFAST PULSES ), OR HEAT . T HEthe “on” time of an ultrafast pulse is referred to as thepeak-power of the ultrafast pulses, purely electronic four-

Caster, Allison G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.

Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thøgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Küpper, Jochen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ?30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

Kraus, D., E-mail: dominik.kraus@berkeley.edu; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Swift, D. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Chapman, D. A. [Plasma Physics Group, Radiation Physics Department, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR, United Kingdom and Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy as an experimental probe for S-nitroso proteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge (2.4-2.6 keV) provides a sensitive and specific technique to identify S-nitroso compounds, which have significance in nitric oxide-based cell signaling. Unique spectral features clearly distinguish the S-nitroso-form of a cysteine residue from the sulfhydryl-form or from a methionine thioether. Comparison of the sulfur K-edge spectra of thiolate, thiol, thioether, and S-nitroso thiolate compounds indicates high sensitivity of energy positions and intensities of XAS pre-edge features as determined by the electronic environment of the sulfur absorber. A new experimental setup is being developed for reaching the in vivo concentration range of S-nitroso thiol levels in biological samples.

Szilagyi, Robert K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: Szilagyi@Montana.EDU; Schwab, David E. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

2005-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

138

Non-matrix corrected organic sulfur determination by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for western Kentucky coals and residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for non-matrix corrected organic sulfur analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has been developed using petroleum coke standards. Typically, electron beam microanalysis is a rapid, nondestructive analytical technique to quantitatively measure organic sulfur in coal. The results show good correlation to ASTM values for numerous well characterized coals with a wide range in total and pyritic sulfur content. This direct analysis is capable of reducing error commonly associated with the present ASTM method which relies on an indirect measure of organic sulfur by difference. The precision of the organic sulfur values determined in the present study is comparable to that obtained by ZAF matrix corrected microanalysis. The energy dispersive microanalysis is capable of measuring micro as well as bulk organic sulfur levels.

Clark, C.P.; Freeman, G.B.; Hower, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High resolution X-ray spectroscopy with XMM-Newton and Chandra, MSSL, 24 -25 October 2002 1 HIGH RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the system, the density and absorp- tion of the wind, eclipses, or variability due to the inclination that the soft X-rays ( #24; wind produced by the common mechanism that are much narrower ( #24; wind

Guedel, Manuel

140

Millisecond Kinetics of Nanocrystal Cation Exchange UsingMicrofluidic X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the use of a flow-focusing microfluidic reactorto measure the kinetics of theCdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchangereaction using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mu XAS). The smallmicroreactor dimensions facilitate the millisecond mixing of CdSenanocrystal and Ag+ reactant solutions, and the transposition of thereaction time onto spatial coordinates enables the in situ observation ofthe millisecond reaction with mu XAS. XAS spectra show the progression ofCdSe nanocrystals to Ag2Se over the course of 100 ms without the presenceof long-lived intermediates. These results, along with supporting stoppedflow absorption experiments, suggest that this nanocrystal cationexchange reaction is highly efficient and provide insight into how thereaction progresses in individual particles. This experiment illustratesthe value and potential of in situ microfluidic X-ray synchrotrontechniques for detailed studies of the millisecond structuraltransformations of nanoparticles and other solution-phase reactions inwhich diffusive mixing initiates changes in local bond structures oroxidation states.

Chan, Emory M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine; Elnaggar,Mariam S.; Mathies, Richard A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A refined ephemeris and phase resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the Geminga pulsar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a refined phase-connected post-glitch ephemeris for the Geminga pulsar that is a good fit to all the post-glitch data from EGRET, ASCA, and XMM. We also present the results of phase-resolved spectroscopy of two XMM X-ray observations of the Geminga pulsar obtained in 2002 and 2004. An investigation is made into a previously claimed existence of a small hot spot on the neutron star surface. We conclude that that interpretation was more likely an artifact of an overly restrictive assumption used to fit the phase-resolved spectra, namely, that the spectral index of the non-thermal component is constant. When we allow the spectral index to vary as a function of rotation phase, we find systematic variations in spectral index, and such fits do not require an additional, hot blackbody component.

M. S. Jackson; J. P. Halpern

2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of the tetragonal phase of Ge doped HfO{sub 2} thin films on Si(100) was investigated. Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} films with Ge atomic concentrations varying from 0% to 15% were deposited by remote plasma chemical vapor deposition. The atomic structure on the oxide after rapid thermal annealing was investigated by x-ray absorption spectroscopy of the O and Ge K edges and by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The authors found that Ge concentrations as low as 5 at. % effectively stabilize the tetragonal phase of 5 nm thick Hf(Ge)O{sub 2} on Si and that higher concentrations are not stable to rapid thermal annealing at temperatures above 750 deg. C.

Miotti, Leonardo; Bastos, Karen P.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Radtke, Claudio; Nordlund, Dennis [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-8202 (United States); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91509-900 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Dominant Secondary Nuclear Photoexcitation with the X-ray Free Electron Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The new regime of resonant nuclear photoexcitation rendered possible by x-ray free electron laser beams interacting with solid state targets is investigated theoretically. Our results unexpectedly show that secondary processes coupling nuclei to the atomic shell in the created cold high-density plasma can dominate direct photoexcitation. As an example we discuss the case of $^{93m}$Mo isomer depletion for which nuclear excitation by electron capture as secondary process is shown to be orders of magnitude more efficient than the direct laser-nucleus interaction. General arguments revisiting the role of the x-ray free electron laser in nuclear experiments involving solid-state targets are further deduced.

Jonas Gunst; Yuri A. Litvinov; Christoph H. Keitel; Adriana Pálffy

2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

144

Chapter 1 - The Impacts of X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy on Understanding Soil Processes and Reaction Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last two decades, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has developed into a mature technique for obtaining the speciation (e.g., oxidation state) and short-range structure of elements present in soils and sediments. XAS encompasses both X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. XAS has a number of advantageous qualities for studying soils and sediments, which include elemental specificity, sensitivity to the local chemical and structural state of an element, and the ability to analyze materials in situ. This information allows accurate determination of oxidation state, type of nearest neighbors, coordination number, bond distance, and orbital symmetries of the X-ray absorbing element. In this review, we examine the application of a wide variety of synchrotron X-ray techniques to fundamental issues in environmental soil chemistry. Additionally, we examine the application of microfocused and time-resolved XAS to determine speciation (e.g., oxidation state and/or local coordination environment) and transformation kinetics of contaminants in heterogeneous environmental systems. During the last three decades, XAS has a played a critical role in furthering our understanding of a myriad of environmental systems and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future.

Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Sparks, Donald L. (Delaware)

2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

145

AugEX: AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY SPECTROMETER ON CHANDRAYAAN-2 ROVER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for determining elemental composition which have a space heritage X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Particle-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) Expected Advantage: cover low Z elements with higher sensitivity than XRF or PIXE. ACHARYA-ray absorption or charged particle bombardment X-ray emission induced by X-ray absorption: XRF X-ray emission

Bapat, Bhas

146

Hard x-ray or gamma ray laser by a dense electron beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A coherent x-ray or gamma ray can be created from a dense electron beam propagating through an intense laser undulator. It is analyzed by using the Landau damping theory which suits better than the conventional linear analysis for the free electron laser, as the electron beam energy spread is high. The analysis suggests that the currently available physical parameters would enable the generation of the coherent gamma ray of up to 100 keV. The electron quantum diffraction suppresses the FEL action, by which the maximum radiation energy to be generated is limited.

S. Son; S. J. Moon

2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

147

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High-energy Electrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantitative Evaluation of Radiation Damage to Polyethylene Terephthalate by Soft X-rays and High to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) caused by soft X-rays and energetic electrons have been measured using to polyethylene terephalate (PET) by TEM-EELS versus nonspatially resolved NEXAFS.5 That study also reported

Hitchcock, Adam P.

148

Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China) [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

149

Atomic holography with electrons and x-rays: Theoretical and experimental studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gabor first proposed holography in 1948 as a means to experimentally record the amplitude and phase of scattered wavefronts, relative to a direct unscattered wave, and to use such a {open_quotes}hologram{close_quotes} to directly image atomic structure. But imaging at atomic resolution has not yet been possible in the way he proposed. Much more recently, Szoeke in 1986 noted that photoexcited atoms can emit photoelectron of fluorescent x-ray wavefronts that are scattered by neighboring atoms, thus yielding the direct and scattered wavefronts as detected in the far field that can then be interpreted as holographic in nature. By now, several algorithms for directly reconstructing three-dimensional atomic images from electron holograms have been proposed (e.g. by Barton) and successfully tested against experiment and theory. Very recently, Tegze and Faigel, and Grog et al. have recorded experimental x-ray fluorescence holograms, and these are found to yield atomic images that are more free of the kinds of aberrations caused by the non-ideal emission or scattering of electrons. The basic principles of these holographic atomic imaging methods are reviewed, including illustrative applications of the reconstruction algorithms to both theoretical and experimental electron and x-ray holograms. The author also discusses the prospects and limitations of these newly emerging atomic structural probes.

Len, P M [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

First-principles core-level X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy calculation on arsenic defects in silicon crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) binding energies of As 3d in Si for various defects in neutral and charged states by first-principles calculation. It is found that the complexes of a substitutional As and a vacancy in charged and neutral states explain the experimentally observed unknown peak very well.

Kishi, Hiroki; Miyazawa, Miki; Matsushima, Naoki; Yamauchi, Jun [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

151

THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

DeWitt, Curtis [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sellgren, Kris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, Franz E., E-mail: curtis.n.dewitt@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Design and Operation of an In Situ High Pressure Reaction Cell for X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and initial operation of an in situ catalysis reaction cell for x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements at high pressure is described. The design is based on an x-ray transparent tube fabricated from beryllium. This forms a true plug flow reactor for catalysis studies. The reactor is coupled to a portable microprocessor-controlled versatile feed system, and incorporates on-line analysis of reaction products. XAFS data recorded during the reduction of a NiRe/carbon catalyst at 4 bar are used to illustrate the performance of the reactor.

Bare, Simon R.; Mickelson, G. E.; Modica, F. S. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL, 60016 (United States); Yang, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, IL 6044 (United States)

2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

153

X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ni-K edge in Stackhousia tryonii Bailey hyperaccumulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micro x-ray ?uorescence ( -XRF) mapping was performed using15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -XRF imaging was used to determinelocalisation in planta. Typical -XRF maps obtained of stem,

Kachenko, A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Stochastic Electron Acceleration During the NIR and X-ray Flares in Sagittarius A*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent near-IR (NIR) and X-ray observations of Sagittarius A*'s spectrum have yielded several strong constraints on the transient energization mechanism, justifying a re-examination of the stochastic acceleration model proposed previously for these events. We here demonstrate that the new results are fully consistent with the acceleration of electrons via the transit-time damping process. But more importantly, these new NIR and X-ray flares now can constrain the source size, the gas density, the magnetic field, and the wave energy density in the turbulent plasma. Future simultaneous multi-wavelength observations with good spectral information will, in addition, allow us to study their temporal evolution, which will eventually lead to an accurate determination of the behavior of the plasma just minutes prior to its absorption by the black hole.

Siming Liu; Fulvio Melia; Vahe Petrosian

2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

Spectroscopy of M-shell x-ray transitions in Zn-like through Co-like W  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The M-shell x-ray emission of highly charged tungsten ions has been investigated at the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility. Using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap and a NASA x-ray calorimeter array, transitions connecting the ground configurations in the 1500-3600 eV spectral range of zinc-like W{sup 44+} through cobalt-like W{sup 47+} have been measured. The measured spectra are compared with theoretical line positions and emissivities calculated using the FAC code.

Clementson, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Gu, M F

2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

Design and characterization of electron beam focusing for X-ray generation in novel medical imaging architecture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel electron beam focusing scheme for medical X-ray sources is described in this paper. Most vacuum based medical X-ray sources today employ a tungsten filament operated in temperature limited regime, with electrostatic focusing tabs for limited range beam optics. This paper presents the electron beam optics designed for the first distributed X-ray source in the world for Computed Tomography (CT) applications. This distributed source includes 32 electron beamlets in a common vacuum chamber, with 32 circular dispenser cathodes operated in space charge limited regime, where the initial circular beam is transformed into an elliptical beam before being collected at the anode. The electron beam optics designed and validated here are at the heart of the first Inverse Geometry CT system, with potential benefits in terms of improved image quality and dramatic X-ray dose reduction for the patient.

Bogdan Neculaes, V., E-mail: neculaes@research.ge.com; Zou, Yun; Zavodszky, Peter; Inzinna, Louis; Zhang, Xi; Conway, Kenneth; Caiafa, Antonio; Frutschy, Kristopher; Waters, William; De Man, Bruno [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)] [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Feasibility Study of Gas Electron Multiplier Detector as an X-Ray Image Sensor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For its ease manufacturing, flexible geometry, and cheap manufacturing cost, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector can be used as an x-ray image sensor. For this purpose, we acquired relative detection efficiencies and suggested a method to increase the detection efficiency in order to study the possibility of GEM detector as an x-ray image sensor. The GEM detector system is composed of GEM foils, the instrument system, the gas system, and the negative power supply. The instrument system consists of the A225 charge sensitive preamp, A206 discriminator, and MCA8000D multichannel analyzer. For the gas system, Argon gas was mixed with CO2 to the ratio of 8:2, and for the negative 2,000 volts, the 3106D power supply was used. The CsI-coated GEM foil was used to increase the detection efficiency. Fe-55 was used as an x-ray source and the relative efficiency was acquired by using the ratio of GEM detector to the CdTe detector. The total count method and the energy spectrum method were used to calculate the rel...

Shin, Sukyoung; Lee, Soonhyouk

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Polarized X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Single-Crystal Mn(V) Complexes Relevant to the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-valent Mn-oxo species have been suggested to have a catalytically important role in the water splitting reaction which occurs in the Photosystem II membrane protein. In this study, five- and six-coordinate mononuclear Mn(V) compounds were investigated by polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy in order to understand the electronic structure and spectroscopic characteristics of high-valent Mn species. Single crystals of the Mn(V)-nitrido and Mn(V)-oxo compounds were aligned along selected molecular vectors with respect to the X-ray polarization vector using X-ray diffraction. The local electronic structure of the metal site was then studied by measuring the polarization dependence of X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) pre-edge spectra (1s to 3d transition) and comparing with the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The Mn(V)-nitrido compound, in which the manganese is coordinated in a tetragonally distorted octahedral environment, showed a single dominant pre-edge peak along the MnN axis that can be assigned to a strong 3dz2-4pz mixing mechanism. In the square pyramidal Mn(V)-oxo system, on the other hand, an additional peak was observed at 1 eV below the main pre-edge peak. This component was interpreted as a 1s to 3dxz,yz transition with 4px,y mixing, due to the displacement of the Mn atom out of the equatorial plane. The XANES results have been correlated to DFT calculations, and the spectra have been simulated using a TD (time-dependent)-DFT approach. The relevance of these results to understanding the mechanism of the photosynthetic water oxidation is discussed.

Yano, J.K.; Robblee, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Marcus, M.A.; Bendix, J.; Workman, J.M.; Collins, T.J.; Solomon, E.I.; George, S.D.; Yachandra, V.K.; /LBL, Berkeley /Copenhagen U. /Stanford U., Chem. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analysis of the surface of tricalcium silicate during the induction period by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy allows the analysis of surface layers with a thickness of a few nanometers. The method is sensitive to the chemical environment of the atoms since the binding energy of the electrons depends on the chemical bonds to neighboring atoms. It has been applied to the hydration of tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, C{sub 3}S) by analyzing a sample after 30 min of hydration. Also two references have been investigated namely anhydrous C{sub 3}S and intermediate phase in order to enable a quantitative evaluation of the experimental data. In the hydrated C{sub 3}S sample, the analyzed volume (0.2 mm{sup 2} surface by 13 nm depth) contained approximately 44 wt.% of C{sub 3}S and 56 wt.% of intermediate phase whereas C-S-H was not detected. Scanning Electron Microscopy data and geometric considerations indicate that the intermediate phase forms a thin layer having a thickness of approximately 2 nm and covers the complete surface instead of forming isolated clusters.

Bellmann, F., E-mail: frank.bellmann@uni-weimar.de [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Sowoidnich, T.; Ludwig, H.-M. [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany)] [Institute for Building Materials Science, Bauhaus University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Damidot, D. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)] [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, 941 rue Charles Bourseul, BP 10838, 59508 Doua cedex (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron Sample...  

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Spectroscopie Electronique, Summary: of an X-ray source from measurements of the kinetic energy and intensity of the photoelectrons emitted... applications in electron probe...

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161

Understanding Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of Nickel Biomass Conditioning Catalysts using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of biofuels can proceed via a biomass gasification to produce syngas, which can then undergo catalytic conditioning and reforming reactions prior to being sent to a fuel synthesis reactor. Catalysts used for biomass conditioning are plagued by short lifetimes which are a result of, among other things, poisoning. Syngas produced from biomass gasification may contain between 30-300 ppm H2S, depending on the feedstock and gasification conditions, and H2S is a key catalyst poison. In order to overcome catalyst poisoning, either an H2S-tolerant catalyst or an efficient regeneration protocol should be employed. In this study, sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used to monitor sulfur species on spent catalyst samples and the transformation of these species from sulfides to sulfates during steam and air regeneration on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 catalyst used to condition biomass-derived syngas. Additionally, nickel K-edge EXAFS and XANES are used to examine the state of nickel species on the catalysts. Post-reaction samples showed the presence of sulfides on the H2S-poisoned nickel catalyst and although some gaseous sulfur species were observed to leave the catalyst bed during regeneration, sulfur remained on the catalyst and a transformation from sulfides to sulfates was observed. The subsequent H2 reduction led to a partial reduction of sulfates back to sulfides. A proposed reaction sequence is presented and recommended regeneration strategies are discussed.

Yung, M. M.; Cheah, S.; Kuhn, J. N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

X-ray spectroscopy of gamma-ray bursts: the path to the progenitor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite great observational and theoretical effort, the burst progenitor is still a mysterious object. It is generally accepted that one of the best ways to unveil its nature is the study of the properties of the close environment in which the explosion takes place. We discuss the potentiality and feasibility of time resolved X-ray spectroscopy, focusing on the prompt gamma-ray phase. We show that the study of absorption features (or continuum absorption) can reveal the radial structure of the close environment, unaccessible with different techniques. We discuss the detection of absorption in the prompt and afterglow spectra of several bursts, showing how these are consistent with gamma-ray bursts taking place in dense regions. In particular, we show that the radius and density of the surrounding cloud can be measured through the evolution of the column density in the prompt burst phase. The derived cloud properties are similar to those of the star forming cocoons and globules within molecular clouds. We conclude that the burst are likely associated with the final evolutionary stages of massive stars.

Davide Lazzati; Rosalba Perna; Gabriele Ghisellini

2002-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

163

Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe{sub 6}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 12}) by lead L{sub 3}-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM{sub 10} particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

Taga, Raijeli L.; Ng, Jack [University of Queensland, National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology (EnTox), Brisbane, 4108 (Australia); Zheng Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Noller, Barry [University of Queensland, Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, Brisbane, 4072 (Australia); Harris, Hugh H. [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

164

X-ray spectroscopy in mammography with a silicon PIN photodiode with application to the measurement of tube voltage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work a silicon PIN photodiode was employed in mammographic x-ray spectroscopy under clinical and nonclinical conditions. Measurements have been performed at a constant potential tungsten anode tube, adapted in this work with molybdenum filters to produce a beam like that used in mammography, and at a clinical equipment with a molybdenum anode tube by using an additional aluminum filtration. The corrected x-ray spectra were in full agreement with those generated by theoretical models published in the literature and agree well with those measured with a CdZnTe detector for tube voltages less than 30 kV. The half value layer and the relative exposure values calculated from the corrected silicon PIN photodiode spectra were in agreement with those measured with an ionization chamber. These results indicate that a silicon PIN photodiode are very suitable for mammographic x-ray spectroscopy. As an application, the voltage (kV) applied to mammographic x-ray equipment has been measured through the evaluation of the spectra high energy cut off. Uncertainties evaluated for the voltage values calculated from the measured spectra are less than 0.13% for voltages in the range 20-35 kV. The low uncertainties associated with the obtained results in this work point out that the method employed can be accurately used for calibration of noninvasive mammographic kVp meters.

Kuenzel, Roseli; Herdade, Silvio Bruni; Terini, Ricardo Andrade; Costa, Paulo Roberto [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, R. Marques de Paranagua, 111, Consolacao, CEP 01303-050, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Secao Tecnica de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico em Saude, Instituto de Electrotecnica e Energia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Luciano Gualberto, 1289, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-010, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Development of Palladium L-Edge X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy And Its Application for Chloropalladium Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a synchrotron-based experimental technique that provides information about geometric and electronic structures of transition metal complexes. Combination of metal L-edge and ligand K-edge XAS has the potential to define the complete experimental ground state electronic structures for metal complexes with unoccupied d manifolds. We developed a quantitative treatment for Pd L-edge spectroscopy on the basis of the well-established chlorine K-edge XAS for a series of chloropalladium complexes that are pre-catalysts in various organic transformations. We found that Pd-Cl bonds are highly covalent, such as 24 {+-} 2%, 34 {+-} 3%, and 48 {+-} 4% chloride 3p character for each Pd-Cl bond in [PdCl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}, [PdCl{sub 6}]{sup 2-}, and PdCl{sub 2}, respectively. Pd(2p {yields} 4d) transition dipole integrals of 20.8 (SSRL)/16.9 (ALS) eV and 14.1 (SSRL)/11.9 (ALS) eV were determined using various combinations of L-edges for Pd(II) and Pd(IV), respectively. Application of metal-ligand covalency and transition dipole integrals were demonstrated for the example of bridging chloride ligands in PdCl{sub 2}. Our work lays the foundation for extending the quantitative treatment to other catalytically important ligands, such as phosphine, phosphite, olefin, amine, and alkyl in order to correlate the electronic structures of palladium complexes with their catalytic activity.

Boysen, R.B.; Szilagyi, R.K.

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

166

Iron near absorption edge X-ray spectroscopy at aqueous-membrane interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Employing synchrotron X-ray scattering, we systematically determine the absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of iron in its ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) states both as ions in aqueous solutions and as they bind to form a single layer to anionic templates that consist of carboxyl or phosphate groups at aqueous/vapor interfaces. While the XANES of bulk iron ions show that the electronic state and coordination of iron complexes in the bulk are isotropic, the interfacial bound ions show a signature of a broken inversion-symmetry environment. The XANES of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the bulk possess distinct profiles however, upon binding they practically exhibit similar patterns. This indicates that both bound ions settle into a stable electronic and coordination configuration with an effective fractional valence (for example, Fe[2+nu]+, 0 < nu < 1) at charged organic templates. Such two dimensional properties may render interfacial iron, abundant in living organisms, a more efficient and versatile catalytic behavior.

Wang, Wenjie; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Vaknin, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Three-dimensional manipulation of electron beam phase space for seeding soft x-ray free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this letter, a simple technique is proposed to induce strong density modulation into the electron beam with small energy modulation. By using the combination of a transversely dispersed electron beam and a wave-front tilted seed laser, three-dimensional manipulation of the electron beam phase space can be utilized to significantly enhance the micro-bunching of seeded free-electron laser schemes, which will improve the performance and extend the short-wavelength range of a single-stage seeded free-electron laser. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in a soft x-ray free-electron laser.

Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Zhao, Zhentang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy of photoinduced insulator-metal transition in a colossal magnetoresistive manganite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We studied the ultrafast insulator-metal transition in a manganite by means of picosecond X-ray absorption at the O K- and Mn L-edges, probing photoinduced changes in O-2p and Mn-3d electronic states near the Fermi level.

Rini, M.; Tobey, R.; Wall, S.; Zhu, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Cavalleri, A.; Schoenlein, R.W.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption studies of model and bulk heterogeneous catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the surface structure of model heterogeneous catalysts in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). UV-Raman spectroscopy has been used to probe the structure of bulk model catalysts in ambient and reaction conditions. The structural information obtained through UV-Raman spectroscopy has been correlated with both the UHV surface analysis and reaction results. The present day propylene and ethylene polymerization catalysts (Ziegler-Natta catalysts) are prepared by deposition of TiCl{sub 4} and a Al(Et){sub 3} co-catalyst on a microporous Mg-ethoxide support that is prepared from MgCl{sub 2} and ethanol. A model thin film catalyst is prepared by depositing metallic Mg on a Au foil in a UHV chamber in a background of TiCl{sub 4} in the gas phase. XPS results indicate that the Mg is completely oxidized to MgCl{sub 2} by TiCl{sub 4} resulting in a thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x}, where x = 2, 3, and 4. To prepare an active catalyst, the thin film of MgCl{sub 2}/TiCl{sub x} on Au foil is enclosed in a high pressure cell contained within the UHV chamber and exposed to {approx}1 Torr of Al(Et){sub 3}.

Tewell, Craig R.

2002-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

170

Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

July 7, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science

Bob Schoenlein

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

171

Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

July 7, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science

Bob Schoenlein

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

172

Imaging X-ray spectroscopy with micro-X and Chandra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High spectral resolution observations of X-ray phenomena have the potential to uncover new physics. Currently, only point sources can be probed with high resolution spectra, using gratings. Extended objects like supernova ...

Rutherford, John (John Morton)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

X-ray afterglows and spectroscopy of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I will review the constraints set by X-ray measurements of afterglows on several issues of GRB, with particular regard to the fireball model, the environment, the progenitor and dark GRB.

Luigi Piro

2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

174

In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of gas/solidinterfaces at near-ambient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a quantitative, chemically specific technique with a probing depth of a few angstroms to a few nanometers. It is therefore ideally suited to investigate the chemical nature of the surfaces of catalysts. Because of the scattering of electrons by gas molecules, XPS is generally performed under vacuum conditions. However, for thermodynamic and/or kinetic reasons, the catalyst's chemical state observed under vacuum reaction conditions is not necessarily the same as that of a catalyst under realistic operating pressures. Therefore, investigations of catalysts should ideally be performed under reaction conditions, i.e., in the presence of a gas or gas mixtures. Using differentially pumped chambers separated by small apertures, XPS can operate at pressures of up to 1 Torr, and with a recently developed differentially pumped lens system, the pressure limit has been raised to about 10 Torr. Here, we describe the technical aspects of high-pressure XPS and discuss recent applications of this technique to oxidation and heterogeneous catalytic reactions on metal surfaces.

Bluhm, Hendrik; Havecker, Michael; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Kiskinova,Maya; Schlogl, Robert; Salmeron, Miquel

2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

176

Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB?SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB–SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non?destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB–SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three?dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V458 Vulpeculae with Suzaku  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conducted a target of opportunity X-ray observation of the classical nova V458 Vulpeculae 88 days after the explosion using the Suzaku satellite. With a 20 ks exposure, the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer detected X-ray emission significantly harder than typical super-soft source emission. The X-ray spectrum shows K lines from N, Ne, Mg, Si, and S, and L-series emission from Fe in highly ionized states. The spectrum can be described by a single temperature (0.64 keV) thin thermal plasma model in collisional equilibrium with a hydrogen-equivalent extinction column density of ~3e21/cm2, a flux of ~1e-12 erg/s/cm2, and a luminosity of ~6e34 erg/s in the 0.3-3.0 keV band at an assumed distance of 13 kpc. We found a hint of an enhancement of N and deficiencies of O and Fe relative to other metals. The observed X-ray properties can be interpreted as the emission arising from shocks of ejecta from an ONe-type nova.

Masahiro Tsujimoto; Dai Takei; Jeremy J. Drake; Jan-Uwe Ness; Shunji Kitamoto

2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

178

X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Classical Nova V458 Vulpeculae with Suzaku  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We conducted a target of opportunity X-ray observation of the classical nova V458 Vulpeculae 88 days after the explosion using the Suzaku satellite. With a 20 ks exposure, the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer detected X-ray emission significantly harder than typical super-soft source emission. The X-ray spectrum shows K lines from N, Ne, Mg, Si, and S, and L-series emission from Fe in highly ionized states. The spectrum can be described by a single temperature (0.64 keV) thin thermal plasma model in collisional equilibrium with a hydrogen-equivalent extinction column density of ~3e21/cm2, a flux of ~1e-12 erg/s/cm2, and a luminosity of ~6e34 erg/s in the 0.3-3.0 keV band at an assumed distance of 13 kpc. We found a hint of an enhancement of N and deficiencies of O and Fe relative to other metals. The observed X-ray properties can be interpreted as the emission arising from shocks of ejecta from an ONe-type nova.

Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Drake, Jeremy J; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Kitamoto, Shunji

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

1,3-Alternate calix[4]arene nitronyl nitroxide tetraradical and diradical: synthesis, X-ray crystallography, paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy, and magnetic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Calix[4]arenes constrained to 1,3-alternate conformation and functionalized at the upper rim with four and two nitronyl nitroxides have been synthesized, and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, and magnetic studies. Such calix[4]arene tetraradicals and diradicals provide scaffolds for through-bond and through-space intramolecular exchange couplings.

Rajca, Andrzej; Pink, Maren; Mukherjee, Sumit; Rajca, Suchada; Das, Kausik (UNL); (Indiana)

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

180

Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V. [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech—CNRS UMR7639—École Polytechnique ParisTech, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)] [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée, ENSTA ParisTech—CNRS UMR7639—École Polytechnique ParisTech, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Double core-hole spectroscopy of transient plasmas produced in the interaction of ultraintense x-ray pulses with neon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Double core-hole (DCH) spectroscopy is investigated systematically for neon atomic system in the interaction with ultraintense x-ray pulses with photon energy from 937 eV to 2000 eV. A time-dependent rate equation, implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation, is utilized to study the dynamical evolution of the level population and emission properties of the highly transient plasmas. For x-ray pulses with photon energy in the range of 937-1030 eV, where $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonance absorption from single core-hole (SCH) states of neon charge states exist, inner-shell resonant absorption (IRA) effects play important roles in the time evolution of population and DCH spectroscopy. Such IRA physical effects are illustrated in detail by investigating the interaction of x-ray pulses at a photon energy of 944 eV, which corresponds to the $1s\\rightarrow 2p$ resonant absorption from the SCH states ($1s2s^22p^4$, $1s2s2p^5$ and $1s2p^6$) of Ne$^{3+}$. After averaging over the space and time distribution o...

Gao, Cheng; Yuan, Jianmin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy with the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) is a production-class 36 pixel x-ray calorimeter spectrometer that has been continuously operating at the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for almost 2 years. The ECS was designed to be a long-lifetime, turn-key spectrometer that couples high performance with ease of operation and minimal operator intervention. To this end, a variant of the Suzaku/XRS spaceflight detector system has been coupled to a low-maintenance cryogenic system consisting of a long-lifetime liquid He cryostat, and a closed cycle, {sup 3}He pre-cooled adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The ECS operates for almost 3 weeks between cryogenic servicing and the ADR operates at 0.05 K for more than 60 hours between automatic recycles under software control. Half of the ECS semiconductor detector array is populated with mid-band pixels that have a resolution of 4.5 eV FWHM, a bandpass from 0.05-12 keV, and a quantum efficiency of 95% at 6 keV. The other half of the array has thick HgTe absorbers that have a bandpass from 0.3 to over 100 keV, an energy resolution of 33 eV FWHM, and a quantum efficiency of 32% at 60 keV. In addition, the ECS uses a real-time, autonomous, data collection and analysis system developed for the Suzaku/XRS instrument and implemented in off-the-shelf hardware for the ECS. Here we will discuss the performance of the ECS instrument and its implementation as a turnkey cryogenic detector system.

Porter, F S; Adams, J S; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Clementson, J; Frankel, M; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Suzaku Spectroscopy Study of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Arches Cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of a Suzaku study of the Arches cluster. A high S/N spectrum in the 3-12 keV band was obtained with the XIS. We found that the spectrum consists of a thermal plasma, a hard power-law tail, and two Gaussian lines. The plasma component (kT~2.2 keV) is established from the presence of CaXIX and FeXXV K alpha lines as well as the absence of FeXXVI K alpha line. The two Gaussian lines represent the K alpha and beta lines from iron at lower ionization stages. Both the line centers and the intensity ratio of these two lines are consistent with the neutral iron. The hard power-law tail (index~0.7) was found to have no pronounced iron K edge feature. In comparison with the published Chandra spectra, we conclude that the thermal component is from the ensemble of point-like sources plus thermal diffuse emission concentrated at the cluster center, while the Gaussian and the hard tail components are from the non-thermal diffuse emission extended in a larger scale. In the band-limited XIS images, the distribution of the 7.5-10.0 keV emission resembles that of the 6.4 keV emission. This strongly suggests that the power-law emission is related to the 6.4 and 7.1 keV lines in the underlying physics. We discuss two ideas to explain both the hard continuum and the lines: (1) X-ray photoionization that produces fluorescence lines and the Thomson scattering continuum and (2) non-thermal electron impact ionization of iron atoms and bremsstrahlung continuum. But whichever scenario is adopted, the photon or particle flux from the Arches cluster is too low to account for the observed line and continuum intensity.

M. Tsujimoto; Y. Hyodo; K. Koyama

2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

184

Multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy of valence and core excitations in Jason D. Biggs, Yu Zhang, Daniel Healion, and Shaul Mukamel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy of valence and core excitations in cysteine Jason D. Biggs, Yu and core excitations in cysteine Jason D. Biggs, Yu Zhang, Daniel Healion, and Shaul Mukamela) Department

Mukamel, Shaul

185

Transient X-ray pulsar V0332+53: pulse phase-resolved spectroscopy and the reflection model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of the pulse phase- and luminosity-resolved spectroscopy of the transient X-ray pulsar V0332+53, performed for the first time in a wide luminosity range (1-40)x10^{37} erg/s during a giant outburst observed by the RXTE observatory in Dec 2004 - Feb 2005. We characterize the spectra quantitatively and built the detailed "three-dimensional" picture of spectral variations with pulse phase and throughout the outburst. We show that all spectral parameters are strongly variable with the pulse phase, and the pattern of this variability significantly changes with luminosity directly reflecting the associated changes in the structure of emission regions and their beam patterns. Obtained results are qualitatively discussed in terms of the recently developed reflection model for the formation of cyclotron lines in the spectra of X-ray pulsars.

Lutovinov, A A; Suleimanov, V F; Mushtukov, A A; Doroshenko, V; Nagirner, D I; Poutanen, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

Nishimura, K., E-mail: nishim11@nuclear.es.kit.ac.jp; Sanpei, A., E-mail: sanpei@kit.ac.jp; Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S. [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

188

Probing the electronic structure of graphene sheets with various thicknesses by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure of an aggregation of graphene sheets with various thicknesses was probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. A uniform oxidation of the graphene sheets in the flat area was observed regardless of the thickness, while in the folded area the result could be strongly affected by the geometry. Moreover, thick parts of the aggregation showed strong angle-dependence to the incident X-ray, while thin parts showed less angle-dependence, which might be related to the surface wrinkles and ripples. The electronic structure differences due to the geometry and thickness suggest a complicated situation in the aggregation of graphene sheets.

Bai, Lili; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Double-core excitations in formamide can be probed by X-ray double-quantum-coherence spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The attosecond, time-resolved X-ray double-quantum-coherence four-wave mixing signals of formamide at the nitrogen and oxygen K-edges are simulated using restricted excitation window time-dependent density functional theory and the excited core hole approximation. These signals, induced by core exciton coupling, are particularly sensitive to the level of treatment of electron correlation, thus providing direct experimental signatures of electron and core-hole many-body effects and a test of electronic structure theories.

Zhang Yu; Healion, Daniel; Biggs, Jason D.; Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, 450 Rowland Hall, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

2013-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

190

Evidence of High Harmonics from Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation for Seeding X-ray Free Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.

Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; /SLAC; ,

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy from ions at charged vapor/water interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray fluorescence spectra from monovalent ions (Cs+) that accumulate from dilute solutions to form an ion-rich layer near a charged Langmuir monolayer are presented. For the salt solution without the monolayer, the fluorescence signals below the critical angle are significantly lower than the detection sensitivity and only above the critical angle signals from the bulk are observed. In the presence of a monolayer that provides surface charges, strong fluorescence signals below the critical angle are observed. Ion density accumulated at the interface are determined from the fluorescence. The fluorescent spectra collected as a function of incident x-ray energy near the LIII edge yield the extended absorption spectra from the ions, and are compared to recent independent results. The fluorescence data from divalent Ba2+ with and without monolayer are also presented.

Wei Bu; David Vaknin

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Cs-Exchange in Birnessite: Raction Mechanisms Inferred from Time-Resolved X-ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have explored the exchange of Cs for interlayer Na in birnessite using several techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). Our goal was to test which of two possible exchange mechanisms is operative during the reaction: (1) diffusion of cations in and out of the interlayer or (2) dissolution of Na-birnessite and reprecipitation of Cs-birnessite. The appearance of distinct XRD peaks for Na- and Cs-rich phases in partially exchanged samples offered support for a simple diffusion model, but it was inconsistent with the compositional and crystallographic homogeneity of (Na,Cs)-birnessite platelets from core to rim as ascertained by TEM. Time-resolved XRD revealed systematic changes in the structure of the emergent Cs-rich birnessite phase during exchange, in conflict with a dissolution and reprecipitation model. Instead, we propose that exchange occurred by sequential delamination of Mn oxide octahedral sheets. Exfoliation of a given interlayer region allowed for wholesale replacement of Na by Cs and was rapidly followed by reassembly. This model accounts for the rapidity of metal exchange in birnessite, the co-existence of distinct Na- and Cs-birnessite phases during the process of exchange, and the uniformly mixed Na- and Cs-compositions ascertained from point analyses by selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy of partially exchanged grains.

Lopano, C.; Heaney, P; Post, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

194

High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a survey of six low- to moderate-redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the warm-hot intergalactic ...

Fang, Taotao

195

SYNCHROTRON X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY, ELECTRON PROBE MICROANALYSIS, AND NMR OF TOLUENE WASTE IN CEMENT.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron X-ray microtomography shows vesicular structures for toluene/cement mixtures, prepared with 1.22 to 3.58 wt% toluene. Three-dimensional imaging of the cured samples shows spherical vesicles, with diameters ranging from 20 to 250 {micro}m; a search with EPMA for vesicles in the range of 1-20 {micro}m proved negative. However, the total vesicle volume, as computed from the microtomography images, accounts for less than 10% of initial toluene. Since the cements were cured in sealed bottles, the larger portion of toluene must be dispersed within the cement matrix. Evidence for toluene in the cement matrix comes from {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, which shows a reduction in chain silicates with added toluene. Also, {sup 2}H NMR of d{sub 8}-toluene/cement samples shows high mobility for all, toluene and thus no toluene/cement binding. A model that accounts for all observations follows: For loadings below about 3 wt%, most toluene is dispersed in the cement matrix, with a small fraction of the initial toluene phase separating from the cement paste and forming vesicular structures that are preserved in the cured cement. Furthermore, at loadings above 3 wt%, the abundance of vesicles formed during toluene/cement paste mixing leads to macroscopic phase separation (most toluene floats to the surface of the cement paste).

BUTLER,L.G.

1999-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

196

Subnanometer-Scale Measurements of the Interaction of Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Pulses with Matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lengths greater than 3 A° . This experiment demonstrates that with intense ultrafast pulses, structuralSubnanometer-Scale Measurements of the Interaction of Ultrafast Soft X-Ray Free-Electron-Laser Pulses with Matter Stefan P. Hau-Riege,1,* Henry N. Chapman,1 Jacek Krzywinski,2 Ryszard Sobierajski,2

von der Linde, D.

197

R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several recent reports have identified the scientific requirements for a future soft x-ray light source, and a high-repetition-rate free-electron laser (FEL) facility that is responsive to these requirements is now on the horizon. R&D in some critical areas is needed, however, to demonstrate technical performance, thus reducing technical risks and construction costs. Such a facility most likely will be based on a CW superconducting linear accelerator with beam supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun operating in CW mode, and on an array of FELs to which the accelerated beam is distributed, each operating at high repetition rate and with even pulse spacing. Dependent on experimental requirements, the individual FELs can be configured for either self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), seeded, or oscillator mode of operation, including the use of high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG), echo-enhanced harmonic generation (EEHG), harmonic cascade, or other configurations. In this White Paper we identify the overall accelerator R&D needs, and highlight the most important pre-construction R&D tasks required to value-engineer the design configuration and deliverables for such a facility. In Section 1.4 we identify the comprehensive R&D ultimately needed. We identify below the highest-priority requirements for understanding machine performance and reduce risk and costs at this pre-conceptual design stage. Details of implementing the required tasks will be the subject of future evaluation. Our highest-priority R&D program is the injector, which must be capable of delivering a beam with bunches up to a nanocoulomb at MHz repetition rate and with normalized emittance {le} 1 mm {center_dot} mrad. This will require integrated accelerating structure, cathode, and laser systems development. Cathode materials will impact the choice of laser technology in wavelength and energy per pulse, as well as vacuum requirements in the accelerating structure. Demonstration experiments in advanced seeding techniques, such as EEHG, and other optical manipulations to enhance the FEL process are required to reduce technical risk in producing temporally coherent and ultrashort x-ray output using optical seed lasers. Success of EEHG in particular would result in reduced development and cost of laser systems and accelerator hardware for seeded FELs. With a 1.5-2.5 GeV linac, FELs could operate in the VUV-soft x-ray range, where the actual beam energy will be determined by undulator technology; for example, to use the lower energy would require the use of advanced designs for which undulator R&D is needed. Significant reductions in both unit costs and accelerator costs resulting from the lower electron beam energy required to achieve lasing at a particular wavelength could be obtained with undulator development. Characterization of the wakefields of the vacuum chambers in narrow-gap undulators will be needed to minimize risk in ability to deliver close to transform limited pulses. CW superconducting RF technology for an FEL facility with short bunches at MHz rate and up to mA average current will require selection of design choices in cavity frequency and geometry, higher order mode suppression and power dissipation, RF power supply and distribution, accelerating gradient, and cryogenics systems. R&D is needed to define a cost and performance optimum. Developments in laser technology are proceeding at rapid pace, and progress in high-power lasers, harmonic generation, and tunable sources will need to be tracked.

Corlett, John; Attwood, David; Byrd, John; Denes, Peter; Falcone, Roger; Heimann, Phil; Leemans, Wim; Padmore, Howard; Prestemon, Soren; Sannibale, Fernando; Schlueter, Ross; Schroeder, Carl; Staples, John; Venturini, Marco; Warwick, Tony; Wells, Russell; Wilcox, Russell; Zholent, Alexander; Adolphsen, Chris; Arthur, John; Bergmann, Uwe; Cai, Yunhai; Colby, Eric; Dowell, David; Emma, Paul; Fox, John; Frisch, Josef; Galayda, John; Hettel, Robert; Huang, Zhirong; Phinney, Nan; Rabedeau, Tom; Raubenheimer, Tor; Reis, David; Schmerge, John; St& #246; hr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; White, Bill; Xiang, Dao

2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

198

Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

199

Transverse pulse shaping and optimization of a tapered hard X-ray free electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidimensional optimization schemes for TW hard X-Ray free electron lasers are applied to the cases of transversely uniform and parabolic electron beam distributions and compared to examples of transversely Gaussian beams. The optimizations are performed for a $200$m undulator and a resonant wavelength of $\\lambda_r=1.5\\AA $ using the fully 3-dimensional FEL particle code GENESIS. Time dependent simulations showed that the maximum radiation power is larger for flatter transverse distributions due to enhanced optical guiding in the tapered section of the undulator. For a transversely Gaussian beam the maximum output power was found to be $\\text{P}_{max}$=$1.56$ TW compared to $2.26$ TW for the parabolic case and $2.63$ TW for the uniform case. Spectral data also showed a 30-70$\\%$ reduction in energy deposited in the sidebands for the uniform and parabolic beams compared with a Gaussian. An analysis of the maximum power as a function of detuning from resonance shows that redshifting the central wavelength by...

Emma, Claudio; Wu, Juhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share AlternativeRightAlvaroX-ray, and its

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Curry Arsenic Poisoning Case Anthony T. TU and Jun KAWAI #12 80523, U. S. A. 606-8501 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama-8 X-ray fluorescence analysis was the key scientific evidence for the forensic analysis

Jun, Kawai

202

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore #12;What is the mechanism by which massive stars produce x-rays? New results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory ­ high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy: measuring Doppler broadening in emission lines Testing

Cohen, David

203

R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wavelength seed, and ultrafast pulses. Understanding gainedlasers to produce ultrafast x-ray pulses at the ALS in a “is home to the PULSE Institute for ultrafast energy science,

Staples, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

12.141 Electron Microprobe Analysis by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry, January IAP 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This lab-oriented course introduces the student to the subject of X-ray spectrometry and micro-scale chemical quantitative analysis of solid samples through an intensive series of hands-on laboratory exercises that use the ...

Chatterjee, Nilanjan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric electron-induced x-ray Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Descended into the atmosphere on April 4 1982 12;Ivan De Mitri VHE... 1day Gamma Ray Bursts The X-ray counterpart detection with better pointing accuracy instruments......

206

Coronal Evolution of the Sun in Time: High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Solar Analogs with Different Ages  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(abridged) We investigate the long-term evolution of X-ray coronae of solar analogs based on high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and photometry with XMM-Newton. Six nearby main-sequence G stars with ages between ~0.1 Gyr and \\~1.6 Gyr and rotation periods between ~1d and 12.4d have been observed. We derive coronal element abundances and the coronal emission measure distribution (EMD). The abundances change from an inverse-First Ionization Potential (FIP) distribution in stars with ages around 0.1 Gyr to a solar-type FIP distribution in stars at ages of 0.3 Gyr and beyond. The coronal EMDs show shapes characterized by power-laws on each side of the EMD peak. The latter shifts from temperatures of about 10 MK in the most rapidly rotating, young stars to temperatures around 4 MK in the oldest target considered here. The power-law index on the cooler side of the EMD exceeds expected slopes for static loops, with typical values being 1.5-3. We interpret this slope with a model in which the coronal emission is due to a superposition of stochastically occurring flares, with an occurrence rate that is distributed in radiated energy E as a power-law, dN/dE ~ E^-a. Our EMDs indicate a ~ 2.2-2.8, in excellent agreement with values previously derived from light curves of magnetically active stars. We derive the range of flare energies required to explain the light-curve modulation. In an overall scenario, we propose that flaring activity plays a larger role in more active stars. In this model, the higher flare rate is responsible both for the higher average coronal temperature and the high coronal X-ray luminosity, two parameters that are indeed found to be correlated.

A. Telleschi; M. Guedel; K. Briggs; M. Audard; J. -U. Ness; S. L. Skinner

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy of a magnetic octupole transition in nickel-like xenon, cesium, and barium ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microcalorimeter with event mode capability for time-resolved soft-x-ray spectroscopy, and a high-resolution flat-field EUV spectrometer have been employed at the Livermore EBIT-I electron beam ion trap for observations and wavelength measurements of M1, E2, and M3 decays of long-lived levels in the Ni-like ions Xe{sup 26+}, Cs{sup 27+}, and Ba{sup 28+}. Of particular interest is the lowest excited level, 3d{sup 9}4s {sup 3}D{sub 3}, which can only decay via a magnetic octupole (M3) transition. For this level in Xe an excitation energy of (590.40 {+-} 0.03eV) and a level lifetime of (11.5 {+-} 0.5 ms) have been determined.

Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Boyce, K; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Szymkowiak, A

2005-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Femtosecond laser-induced modification of potassium-magnesium silicate glasses: An analysis of structural changes by near edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation on the glass structure of alkaline silicate glasses were investigated by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy using the beamline of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the electron synchrotron BESSY II in Berlin (Germany) by analyzing the magnesium K-edge absorption peak for different laser fluences. The application of fluences above the material modification threshold (2.1 J/cm{sup 2}) leads to a characteristic shift of {approx}1.0 eV in the K-edge revealing a reduced ({approx}3%) mean magnesium bond length to the ligated oxygen ions (Mg-O) along with a reduced average coordination number of the Mg ions.

Seuthe, T.; Eberstein, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme (IKTS), Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Hoefner, M.; Eichler, H. J.; Grehn, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Reinhardt, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Tsai, W. J. [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 8 Gongyan Rd., Liu-jia District, Tainan City 73445, Taiwan (China); Bonse, J. [BAM Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und - pruefung, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600?°C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.

Benkert, A., E-mail: andreas.benkert@kit.edu, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Blum, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Meyer, F. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilks, R. G. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yang, W. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bär, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Insitut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); and others

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Auto-oligomerization and hydration of pyrrole revealed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra have been measured at the carbon and nitrogen K-edges of the prototypical aromatic molecule, pyrrole, both in the gas phase and when solvated in water, and compared with spectra simulated using a combination of classical molecular dynamics and first principles density functional theory in the excited state core hole approximation. The excellent agreement enabled detailed assignments. Pyrrole is highly reactive, particularly in water, and reaction products formed by the auto-oligomerization of pyrrole are identified. The solvated spectra have been measured at two different temperatures, indicating that the final states remain largely unaffected by both hydration and temperature. This is somewhat unexpected, since the nitrogen in pyrrole can donate a hydrogen bond to water.

Advanced Light Source; Schwartz, Craig P.; Uejio, Janel S.; Duffin, Andrew M.; England, Alice H.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Study Ligand Valence Orbitals in Mn Coordination Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a spectroscopic method to determine the character of chemical bonding and for the identification of metal ligands in coordination and bioinorganic chemistry. It is based on the analysis of satellite lines in X-ray emission spectra that arise from transitions between valence orbitals and the metal ion 1s level (valence-to-core XES). The spectra, in connection with calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), provide information that is complementary to other spectroscopic techniques, in particular X-ray absorption (XANES and EXAFS). The spectral shape is sensitive to protonation of ligands and allows ligands, which differ only slightly in atomic number (e.g., C, N, O...), to be distinguished. A theoretical discussion of the main spectral features is presented in terms of molecular orbitals for a series of Mn model systems: [Mn(H2O)6]2+, [Mn(H2O)5OH]+, [Mn(H2O)5NH2]+, and [Mn(H2O)5NH3]2+. An application of the method, with comparison between theory and experiment, is presented for the solvated Mn2+ ion in water and three Mn coordination complexes, namely [LMn(acac)N3]BPh4, [LMn(B2O3Ph2)(ClO4)], and [LMn(acac)N]BPh4, where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, acac stands for the 2,4-pentanedionate anion, and B2O3Ph2 represents the 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-dibora-2-oxapropane-1,3-diolato dianion.

Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Messinger, Johannes; Merz, Kathrin; Weyhermuller, Thomas; Bergmann, Uwe; Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Glatzel, Pieter

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

212

INJECTION AND ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS AT A STRONG SHOCK: RADIO AND X-RAY STUDY OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA 2011dh  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we develop a model for the radio and X-ray emissions from the Type IIb supernova (SN IIb) 2011dh in the first 100 days after the explosion, and investigate a spectrum of relativistic electrons accelerated at a strong shock wave. The widely accepted theory of particle acceleration, the so-called diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) or Fermi mechanism, requires seed electrons with modest energy with {gamma} {approx} 1-100, and little is known about this pre-acceleration mechanism. We derive the energy distribution of relativistic electrons in this pre-accelerated energy regime. We find that the efficiency of the electron acceleration must be low, i.e., {epsilon}{sub e} {approx}< 10{sup -2} as compared to the conventionally assumed value of {epsilon}{sub e} {approx} 0.1. Furthermore, independent of the low value of {epsilon}{sub e}, we find that the X-ray luminosity cannot be attributed to any emission mechanisms suggested as long as these electrons follow the conventionally assumed single power-law distribution. A consistent view between the radio and X-ray can only be obtained if the pre-acceleration injection spectrum peaks at {gamma} {approx} 20-30 and then only a fraction of these electrons eventually experience the DSA-like acceleration toward the higher energy-then the radio and X-ray properties are explained through the synchrotron and inverse Compton mechanisms, respectively. Our findings support the idea that the pre-acceleration of the electrons is coupled with the generation/amplification of the magnetic field.

Maeda, Keiichi, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli-IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

213

In operando observation system for electrochemical reaction by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy with potential modulation method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to investigate local structures of electrolytes in electrochemical reactions under the same scan rate as a typical value 100 mV/s in cyclic voltammetry (CV), we have developed an in operando observation system for electrochemical reactions by soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a potential modulation method. XAS spectra of electrolytes are measured by using a transmission-type liquid flow cell with built-in electrodes. The electrode potential is swept with a scan rate of 100 mV/s at a fixed photon energy, and soft X-ray absorption coefficients at different potentials are measured at the same time. By repeating the potential modulation at each fixed photon energy, it is possible to measure XAS of electrochemical reaction at the same scan rate as in CV. We have demonstrated successful measurement of the Fe L-edge XAS spectra of aqueous iron sulfate solutions and of the change in valence of Fe ions at different potentials in the Fe redox reaction. The mechanism of these Fe redox processes is discussed by correlating the XAS results with those at different scan rates.

Nagasaka, Masanari, E-mail: nagasaka@ims.ac.jp; Kosugi, Nobuhiro [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Yuzawa, Hayato; Horigome, Toshio [Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

2003-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

216

Resource Letter on Stimulated Inelastic X-ray Scattering at an XFEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At sufficient X-ray intensity, stimulated effects in inelastic scattering will become important. These coherent, non-linear optical phenomena may be used to impulsively produce a high degree of collective excitation in, for example, correlated electron materials, suitable for performing ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. This Resource Letter collects information on fundamental aspects of stimulated X-ray scattering and evaluates the prospect for successful experiments at a present or future X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility.

Patterson, Bruce

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

217

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of para-substituted benzoic acids chemisorbed to aluminum oxide thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of para-substituted, halogenated (F, Cl, Br, and I) benzoic acid monolayers were prepared on the native oxide of aluminum surfaces by solution self-assembly and spin-coating techniques. The monolayers were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angles. Several general trends are apparent. First, the polarity of the solvent is critical to monolayer formation. Protic polar solvents produced low coverage monolayers; in contrast, nonpolar solvents produced higher coverage monolayers. Second, solution deposition yields a higher surface coverage than spin coating. Third, the thickness of the monolayers determined from XPS suggests the plane of the aromatic ring is perpendicular to the surface with the carboxylate functional group most likely binding in a bidentate chelating geometry. Fourth, the saturation coverage (?2.7 × 10{sup 14} molecules cm{sup ?2}) is independent of the para-substituent.

Kreil, Justin; Ellingsworth, Edward; Szulczewski, Greg [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Shelby Hall, 250 Hackberry Lane, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The University of Alabama, Shelby Hall, 250 Hackberry Lane, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Phosphorus determination in borophosphosilicate or phosphosilicate glass films on a Si wafer by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, peak shift effects in the SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) system due to chemical bonding are demonstrated. The detailed development of the equations appears in a paper submitted for publication in the Journal of X-ray Spectroscopy. These equations are for the spectral line intensity of Si and P from BPSG films and from the Si in the Si(100) substrate. They are subsequently integrated into two simultaneous equations that can be solved for the phosphorus content and the surface density by a computer program using iterative methods. The general expressions for the BPSG films and the computer program are also applicable to PSG films by setting the boron content to zero. The new procedure was then tested by analysis of a well-defined and carefully prepared set of PSG wafer samples. Preliminary analyses were also made on BPSG wafers. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Levine, H.S.; Higgins, K.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Spectrum bandwidth narrowing of Thomson scattering X-rays with energy chirped electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90° Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of the scattered radiation.

Xu, Tong; Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

220

Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

In-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis of capacity fade in nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The local structure of nanoscale (?10–40 nm) LiCoO{sub 2} is monitored during electrochemical cycling utilizing in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The high surface area of the LiCoO{sub 2} nanoparticles not only enhances capacity fade, but also provides a large signal from the particle surface relative to the bulk. Changes in the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} metal-oxide bond lengths, structural disorder, and chemical state are tracked during cycling by adapting the delta mu (??) technique in complement with comprehensive extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling. For the first time, we use a ?? EXAFS method, and by comparison of the difference EXAFS spectra, extrapolate significant coordination changes and reduction of cobalt species with cycling. This combined approach suggests Li–Co site exchange at the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} as a likely factor in the capacity fade and irreversible losses in practical, microscale LiCoO{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical cycling of Li-ion batteries has strong impact on the structure and integrity of the cathode active material particularly near the surface/electrolyte interface. In developing a new method, we have used in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy during electrochemical cycling of nanoscale LiCoO{sub 2} to track changes during charge and discharge and between subsequent cycles. Using difference spectra, several small changes in Co-O bond length, Co-O and Co-Co coordination, and site exchange between Co and Li sites can be tracked. These methods show promise as a new technique to better understand processes which lead to capacity fade and loss in Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: • A new method is developed to understand capacity fade in Li-ion battery cathodes. • Structural changes are tracked during Li intercalation/deintercalation of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Surface structural changes are emphasized using nanoscale-LiCoO{sub 2} and difference spectra. • Full multiple scattering calculations are used to support ?? analysis.

Patridge, Christopher J. [NRC/NRL Cooperative Research Associate, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Love, Corey T., E-mail: corey.love@nrl.navy.mil [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Swider-Lyons, Karen E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6113, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Twigg, Mark E. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Code 6812, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ramaker, David E. [Chemistry Division, Code 6189, U.S. Naval Research laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

223

X-ray and EUV Spectroscopy of the Boundary Layer Emission of Nonmagnetic Cataclysmic Variables  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EUVE, ROSAT, and ASCA observations of the boundary layer emission of nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) are reviewed. EUVE spectra reveal that the effective temperature of the soft component of high-Mdot nonmagnetic CVs is kT ~ 10-20 eV and that its luminosity is ~ 0.1-0.5 times the accretion disk luminosity. Although the EUV spectra are very complex and belie simple interpretation, the physical conditions of the boundary layer gas are constrained by emission lines of highly ionized Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. ROSAT and ASCA spectra of the hard component of nonmagnetic CVs are satisfactorily but only phenomenologically described by multi-temperature thermal plasmas, and the constraints imposed on the physical conditions of this gas are limited by the relatively weak and blended lines. It is argued that significant progress in our understanding of the X-ray spectra of nonmagnetic CVs will come with future observations with XMM, AXAF, and Astro-E.

Christopher W. Mauche

1997-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

Coupling MD Simulations and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Ions in Solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of ionic solutions is a key-point in understanding physicochemical properties of electrolyte solutions. Among the reduced number of experimental techniques which can supply direct information on the ion environment, X-ray Absorption techniques (XAS) have gained importance during the last decades although they are not free of difficulties associated to the data analysis leading to provide reliable structures. Computer simulations of ions in solution is a theoretical alternative to provide information on the solvation structure. Thus, the use of computational chemistry can increase the understanding of these systems although an accurate description of ionic solvation phenomena represents nowadays a significant challenge to theoretical chemistry. We present: (a) the assignment of features in the XANES spectrum to well defined structural motif in the ion environment, (b) MD-based evaluation of EXAFS parameters used in the fitting procedure to make easier the structural resolution, and (c) the use of the agreement between experimental and simulated XANES spectra to help in the choice of a given intermolecular potential for Computer Simulations. Chemical problems examined are: (a) the identification of the second hydration shell in dilute aqueous solutions of highly-charged cations, such as Cr{sup 3+}, Rh{sup 3+}, Ir{sup 3+}, (b) the invisibility by XAS of certain structures characterized by Computer Simulations but exhibiting high dynamical behavior and (c) the solvation of Br{sup -} in acetonitrile.

Marcos, E. Sanchez; Beret, E. C.; Martinez, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. R. [University of Seville, Dept. of Physical Chemistry (Spain); Ayala, R.; Munoz-Paez, A. [University of Seville, CSIC-ICMSE. Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry (Spain)

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

225

Experimental Demonstration of a Soft X-ray Self-seeded Free-electron Laser  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has added self-seeding capability to the soft x-ray range using a grating monochromator system. We report demonstration of soft x-ray self-seeding with a measured resolving power of 2000-5000, wavelength stability of 10-4, and an increase in peak brightness by a factor of 2-5 across the photon energy range of 500-1000 eV. By avoiding the need for a monochromator at the experimental station, the self-seeded beam can deliver as much as 50 fold higher brightness to users.

Ratner, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Abela, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Amann, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Behrens, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bohler, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bostedt, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Boyes, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chow, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cocco, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Decker, F. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ding, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Eckman, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Emma, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fairley, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Feng, Y. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Field, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flechsig, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gassner, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Heimann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kelez, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krzywinski, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lutman, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marinelli, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Marcus, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Moeller, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Morton, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nuhn, H. D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rodes, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlotter, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Serkez, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stevens, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Welch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Multiple pulse thermal damage thresholds of materials for x-ray free electron laser optics investigated with an ultraviolet laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical elements to be used for x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) must withstand multiple high-fluence pulses. We have used an ultraviolet laser to study the damage of two candidate materials, crystalline Si and B{sub 4}C-coated Si, emulating the temperature profile expected to occur in optics exposed to XFEL pulses. We found that the damage threshold for 10{sup 5} pulses is {approx}20% to 70% lower than the melting threshold.

Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; London, Richard A.; Bionta, Richard M.; Soufli, Regina; Ryutov, Dmitri; Shirk, Michael; Baker, Sherry L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94539 (United States); Smith, Patrick M.; Nataraj, Pradeep [Kovio, Inc., 1145 Sonora Court, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Resonant soft X-ray emission spectroscopy of vanadium oxides andrelated compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In today's information world, bits of data are processed by semiconductor chips, and stored in the magnetic disk drives. But tomorrow's information technology may see magnetism (spin) and semiconductivity (charge) combined in one ''spintronic'' device that exploits both charge and ''spin'' to carry data (the best of two worlds). Spintronic devices such as spin valve transistors, spin light emitting diodes, non-volatile memory, logic devices, optical isolators and ultra-fast optical switches are some of the areas of interest for introducing the ferromagnetic properties at room temperature in a semiconductor to make it multifunctional. The potential advantages of such spintronic devices will be higher speed, greater efficiency, and better stability at a reduced power consumption. This Thesis contains two main topics: In-depth understanding of magnetism in Mn doped ZnO, and our search and identification of at least six new above room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. Both complex doped ZnO based new materials, as well as a number of nonoxides like phosphides, and sulfides suitably doped with Mn or Cu are shown to give rise to ferromagnetism above room temperature. Some of the highlights of this work are discovery of room temperature ferromagnetism in: (1) ZnO:Mn (paper in Nature Materials, Oct issue, 2003); (2) ZnO doped with Cu (containing no magnetic elements in it); (3) GaP doped with Cu (again containing no magnetic elements in it); (4) Enhancement of Magnetization by Cu co-doping in ZnO:Mn; and (5) CdS doped with Mn, and a few others not reported in this thesis. We discuss in detail the first observation of ferromagnetism above room temperature in the form of powder, bulk pellets, in 2-3 {micro}m thick transparent pulsed laser deposited films of the Mn (< 4 at.%) doped ZnO. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra recorded from 2 to 200nm areas showed homogeneous distribution of Mn substituting for Zn a 2{sup +} state in the ZnO lattice. Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) technique is used to confirm the existence of ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures as high as 425K. The ab initio calculations were found to be consistent with the observation of ferromagnetism arising from fully polarized Mn 2{sup +} state. The key to observed room temperature ferromagnetism in this system is the low temperature processing, which prevents formation of clusters, secondary phases and the host ZnO from becoming n-type. The electronic structure of the same Mn doped ZnO thin films studied using XAS, XES and RIXS. revealed a strong hybridization between Mn 3d and O 2p states, which is an important characteristic of a Dilute magnetic Semiconductor (DMS). It is shown that the various processing conditions like sintering temperature, dopant concentration and the properties of precursors used for making of DMS have a great influence on the final properties. Use of various experimental techniques to verify the physical properties, and to understand the mechanism involved to give rise to ferromagnetism is presented. Methods to improve the magnetic moment in Mn doped ZnO are also described. New promising DMS materials (such as Cu doped ZnO are explored). The demonstrated new capability to fabricate powder, pellets, and thin films of room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors thus makes possible the realization of a wide range of complex elements for a variety of new multifunctional phenomena related to Spintronic devices as well as magneto-optic components.

Schmitt, Thorsten

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Identifies Calcium-Uranyl-Carbonate Complexes at Environmental Concentrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current research on bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater focuses on supplying indigenous metal-reducing bacteria with the appropriate metabolic requirements to induce microbiological reduction of soluble uranium(VI) to poorly soluble uranium(IV). Recent studies of uranium(VI) bioreduction in the presence of environmentally relevant levels of calcium revealed limited and slowed uranium(VI) reduction and the formation of a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex. However, the stoichiometry of the complex is poorly defined and may be complicated by the presence of a Na-UO2-CO3 complex. Such a complex might exist even at high calcium concentrations, as some UO2-CO3 complexes will still be present. The number of calcium and/or sodium atoms coordinated to a uranyl carbonate complex will determine the net charge of the complex. Such a change in aqueous speciation of uranium(VI) in calcareous groundwater may affect the fate and transport properties of uranium. In this paper, we present the results from X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements of a series of solutions containing 50 lM uranium(VI) and 30 mM sodium bicarbonate, with various calcium concentrations of 0-5 mM. Use of the data series reduces the uncertainty in the number of calcium atoms bound to the UO2-CO3 complex to approximately 0.6 and enables spectroscopic identification of the Na-UO2-CO3 complex. At nearly neutral pH values, the numbers of sodium and calcium atoms bound to the uranyl triscarbonate species are found to depend on the calcium concentration, as predicted by speciation calculations.

Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kemner, Kenneth M [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

COHEN, R.H.

2010-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

233

Direct observation of bias-dependence potential distribution in metal/HfO{sub 2} gate stack structures by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under device operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although gate stack structures with high-k materials have been extensively investigated, there are some issues to be solved for the formation of high quality gate stack structures. In the present study, we employed hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in operating devices. This method allows us to investigate bias dependent electronic states, while keeping device structures intact. Using this method, we have investigated electronic states and potential distribution in gate metal/HfO{sub 2} gate stack structures under device operation. Analysis of the core levels shifts as a function of the bias voltage indicated that a potential drop occurred at the Pt/HfO{sub 2} interface for a Pt/HfO{sub 2} gate structure, while a potential gradient was not observed at the Ru/HfO{sub 2} interface for a Ru/HfO{sub 2} gate structure. Angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that a thicker SiO{sub 2} layer was formed at the Pt/HfO{sub 2} interface, indicating that the origin of potential drop at Pt/HfO{sub 2} interface is formation of the thick SiO{sub 2} layer at the interface. The formation of the thick SiO{sub 2} layer at the metal/high-k interface might concern the Fermi level pinning, which is observed in metal/high-k gate stack structures.

Yamashita, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science, Advanced Electric Materials Center, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kôto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kôto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Chikyo, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Advanced Electric Materials Center, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

234

Characterization and Application of Hard X-Ray Betatron Radiation Generated by Relativistic Electrons from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The necessity for compact table-top x-ray sources with higher brightness, shorter wavelength and shorter pulse duration has led to the development of complementary sources based on laser-plasma accelerators, in contrast to conventional accelerators. Relativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas results in acceleration of electrons and in consequence in the emission of spatially coherent radiation, which is known in the literature as betatron radiation. In this article we report on our recent results in the rapidly developing field of secondary x-ray radiation generated by high-energy electron pulses. The betatron radiation is characterized with a novel setup allowing to measure the energy, the spatial energy distribution in the far-field of the beam and the source size in a single laser shot. Furthermore, the polarization state is measured for each laser shot. In this way the emitted betatron x-rays can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to retrieve very subtle information of t...

Schnell, Michael; Uschmann, Ingo; Jansen, Oliver; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard x-ray driven by laser-produced energetic electron beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a new method of obtaining a compact ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard X-ray source. This X-ray source has a high peak brightness in the order of 10{sup 22} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1\\%BW), an ultrashort duration (10 fs), and a broadband spectrum (flat distribution from 0.1 MeV to 4 MeV), and thus has wide-ranging potential applications, such as in ultrafast Laue diffraction experiments. In our scheme, laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) provide driven electron beams. A foil target is placed oblique to the beam direction so that the target normal sheath field (TNSF) is used to provide a bending force. Using this TNSF-kick scheme, we can fully utilize the advantages of current LPAs, including their high charge, high energy, and low emittance.

Shi, Yin; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure of heavy metal ions incorporated into electrodeposited nickel oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incorporation of heavy metal ions into simulated corrosion films has been investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The films were formed by electrodeposition of the appropriate oxide (hydroxide) onto a graphite substrate. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the local structure of the impurity ion. Results on the incorporation of Ce and Sr into surface films of Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiOOH are reported. Cathodically deposited Ni(OH){sub 2} was found to be mainly in the alpha form while anodically prepared NiOOH showed the presence of Ni{sup +2} and Ni{sup +4}. Cerium incorporated into Ni(OH){sub 2} exists as mixed Ce{sup +3} and Ce{sup +4} phases; a Ce{sup +4} species was found when Ce was codeposited with NiOOH. The structure of the Ce{sup +4} phase in anodic films appears similar to a Ce(OH){sub 4} standard. However, XAS, X-ray diffraction, and laser Raman measurements indicate that the latter chemical formulation is probably incorrect and that the material is really a disordered form of hydrous cerium oxide. The local structure of this material is similar to CeO{sub 2} but has much higher structural disorder. The significance of this finding on the question of the structure of Ce-based corrosion inhibitors in aluminum oxide films is pointed out. Moreover, the authors found it possible to form pure Ce oxide (hydroxide) films on graphite by both cathodic and anodic electrodeposition; their structures have also been elucidated. Strontium incorporated into nickel oxide films consists of Sr{sup +2} which is coordinated to oxygen atoms and is likely to exist as small domains of coprecipitated material.

Balasubramanian, M.; Melendres, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Mansour, A.N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Upgraded high time-resolved x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy system for J-TEXT ohmic plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the upgraded x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) system on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) tokamak and the latest experimental results obtained in last campaign. With 500 Hz frame rate of the new Pilatus detector and 5 cm × 10 cm spherically bent crystal, the XICS system can provide core electron temperature (T{sub e}), core ion temperature (T{sub i}), and plasma toroidal rotation (V{sub ?}) with a maximum temporal resolution of 2 ms for J-TEXT pure ohmic plasmas. These parameters with high temporal resolution are very useful in tokamak plasma research, especially for rapidly changed physical processes. The experimental results from the upgraded XICS system are presented.

Jin, W.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Huang, D. W.; Li, Q. L.; Yan, W.; Luo, Y. H.; Huang, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yang, Z. J.; Rao, B.; Ding, Y. H.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, S. G.; Shi, Y. J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Start | View At a Glance | Author Index 220-1 Kinetics of Rapid Redox Processes at the Mineral/Water Interface Using Quick-Scanning X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Mineral/Water Interface Using Quick-Scanning X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (Q-XAS). See more from-situ synchrotron-based technique, quick scanning X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time scales

Sparks, Donald L.

239

Probing Heterogeneous Chemistry of Individual Atmospheric Particles Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of single-particle analysis to investigate the chemistry of isolated, individual particles of atmospheric relevance such as NaCl, sea salt, CaCO3, and SiO2. A variety of state-of-th-art scanning electron microscopy techniques, including environmental scanning electon microscopy and computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, were utilized for monitoring and quantifying phase transitions of individual particles, morphology, and compositional changes of individual particles as they react with nitric acid.

Krueger, Brenda J.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Iedema, Martin J.; Cowin, James P.; Laskin, Alexander

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

EBT2 Dosimetry of X-rays produced by the electron beam from PFMA-3, a Plasma Focus for medical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for IORT (IntraOperative Radiation Therapy) applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an X-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {\\mu}m brass foil, where conversion X-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the X-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

Elisa Ceccolini; Federico Rocchi; Domiziano Mostacci; Marco Sumini; Agostino Tartari

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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241

EBT2 Dosimetry of X-rays produced by the electron beam from PFMA-3, a Plasma Focus for medical applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electron beam emitted from the back of Plasma Focus devices is being studied as a radiation source for IORT (IntraOperative Radiation Therapy) applications. A Plasma Focus device is being developed to this aim, to be utilized as an X-ray source. The electron beam is driven to impinge on 50 {\\mu}m brass foil, where conversion X-rays are generated. Measurements with gafchromic film are performed to analyse the attenuation of the X-rays beam and to predict the dose given to the culture cell in radiobiological experiments to follow.

Ceccolini, Elisa; Mostacci, Domiziano; Sumini, Marco; Tartari, Agostino

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Laboratory-Based Cryogenic Soft X-ray Tomography with Correlative Cryo-Light and Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Here we present a novel laboratory-based cryogenic soft X-ray microscope for whole cell tomography of frozen hydrated samples. We demonstrate the capabilities of this compact cryogenic microscope by visualizing internal sub-cellular structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The microscope is shown to achieve better than 50 nm spatial resolution with a Siemens star test sample. For whole biological cells, the microscope can image specimens up to 5 micrometers thick. Structures as small as 90 nm can be detected in tomographic reconstructions at roughly 70 nm spatial resolution following a low cumulative radiation dose of only 7.2 MGy. Furthermore, the design of the specimen chamber utilizes a standard sample support that permits multimodal correlative imaging of the exact same unstained yeast cell via cryo-fluorescence light microscopy, cryo-soft x-ray microscopy and cryo-transmission electron microscopy. This completely laboratory-based cryogenic soft x-ray microscope will therefore enable greater access to three-dimensional ultrastructure determination of biological whole cells without chemical fixation or physical sectioning.

Carlson, David B.; Gelb, Jeff; Palshin, Vadim; Evans, James E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)] [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt) [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

2012 ELECTRONIC SPECTROSCOPY & DYNAMICS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 22-27, 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, coherent electronic energy transport in biology, excited state theory and dynamics, excitonics, electronic spectroscopy of cold and ultracold molecules, and the spectroscopy of nanostructures. Several sessions will highlight innovative techniques such as time-resolved x-ray spectroscopy, frequency combs, and liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy that have forged stimulating new connections between gas-phase and condensed-phase work.

Kohler, Bern

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

245

In Situ Electrochemical X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis with High Oxygen Flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the widespread application of fuel cells and air-cathode batteries in automotive and stationary power a progressive evolution of the electronic structure of the metal clusters that is both potential) and the large overpotential (300 mV) in fuel cell cathodes necessitate the use of high loadings of precious-metal

Frenkel, Anatoly

246

Study of electron acceleration and x-ray radiation as a function of plasma density in capillary-guided laser wakefield accelerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser wakefield electron acceleration in the blow-out regime and the associated betatron X-ray radiation were investigated experimentally as a function of the plasma density in a configuration where the laser is guided. Dielectric capillary tubes were employed to assist the laser keeping self-focused over a long distance by collecting the laser energy around its central focal spot. With a 40 fs, 16 TW pulsed laser, electron bunches with tens of pC charge were measured to be accelerated to an energy up to 300 MeV, accompanied by X-ray emission with a peak brightness of the order of 10{sup 21} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. Electron trapping and acceleration were studied using the emitted X-ray beam distribution to map the acceleration process; the number of betatron oscillations performed by the electrons was inferred from the correlation between measured X-ray fluence and beam charge. A study of the stability of electron and X-ray generation suggests that the fluctuation of X-ray emission can be reduced by stabilizing the beam charge. The experimental results are in good agreement with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation.

Ju, J.; Döpp, A.; Cros, B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Svensson, K.; Genoud, G.; Wojda, F.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Lundh, O.; Wahlström, C.-G. [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Ferrari, H. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and CNEA-CAB (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and CNEA-CAB (Argentina)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Nitrogen Doping and Thermal Stability in HfSiOxNy Studied by Photoemission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated nitrogen-doping effects into HfSiO{sub x} films on Si and their thermal stability using synchrotron-radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. N 1s core-level photoemission and N K-edge absorption spectra have revealed that chemical-bonding states of N-Si{sub 3-x}O{sub x} and interstitial N{sub 2}-gas-like features are clearly observed in as-grown HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} film and they decrease upon ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) annealing due to a thermal instability, which can be related to the device performance. Annealing-temperature dependence in Hf 4f and Si 2p photoemission spectra suggests that the Hf-silicidation temperature is effectively increased by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x} although the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer is selectively reduced. No change in valence-band spectra upon UHV annealing suggests that crystallization of the HfSiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is also hindered by nitrogen doping into the HfSiO{sub x}.

Toyoda, Satoshi; Okabayashi, Jun; Takahashi, Haruhiko; Oshima, Masaharu; /Tokyo U.; Lee, Dong-Ick; Sun, Shiyu; sun, Steven; Pianetta, Piero A.; /SLAC, SSRL; Ando, Takashi; Fukuda, Seiichi; /SONY, Atsugi

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

An x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy study of the oxidation state of chromium in electrodeposited oxide films.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oxidation state of chromium incorporated into simulated corrosion films of nickel has been investigated using the technique of 'in situ' X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES). The films were prepared by electrochemical deposition of the appropriate oxide (hydroxide) onto a graphite substrate. Cathodic deposition from a 0.01 M Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution at constant current results in a Cr{sup 3+} oxide (hydroxide) film. Deposition from a 0.01 M K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} solution produces a film which is predominantly Cr{sup 3+} but with some Cr{sup 6+}. This material is air-sensitive and the ratio of Cr{sup 6+} to Cr{sup 3+} increases with time of exposure to ambient. Cathodic codeposition of Cr{sup 3+} with nickel hydroxide from Cr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution results in a film with chromium in the 3+ oxidation state. On the other hand, cathodic codeposition from a Cr{sup 6+} solution of K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} with nickel hydroxide leads to a film containing Cr{sup 6+}.

Balasubramanian, M.; Melendres, C. A.; Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Broadband spectroscopy of the eclipsing high mass X-ray binary 4U 1700-37 with Suzaku  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results obtained from broadband spectroscopy of the high mass X-ray binary 4U 1700-37 using data from a Suzaku observation in 2006 September 13-14 covering 0.29-0.72 orbital phase range. The light curves showed significant and rapid variation in source flux during entire observation. We did not find any signature of pulsations in the light curves. However, a quasi-periodic oscillation at ~20 mHz was detected in the power density spectrum of the source. The 1-70 keV spectrum was fitted with various continuum models. However, we found that the partially absorbed high energy cutoff power-law and Negative and Positive power-law with Exponential cutoff (NPEX) models described the source spectrum well. Iron emission lines at 6.4 keV and 7.1 keV were detected in the source spectrum. An absorption like feature at ~39 keV was detected in the residuals while fitting the data with NPEX model. Considering the feature as cyclotron absorption line, the surface magnetic field of the neutron star was estimated...

Jaisawal, Gaurava K

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1of EnergyX-rayNew Materials for

251

Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility of SF(STEO) ï‚·diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray

252

Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science.

Schoenlein, Robert (Deputy Director, Advanced Light Source) [Deputy Director, Advanced Light Source

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Using Lasers and X-rays to Reveal the Motion of Atoms and Electrons (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Summer Lecture Series 2009: The ultrafast motion of atoms and electrons lies at the heart of chemical reactions, advanced materials with exotic properties, and biological processes such as the first event in vision. Bob Schoenlein, Deputy Director for Science at the Advanced Light Source, will discuss how such processes are revealed by using laser pulses spanning a millionth of a billionth of a second, and how a new generation of light sources will bring the penetrating power of x-rays to the world of ultrafast science.

Schoenlein, Robert [Deputy Director, Advanced Light Source

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

Toward pure electronic spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis is summarized the progress toward completing our understanding of the Rydberg system of CaF and developing Pure Electronic Spectroscopy. The Rydberg system of CaF possesses a paradigmatic character due to ...

Petrovi?, Vladimir, 1978-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Fabrication of high-throughput critical-angle X-ray transmission gratings for wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The development of the critical-angle transmission (CAT) grating seeks both an order of magnitude improvement in the effective area, and a factor of three increase in the resolving power of future space-based, soft x-ray ...

Bruccoleri, Alexander Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

257

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities...

258

Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

259

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution $\\Delta E/E = 1.1\\cdot 10^{-4}$ and wave-number resolution of $\\Delta k/k = 3\\cdot 10^{-3}$, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to $5.2/$\\AA\\ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34\\% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418~eV/$13.5\\,\\mu$m agrees with predictions within 1.3\\%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic HAPG spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1~eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Galtier, Eric Ch; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Heimann, Philipp; Marschner, Heike; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Wehrhan, Ortrud; Lee, Hae Ja

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 ×?10{sup ?4} and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 ×?10{sup ?3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/Å in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5??m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf, E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Förster, Eckhart [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Damage Threshold of Platinum Coating used for Optics for Self-Seeding of Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We investigated the experimental damage threshold of platinum coating on a silicon substrate illuminated by soft x-ray radiation at grazing incidence angle of 2.1 deg. The coating was the same as the blazed grating used for the soft X-ray self-seeding optics of the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The irradiation condition was chosen such that the absorbed dose was similar to the maximum dose expected for the grating. The expected dose was simulated by solving the Helmholtz equation in non-homogenous media. The experiment was performed at 900 eV photon energy for both single pulse and multi-shot conditions. We have not observed single shot damage. This corresponds to a single shot damage threshold being higher than 3 J/cm2. The multiple shot damage threshold measured for 10 shots and about 600 shots was determined to be 0.95 J/cm2 and 0.75 J/cm2 respectively. The damage threshold occurred at an instantaneous dose which is higher that the melt dose of platinum.

Krzywinski, Jacek; Cocco, Daniele; Moeller, Stefan; Ratner, Daniel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

263

Phase resolved X-ray spectroscopy of HDE288766: Probing the wind of an extreme Of+/WNLha star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HDE228766 is a very massive binary system hosting a secondary component, which is probably in an intermediate evolutionary stage between an Of supergiant and an WN star. The wind of this star collides with the wind of its O8 II companion, leading to relatively strong X-ray emission. Measuring the orbital variations of the line-of-sight absorption toward the X-ray emission from the wind-wind interaction zone yields information on the wind densities of both stars. X-ray spectra have been collected at three key orbital phases to probe the winds of both stars. Optical photometry has been gathered to set constraints on the orbital inclination of the system. The X-ray spectra reveal prominent variations of the intervening column density toward the X-ray emission zone, which are in line with the expectations for a wind-wind collision. We use a toy model to set constraints on the stellar wind parameters by attempting to reproduce the observed variations of the relative fluxes and wind optical depths at 1 keV. The lac...

Rauw, G; Naze, Y; Eenens, P; Manfroid, J; Flores, C A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

National Ignition Facility core x-ray streak camera  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) core x-ray streak camera will be used for laser performance verification experiments as well as a wide range of physics experiments in the areas of high-energy-density science, inertial confinement fusion, and basic science. The x-ray streak camera system is being designed to record time-dependent x-ray emission from NIF targets using an interchangeable family of snouts for measurements such as one-dimensional (1D) spatial imaging or spectroscopy. the NIF core x-ray streak camera will consist of an x-ray-sensitive photocathode that detects x rays with 1D spatial resolution coupled to an electron streak tube to detect a continuous time history of the x rays incident on the photocathode over selected time periods. A charge-coupled-device (CCD) readout will record the signal from the streak tube. The streak tube, CCD, and associated electronics will reside in an electromagnetic interference, and electromagnetic pulse protected, hermetically sealed, temperature-controlled box whose internal pressure is approximately 1 atm. The streak tube itself will penetrate through the wall of the box into the target chamber vacuum. We are working with a goal of a spatial resolution of 15 lp/mm with 50% contrast transfer function at the photocathode and adjustment sweep intervals of 1--50 ns. The camera spectral sensitivity extends from soft x rays to 20 keV x rays, with varying quantum efficiency based on photocathode selection. The system will have remote control, monitoring, and Ethernet communications through an embedded controller. The core streak camera will be compatible with the instrument manipulators at the OMEGA (University of Rochester) and NIF facilities.

Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Christianson, G. B.; Lee, F. D.; Kalantar, D. H.; Perry, T. S.; Sewall, N. R.; Wootton, A. J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

A Fast, Versatile Nanoprobe for Complex Materials: The Sub-micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline at NSLS-II (491st Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time is money and for scientists who need to collect data at research facilities like Brookhaven Lab’s National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), “beamtime” can be a precious commodity. While scanning a complex material with a specific technique and standard equipment today would take days to complete, researchers preparing to use brighter x-rays and the new sub-micron-resolution x-ray spectroscopy (SRX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) could scan the same sample in greater detail with just a few hours of beamtime. Talk about savings and new opportunities for researchers! Users will rely on these tools for locating trace elements in contaminated soils, developing processes for nanoparticles to deliver medical treatments, and much more. Dr. Thieme explains benefits for next-generation research with spectroscopy and more intense x-rays at NSLS-II. He discusses the instrumentation, features, and uses for the new SRX beamline, highlighting its speed, adjustability, and versatility for probing samples ranging in size from millimeters down to the nanoscale. He will talk about complementary beamlines being developed for additional capabilities at NSLS-II as well.

Thieme, Juergen [BNL Photon Sciences Directorate

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

266

Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further demonstrated here using a parameterized partial unoccupied density of states method to quantify both occupancy and delocalization of the 5f orbital in ?-Pu, ?-Pu, PuCoGa5 , PuCoIn5 , and PuSb2. These new results, supported by FEFF calculations, highlight the effects of strong correlations on RXES spectra and the technique?s ability to differentiate between f-orbital occupation and delocalization.

Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Jiang, Yu; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Veirs, D. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.; Kas, J. J.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

267

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of Al-related dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/Si interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of an ultrathin oxide layer at the high-k/SiO{sub 2} interface may result in an interfacial dipole related to the specific high-k dielectric used for the gate stacks. 1 nm HfO{sub 2}/x nmAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks with different x values (x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, an Al-related interfacial dipole in the HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} gate stack has been identified. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the dipole is correlated with the formation of an interfacial Al-silicate. The dipole is located at the Al-silicate interface between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, and its strength increases with the increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness because of Al silicate growth. Such Al-related interfacial dipole should have potential applications in future positive metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

Zhu, L. Q.; Barrett, N.; Jegou, P. [Groupe Photoemission, CEA/IRAMIS/SPCSI, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, F.; Leroux, C.; Martinez, E.; Grampeix, H.; Renault, O.; Chabli, A. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz Junior, MIT Department of Physics (Dated: October 25, 2006) We measure a variety of phenomena related to X-Ray absorption and production. We present data which conforms within, as are 22 Na electron-positron annhilation lines. The importance of understanding x-rays is demonstrated

269

The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

Drell, Persis [SLAC Director] [SLAC Director

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free Electron Laser at SLAC ( Keynote - 2011 JGI User Meeting)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. SLAC National Laboratory Director Persis Drell gives a keynote talk on "The Turn-on of LCLS: the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser at SLAC" at the 6th Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2011

Drell, Persis [SLAC Director

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

271

Temporal synchronization of GHz repetition rate electron and laser pulses for the optimization of a compact inverse-Compton scattering x-ray source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The operation of an inverse-Compton scattering source of x-rays or gamma-rays requires the precision alignment and synchronization of highly focused electron bunches and laser pulses at the collision point. The arrival times of electron and laser pulses must be synchronized with picosecond precision. We have developed an RF synchronization technique that reduces the initial timing uncertainty from 350 ps to less than 2 ps, greatly reducing the parameter space to be optimized while commissioning the x-ray source. We describe the technique and present measurements of its performance.

Hadmack, Michael R; Madey, John M J; Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

NuSTAR STUDY OF HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF PWN G21.5–0.9  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.5–0.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to ~40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad ...

Nynka, Melania

273

Linear accelerator x-ray sources with high duty cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray cargo inspection systems typically use a several-MV pulsed linear accelerator (linac) to produce a bremsstrahlung spectrum of x rays by bombarding a target with electrons. The x rays traverse the cargo and are detected by a detector array. Spectroscopy of the detected x rays is very desirable: if one can determine the spectrum of the transmitted x rays, one can determine the Z of the material they traversed. Even in relatively low-dose modes of operation, thousands of x rays arrive at each detector element during each pulse, unless the x rays are heavily absorbed or scattered by the cargo. For portal or fixed-site systems, dose rates, and therefore x-ray count rates, are even higher. Because of the high x-ray count rate, spectroscopy is impractical in conventional cargo inspection systems, except in certain special cases. For a mobile system, typical pulse durations are a few microseconds, and the number of pulses is on the order of 100 per second, leading to a duty factor of about 0.04%. Clearly, a linear accelerator x-ray source with much higher duty factor would be useful, since then the same number of x rays could be spread out over time, reducing the x-ray count rate. In this paper, we explore the possibility of designing a linear accelerator system, using more or less Conventional Off the Shelf (COTS) components, capable of duty cycles of 1% or greater. A survey was conducted of available linac RF source options and, given the possibilities, calculations were performed for suitable beam centerline designs. Keeping in mind that the size and cost of the accelerator system should be practical for use in a mobile cargo inspection system, only a few options are shown to be reasonably feasible, both requiring the use of klystrons instead of the magnetrons used in conventional systems. An S-Band design appears clearly possible, and there is also a promising X-Band design.

Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig; Gozani, Tsahi; Langeveld, Willem G. J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Hernandez, Michael [XScell corp., 2134 Old Middlefield Way, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

X-RAY ABSORPTION STUDIES OF GRAPHITE INTERCALATES AND METAL-AMMONIA SOLUTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. INTRODUCTION A. X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy B. Graphiteacknowledged. The X-Ray absorption data could not have beenI INTRODUCTION X-ray absorption, spectroscopy (XAS) has been

Robertson, A.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

High-Dispersion Spectroscopy of the X-Ray Transient RXTE J0421+560 (= CI Cam) during Outburst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtained high dispersion spectra of CI Cam, the optical counterpart of XTE J0421+560, two weeks after the peak of its short outburst in 1998 April. The optical counterpart is a supergiant B[e] star emitting a two-component wind. The cool wind (the source of narrow emission lines of neutral and ionized metals) has a velocity of 32 km/s and a temperature near 8000 K. Dense and roughly spherical, it fills the space around the sgB[e] star, and, based on the size of an infrared-emitting dust shell around the system, extends to a radius between 13 - 50 AU. It carries away mass at a high rate, Mdot > 10^(-6) solar masses per year. The hot wind has a velocity in excess of 2500 km/s and a temperature of 1.7 +/-0.3 x 10^4 K. From UV spectra of CI Cam obtained in 2000 March with Hubble Space Telescope, we derive a differential extinction E(B-V) = 0.85 +/- 0.05. We derive a distance to CI Cam > 5 kpc. Based on this revised distance, the X-ray luminosity at the peak of the outburst was L(2-25 keV) > 3.0 x 10^38 erg/s, making CI Cam one of the most luminous X-ray transients. The ratio of quiescent to peak luminosity in the 2 - 25 keV band is < 1.7 x 10^(-6). The compact star in CI Cam is immersed in the dense circumstellar wind from the sgB[e] star and burrows through the wind producing little X-ray emission except for rare transient outbursts. This picture (a compact star traveling in a wide orbit through the dense circumstellar envelope of a sgB[e] star, occasionally producing transient X-ray outbursts) makes CI Cam unique among the known X-ray binaries. Strong circumstantial evidence suggests that the compact object is a black hole, not a neutron star. We speculate that the X-ray outburst was short because the accretion disk around the compact star is fed from a stellar wind and is smaller than disks fed by Roche-lobe overflow.

Edward L. Robinson; Inese I. Ivans; William F. Welsh

2001-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

276

A joint x-ray and neutron study on amicyanin reveals the role of protein dynamics in electron transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The joint x-ray/neutron diffraction model of the Type I copper protein, amicyanin from Paracoccus denitrificans was determined at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. The protein was crystallized using reagents prepared in D{sub 2}O. About 86% of the amide hydrogen atoms are either partially or fully exchanged, which correlates well with the atomic depth of the amide nitrogen atom and the secondary structure type, but with notable exceptions. Each of the four residues that provide copper ligands is partially deuterated. The model reveals the dynamic nature of the protein, especially around the copper-binding site. A detailed analysis of the presence of deuterated water molecules near the exchange sites indicates that amide hydrogen exchange is primarily due to the flexibility of the protein. Analysis of the electron transfer path through the protein shows that residues in that region are highly dynamic, as judged by hydrogen/deuterium exchange. This could increase the rate of electron transfer by transiently shortening through-space jumps in pathways or by increasing the atomic packing density. Analysis of C-H{hor_ellipsis}X bonding reveals previously undefined roles of these relatively weak H bonds, which, when present in sufficient number can collectively influence the structure, redox, and electron transfer properties of amicyanin.

Sukumar, N.; Mathews, F.S.; Langan, P.; Davidson, V.L. (Cornell); (UMMC); (WU-MED); (LANL)

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

277

BAYESIAN CONFIDENCE LIMITS OF ELECTRON SPECTRA OBTAINED THROUGH REGULARIZED INVERSION OF SOLAR HARD X-RAY SPECTRA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many astrophysical observations are characterized by a single, non-repeatable measurement of a source brightness or intensity, from which we are to construct estimates for the true intensity and its uncertainty. For example, the hard X-ray count spectrum from transient events such as solar flares can be observed only once, and from this single spectrum one must determine the best estimate of the underlying source spectrum I({epsilon}), and hence the form of the responsible electron spectrum F(E). Including statistical uncertainties on the measured count spectrum yields a 'confidence strip' that delineates the boundaries of electron spectra that are consistent with the observed photon spectrum. In this short article, we point out that the expectation values of the source brightness and its variance in a given photon energy bin are in general not (as has been assumed in prior works) equal to n, the number of counts observed in that energy bin. Rather, they depend both on n and on prior knowledge of the overall photon spectrum. Using Bayesian statistics, we provide an explicit procedure and formulas for determining the 'confidence strip' (Bayesian credible region) for F(E), thus providing rigorous bounds on the intensity and shape of the accelerated electron spectrum.

Emslie, A. Gordon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Massone, Anna Maria, E-mail: emslieg@wku.edu, E-mail: annamaria.massone@cnr.it [CNR-SPIN, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

278

R&D for a Soft X-Ray Free Electron Laser Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser andincluding state-of-the-art RF guns. High-power RF sourcesand first production RF gun for the DESY TESLA SASE FEL.

Staples, John

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Two-color optical technique for characterization of x-ray radiation-enhanced electron transport in SiO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-color optical technique for characterization of x-ray radiation-enhanced electron transport the oxide.2 Presently, characterization of radiation damage in Si/SiO2 systems is usually accomplished used to provide additional insight into radiation damage in ultrathin oxides.3 These measure- ments

Pantelides, Sokrates T.

280

Electron distributions in X-Ray plasmas: spectral diagnostics with the 3s/3d line ratio in Fe XVII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efforts to benchmark astrophysical observations with X-ray laboratory measurements have been stymied by observed and measured differences of up to a factor of two in the ratio '3s/3d' of Fe XVII lines at ~17 \\AA and ~15 \\AA respectively. Using the electron distribution function (EDF) as a new physical parameter, we compute the Fe XVII line ratios and account for these differences. Based on large-scale relativistic close coupling calculations using the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method, revealing the precise effect of resonances in collisional excitation, we employ collisional-radiative models using cross sections convolved with both the Gaussian and the Maxwellian EDF. Comparison with astrophysical observations and laboratory measurements demonstrates that (a) the 3s/3d line ratio depends not only on the EDF but also on the electron temperature/energy of the source, (b) plasma conditions in experimental measurements and astrophysical observations may be quite different, and (c) departure from a Maxwellian should manifest itself in, and be used as a diagnostics of, particle distributions in plasmas.

Guo-Xin Chen; Anil K. Pradhan

2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

In situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation of electrochemical corrosion of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel electrochemical setup has been developed for soft x-ray absorption studies of the electronic structure of electrode materials during electrochemical cycling. In this communication we illustrate the operation of the cell with a study of the corrosion behavior of copper in aqueous NaHCO3 solution via the electrochemically induced changes of its electronic structure. This development opens the way for in situ investigations of electrochemical processes, photovoltaics, batteries, fuel cells, water splitting, corrosion, electrodeposition, and a variety of important biological processes.

Jiang, Peng; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Borondics, Ferenc; Glans, Per-Anders; West, Mark W.; Chang, Ching-Lin; Salmeron, Miquel; Guo, Jinghua

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

MESSENGER detection of electron-induced X-ray fluorescence from Mercury's surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Rhodes,4 Charles E. Schlemm II,4 Sean C. Solomon,3,5 and Pavel M. Trávnícek6 Received 2 May 2012; revised methodologies. Derived S and Ca abundances are somewhat higher than derived from the solar-induced fluorescence. Schlemm II, S. C. Solomon, and P. M. Trávnícek (2012), MESSENGER detection of electron-induced X

California at Berkeley, University of

283

Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pulse, a heretofore difficult challenge. This capability should help to further develop ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy. ALS femtosecond spectroscopy beamline layout. Femtosecond...

284

The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser: A Progress Report | Stanford  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience andFebruaryThe ElectronicSynchrotron

285

Electronic Structure of the Mn(4)Ca Cluster in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem Ii Studied By Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (S{sub i}-states, i=0--4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn{sub 4}(III{sub 2},IV{sub 2}) and Mn{sub 4}(III,IV{sub 3}) for S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, while it is still controversial for the S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn{sub 4}Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra simultaneously. The second energy dimension separates the pre-edge (1s to 3d) transitions from the main K-edge (1s to 4p), and thus more precise analysis is possible. The 1s2p RIXS final state electron configuration along the energy transfer axis is identical to conventional L-edge absorption spectroscopy and the RIXS spectra are therefore sensitive to the metal spin state. We have collected data from PS II samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mn complexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p{sub 3/2} RIXS spectra between the S-states are small compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1}, and S{sub 1} to S{sub 2} transitions is twice as large as that during the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms. The RIXS spectra of S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states also showed characteristic features which were not clear from the K-edge spectroscopy.

Yano, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Messinger, J.; Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Yachandra, V.K.

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

286

Three-dimensional imaging of copper pillars using x-ray tomography within a scanning electron microscope: A simulation study based on synchrotron data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While microelectronic devices are frequently characterized with surface-sensitive techniques having nanometer resolution, interconnections used in 3D integration require 3D imaging with high penetration depth and deep sub-micrometer spatial resolution. X-ray tomography is well adapted to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study is to assess a versatile and turn-key tomographic system allowing for 3D x-ray nanotomography of copper pillars. The tomography tool uses the thin electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provoke x-ray emission from specific metallic targets. Then, radiographs are recorded while the sample rotates in a conventional cone beam tomography scheme that ends up with 3D reconstructions of the pillar. Starting from copper pillars data, collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we build a 3D numerical model of a copper pillar, paying particular attention to intermetallics. This model is then used to simulate physical radiographs of the pillar using the geometry of the SEM-hosted x-ray tomography system. Eventually, data are reconstructed and it is shown that the system makes it possible the quantification of 3D intermetallics volume in copper pillars. The paper also includes a prospective discussion about resolution issues.

Martin, N.; Bertheau, J.; Charbonnier, J.; Hugonnard, P.; Lorut, F. [ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); Bleuet, P.; Tabary, J. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laloum, D. [ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

A Method of Mass Measurement in Black Hole Binaries Using Timing and High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In X-ray binaries, several percent of the compact object luminosity is intercepted by the surface of the normal companion and re-radiated through Compton reflection and the K-fluorescence. This reflected emission follows the variability of the compact object with a delay approximately equal to the orbital radius divided by the speed of light. This provides the possibility of measuring the orbital radius and thus substantially refining the compact object mass determination compared to using optical data alone. We demonstrate that it may be feasible to measure the time delay between the direct and reflected emission using cross-correlation of the light curves observed near the Kalpha line and above the K-edge of neutral iron. In the case of Cyg X-1, the time delay measurement is feasible with a 300--1000 ksec observation by a telescope with a 1000 cm^2 effective area near 6.4 keV and with a ~5eV energy resolution. With longer exposures, it may be possible to obtain mass constraints even if an X-ray source in the binary system lacks an optical counterpart.

A. Vikhlinin

1999-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Determination of the electron velocity distribution from the soft and hard x-ray emission during lower-hybrid current drive on PLT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During lower-hybrid heating in low-density-tokamak discharges, a nonMaxwellian tail of high-energy electrons is formed. This tail carries the plasma current. Utilizing the fact that relativistic electrons emit bremsstrahlung predominantly in the forward direction, we investigate the shape of the electron distribution by measuring the dependence of the x-ray emission on the angle between the magnetic field and the line of sight. The experimental data indicate that the distribution function is predominantly peaked in the forward direction, although a small fraction of the electrons is in the backward cone. The energy dependence of the x-ray spectra is consistent with that of a velocity distribution which has a plateau extending out to several hundred kiloelectron volts. Radial profiles show that the hot electrons are located in the central plasma region and form a high-conductivity plasma with the current profile frozen in. The slope of the spectrum depends on the rf power and on the phasing of the waveguide grill, but not on the externally applied plasma voltage. Relaxation oscillations occur shortly after switching the rf off. They also appear during the rf for low rf power and at the high-density limit of the lower-hybrid current drive. The x-ray spectra confirm that parallel energy is transferred to perpendicular energy during the instability, suggesting an instability due to the anomalous Doppler effect.

von Goeler, S.; Stevens, J.; Karney, C.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Controlling X-rays With Light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

In situ apparatus for the study of clathrate hydrates relevant to solar system bodies using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clathrate hydrates are believed to play a significant role in various solar system environments, e.g. comets, and the surfaces and interiors of icy satellites, however the structural factors governing their formation and dissociation are poorly understood. We demonstrate the use of a high pressure gas cell, combined with variable temperature cooling and time-resolved data collection, to the in situ study of clathrate hydrates under conditions relevant to solar system environments. Clathrates formed and processed within the cell are monitored in situ using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction allows the formation of clathrate hydrates to be observed as CO2 gas is applied to ice formed within the cell. Complete conversion is obtained by annealing at temperatures just below the ice melting point. A subsequent rise in the quantity of clathrate is observed as the cell is thermally cycled. Four regions between 100-5000cm-1 are present in the Raman spectra that carry feature...

Day, Sarah J; Evans, Aneurin; Parker, Julia E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Nucleation and Ordering of an Electrodeposited Two-Dimensional Crystal: Real-Time X-Ray Scattering and Electronic Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied {ital in situ} the ordering of a two-dimensional Cu-Cl crystal electrodeposited on a Pt(111) surface. We simultaneously measured x-ray scattering and chronoamperometric transients during Cu desorption and subsequent ordering of the Cu-Cl crystal. In all cases, the current transient occurs on a shorter time scale than the development of crystalline order. The ordering time diverges with applied potential, consistent with the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands. We see a time-dependent narrowing of the x-ray peak, corresponding to the growing islands. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Finnefrock, A.C.; Ringland, K.L.; Brock, J.D. [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Buller, L.J.; Abruna, H.D. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

High speed x-ray beam chopper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

McPherson, Armon (Oswego, IL); Mills, Dennis M. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r{sub 80%}=(212±19)?m in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm{sup 2} is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

Baumann, Thomas M., E-mail: baumannt@nscl.msu.edu; Lapierre, Alain, E-mail: lapierre@nscl.msu.edu; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: experiments and modeling Samuel Tardif,1, 2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: experiments and modeling Samuel Tardif,1, 2: July 29, 2013) X-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the L2),6 and x-ray spectroscopy (x-ray absorption spec- troscopy, XAS, and x-ray magnetic circular

296

Cation distribution in Ni{sub 1?x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} using X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spinel ferrite samples of Ni{sub 1?x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (for x=0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.8) nanoparticles prepared by a novel chemical synthesis method have been characterized by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) technique to investigate the distribution of cations in the unit cell. XANES region clearly shows that as Ni concentration increases, the pre-edge feature, which is a characteristic of tetrahedral coordination of Fe, is enhanced. A quantitative determination of the relative occupancy of iron cation in the octahedral and tetrahedral sites of the spinel structure was obtained from EXAFS data analysis. It has been found that as atomic fraction of Ni is increased from 0.2 to 0.8, Fe occupancy at tetrahedral to octahedral sites is increased from 13:87 and to 39:61.

Yadav, A. K., E-mail: akyadav@barc.gov.in; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400094 (India); Jadhav, J.; Biswas, S. [Department of Physics, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur-302031 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

297

Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Initial stages of ITO/Si interface formation: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements upon magnetron sputtering and atomistic modelling using density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initial stages of indium tin oxide (ITO) growth on a polished Si substrate upon magnetron sputtering were studied experimentally using in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The presence of pure indium and tin, as well as Si bonded to oxygen at the ITO/Si interface were observed. The experimental observations were compared with several atomistic models of ITO/Si interfaces. A periodic model of the ITO/Si interface was constructed, giving detailed information about the local environment at the interface. Molecular dynamics based on density functional theory was performed, showing how metal-oxygen bonds are broken on behalf of silicon-oxygen bonds. These theoretical results support and provide an explanation for the present as well as previous ex-situ and in-situ experimental observations pointing to the creation of metallic In and Sn along with the growth of SiO{sub x} at the ITO/Si interface.

Løvvik, O. M.; Diplas, S.; Ulyashin, A. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Forskningsveien 1, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Romanyuk, A. [University of Basel, Kingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

Photo-Induced Spin-State Conversion in Solvated Transition Metal Complexes Probed via Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solution-phase photoinduced low-spin to high-spin conversion in the FeII polypyridyl complex [Fe(tren(py)3)]2+ (where tren(py)3 is tris(2-pyridylmethyliminoethyl)amine) has been studied via picosecond soft X-ray spectroscopy. Following 1A1 --> 1MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation at 560 nm, changes in the iron L2- and L3-edges were observed concomitant with formation of the transient high-spin 5T2 state. Charge-transfer multiplet calculations coupled with data acquired on low-spin and high-spin model complexes revealed a reduction in ligand field splitting of 1 eV in the high-spin state relative to the singlet ground state. A significant reduction in orbital overlap between the central Fe-3d and the ligand N-2p orbitals was directly observed, consistent with the expected ca. 0.2 Angstrom increase in Fe-N bond length upon formation of the high-spin state. The overall occupancy of the Fe-3d orbitals remains constant upon spin crossover, suggesting that the reduction in sigma-donation is compensated by significant attenuation of pi-back-bonding in the metal-ligand interactions. These results demonstrate the feasibility and unique potential of time-resolved soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study ultrafast reactions in the liquid phase by directly probing the valence orbitals of first-row metals as well as lighter elements during the course of photochemical transformations.

Huse, Nils; Kim, Tae Kyu; Jamula, Lindsey; McCusker, James K.; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Schoenlein, Robert W.

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Influence of the multiple scattering of relativistic electrons on the line width of backward Parametric X-ray Radiation in the absence of photo absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiple scattering effect on the line width of backward Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) in the extremely Bragg geometry, produced by low energy relativistic electrons traversing a single crystal, is discussed. It is shown that there exist conditions, when the influence of photo absorption on the line width can be neglected, and the only multiple scattering process of relativistic electrons in crystal leads to the broadening of backward PXR lines. Based on the obtained theoretical results, the line width broadening of backward PXR, caused by the multiple scattering of 30 MeV and 50 MeV relativistic electrons in a Si crystal of varying thicknesses, is numerically obtained.

Tabrizi, Mehdi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Standard test method for analysis of uranium and thorium in soils by energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This test method covers the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrochemical analysis of trace levels of uranium and thorium in soils. Any sample matrix that differs from the general ground soil composition used for calibration (that is, fertilizer or a sample of mostly rock) would have to be calibrated separately to determine the effect of the different matrix composition. 1.2 The analysis is performed after an initial drying and grinding of the sample, and the results are reported on a dry basis. The sample preparation technique used incorporates into the sample any rocks and organic material present in the soil. This test method of sample preparation differs from other techniques that involve tumbling and sieving the sample. 1.3 Linear calibration is performed over a concentration range from 20 to 1000 ?g per gram for uranium and thorium. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Development of a Microchannel Plate-Based Gated X-ray Imager for Imaging and Spectroscopy Experiments on Z  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This poster describes a microchannelplate (MCP)–based, gated x-ray imager developed by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), and Sandia National Laboratories(SNL) over the past several years. The camera consists of a 40 mm × 40 mm MCP, coated with eight 4 mm wide microstrips. The camera is gated by sending subnanosecond high-voltage pulses across the striplines. We have performed an extensive characterization of the camera, the results of which we present here. The camera has an optical gate profile width (time resolution) as narrow as 150 ps and detector uniformity of better than 30% along the length of a strip, far superior than what was achieved in previous designs. The spatial resolution is on the order of 40 microns for imaging applications and a dynamic range of between ~100 and ~1000. We also present results from a Monte Carlo simulation code developed by NSTec over the last several years. Agreement between the simulation results and the experimental measurements is very good.

Wu, M., Kruschwitz, C. A., Tibbitts, A., Rochau, G.

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

303

Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantification of rapid environmental redox processes with quick-scanning x-ray absorption. Here we apply quick-scanning x-ray absorption spectroscopy (Q-XAS), at sub-second time that can be measured using x-ray absorption spectroscopy. arsenic extended x-ray absorption fine structure

Sparks, Donald L.

304

Profiling of the SiO2 -SiC Interface Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy R. N. Ghosh  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy loss spectroscopy, have revealed a 1.5-6 nm thick layer with a monotonically decaying C 4 School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907 ABSTRACT techniques have been utilized to study this problem. Atomic H3.7.1 Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Vol. 640 © 2001

Ghosh, Ruby N.

305

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

306

Summary of ISO/TC 201 Standard: ISO 29081: 2010, Surface Chemical Analysis - Auger Electron Spectroscopy - Reporting of Methods Used for Charge Control and Charge Correction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This international standard specifies the minimum amount of information required for describing the methods of charge control in measurements of Auger electron transitions from insulating specimens by electron-stimulated Auger electron spectroscopy to be reported with the analytical results. Information is provided in an Annex on methods that have been found useful for charge control prior to or during AES analysis. The Annex also includes a summary table of methods or approaches, ordered by simplicity of approach. A similar international standard has been published for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ISO 19318: 2003(E), Surface chemical analysis - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - Reporting of methods used for charge control and charge correction).

Baer, Donald R.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

1987-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

308

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Chest x-Rays  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

310

X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the nuclear astrophysics aspects of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We summarize open astrophysical questions in light of recent observations and their relation to the underlying nuclear physics. Recent progress in the understanding of the nuclear physics, especially of X-ray bursts, is also discussed.

H. Schatz; K. E. Rehm

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Lunar X-ray fluorescence observations by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS): Results from the nearside southern highlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lunar X-ray fluorescence observations by the Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS): Results from Spectroscopy a b s t r a c t The Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) flown on-board the first Indian lunar mission Chan- drayaan-1, measured X-ray fluorescence spectra during several episodes of solar flares

Wieczorek, Mark

312

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

313

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

In Situ Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy in Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) through liquids is a promising approach for exploring biological and materials processes. However, options for in situ chemical identification are limited: X-ray analysis is precluded because the holder shadows the detector, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) is degraded by multiple scattering events in thick layers. Here, we explore the limits of EELS for studying chemical reactions in their native environments in real time and on the nanometer scale. The determination of the local electron density, optical gap and thickness of the liquid layer by valence EELS is demonstrated for liquids. By comparing theoretical and experimental plasmon energies, we find that liquids appear to follow the free-electron model that has been previously established for solids. Signals at energies below the optical gap and plasmon energy of the liquid provide a high signal-to-background ratio as demonstrated for LiFePO4 in aqueous solution. The potential for using...

Holtz, Megan E; Gao, Jie; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Photosynthesis and structure of electroless Ni-P films by synchrotron x-ray irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors describe an electroless deposition method for thin films, based on the irradiation by an x-ray beam emitted by a synchrotron source. Specifically, Ni-P films were deposited at room temperature. This synthesis is a unique combination of photochemical and electrochemical processes. The influence of the pH value on the formation and structural properties of the films was examined by various characterization tools including scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Real time monitoring of the deposition process by coherent x-ray microscopy reveals that the formation of hydrogen bubbles leads to a self-catalysis effect without a preexisting catalyst. The mechanisms underlying the deposition process are discussed in details.

Hsu, P.-C.; Wang, C.-H.; Yang, T.-Y.; Hwu, Y.-K.; Lin, C.-S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chang, L.-W.; Seol, S.-K.; Je, J.-H.; Margaritondo, G. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, NanKang, Taipei 115, Taiwan and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, NanKang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, NanKang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China) and Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kinsus Interconnect Technology Co., Taoyuang 327, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaoshung 804, Taiwan (China); X-ray Imaging Center, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Using X-ray free-electron lasers for probing of complex interaction dynamics of ultra-intense lasers with solid matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the potential of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) to advance the understanding of complex plasma dynamics by allowing for the first time nanometer and femtosecond resolution at the same time in plasma diagnostics. Plasma phenomena on such short timescales are of high relevance for many fields of physics, in particular in the ultra-intense ultra-short laser interaction with matter. Highly relevant yet only partially understood phenomena become directly accessible in experiment. These include relativistic laser absorption at solid targets, creation of energetic electrons and electron transport in warm dense matter, including the seeding and development of surface and beam instabilities, ambipolar expansion, shock formation, and dynamics at the surfaces or at buried layers. In this paper, we focus on XFEL plasma probing for high power laser matter interactions based on quantitative calculations using synthesized data and evaluate the feasibility of various imaging and scattering techniques with special focus on the small angle X-ray scattering technique.

Kluge, T., E-mail: t.kluge@hzdr.de; Huang, L. G.; Metzkes, J.; Bussmann, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Gutt, C. [Universität Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)] [Universität Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Schramm, U.; Cowan, T. E. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Water adsorption, solvation and deliquescence of alkali halide thin films on SiO2 studied by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of water on KBr thin films evaporated onto SiO2 was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 30percent RH adsorbed water reaches a coverage of approximately one monolayer. As the humidity continues to increase, the coverage of water remains constant or increases very slowly until 60percent RH, followed by a rapid increase up to 100percent RH. At low RH a significant number of the Br atoms are lost due to irradiation damage. With increasing humidity solvation increases ion mobility and gives rise to a partial recovery of the Br/K ratio. Above 60percent RH the increase of the Br/K ratio accelerates. Above the deliquescence point (85percent RH), the thickness of the water layer continues to increase and reaches more than three layers near saturation. The enhancement of the Br/K ratio at this stage is roughly a factor 2.3 on a 0.5 nm KBr film, indicating a strong preferential segregation of Br ions to the surface of the thin saline solution on SiO2.

Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Xingyi; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Design of an ultrahigh vacuum transfer mechanism to interconnect an oxide molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber and an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy analysis system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We designed a mechanism and the accompanying sample holders to transfer between a VEECO 930 oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and a PHI Versa Probe X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) chamber within a multiple station growth, processing, and analysis system through ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The mechanism consists of four parts: (1) a platen compatible with the MBE growth stage, (2) a platen compatible with the XPS analysis stage, (3) a sample coupon that is transferred between the two platens, and (4) the accompanying UHV transfer line. The mechanism offers a robust design that enables transfer back and forth between the growth chamber and the analysis chamber, and yet is flexible enough to allow transfer between standard sample holders for thin film growth and masked sample holders for making electrical contacts and Schottky junctions, all without breaking vacuum. We used this mechanism to transfer a barium strontium titanate thin film into the XPS analysis chamber and performed XPS measurements before and after exposing the sample to the air. After air exposure, a thin overlayer of carbon was found to form and a significant shift ({approx}1 eV) in the core level binding energies was observed.

Rutkowski, M. M.; Zeng Zhaoquan [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); McNicholas, K. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Brillson, L. J. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

A promising concept for using near-surface measuring angles in angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy considering elastic scattering effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing number of applications of very thin films requires both reliable thin-layer and interface characterization. A powerful method for characterization in the nanometer thickness range is the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is a nondestructive depth-profiling method, which can provide elemental content as well as chemical information. Two of the drawbacks of ARXPS are, that it requires dedicated mathematical modeling and that, at least up until now, its use has been restricted away from near-surface angles. In this paper we present a method for the mathematical description of a few, hitherto unaccounted, measurement effects in order to improve the simulations of ARXPS data for complex surface structures. As an immediate application, we propose a simple algorithm to consider the effects of elastic scattering in the standard ARXPS data interpretation, which in principle would allow the use of the whole angular range for the analysis; thus leading to a significant increase in the usable information content from the measurements. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with model calculations for a few thin film examples.

Oswald, S.; Oswald, F. [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

X-ray laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

322

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Femtosecond Single-Shot Imaging of Nanoscale Ferromagnetic Order in Co/Pd Multilayers using Resonant X-ray Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first single-shot images of ferromagnetic, nanoscale spin order taken with femtosecond x-ray pulses. X-ray-induced electron and spin dynamics can be outrun with pulses shorter than 80 fs in the investigated fluence regime, and no permanent aftereffects in the samples are observed below a fluence of 25 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Employing resonant spatially-muliplexed x-ray holography results in a low imaging threshold of 5 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our results open new ways to combine ultrafast laser spectroscopy with sequential snapshot imaging on a single sample, generating a movie of excited state dynamics.

Wang, Tianhan; Zhu, Diling; Benny Wu,; Graves, Catherine; Schaffert, Stefan; Rander, Torbjorn; Muller, leonard; Vodungbo, Boris; Baumier, Cedric; Bernstein, David P.; Brauer, Bjorn; Cros, Vincent; Jong, Sanne de; Delaunay, Renaud; Fognini, Andreas; Kukreja, Roopali; Lee, Sooheyong; Lopez-Flores, Victor; Mohanty, Jyoti; Pfau, Bastian; Popescu, 5 Horia

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

Limpouch, Jiri

325

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Tools for a Theoretical X-ray Beamline J. J. Rehr*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tools for a Theoretical X-ray Beamline J. J. Rehr* Department of Physics University of Washington, France 22 October 2010 #12;X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline #12;Tools for a Theoretical X-ray Beamline · GOAL Theoretical X-ray Beamline: 2. Tools for EXAFS and XANES, EELS, XMCD, ... 3. DFT/MD-TOOLS 4. Next generation

Botti, Silvana

329

X-ray spectral diagnostics of neon photoionization experiments on the Z-machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray spectral diagnostics of neon photoionization experiments on the Z-machine David H. Cohen on an initial spectroscopic study of low-density, x-ray photoionized neon with x-ray spectroscopy plasma, and to explore issues related to the rapid x-ray photoionization of relatively cold, low

Cohen, David

330

X-ray four-wave mixing in molecules Satoshi Tanaka  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray four-wave mixing in molecules Satoshi Tanaka Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester radiation intense light sources have opened up a new era in soft x-ray spectroscopy. The dramatic improvements of spectral resolution in x-ray absorption1,2 and x-ray photoemission spectra3 have revealed

Mukamel, Shaul

331

Pressure-tuning spectroscopy of charge-transfer salts. X-ray crystallography and comparative studies in solution and in the solid state  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The highly colored pyridinium (P{sup +}) and cobaltocenium (C{sup +}) iodides are charge-transfer salts by virtue of the new electronic absorption bands that follow Mulliken theory. X-ray crystallography establishes the relevant interionic separation and steric orientation of the cation/anion pairs P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} and C{sup +}I{sup {minus}} constrained for optimum charge-transfer interaction in the crystal lattice. Spectral comparisons of the charge-transfer (CT) transitions by absorption (solution) and by diffuse reflectance (solid-state) measurements reveals the commonality of contact ion pairs (CIP) in aprotic nonpolar solvents (dichloromethane) with those extant in crystalline charge-transfer salts. As such, the compression of the charge-transfer salts P{sup +}I{sup {minus}} in the solid state by the application of pressures up to 140 kbar leads to unusual red shifts of the CT bands indicative of the dominance of destabilizing charge-transfer interactions.

Bockman, T.M.; Kochi, J.K. (Univ. of Houston, TX (USA)); Chang, H.R.; Drickamer, H.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning micro-Raman spectroscopy of structural irregularities and strains deep inside the multilayered InGaN/GaN heterostructure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy are used to study the spatial distribution of strains in the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN layers and structural quality of these layers in a multilayered light-emitting diode structure produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition onto (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates. It is shown that elastic strains almost completely relax at the heterointerface between the thick GaN buffer layer and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN buffer superlattice. It is established that the GaN layers in the superlattice are in a stretched state, whereas the alloy layers are in a compressed state. In magnitude, the stretching strains in the GaN layers are lower than the compressive strains in the InGaN layers. It is shown that, as compared to the buffer layers, the layers of the superlattice contain a smaller number of dislocations and the distribution of dislocations is more randomly disordered. In micro-Raman studies on scanning through the thickness of the multilayered structure, direct evidence is obtained for the asymmetric gradient distributions of strains and crystal imperfections of the epitaxial nitride layers along the direction of growth. It is shown that the emission intensity of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum well is considerably (more than 30 times) higher than the emission intensity of the GaN barrier layers, suggesting the high efficiency of trapping of charge carriers by the quantum well.

Strelchuk, V. V., E-mail: Strelch@isp.kiev.ua; Kladko, V. P.; Avramenko, E. A.; Kolomys, O. F.; Safryuk, N. V.; Konakova, R. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Yavich, B. S., E-mail: byavich@soptel.ru [ZAO Svetlana-Optoelectronics (Russian Federation); Valakh, M. Ya.; Machulin, V. F.; Belyaev, A. E. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

X-ray absorption anisotropy for polychromatic illumination--Crystal views from inside  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption anisotropy for polychromatic illumination--Crystal views from inside P. Korecki a Keywords: X-ray absorption Real-space imaging X-ray holography Electron channeling Electron backscatter of the fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy, which results from incident beam diffraction

Korecki, Pawe³

334

X-ray beam finder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, H.W.

1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

335

Electronic structures and bonding properties of chlorine-treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes: X-ray absorption and scanning photoelectron microscopy studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic and bonding properties of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) exposed to chlorine plasma were investigated using C and N K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM). The C and N K-edge XANES spectra of chlorine-treated N-CNTs consistently reveal the formation of pyridinelike N-CNTs by the observation of 1s{yields}{pi}*(e{sub 2u}) antibonding and 1s{yields}{pi}*(b{sub 2g}) bonding states. The valence-band photoemission spectra obtained from SPEM images indicate that chlorination of the nanotubes enhances the C-N bonding. First-principles calculations of the partial densities of states in conjunction with C K-edge XANES data identify the presence of C-Cl bonding in chlorine treated N-CNTs.

Ray, S. C.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Chiou, J. W.; Pong, W. F.; Chen, C. W.; Tsai, M.-H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Chen, L. C.; Chen, K. H.; Graham, W. G. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University of Belfast, Belfast, Antrim BT71NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

336

Statistically meaningful data on the chemical state of ironprecipitates in processed multicrystalline silicon usingsynchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray fluorescence microscopy (mu-XRF), x-ray beam induced current (XBIC), and x-ray absorption spectromicroscopy (mu-XAS) were performed on fully-processed Bay Six cast multicrystalline silicon and aluminum-gettered AstroPower Silicon-Film(TM) sheet material. Over ten iron precipitates--predominantly of iron silicide--were identified at low lifetime regions in both materials, both at grain boundaries and intragranular defects identified by XBIC. In addition, large (micron-sized) particles containing oxidized iron and other impurities (Ca, Cr, Mn) were found in BaySix material. The smaller iron silicide precipitates were more numerous and spatially distributed than their larger oxidized iron counterparts, and thus deemed more detrimental to minority carrier diffusion length.

Buonassisi, T.; Heuer, M.; Istratov, A.A.; Weber, E.R.; Cai, Z.; Lai, B.; Marcus, M.; Lu, J.; Rozgonyi, G.; Schindler, R.; Jonczyk, R.; Rand, J.

2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

337

New nanocrystalline manganese oxides as cathode materials for lithium batteries : electron microscopy, electrochemical and X-ray absorption studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 New nanocrystalline manganese oxides as cathode materials for lithium batteries : electron: manganese oxide, lithium batteries, nanomaterials Corresponding author: Pierre Strobel, tel. 33 476 887 940 with lithium iodide in aqueous medium at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical electron microscopy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Director Rutgers Research Showcase Summary: Electron Microscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy X-Ray Diffraction Facility (XRD) Micro-Analytical... for...

339

Validation of columnar CsI x-ray detector responses obtained with hybridMANTIS, a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo code for coupled x-ray, electron, and optical transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: hybridMANTIS is a Monte Carlo package for modeling indirect x-ray imagers using columnar geometry based on a hybrid concept that maximizes the utilization of available CPU and graphics processing unit processors in a workstation. Methods: The authors compare hybridMANTIS x-ray response simulations to previously published MANTIS and experimental data for four cesium iodide scintillator screens. These screens have a variety of reflective and absorptive surfaces with different thicknesses. The authors analyze hybridMANTIS results in terms of modulation transfer function and calculate the root mean square difference and Swank factors from simulated and experimental results. Results: The comparison suggests that hybridMANTIS better matches the experimental data as compared to MANTIS, especially at high spatial frequencies and for the thicker screens. hybridMANTIS simulations are much faster than MANTIS with speed-ups up to 5260. Conclusions: hybridMANTIS is a useful tool for improved description and optimization of image acquisition stages in medical imaging systems and for modeling the forward problem in iterative reconstruction algorithms.

Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo [Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

CHANDRA X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE FOCUSED WIND IN THE CYGNUS X-1 SYSTEM. I. THE NONDIP SPECTRUM IN THE LOW/HARD STATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1)/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally ...

Hanke, Manfred

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu 1. X-ray production & basic properties ­ common sources for diffraction experiments ­ synchrotron radiation ­ response to x-rays by an electron ­ refraction index ­ total external reflection & evanescent wave, TXRF 2. X-ray scattering basics

Shen, Qun

342

Chemical reactions at Cu/ZnS(001) and In/ZnS(001) heterojunctions: A comparison of photoelectron and S L{sub 2,3} x-ray emission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Occurrence and extent of chemical reactions at Cu/ZnS(001) and In/ZnS(001) heterojunctions have been investigated by S L{sub 2,3} x-ray emission spectroscopy as well as photoelectron spectroscopy. With the formation of metal-sulfur bonds, spectral features originating from shallow metal d core levels (Zn 3d, In 4d) or valence states (Cu 3d)) may appear in the S L{sub 2,3} emission spectra. Thus the x-ray emission spectroscopy was employed to detect chemical reactions at the heterojunctions, together with conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. Considerable reactions at the Cu/ZnS(001) interface are more clearly indicated in the S L emission spectrum than in the Cu 2p{sub 3sol2} or S 2p core level spectra, whereas relatively confined reactions at the In/ZnS(001) interface can only be probed in the In 3d{sub 5sol2} core level spectra. The partial densities of states calculated for a reference CuInS{sub 2} on the basis of density functional theory agree well with features occurring in its S L{sub 2,3} emission spectrum.

Zhang, L.; Wett, D.; Schulze, D.; Szargan, R.; Nagel, M.; Peisert, H.; Chasse, T. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 2, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

2005-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-Ray Observations of Radio Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some of the ways that X-ray observations provide unique information on radio galaxies. Thermal bremsstrahlung X-ray emission provides detailed data on ambient densities and temperatures. These parameters in turn can be used for pressure balance calculations and can demonstrate how the ambient gas affects radio source structure. Additionally, many signatures of the interaction of radio jets and lobes with the hot gas are found in high resolution X-ray maps. Non-thermal X-ray emission from knots and hotspots of radio jets can give us constraints on the relativistic electron population for energies greater that that normally sampled in the radio (in the case of synchrotron emission) or can give us an independent estimate of the average magnetic field strength (if inverse Compton emission is the origin of the X-rays). From recent ROSAT HRI observations of 3C 390.3 and 3C 120, we show evidence that X-ray emission from knots and hotspots appears to be associated with regions of large gradients in the radio surface brightness; i.e. at the location of powerful shocks.

D. E. Harris

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) [PVC] as observed by x-ray...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 143 K, 303 K and 373 K. Beam damage of poly(vinyl chloride) PVC as observed by x-ray...

345

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Studies of [(H3buea)FeIII-X]n1 (X= S2-, O2-,OH-): Comparison of Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding in Oxo and Sulfido Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iron L-edge, iron K-edge, and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed on a series of compounds [Fe{sup III}H{sub 3}buea(X)]{sup n-} (X = S{sup 2-}, O{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}). The experimentally determined electronic structures were used to correlate to density functional theory calculations. Calculations supported by the data were then used to compare the metal-ligand bonding and to evaluate the effects of H-bonding in Fe{sup III}-O vs Fe{sup III-}S complexes. It was found that the Fe{sup III-}O bond, while less covalent, is stronger than the FeIII-S bond. This dominantly reflects the larger ionic contribution to the Fe{sup III-}O bond. The H-bonding energy (for three H-bonds) was estimated to be -25 kcal/mol for the oxo as compared to -12 kcal/mol for the sulfide ligand. This difference is attributed to the larger charge density on the oxo ligand resulting from the lower covalency of the Fe-O bond. These results were extended to consider an Fe{sup IV-}O complex with the same ligand environment. It was found that hydrogen bonding to Fe{sup IV-}O is less energetically favorable than that to Fe{sup III-}O, which reflects the highly covalent nature of the Fe{sup IV-}O bond.

Dey, Abhishek; Hocking, Rosalie K.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Larsen, Peter; Borovik, Andrew S.; /Kansas U.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.; /SLAC,

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Normal incidence x-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray mirror for both electron column instruments and micro x-ray fluorescence instruments for making chemical, microanalysis comprises a non-planar mirror having, for example, a spherical reflecting surface for x-rays comprised of a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on a substrate and whose layers have a thickness which is a multiple of the wavelength being reflected. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2nm. 4 figs.

Carr, M.J.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

1987-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

348

Correlation between Charge State of Insulating NaCl Surfaces and Ionic Mobility Induced by Water Adsorption: A Combined Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) and scanning force microscopy were used to characterize the surface discharge induced by water layers grown on (001) surfaces of sodium chloride single crystals. The APPES studies show that both kinetic energy (KE) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Na 2s and Cl 2p core level peaks, monitored as a function of relative humidity (RH), mimic surface conductivity curves measured using scanning force microscopy. The KE position and FWHM of the core level peaks therefore are directly related to the solvation and diffusion of ions at the NaCl(100) surface upon adsorption of water.

Verdaguer, Albert; Jose Segura, Juan; Fraxedas, Jordi; Bluhm, Hendrik; Salmeron, Miquel

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

349

Study of the Feasibility of an X-Ray Free Electron Laser with a 15 GeV CLIC Beam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This note presents a study of the feasibility of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) using an electron beam from the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). We first show that, with the nominal CLIC layout, the energy spread at 15 GeV would be too large to allow FEL saturation in an undulator of reasonable length. An alternative scheme was studied, with a dedicated source, with a by-pass of the damping rings and with magnetic compression between the various acceleration stages. With this scheme, the energy spread of the CLIC beam can be reduced from 1.5% to 0.1%, but the emittance is much larger and, although the power gain is better than in the nominal case, FEL saturation is still not reached. We show that the energy spread or the transverse emittance would have to be reduced by another order of magnitude in order to obtain FEL saturation.

Brandin, M; Ekelöf, T J C; Ferrari, A

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

Bitter, M., E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, Jian [Department of Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the rod pinch diode [1] has led to high-resolution radiography for dynamic events such as explosive tests. Rod pinch diodes use a small diameter anode rod, which extends through the aperture of a cathode plate. Electrons borne off the aperture surface can self-insulate and pinch onto the tip of the rod, creating an intense, small x-ray source (Primary Pinch). This source has been utilized as the main diagnostic on numerous experiments that include high-value, single-shot events. In such applications there is an emphasis on machine reliability, x-ray reproducibility, and x-ray quality [2]. In tests with the baseline rod pinch diode, we have observed that an additional pinch (Secondary Pinch) occurs at the interface near the anode rod and the rod holder. This suggests that stray electrons exist that are not associated with the Primary Pinch. In this paper we present measurements on both pinches using an x-ray pinhole camera. The camera is placed downstream of the Primary Pinch at an angle of 60° with respect to the diode centerline. This diagnostic will be employed to diagnose x-ray reproducibility and quality. In addition, we will investigate the performance of hybrid diodes relating to the formation of the Primary and Secondary Pinches.

Nelson, D. S. [NSTec; Berninger, M. J. [NSTec; Flores, P. A. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Hogge, K. W. [NSTec; Huber, S. R. [NSTec; Lutz, S. S. [NSTec; Mitchell, S. E. [NSTec; Howe, R. A. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Bozman, D. R. [SNL; Cordova, S. R. [SNL; Mitchell, D. R. [SNL; Oliver, B. V. [SNL; Ormond, E. C. [SNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

Reis, David

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Multiphoton above-threshold ionization in superintense free-electron x-ray laser fields: Beyond the dipole approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(k,k?,t)Yl?m?(? ?,??)d#12;d#12;? (17) and Blm,l?m? (k,k?,t) = kk? ? ? Y ?lm(?,?)B(k,k?,t)Yl?m?(? ?,??)d#12;d#12;?, (18) respectively. For the laser pulse given by Eq. (2), Dlm,l?m?(k,k?,t) and Blm,l?m? (k,k?,t) are calculated using Eqs. (B1) and (B2) in Appendix B...†(k?,k,t) = D(k,k?,t) and B†(k?,k,t) = B(k,k?,t). Thus the P-space Hamiltonian given by Eq. (7), H (k,k?,t), is Hermitian. APPENDIX B: P-SPACE PARTIAL-WAVE LASER-ELECTRON INTERACTIONS Substituting Eqs. (A1) and (A2) into Eqs. (17) and (18), respectively, we...

Zhou, Zhongyuan; Chu, Shih-I

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

356

X-Ray Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore than 20X-Ray Diagnostics

357

Quick extended x-ray absorption fine structure instrument with millisecond time scale, optimized for in situ applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quick extended x-ray absorption fine structure instrument with millisecond time scale, optimized of quick extended x-ray absorption fine structure QEXAFS and quick x-ray absorption near edge structure- tion spectroscopy XAS was developed in energy dispersive and quick extended x-ray absorption fine

Sparks, Donald L.

358

Structural phase transition and magnetism in hexagonal SrMnO{sub 3} by magnetization measurements and by electron, x-ray, and neutron diffraction studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural and magnetic properties of the hexagonal four-layer form of SrMnO{sub 3} have been investigated by combining magnetization measurements, electron diffraction, and high-resolution synchrotron x-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Below 350 K, there is subtle structural phase transition from hexagonal symmetry (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc) to orthorhombic symmetry (space group C222{sub 1}) where the hexagonal metric is preserved. The second-order phase transition involves a slight tilting of the corner-sharing Mn{sub 2}O{sub 9} units composed of two face-sharing MnO{sub 6} octahedra and the associated displacement of Sr{sup 2+} cations. The phase transition is described in terms of symmetry-adapted displacement modes of the high symmetry phase. Upon further cooling, long range magnetic order with propagation vector k=(0,0,0) sets in below 300 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, analyzed using representation theory, shows a considerably reduced magnetic moment indicating the crucial role played by direct exchange between Mn centers of the Mn{sub 2}O{sub 9} units.

Daoud-Aladine, A.; Chapon, L. C.; Knight, K. S. [ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory-CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Martin, C. [Laboratoire CRISMAT-UMR, 6508 ENSI CAEN, 6, Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory-CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Hervieu, M. [Laboratoire CRISMAT-UMR, 6508 ENSI CAEN, 6, Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Brunelli, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Radaelli, P. G. [ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory-CCLRC, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Elemental relationships in rock varnish as seen with SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray) elemental line profiling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heterogeneous nature of rock varnish requires a thorough survey of elemental and mineralogic compositions before relating chemical variability of rock varnish to past geochemical environments. Elemental relationships in rock varnish can be examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with an elemental line profiling routine using semi-quantitative, energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Results of SEM/EDX analysis suggest: variations in cation concentrations used in varnish cation ratio dating relate more specifically to variations in detritus within the varnish than to element mobility as defined by weathering indices; Mn concentration rather than Mn:Fe ratios may be a more appropriate indicator of paleoclimatic fluctuations; and the Mn-oxide phase existing in varnish is most likely a Ba-enriched phase rather than birnessite. Element line profiling offers great potential for gaining insights into geochemical processes affecting the deposition and diagenesis of rock varnish and for testing hypotheses relating to its chemical variability. 27 refs., 9 figs.

Raymond, R. Jr.; Reneau, S.L.; Harrington, C.D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Delayed Ultrafast X-ray Auger Probing (DUXAP) of Nucleobase Ultraviolet Photoprotection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method for ultrafast spectroscopy of molecular photoexcited dynamics. The technique uses a pair of femtosecond pulses: a photoexcitation pulse initiating excited state dynamics followed by a soft x-ray (SXR) probe pulse that core ionizes certain atoms inside the molecule. We observe the Auger decay of the core hole as a function of delay between the photoexcitation and SXR pulses. The core hole decay is particularly sensitive to the local valence electrons near the core and shows new types of propensity rules, compared to dipole selection rules in SXR absorption or emission spectroscopy. We apply the delayed ultrafast x-ray Auger probing (DUXAP) method to the specific problem of nucleobase photoprotection to demonstrate its potential. The ultraviolet photoexcited \\pi\\pi* states of nucleobases are prone to chemical reactions with neighboring bases. To avoid this, the single molecules funnel the \\pi\\pi* population to lower lying electronic states on an ultrafast timescale under violation of the...

McFarland, B K; Miyabe, S; Tarantelli, F; Aguilar, A; Berrah, N; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Castagna, J C; Coffee, R; Cryan, J; Fang, L; Feifel, R; Gaffney, K; Glownia, J; Martinez, T; Mucke, M; Murphy, B; Natan, A; Osipov, T; Petrovic, V; Schorb, S; Schultz, Th; Spector, L; Swiggers, M; Tenney, I; Wang, S; White, W; White, J; Gühr, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Catalog of supersoft X-ray sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This catalog comprises an up-to-date (December 1999) list of luminous (>10^36 erg/s), binary supersoft X-ray sources. This electronic version (including the accompannying Web-pages) supersedes the printed version of Greiner (1996).

J. Greiner

2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

362

A laser triggered vacuum spark x-ray lithography source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ionized state or the physical processes occurring 15 in a high temperature plasma. There are many advantages to the use of the vacuum spark as an x-ray source; the simplicity of the machine is one. The x-ray output is within the range usable for x-ray... spark apparatus ha- been studied here to determine its applicability to x-ray lithography. A capacitor which stored approximately 3 KJ supplied most of the energy for the plasma. A Nd-YAG laser was used to supply electrons and metallic atoms...

Keating, Richard Allen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

An electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

channel is sufficiently small. The results of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy study of Mn and Cu adsorption on the zeolite minerals zeolite Y (large...

364

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

X-ray compass for determining device orientation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Ultrafast extended x-ray absorption fine structure ,,EXAFS...--theoretical considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

13­20 to generate ultrafast x-ray pulses, however, the prospect of ultrafast EXAFS seems encouragingUltrafast extended x-ray absorption fine structure ,,EXAFS...--theoretical considerations Frank L by the recent experimental demonstration of ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we present a framework

Cao, Jianshu

367

X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene Jeremy Hicks1 , Rajan Arora2 , Eleazar and after exposure to a total ionizing dose (TID) of 12 Mrad(SiO2) using a 10 keV X-ray source. While we are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data

368

X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Manganese in Petroglyphs and Graffiti in the Bluff, Utah Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Manganese in Petroglyphs and Graffiti in the Bluff, Utah Area the age of rock art using Mn levels, Lytle (2008). In this work we use x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to measure of methods including atomic mass spectroscopy (AMS) measurements of 14 C, Particle-induced X-ray Excitation

369

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites Graeme Eoin Johnstone A Thesis submitted are performed using a variety of neutron scattering and x-ray scattering techniques. The electronic ground for analysing the results of the polarised neutron scattering experiment. There are a large number of people who

Boothroyd, Andrew

371

X-ray fluorescence mapping  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biololgical cells, over the measurement of impurities in solar cells, to the rare earth content of geological materials. A somewhat 'typical' layout for a X-ray fluorescence...

372

Simulating Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in MCl62- (M= U, Np, Pu) complexes and UOCl5- using time-dependent density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report simulations of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) at the Cl K-edge of actinide hexahalides MCl62- (M = U, Np, Pu) and the UOCl5- complex using linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT) extended for core excitations. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first calculations of the Cl K-edge spectra of NpCl62- and PuCl62-. In addition, the spectra are simulated with and without the environmental effects of the host crystal as well as ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) to capture the dynamical effects due to atomic motion. The calculated spectra are compared with experimental results, where available and the observed trends are discussed.

Govind, Niranjan; De Jong, Wibe A.

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

373

X-ray shearing interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Amyloid Treatment and Research Program key research findings: Definition of the electron microscopic structure and x-ray diffraction pattern of amyloid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, which for the first time defined the biochemical nature and source of the amyloid fibril in this form microscopic structure and x-ray diffraction pattern of amyloid fibrils in 1967, providing key insight of amyloidosis. Characterization of the protein deposits in dialysis-associated amyloidosis as 2- microglobulin

Finzi, Adrien

375

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplkment au no 10, Tome 32, Octobre 1971, page C4-214 ELECTRON INTERACTION IN X-RAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relatives ont kt6 calculQs dans une approximation ((frozen-orbital )) pour la transition d'un Btat K normal subshells. Introduction. -The K p satellite is an X-ray satellite which appears on the low energy side, proposed that the KP' structure originates from the interaction between a hole and the incomplete 3 d shell

Boyer, Edmond

376

X-Ray Source Based on the Parametric X-Rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospects of parametric x-rays (PXR) application for the development of a tuneable quasi-monochromatic x-ray source for medical imaging are discussed. Analysis of basic requirements for electron accelerator shows that it must be relatively low-energy and high-current linac. In comparison with known ultra-relativistic cases, at low energies PXR properties will be modified to a great extent by multiple scattering of the electrons. PXR intensity dependence on target thickness and beam energy are calculated taking multiple scattering into account. It is concluded that PXR source based on real medical accelerators is feasible and can provide x-ray flux needful for obtaining high quality medical images.

Alexander Lobko; Olga Lugovskaya

2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

377

PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Evenson, W.E. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Rasera, R.L. [Maryland Univ., Catonsville, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics; Sommers, J.A. [Teledyne-Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

378

PAC spectroscopy of electronic ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dilute indium dopants in cerium oxides and YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} have been studied by{sup 111}In/Cd Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. By controlling oxygen vacancy concentration in the cerium oxides through doping or high-temperature vacuum annealing, we have found that indium always forms a defect complex unless the sample is doped to reduce greatly the oxygen vacancy concentration. Three different vacancy-associated complexes are found with concentrations that depend on doping and oxygen stoichiometry. Another defect complex occurs in samples having negligible vacancy concentration. At low temperatures, evidence is found of interaction with an electronic hole trapped by {sup 111}Cd after the radioactive decay of the {sup 111}In parent. In YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} the indium substitutes preferentially at the Y site but has measurable probability of substitution in at least one of the two copper sites. A symmetry change near 650 {degree}C is consistent with the well-documented orthorhombic/tetragonal transition for samples in air or oxygen.

Gardner, J.A.; Wang, Ruiping; Schwenker, R. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics); Evenson, W.E. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Rasera, R.L. (Maryland Univ., Catonsville, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics); Sommers, J.A. (Teledyne-Wah Chang, Albany, OR (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Observation of strontium segregation in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} and NdGaO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} oxide heterostructures by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LaAlO{sub 3} and NdGaO{sub 3} thin films of different thicknesses have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals and investigated by soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The surface sensitivity of the measurements has been tuned by varying photon energy h? and emission angle ?. In contrast to the core levels of the other elements, the Sr 3d line shows an unexpected splitting for higher surface sensitivity, signaling the presence of a second strontium component. From our quantitative analysis we conclude that during the growth process Sr atoms diffuse away from the substrate and segregate at the surface of the heterostructure, possibly forming strontium oxide.

Treske, Uwe; Heming, Nadine; Knupfer, Martin; Büchner, Bernd; Koitzsch, Andreas, E-mail: a.koitzsch@ifw-dresden.de [Institute for Solid State Research, IFW-Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, DE-01171 Dresden (Germany); Di Gennaro, Emiliano; Scotti di Uccio, Umberto; Miletto Granozio, Fabio [CNR-SPIN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Krause, Stefan [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, BESSY, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Quantitative analysis of phosphosilicate glass films on silicon wafers for calibration of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The phosphorus and silicon contents of phosphosilicate glass films deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on silicon wafers were determined. These films were prepared for use as x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry standards. The thin films were removed from the wafer by etching with dilute hydrofluoric acid, and the P and Si concentrations in solution were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP). The calculated phosphorus concentration ranged from 2.2 to 12 wt %, with an uncertainty of 2.73 to 10.1 relative percent. Variation between the calculated weight loss (summation of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and SiO/sub 2/ amounts as determined by ICP) and the measured weight loss (determined gravimetrically) averaged 4.9%. Results from the ICP method, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dispersive infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for the same samples are compared.

Weissman, S.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Analysis of Reductive [2Fe-2S] Cluster Degradation in Hyperthermophilic Archaeal Succinate:Caldariellaquinone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Analysis of Reductive [2Fe-2S] Cluster Degradation, but moderately sensitive to reduction with excess dithionite. We used iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Scott, Robert A.

382

Chemical order in Ge{sub x}As{sub y}Se{sub 1-x-y} glasses probed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra of Ge{sub x}As{sub y}Se{sub 1-x-y} glasses with a mean coordination number (MCN) from 2.2 to 2.78. The valence band spectra showed that a number of Se–Se–Se trimers can be found in Se-rich samples, whilst multiband features induced by phase separation can be observed in extremely Se-poor samples. When the Ge, As, and Se 3d spectra were decomposed into several doublets, which correspond, respectively, to different chemical environments, the perfect AsSe{sub 3/2} pyramidal and GeSe{sub 4/2} tetrahedral structures in Se-rich samples gradually evolved into defect structures, including As–As and Ge–Ge homopolar bonds, with increasing Ge and As concentrations. Two transition-like features were found at MCN?=?2.5 and 2.64–2.72 that correspond first to the disappearance of Se-chains in the glass network and, subsequently, destruction of the perfect GeSe{sub 4/2} tetrahedral structures, respectively.

Xu, S. W. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); College of Applied Sciences, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing100124 (China); Wang, R. P.; Luther-Davies, B. [Laser Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Kovalskiy, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, Tennessee 37043 (United States); Miller, A. C.; Jain, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015-3195 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

383

In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

384

Current Problems for X-ray Emission from Radio Jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A list is presented of known extragalactic radio jets which also have associated X-ray emission. The canonical emission processes for the production of X-rays are reviewed and the sources are categorized on the basis of our current understanding. Although it seems clear that the X-ray emission is non-thermal, the two competing processes, synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions, arise from extremely high energy (synchrotron) or extremely low energy (beaming models with IC emission), relativistic electrons. Only synchrotron self-Compton emission from a few hotspots provides information on the `normal' energy range of the electrons responsible for the observed radio emission.

D. E. Harris

2000-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

385

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron...

386

Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron materials Friday, September 14, 2012 - 1:00pm SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Jun-Sik Lee Seminar One of the...

387

Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Mueller, K.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Two-dimensional x-ray correlation spectroscopy of remote core states Daniel Healion, Yu Zhang, Jason D. Biggs, Weijie Hua, and Shaul Mukamel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Jason D. Biggs, Weijie Hua, and Shaul Mukamel Citation: Structural Dynamics 1, 014101 (2014); doi: 10-ray correlation spectroscopy of remote core states Daniel Healion, Yu Zhang, Jason D. Biggs, Weijie Hua, and Shaul

Mukamel, Shaul

389

HARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX, A FACILTY FOR ULTRAFAST X-RAY SCIENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-electron laser (FEL) beamlines which use the har- monic cascade approach to produce coherent XUV & soft X-ray for an integrated system of ultrafast x-ray techniques and lasers, using laser-seeded harmonic cascade FEL's, rfHARMONIC CASCADE FEL DESIGNS FOR LUX, A FACILTY FOR ULTRAFAST X-RAY SCIENCE J. Corlett, W. Fawley

Wurtele, Jonathan

390

Massively parallel X-ray holography STEFANO MARCHESINI1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and a bacterial cell with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser, where illumination by a single 15-fs pulse was successfully used in producing the holographic image. As X-ray lasers move to shorter wavelengths we expectMassively parallel X-ray holography STEFANO MARCHESINI1,2 *, SE´BASTIEN BOUTET3,4 , ANNE E

Petta, Jason

391

X-Ray Diagnostics for the Levitated Dipole Jennifer L. Ellsworth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diagnostics for the Levitated Dipole Experiment by Jennifer L. Ellsworth Submitted by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neil E. Todreas? Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;X-Ray DiagnosticsV). As a consequence of these fast electrons, substantial x-ray flux is expected. In the initial run campaign we plan

392

Columbia University X-Ray Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V-720 keV · NaI 2x2x2" detector views an energy range of 1 keV-3 MeV Store signal in the tree. computer configuration. Plasmas were created using multi-frequency ECRH, and we find that most of the plasma energy is stored in the fast electrons. The energy spectrum of the x-ray emission below 740 keV is measured

393

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking Tom Aldcroft SAO/CXC #12;X-ray Stacking 2008 analysis for a sample Stacking ­ mean properties of sample Chandra X-ray data (faint point sources) are photon-limited with low background => stacking in X-rays is very effective #12;X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22

Wolfe, Patrick J.

394

Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

X-ray and synchrotron studies of porous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of comprehensive studies of layers of porous silicon of different conductivity types, grown by anodizing standard Si(111) substrates in an electrolyte based on fluoric acid and ethanol with the addition of 5% of iodine and kept in air for a long time, are discussed. Measurements are performed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, and ultrasoft X-ray spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. The structural parameters of the layers (thickness, strain, and porosity) and atomic and chemical composition of the porous-silicon surface are determined. It is found that an oxide layer 1.5-2.3-nm thick is formed on the surface of the silicon skeleton. The near-edge fine structure of the Si 2p absorption spectrum of this layer corresponds to the fine structure of the 2p spectrum of well coordinated SiO{sub 2}. In this case, the fine structure in the Si 2p-edge absorption region of the silicon skeleton is identical to that of the 2p absorption spectrum of crystalline silicon.

Sivkov, V. N., E-mail: svn@dm.komisc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Lomov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technological Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Physical-Technological Institute (Russian Federation); Vasil'ev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Nekipelov, S. V. [Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)] [Komi State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation); Petrova, O. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Atomic Resolution Mapping of the Excited-State Electronic Structure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mapping of the Excited-State Electronic Structure of Cu2O with Time-Resolved X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy. Atomic Resolution Mapping of the Excited-State Electronic Structure of...

399

Extended Xray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS) Provides details on how x rays are absorbed by an atom at energies near X18A,B,X19A Provides details on how xrays are absorbed by an atom at energies near  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's xray absorption probability due to the chemical and physical state of the atom · Especially sensitiveExtended Xray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS) · Provides details on how x rays are absorbed by an atom at energies near X18A,B,X19A· Provides details on how xrays are absorbed by an atom

Ohta, Shigemi

400

Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The evolution of the Mn charge state, chemical composition, and electronic structure of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) cathodes during the catalytic activation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been studies using X-ray spectroscopy of as-processed, exposed, and activated dense thin LSMO films. Comparison of O K-edge and Mn L{sub 3,2}-edge X-ray absorption spectra from the different stages of LSMO cathodes revealed that the largest change after the activation occurred in the Mn charge state with little change in the oxygen environment. Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mn L{sub 3} resonant photoemission spectroscopy studies of exposed and as-processed LSMO determined that the SOFC environment (800 C ambient pressure of O{sub 2}) alone results in La deficiency (severest near the surface with Sr doping >0.55) and a stronger Mn{sup 4+} contribution, leading to the increased insulating character of the cathode prior to activation. Meanwhile, O K-edge X-ray absorption measurements support Sr/La enrichment nearer the surface, along with the formation of mixed Sr{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} and/or passive MnO{sub x} and SrO species.

L Piper; A Preston; S Cho; A DeMasi; J Laverock; K Smith; L Miara; J Davis; S Basu; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

fLasHThe Free-Electron Laser new technologies for new science: Soon X-ray free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, how molecular machines really work. Accelerators | photon Science | particle physics Deutsches in the accel- erator tunnel. The photon beam transport system in the hall delivers the FEL pulses ­ as short the feasibility of a superconducting linear electron-positron collider for elementary particle phy- sics

402

Laser wakefield generated X-ray probe for femtosecond time-resolved measurements of ionization states of warm dense aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a laser wakefield generated X-ray probe to directly measure the temporal evolution of the ionization states in warm dense aluminum by means of absorption spectroscopy. As a promising alternative to the free electron excited X-ray sources, Betatron X-ray radiation, with femtosecond pulse duration, provides a new technique to diagnose femtosecond to picosecond transitions in the atomic structure. The X-ray probe system consists of an adjustable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope for focusing the Betatron emission to a small probe spot on the sample being measured, and a flat Potassium Acid Phthalate Bragg crystal spectrometer to measure the transmitted X-ray spectrum in the region of the aluminum K-edge absorption lines. An X-ray focal spot size of around 50 ?m was achieved after reflection from the platinum-coated 10-cm-long KB microscope mirrors. Shot to shot positioning stability of the Betatron radiation was measured resulting in an rms shot to shot variation in spatial pointing on the sample of 16 ?m. The entire probe setup had a spectral resolution of ?1.5 eV, a detection bandwidth of ?24 eV, and an overall photon throughput efficiency of the order of 10{sup ?5}. Approximately 10 photons were detected by the X-ray CCD per laser shot within the spectrally resolved detection band. Thus, it is expected that hundreds of shots will be required per absorption spectrum to clearly observe the K-shell absorption features expected from the ionization states of the warm dense aluminum.

Mo, M. Z.; Chen, Z.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); Fourmaux, S.; Saraf, A.; Otani, K.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada)] [INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ng, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

X-Ray Emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: A Short Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth - the three planets having dense atmosphere and a well developed magnetosphere - are known to emit X-rays. Recently, Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed X-rays from these planets, and XMM-Newton has observed them from Jupiter and Saturn. These observations have provided improved morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics of X-rays from these planets. Both auroral and non-auroral (low-latitude) 'disk' X-ray emissions have been observed on Earth and Jupiter. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence for X-ray aurora on Saturn has been observed. The non-auroral disk X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, are mostly produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. X-ray aurora on Earth is mainly generated via bremsstrahlung from precipitating electrons and on Jupiter via charge exchange of highlyionized energetic heavy ions precipitating into the polar atmosphere. Recent unpublished work suggests that at higher (>2 keV) energies electron bremsstrahlung also plays a role in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. This paper summarizes the recent results of X-ray observations on Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth mainly in the soft energy (~0.1-2.0 keV) band and provides a comparative overview.

Anil Bhardwaj

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

404

X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe-K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the electronic and geometric structure of the iron active site in non-heme iron enzymes. A new theoretical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis approach, called GNXAS, has been tested on data for iron model complexes to evaluate the utility and reliability of this new technique, especially with respect to the effects of multiple-scattering. In addition, a detailed analysis of the 1s{yields}3d pre-edge feature has been developed as a tool for investigating the oxidation state, spin state, and geometry of iron sites. Edge and EXAFS analyses have then been applied to the study of non-heme iron enzyme active sites.

Westre, T.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore be related to the production of X-rays on massive stars. If so, massive stars' X-rays are much different than those found our own Sun and other cooler stars like the Sun that produce X-rays via magnetic activity

Cohen, David

406

RYLLA. [X-ray transport code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

Hyde, R.A.

1983-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

407

Quantitative x-ray imager (abstract)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on development of a quantitative x-ray imager (QXI) for the national Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Included in this development is a study of photocathode response as a function of photon energy, 2--17.5 keV, which is related to diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The QXI is defined as being a quantative imager due to the repeated characterization. This instrument is systematically checked out, electronically as well as its photocathode x-ray response, both on a direct current and pulsed x-ray sources, before and after its use on a shot campaign. The QXI is a gated x-ray imager1 used for a variety of experiments conducted in the Inertial Confinement Fusion and Radiation Physics Program. The camera was assembled in Los Alamos and has been under development since 1997 and has now become the workhorse framing camera by the program. The electronics were built by Grant Applied Physics of San Fransisco, CA.2 The QXI has been used at the LANL Trident, LLNL Nova, and University of Rochester Laboratory OMEGA laser facilities. The camera consists of a grated microchannel plate (MCP), a phosphor coated fiberoptic faceplate coupled to film for data readout, along with high speed electronic pulsers to drive the x-ray detector. The QXI has both a two-strip and a four-strip detection head and has the ability to individually bias the gain of each of the strips. The timing of the QXI was done at the Trident short pulse laboratory, using 211 nm light. Single strip jitter was looked at as well and determined to be <25 ps. Flatfielding of the photocathode across the MCP was done with the Trident main laser with 150 J on a gold disk with a 1 ns. Spatial resolution was determined to be <5 {mu}m by using the same laser conditions as before and a backlit 1000 lp/in. grid. The QXI has been used on cylindrical implosion work at the Nova Laser Facility, and on direct-drive cylinder mix and indirect-drive high convergence implosion experiments at OMEGA. Its two-strip module has provided the capability to look at point backlighters, as part of technique development for experiments on the NIF. Its next use will be in March 2000 with its off axis viewer nose at Omega, providing a perpendicular view of Rayleigh--Taylor spike dissipation.

Evans, Scott C.; Archuleta, Tom N.; Oertel, John A.; Walsh, Peter J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electronic Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials with Photon-in/Photon-out Soft-X-Ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent advances in hydrogen storage in metal- containingCatalyzed alanates for hydrogen storage, Journal of Alloysand A. Zuttle, Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile

Guo, Jinghua

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Strong Coupling between 4f Valence Instability and 3d Ferromagnetism in YbxFe4Sb12 Studied by Resonant X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrons tends to stabilize magnetic ordered states. Permanent ferromagnets, such as Nd-Fe-B and SmStrong Coupling between 4f Valence Instability and 3d Ferromagnetism in YbxFe4Sb12 Studied valence is independent of temperature. This evidences a close interplay between the magnetic instability

Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

410

Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Effect of SiH{sub 4} surface treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The band-alignment of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N was studied by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements for both the non-passivated and SiH{sub 4} passivated AlGaN surfaces. The valence band offset and the conduction band offset for the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N interface were found to be 0.43?eV and 1.47?eV, respectively, for the non-passivated sample, and 0.59?eV and 1.31?eV, respectively, for the SiH{sub 4}-passivated sample. The difference in the band alignment is dominated by the band bending or band shift in the AlGaN substrate as a result of the different interlayers formed by the two surface preparations.

Samuel Owen, Man Hon, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Amin Bhuiyan, Maruf; Zhou, Qian; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Sheng Pan, Ji [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

411

In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

Sowinska, Malgorzata, E-mail: sowinska@ihp-microelectronics.com; Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Thiess, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

413

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Systems and methods for detecting x-rays  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

X-ray Raman scattering study of aligned polyfluorene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study at the carbon K-edge on aligned poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl] and show that the x-ray Raman scattering technique can be used as a practical alternative to x-ray absorption measurements. We demonstrate that this novel method can be applied to studies on aligned $\\pi$-conjugated polymers complementing diffraction and optical studies. Combining the experimental data and a very recently proposed theoretical scheme we demonstrate a unique property of x-ray Raman scattering by performing the symmetry decomposition on the density of unoccupied electronic states into $s$- and $p$-type symmetry contributions.

S. Galambosi; M. Knaapila; J. A. Soininen; K. Nyg\\aard; S. Huotari; F. Galbrecht; U. Scherf; A. P. Monkman; K. Hämäläinen

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

416

Focused X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Experimental Verification of the Chemical Sensitivity of Two-Site Double Core-Hole States Formed by an X-ray FEL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have performed X-ray two-photon photoelectron spectroscopy (XTPPS) using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) in order to study double core-hole (DCH) states of CO2, N2O and N2. The experiment verifies the theory behind the chemical sensitivity of two-site (ts) DCH states by comparing a set of small molecules with respect to the energy shift of the tsDCH state and by extracting the relevant parameters from this shift.

Salen, P; Schmidt, H T; Thomas, R D; Larsson, M; Feifel, R; Piancastelli, M N; Fang, L; Murphy, B; Osipov, T; Berrah, N; Kukk, E; Ueda, K; Bozek, J D; Bostedt, C; Wada, S; Richter, R; Feyer, V; Prince, K C

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

Jones, Keith W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (?75?nm and ?155?nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6?eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500?eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg K? (1253.6?eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha, E-mail: s.kulkarni@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Sarkar, Indranil [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Shirolkar, Mandar M. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Science Park, Hsinchu 3007-6, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

420

Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Electron Transfer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this research are threefold: (1) to develop methods for the study electron transfer processes at the single molecule level, (2) to develop a series of modifiable and structurally well defined molecular and nanoparticle systems suitable for detailed single molecule/particle and bulk spectroscopic investigation, (3) to relate experiment to theory in order to elucidate the dependence of electron transfer processes on molecular and electronic structure, coupling and reorganization energies. We have begun the systematic development of single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) of electron transfer and summaries of recent studies are shown. There is a tremendous need for experiments designed to probe the discrete electronic and molecular dynamic fluctuations of single molecules near electrodes and at nanoparticle surfaces. Single molecule spectroscopy (SMS) has emerged as a powerful method to measure properties of individual molecules which would normally be obscured in ensemble-averaged measurement. Fluctuations in the fluorescence time trajectories contain detailed molecular level statistical and dynamical information of the system. The full distribution of a molecular property is revealed in the stochastic fluctuations, giving information about the range of possible behaviors that lead to the ensemble average. In the case of electron transfer, this level of understanding is particularly important to the field of molecular and nanoscale electronics: from a device-design standpoint, understanding and controlling this picture of the overall range of possible behaviors will likely prove to be as important as designing ia the ideal behavior of any given molecule.

Michael Holman; Ling Zang; Ruchuan Liu; David M. Adams

2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray spectroscopy electron" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

Phase-sensitive X-ray imager  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

Baker, Kevin Louis

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

424

Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).

Shvyd'ko, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB) - CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, F-33608 PESSAC (France); Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain (France)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St in hot gas about 250 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/E.Bulbul, et al-Newton has revealed a mysterious X-ray signal in the data. This signal is represented in the circled data

427

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Wesleyan Univ./R.Kilgard, et al; Optical: NASA with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue). The X-ray data reveal hundreds

428

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

429

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St 200 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UAH/M.Sun et al; Optical: NASA, ESA, & the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Caption: This composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue

430

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 USA http://chandra.harvard.edu Four Supernova Remnants: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory's Chandra X-ray Observatory, four newly processed images of supernova remnants dramatically illustrate

431

Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 154 (2007) 6062 Investigation of vanadiumsodium silicate glasses using  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­sodium silicate glasses using XANES spectroscopy M. Faiza,, A. Mekkia, B.S. Munb, Z. Hussainb a Surface Science. Keywords: XANES; Vanadium­sodium silicate glasses; V L2,3 edges; O K edge 1. Introduction Studies on oxide vanadium-sodium silicate glasses. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy is a pow- erful

Mekki, Abdelkarim

432

SMB, X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA REPORT SANDSDNTM7/31/13SLACM J-M-1SMB SMBHome

433

Free-Electron Laser-Powered Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy interrogates unpaired electron spins in solids and liquids to reveal local structure and dynamics; for example, EPR has elucidated parts of the structure of protein complexes that have resisted all other techniques in structural biology. EPR can also probe the interplay of light and electricity in organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes, and the origin of decoherence in condensed matter, which is of fundamental importance to the development of quantum information processors. Like nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), EPR spectroscopy becomes more powerful at high magnetic fields and frequencies, and with excitation by coherent pulses rather than continuous waves. However, the difficulty of generating sequences of powerful pulses at frequencies above 100 GHz has, until now, confined high-power pulsed EPR to magnetic fields of 3.5 T and below. Here we demonstrate that ~1 kW pulses from a free-electron laser (FEL) can power a pulsed EPR spectrometer at 240 GHz...

Takahashi, S; Edwards, D T; van Tol, J; Ramian, G; Han, S; Sherwin, M S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Extending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the radiation damage. While the radiation damage problem can be mitigated somewhat by using cryogenic techniques resolution without serious radiation damage to the specimens. Although X-ray crystallography becomesExtending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray Microscopy Without X-ray Optics

Miao, Jianwei "John"

435

X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

P. C. Schmidtke; A. P. Cowley

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

X-ray radiography with highly charged ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

Marrs, Roscoe E. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

Tan, G.O.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted fromOF X-RAY PULSES TO THE PUMP LASER IN AN ULTRAFAST X-RAY

Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rod pinch diode is made up of a cathode plate and a small diameter anode rod that extends through the cathode hole. The anode is charged positively. The rod tip is made of a high-z material which is chosen for its bremsstrahlung efficiency. When the diode is pulsed it produces an intense x-ray source used for pulsed radiography. The baseline or reference diode consists of a 0.75 mm diameter Tungsten (W) tapered anode rod which extends 10 mm through a 9 mm diameter 3 mm thick aluminum (Al) aperture. The majority of the current in the electron beam is created on the edges of the cathode aperture and when properly configured, the electrons will self insulate, travel down the extension of the rod, and pinch onto the tip of the rod. In this presentation, performance of hybrid diodes will be compared with the baseline diode.

Nelson, D. S. [NSTec; Berninger, M. J. [NSTec; Flores, P. A. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Hogge, K. W. [NSTec; Huber, S. R. [NSTec; Lutz, S. S. [NSTec; Mitchell, S. E. [NSTec; Howe, R. A. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Bozman, D. R. [SNL; Cordova, S. R. [SNL; Mitchell, D. R. [SNL; Oliver, B. V. [SNL; Ormond, E. C. [SNL

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

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441

SciTech Connect: Validations of Time-Resolved X-Ray Emissions...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Validations of Time-Resolved X-Ray Emissions Spectroscopy for Analysis of Mn-Based Natural and Artifical Sunlight-to-Energy Assemblies Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

442

Characterisation of organic photovoltaics by synchrotron soft X-ray techniques.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) The use of advanced synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy and microspectroscopy techniques can probe the nanoscale structure of organic solar… (more)

Burke, Kerry B.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1of EnergyX-ray Computed TomographyImaging

444

X-ray fluorescence mapping  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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445

X-Ray Science Education  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore thanX-Ray Imagingfeed

446

Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of lithium compounds: First-principles interpretation of X-ray Raman measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 3}N, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. The excellent agreement with high-resolution XRS measurements validates the accuracy of our first-principles approach to simulating XAS, and provides both accurate benchmarks for model compounds and a predictive theoretical capability for identification and characterization of multi-component systems, such as lithium-ion batteries, under working conditions.

Pascal, Tod A.; Prendergast, David, E-mail: dgprendergast@lbl.gov [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Boesenberg, Ulrike; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States)] [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States); McDermott, Eamon; Moewes, Alexander [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Cabana, Jordi [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [E