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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Characterization of irradiation-induced precipitates by small angle x-ray and neutron scattering experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nature of the irradiation-induced precipitates in the VVER-440-type steel 15Kh2MFA has been investigated by the combination of small angle neutron scattering and anomalous small angle X-ray scattering. Information about the chemical composition of the irradiation-induced precipitates was obtained by the method of contrast variation. ASAXS experiments with variation of the X-ray energy near the energy of the vanadium K-absorption edge prove the content of vanadium within the irradiation-induced precipitates. The scattering density of the precipitates is lower than the scattering density of the iron matrix. The chemical shift of the vanadium-K{sub {alpha}}-absorption-edge and the results of the variation of the contribution of the magnetic scattering in the SANS experiment show, that vanadium does not precipitate in an elementary state. These results can be explained by assuming the precipitates are vanadium carbide.

Grosse, M.; Eichhorn, F.; Boehmert, J.; Brauer, G. [Research Center Rossendorf Inc., Dresden (Germany)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments on B[subscript 4]C under high static pressures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron K-edge inelastic X-ray scattering experiments were performed on clean B{sub 4}C and shock impact recovered boron carbide up to 30 GPa and at ambient temperature to understand the pressure induced bonding changes. The spectral features corresponding to the boron site in the interlinking chain remained unchanged up to 30 GPa. The results of our experiments indicate that pressure induces less distortion to the boron sites and the local amorphization observed in the previous reports are due to the rearrangement of carbon atoms under extreme conditions without affecting the boron environment.

Kumar, Ravhi S.; Dandekar, Dattatraya; Leithe-Jasper, Andres; Tanaka, Takaho; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Nicol, Malcolm F.; Cornelius, Andrew L. (UNLV); (MXPL-M); (CIW); (USARL)

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

3

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Study of Magnetic Manganites Graeme Eoin Johnstone A Thesis submitted are performed using a variety of neutron scattering and x-ray scattering techniques. The electronic ground for analysing the results of the polarised neutron scattering experiment. There are a large number of people who

Boothroyd, Andrew

4

Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

5

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

Hessler, Jan P.

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

X-ray and neutron scattering studies of magnetic critical fluctuations in holmium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe measurements of the magnetic critical fluctuations of holmium by x-ray scattering techniques. The x-ray results are compared to those obtained in neutron scattering experiments performed on the same sample.

Thurston, T.R.; Helgesen, G.; Gibbs, D.; Shirane, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hill, J.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gaulin, B.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

X-ray and neutron scattering studies of magnetic critical fluctuations in holmium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe measurements of the magnetic critical fluctuations of holmium by x-ray scattering techniques. The x-ray results are compared to those obtained in neutron scattering experiments performed on the same sample.

Thurston, T.R.; Helgesen, G.; Gibbs, D.; Shirane, G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hill, J.P. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics); Gaulin, B.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Nonlinear X-ray Compton Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray scattering is a weak linear probe of matter. It is primarily sensitive to the position of electrons and their momentum distribution. Elastic X-ray scattering forms the basis of atomic structural determination while inelastic Compton scattering is often used as a spectroscopic probe of both single-particle excitations and collective modes. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) are unique tools for studying matter on its natural time and length scales due to their bright and coherent ultrashort pulses. However, in the focus of an XFEL the assumption of a weak linear probe breaks down, and nonlinear light-matter interactions can become ubiquitous. The field can be sufficiently high that even non-resonant multiphoton interactions at hard X-rays wavelengths become relevant. Here we report the observation of one of the most fundamental nonlinear X-ray-matter interactions, the simultaneous Compton scattering of two identical photons producing a single photon at nearly twice the photon energy. We measure scattered...

Fuchs, Matthias; Chen, Jian; Ghimire, Shambhu; Shwartz, Sharon; Kozina, Michael; Jiang, Mason; Henighan, Thomas; Bray, Crystal; Ndabashimiye, Georges; Bucksbaum, P H; Feng, Yiping; Herrmann, Sven; Carini, Gabriella; Pines, Jack; Hart, Philip; Kenney, Christopher; Guillet, Serge; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, Marvin; Moeller, Stefan; Hastings, Jerome B; Reis, David A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

Hessler, Jan P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

Gamboa, E.J. [University of Michigan; Huntington, C.M. [University of Michigan; Trantham, M.R. [University of Michigan; Keiter, P.A [University of Michigan; Drake, R.P. [University of Michigan; Montgomery, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Benage, John F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell A. Ewings 2008 #12;Abstract Neutron and X-ray Scattering Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Russell-ray scattering and neutron scattering experiments on several strongly correlated transition metal oxides

Boothroyd, Andrew

12

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray...

13

SMB, Small Angle X-Ray Scattering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwards SAGE Awards ,#2446Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

14

Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 11 ­ June 25, 2011 at Argonne of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

15

Tenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering September 24 - October 11, 2008 at Argonne of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

Pennycook, Steve

16

Sixteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sixteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 14-28, 2014 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Suzanne G.E. te Velthuis, Esen Ercan Alp

Pennycook, Steve

17

Fourteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fourteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 12 - 25, 2012 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major Ridge National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang

Pennycook, Steve

18

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

15th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10 - 24, 2013 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major Ridge National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang

19

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering May 30 ­ June 13, 2009 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

Pennycook, Steve

20

Twelfth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Twelfth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 12 ­ June 26, 2010 at Argonne National of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

Pennycook, Steve

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Resource Letter on Stimulated Inelastic X-ray Scattering at an XFEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At sufficient X-ray intensity, stimulated effects in inelastic scattering will become important. These coherent, non-linear optical phenomena may be used to impulsively produce a high degree of collective excitation in, for example, correlated electron materials, suitable for performing ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy. This Resource Letter collects information on fundamental aspects of stimulated X-ray scattering and evaluates the prospect for successful experiments at a present or future X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facility.

Patterson, Bruce

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

22

16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Students talk about their experience at the 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering, or NXS 2014. Jointly conducted by Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories, NXS immerses graduate students in national user facilities to learn in a hands-on environment how to use neutrons and X-rays in their research.

Chakoumakos, Bryan; Achilles, Cherie; Cybulskis, Viktor; Gilbert, Ian

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

23

16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Students talk about their experience at the 16th National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering, or NXS 2014. Jointly conducted by Oak Ridge and Argonne national laboratories, NXS immerses graduate students in national user facilities to learn in a hands-on environment how to use neutrons and X-rays in their research.

Chakoumakos, Bryan; Achilles, Cherie; Cybulskis, Viktor; Gilbert, Ian

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

24

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron...

25

X-ray Raman scattering study of aligned polyfluorene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a non-resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study at the carbon K-edge on aligned poly[9,9-bis(2-ethylhexyl)-fluorene-2,7-diyl] and show that the x-ray Raman scattering technique can be used as a practical alternative to x-ray absorption measurements. We demonstrate that this novel method can be applied to studies on aligned $\\pi$-conjugated polymers complementing diffraction and optical studies. Combining the experimental data and a very recently proposed theoretical scheme we demonstrate a unique property of x-ray Raman scattering by performing the symmetry decomposition on the density of unoccupied electronic states into $s$- and $p$-type symmetry contributions.

S. Galambosi; M. Knaapila; J. A. Soininen; K. Nyg\\aard; S. Huotari; F. Galbrecht; U. Scherf; A. P. Monkman; K. Hmlinen

2006-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

26

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

Logan, C.M.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

27

High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Dense Plasma X-ray Scattering: Methods and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed accurate x-ray scattering techniques to measure the physical properties of dense plasmas. Temperature and density are inferred from inelastic x-ray scattering data whose interpretation is model-independent for low to moderately coupled systems. Specifically, the spectral shape of the non-collective Compton scattering spectrum directly reflects the electron velocity distribution. In partially Fermi degenerate systems that have been investigated experimentally in laser shock-compressed beryllium, the Compton scattering spectrum provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. We show that forward scattering spectra that observe collective plasmon oscillations yield densities in agreement with Compton scattering. In addition, electron temperatures inferred from the dispersion of the plasmon feature are consistent with the ion temperature sensitive elastic scattering feature. Hence, theoretical models of the static ion-ion structure factor and consequently the equation of state of dense matter can be directly tested.

Glenzer, S H; Lee, H J; Davis, P; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Fortmann, C; Hammel, B A; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Munro, D H; Redmer, R; Weber, S

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

29

Demonstration of Successful X-ray Thomson Scattering Using Picosecond K-(alpha) X-ray Sources for the Characterization of Dense Heated Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the first successful K-{alpha} x-ray Thomson scattering experiment from solid density plasmas for use as a diagnostic in determining the temperature, density, and ionization state of warm dense matter with picosecond resolution. The development of this source as a diagnostic and stringent requirements for successful K-{alpha} x-ray Thomson scattering are addressed. Data for the experimental techniques described in this paper [1] suggest the capability of single shot characterization of warm dense matter and the ability to use this scattering source at future Free Electron Lasers (FEL) where comparable scattering signal levels are predicted.

Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Doeppner, T; Falcone, R; Glenzer, S; Morse, E C

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

30

Exact limiting relation between the structure factors in neutron and x-ray scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ratio of the static matter structure factor measured in experiments on coherent X-ray scattering to the static structure factor measured in experiments on neutron scattering is considered. It is shown theoretically that this ratio in the long-wavelength limit is equal to the nucleus charge at arbitrary thermodynamic parameters of a pure substance (the system of nuclei and electrons, where interaction between particles is pure Coulomb) in a disordered equilibrium state. This result is the exact relation of the quantum statistical mechanics. The experimental verification of this relation can be done in the long wavelength X-ray and neutron experiments.

V. B. Bobrov; S. A. Trigger; S. N. Skovorod'ko

2010-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

31

Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

Larson, B.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells...

33

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

34

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10-24, 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10-24, 2013 Argonne National Laboratory National Laboratory 3:15 ­ 3:30 Break #12;National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10 Dinner Week 1 wrap-up Picnic #12;National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering August 10-24, 2012 Oak

Kemner, Ken

35

2011 U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 13th annual U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering was held June 11 to 25, 2011, at both Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories. This school brought together 65 early career graduate students from 56 different universities in the US and provided them with a broad introduction to the techniques available at the major large-scale neutron and synchrotron x-ray facilities. This school is focused primarily on techniques relevant to the physical sciences, but also touches on cross-disciplinary bio-related scattering measurements. During the school, students received lectures by over 30 researchers from academia, industry, and national laboratories and participated in a number of short demonstration experiments at Argonne's Advanced Photon Source (APS) and Oak Ridge's Spallation neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) facilities to get hands-on experience in using neutron and synchrotron sources. The first week of this year's school was held at Oak Ridge National Lab, where Lab director Thom Mason welcomed the students and provided a shitorical perspective of the neutron and x-ray facilities both at Oak Ridge and Argonne. The first few days of the school were dedicated to lectures laying out the basics of scattering theory and the differences and complementarity between the neutron and x-ray probes given by Sunil Sinha. Jack Carpenter provided an introduction into how neutrons are generated and detected. After this basic introduction, the students received lectures each morning on specific techniques and conducted demonstration experiments each afternoon on one of 15 different instruments at either the SNS or HFIR. Some of the topics covered during this week of the school included inelastic neutron scattering by Bruce Gaulin, x-ray and neutron reflectivity by Chuck Majkrazak, small-angle scattering by Volker Urban, powder diffraction by Ashfia Huq and diffuse scattering by Gene Ice.

Lang, Jonathan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); te Vethuis, Suzanne [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ekkebus, Allen E [ORNL; Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Budai, John D [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 14-28, 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 14-28, 2014 Argonne National Laboratory:00 Dinner Dinner Dinner Dinner Week 1 wrap-up Picnic #12;National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Restaurant 9:45 - 10:45 Lecture Interaction of X-rays and Neutrons with Matter Roger Pynn University

Kemner, Ken

37

IN SITU SURFACE X-RAY SCATTERING STUDIES OF ELECTROSORPTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A short review of the application of surface x-ray scattering techniques to the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is presented. Recent results on metal, halide, and metal-halide adlayers with three specific systems: Bi on Au(100) and Au(110); Br on Au(100) and Ag(100); and the coadsorption of Tl with Br or I on Au(111), are given as an illustration. Factors affecting ordering of pure metal and halide adlayers and the metal-halide surface compounds are discussed in some detail.

WANG,J.X.; ADZIC,R.R.; OCKO,B.M.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 529-534 (1978) X-Ray and Neutron Small-Angle Scattering Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 529-534 (1978) X-Ray and Neutron Small-Angle Scattering Studies of the Complex-ray and neutron scattering techniques. In this work, we concentrated mainly on radius of gyration analyses and a neutron scattering experiment is performed in 21-Iz0 solvent. This decrease simply reflects the fact

39

Imaging Nonequilibrium Atomic Vibrations with X-ray Diffuse Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use picosecond x-ray diffuse scattering to image the nonequilibrium vibrations of the lattice following ultrafast laser excitation. We present images of nonequilibrium phonons in InP and InSb throughout the Brillouin-zone which remain out of equilibrium up to nanoseconds. The results are analyzed using a Born model that helps identify the phonon branches contributing to the observed features in the time-resolved diffuse scattering. In InP this analysis shows a delayed increase in the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon population along high-symmetry directions accompanied by a decrease in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. In InSb the increase in TA phonon population is less directional.

Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Vishwanath, V.H.; /SLAC; Sheu, Y.M.; /Michigan U.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.; /U. Chicago; Reis, D; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; ,

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

40

Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

42

BIOISIS: Biological Macromolecules by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

BIOISIS is an open access database dedicated to the study of biological macromolecules by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). BIOISIS aims to become the complete source for the deposition, distribution and maintenance of small angle X-ray scattering data and technologies. The database is designed around the concept of an experiment and relates a specific experiment to a set of genes, organisms, computational models and experimental data. As of May 2012, BIOSIS contains 7,118 genes covering four different organisms. Forty-two modeled structures are available. Clicking on a structures reveals scattering curves, experimental conditions, and experimental values. The data are collected at Beamline 12.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS).[Copied with editing from http://www.bioisis.net/about

Tainer, John (Scripps Research Institute); Hura, Greg (LBNL); Rambo, Robert P. (LBNL)

43

Pixel array detector for time-resolved x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of a large-area hybrid pixel detector designed for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments where limited frames, with a high framing rate, is required. The final design parameters call for a 1024{times}1O24 pixel array device with 150-micron pixels that is 100% quantum efficient for x-rays with energy up to 20 keV, with a framing rate in the microsecond range. The device will consist of a fully depleted diode array bump bonded to a CMOS electronic storage capacitor array with eight frames per pixel. The two devices may be separated by a x-ray blocking layer that protects the radiation-sensitive electronics layer from damage. The signal is integrated in the electronics layer and stored in one of eight CMOS capacitors. After eight frames are taken, the data are then read out, using clocking electronics external to the detector, and stored in a RAM disk. Results will be presented on the development of a prototype 4{times}4 pixel electronics layer that is capable of storing at least 10,000 12-keV x-ray photons for a capacity of over 50 million electrons with a noise corresponding to 2 x-ray photons per pixel. The diode detective layer, electronics storage layer along with the radiation damage and blocking layers will be discussed.

Rodricks, B.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Barna, S.L.; Gruner, S.M.; Shepherd, J.A.; Tate, M.W.; Wixted, R.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Micellar structure from comparison of X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

249 Micellar structure from comparison of X-ray and neutron small-angle scattering T. Zemb and P according to the method developed by Hayter and Penfold. Both X-ray and neutron scattering signals, or by a combination of both. It has been shown recent- ly [1, 2] that it is possible in neutron scattering studies

Boyer, Edmond

45

Lipid Bilayer Structure Determined by the Simultaneous Analysis of Neutron and X-Ray Scattering Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lipid Bilayer Structure Determined by the Simultaneous Analysis of Neutron and X-Ray Scattering) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers by simultaneously analyzing x-ray and neutron scattering data. The neutron data electron and neutron scattering density profiles. A key result of the analysis is the molecular surface

Nagle, John F.

46

Large-scale Nanostructure Simulations from X-ray Scattering Data On Graphics Processor Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Scattering Data On Graphics Processor Clusters Abhinavaccelerators. General purpose graphics processors o?er ?nethe form factors on graphics processors. Form Factor Kernel

Sarje, Abhinav

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Resonant soft x-ray scattering: elemental/chemical specific probe...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonant soft x-ray scattering: elementalchemical specific probe of reciprocal space and ordered structure Wednesday, October 15, 2014 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room...

48

X-ray and neutron scattering studies on some nanoscale structures in molecular biology.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Scattering of X-rays and neutrons has been applied to the study of nanostructures with interesting biological functions. The systems studied were the protein calmodulin and (more)

Ikonen, Teemu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

accurate x-ray scattering: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is ove... Corrales, Lia 2012-01-01 20 Dust scattering X-ray expanding rings around gamma-ray bursts Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: Scattering by dust grains in our Galaxy can...

50

X-ray spectral diagnostics of neon photoionization experiments on the Z-machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray spectral diagnostics of neon photoionization experiments on the Z-machine David H. Cohen on an initial spectroscopic study of low-density, x-ray photoionized neon with x-ray spectroscopy plasma, and to explore issues related to the rapid x-ray photoionization of relatively cold, low

Cohen, David

51

Resonant scattering of an X-ray photon by a heavy atom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of many-body and relativistic effects on the absolute values and shape of the double differential cross section for the resonant scattering of a linearly polarized X-ray photon by a free xenon atom near the K-shell ionization threshold has been theoretically analyzed. The evolution of the spatially extended structure of the scattering cross section to the K{sub {alpha}}{sub ,{beta}} structure of the X-ray spectrum of the xenon atom emission has been demonstrated. The calculations have been performed in the dipole approximation for the anomalous dispersion component of the total inelastic scattering amplitude and in the impulse approximation for the contact component of this amplitude. The contribution of the Rayleigh (elastic) scattering component is taken into account using the methods developed in Hopersky et al., J. Phys. B 30, 5131 (1997). The effects of the radial relaxation of the electron shells, spin-orbit splitting, double excitation/ionization of the atomic ground state, as well as the Auger and radiative decays of the produced main vacancies, are considered. Using the results obtained by Tulkki, Phys. Rev. A 32, 3153 (1985) and Biggs et al., At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 16, 201 (1975), the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock wavefunctions are changed to the relativistic Dirac-Hartree-Fock wavefunctions of the single-particle scattering states when constructing the process probability amplitude. The calculations are predicting and are in good agreement with the synchrotron experiment on the measurement of the absolute values and shape of the double differential cross section for the resonant scattering of an X-ray photon by a free xenon atom reported by Czerwinski et al., Z. Phys. A 322, 183 (1985)

Hopersky, A. N., E-mail: hopersky_vm_1@rgups.ru; Nadolinsky, A. M. [Rostov State University of Transport Communication (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Acquisition of an In-House X-ray Scattering Facility for Nanostructure Characterization and Student Training  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This equipment grant was specifically dedicated to the development of a "state of the art" x-ray scattering facility...

Schuller, Ivan K [UC San Diego

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

Search for Photon-Photon Elastic Scattering in the X-ray Region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the first results of a search for real photon-photon scattering using X rays. A novel system is developed to split and collide X-ray pulses by applying interferometric techniques. A total of $6.5\\times10^{5}$ pulses (each containing about $10^{11}$ photons) from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser are injected into the system. No scattered events are observed, and an upper limit of $1.7\\times 10^{-24}$ ${\\rm m^{2}}$ (95% C.L.) is obtained on the photon-photon elastic scattering cross section at 6.5 keV.

T. Inada; T. Yamaji; S. Adachi; T. Namba; S. Asai; T. Kobayashi; K. Tamasaku; Y. Tanaka; Y. Inubushi; K. Sawada; M. Yabashi; T. Ishikawa

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

54

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: experiments and modeling Samuel Tardif,1, 2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: experiments and modeling Samuel Tardif,1, 2: July 29, 2013) X-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the L2),6 and x-ray spectroscopy (x-ray absorption spec- troscopy, XAS, and x-ray magnetic circular

55

Studies of protein structure in solution and protein folding using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) has been applied to the structural study of several biological systems, including the nitrogenase complex, the heat shock cognate protein (hsc70), and lysozyme folding. The structural information revealed from the SAXS experiments is complementary to information obtained by other physical and biochemical methods, and adds to our knowledge and understanding of these systems.

Chen, Lingling

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Safety & Security Guidelines Annual U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety & Security Guidelines 15th Annual U.S. National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering-574-4600. Neutron Sciences User Programs and Outreach Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory #12;

57

X-ray small-angle scattering from sputtered CeO{sub 2}/C bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface and interface morphology of cerium oxide/carbon bilayers used as thin-film catalysts is studied by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic-force microscopy, and the dependence of the structural parameters on the thicknesses of the constituting layers is investigated. The applicability of x-ray scattering and its advantages over standard analytical methods are discussed.

Haviar, S.; Dubau, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Vorokhta, M.; Matolinova, I.; Matolin, V. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vales, V.; Endres, J.; Holy, V. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Buljan, M. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bernstorff, S. [Sincrotrone ELETTRA, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

58

Structured x-ray beams from twisted electrons by inverse Compton scattering of laser light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The inverse Compton scattering of laser light on high-energetic twisted electrons is investigated with the aim to construct spatially structured x-ray beams. In particular, we analyze how the properties of the twisted electrons, such as the topological charge and aperture angle of the electron Bessel beam, affects the energy and angular distribution of scattered x-rays. We show that with suitably chosen initial twisted electron states one can synthesize tailor-made x-ray beam profiles with a well-defined spatial structure, in a way not possible with ordinary plane-wave electron beams.

Seipt, D; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray bandwidth: Determination by on-edge absorption and effect on various absorption experiments of an x-ray source is increasingly important in fundamental experi- ments and critical applications. The bandwidth of an x-ray beam, selected from a synchrotron radiation spectrum for example, ultimately defines

Chantler, Christopher T.

60

X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces in multilayered systems. I. Specular reflectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces formulation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces is given for specular/Fe multilayer. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.224409 PACS number s : 75.70.Cn, 61.10.Kw I. INTRODUCTION X-ray

Haskel, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Simultaneous measurements of several state variables in shocked carbon by imaging x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We apply the novel experimental technique of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering to measure the spatial profiles of the temperature, ionization state, relative material density, and the shock speed in a high-energy density system. A blast wave driven in a low-density foam is probed with 90? scattering of 7.8?keV helium-like nickel x-rays, which are spectrally dispersed and resolved in one spatial dimension by a doubly curved crystal. The inferred properties of the shock are shown to be self-consistent with 1D analytical estimates. These high-resolution measurements enable a direct comparison of the observed temperature with the results from hydrodynamic simulations. We find good agreement with the simulations for the temperature at the shock front but discrepancies in the modeling of the spatial temperature profile and shock speed. These results indicate the challenges in modeling the shock dynamics of structured materials like foams, commonly used in many high-energy density and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

Gamboa, E. J., E-mail: eliseo@umich.edu; Drake, R. P.; Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M. R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Falk, K.; Montgomery, D. S.; Benage, J. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F., E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Johnson, Richard W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.

Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultrafast X-Ray Thomson Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brown, C. R. D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); AWE plc., Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Davis, P. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K. [CFSA, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Pelka, A.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

65

X-Ray Radiation from Nonlinear Thomson Scattering of an Intense Femtosecond Laser on Relativistic Electrons in a Helium Plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Radiation from Nonlinear Thomson Scattering of an Intense Femtosecond Laser on Relativistic laser beam on plasma electrons. A collimated x-ray radiation with a broad continuous spectrum peaked by the ultraintense laser fields. The results show the existence of several physical mecha- nisms for the x-ray

Umstadter, Donald

66

Ab initio studies of ultrafast x-ray scattering of the photodissociation of iodine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We computationally examine various aspects of the reaction dynamics of the photodissociation and recombination of molecular iodine. We use our recently proposed formalism to calculate time-dependent x-ray scattering signal changes from first principles. Different aspects of the dynamics of this prototypical reaction are studied, such as coherent and noncoherent processes, features of structural relaxation that are periodic in time versus nonperiodic dissociative processes, as well as small electron density changes caused by electronic excitation, all with respect to x-ray scattering. We can demonstrate that wide-angle x-ray scattering offers a possibility to study the changes in electron densities in nonperiodic systems, which render it a suitable technique for the investigation of chemical reactions from a structural dynamics point of view.

Debnarova, Andrea; Techert, Simone [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Goettingen, Am Fassberg 11 (Germany); Schmatz, Stefan [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Goettingen, 37077 Goettingen, Tammannstr. 6 (Germany)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Qualification of a high-efficiency, gated spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed, built, and successfully fielded a highly efficient and gated Bragg crystal spectrometer for x-ray Thomson scattering measurements on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It utilizes a cylindrically curved Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite crystal. Its spectral range of 7.410?keV is optimized for scattering experiments using a Zn He-? x-ray probe at 9.0 keV or Mo K-shell line emission around 18 keV in second diffraction order. The spectrometer has been designed as a diagnostic instrument manipulator-based instrument for the NIF target chamber at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. Here, we report on details of the spectrometer snout, its novel debris shield configuration and an in situ spectral calibration experiment with a Brass foil target, which demonstrated a spectral resolution of E/?E = 220 at 9.8 keV.

Dppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Burns, S.; Hawreliak, J.; House, A.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft fr Schwerionenphysik, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraus, D. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Falcone, R. W. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

HIV-1 Tat membrane interactions probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD spectroscopy and MD simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HIV-1 Tat membrane interactions probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD spectroscopy and MD translocation, were provided by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and neutron scattering. CD spectroscopy for Neutron Research, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 6102, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, United States d CHESS, Cornell

Nagle, John F.

69

Small angle X-ray scattering study of coal soot formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to examine, by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the formation of soot from individual coal particle combustion in a methane flat flame burner. The SAXS instrument at the Basic Energy Sciences Synchrotron Radiation Center (BESSRC) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) can be used to observe both the formation of spherules and clusters since it can access length scales of 6--6000 {angstrom}. The high X-ray flux enables rapid acquisition of scattering data of various regions of the flame. SAXS data reveal particle size, shape, surface areas, and surface roughness.

Winans, R. E.; Parker, J. T.; Seifert, S.; Fletcher, T. H.

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

70

Ultra-fast x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of coalescing shock-heated matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experiment in this work was preformed at the Titan laser facility (S1) where a short pulse beam at a wavelength of 1053nm delivered up to 350J in 0.5 to 20 ps and a long pulse beam at 527nm, 2{omega} frequency provided energies up to 450J in 1 to 6 ns. Long pulse shaping in this experiment, similar to future capabilities at NIF, was primarily a 4ns long foot with an intensity of 1 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, followed by a 2ns long peak with an intensity of 3 x 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}. A {approx} 600 um phase plate was used on the long pulse beam to moderate non-uniformities in the intensity profile. An illustration of the Thomson scattering setup for this experiment is provided in Fig. 1 of the main text. A nearly mono-energetic scattering source of {Delta}E/E {approx} 0.3% in the 4.5 keV Ti K-alpha line was produced via intense short-pulse laser irradiation of 1.9 x 3 x 0.01 mm Ti foils, creating energetic keV electrons in the process (S2, S3). The nearly isotropic source emission (S4) is produced in the cold solid density bulk of the foil from electron K shell ionization of neutral or weakly ionized atoms, with an emission size on the order of the laser focal spot. By optimizing the laser intensity and pulse width to 4.4 x 10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2}, a total of 2.3 x 10{sup 13} x-ray photons have been produced into 4{pi}. This value corresponds to a conversion efficiency of laser energy into Ti K-alpha x-ray energy of 5 x 10{sup -5}, see Fig. S1. These sources provide {approx}10 ps x-ray pulses as measured experimentally (S5).

Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Morse, E C; Ng, A; Pollaine, S; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

71

Kevin Yager on the Nanoscience of Studying Scattered X-Rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kevin Yager, a scientist at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses his research on materials spanning just billionths of a meter. Yager specializes in making new materials through meticulously guided self-assembly and probing nanoscale structures with a technique called x-ray scattering.

Yager; Kevin

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

72

Kevin Yager on the Nanoscience of Studying Scattered X-Rays  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Kevin Yager, a scientist at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses his research on materials spanning just billionths of a meter. Yager specializes in making new materials through meticulously guided self-assembly and probing nanoscale structures with a technique called x-ray scattering.

Yager; Kevin

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

73

X-ray Thomson scattering measurements of temperature and density from multi-shocked CH capsules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proof-of-principle measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of spherically compressed multi-shocked CH (polystyrene) capsules have been achieved using spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering. A total energy of 13.5 kJ incident on target is used to compress a 70 ?m thick CH shell above solid-mass density using three coalescing shocks. Separately, a laser-produced zinc He-? x-ray source at 9 keV delayed 200 ps-800 ps after maximum compression is used to probe the plasma in the non-collective scattering regime. The data show that x-ray Thomson scattering enables a complete description of the time-dependent hydrodynamic evolution of shock-compressed CH capsules, with a maximum measured density of ? > 6 g cm{sup ?3}. In addition, the results demonstrate that accurate measurements of x-ray scattering from bound-free transitions in the CH plasma demonstrate strong evidence that continuum lowering is the primary ionization mechanism of carbon L-shell electrons.

Fletcher, L. B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kritcher, A.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States) [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Av., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, D. A. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom) [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space, and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Plasma Physics Department, AWE plc, Aldermaston (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Staff at sector 30, inelastic x-ray scattering  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutron Scattering4 By I.| EMSL ZnMnO3Center AlumniStaff

75

The diagnostic capability of x-ray scattering parameters for the characterization of breast cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The evaluation of the diagnostic capability of easy to measure x-ray scattering profile characterization parameters for the detection of breast cancer in excised samples. The selected parameters are the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and area under the x-ray scattering profile of breast tissue in addition to the ratio of scattering intensities (I{sub 2}/I{sub 1}%) at 1.6 nm{sup -1} to that at 1.1 nm{sup -1} (corresponding to scattering from soft and adipose tissues, respectively). Methods: A histopathologist is asked to classify 36 excised breast tissue samples into healthy or malignant. A conventional x-ray diffractometer is used to acquire the scattering profiles of the investigated samples. The values of three profile characterization parameters are calculated and the diagnostic capability of each is evaluated by determining the optimal cutoffs of scatter diagrams, calculating the diagnostic indices, and plotting the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: At the calculated optimal cutoff for each of the examined parameters, the sensitivity ranged from 78% (for area under curve) up to 94% (for FWHM), the specificity ranged from 94%[for I{sub 2}/I{sub 1}% and area under curve] up to 100% (for FWHM), and the diagnostic accuracy ranged from 86% (for area under curve) up to 97% (for FWHM). The area under the ROC curves is greater than 0.95 for all of the investigated parameters, reflecting a highly accurate diagnostic performance. Conclusions: The discussed tests offered a means to quantitatively evaluate the performance of the suggested breast tissue x-ray scattering characterization parameters. The performance results are promising, indicating that the evaluated parameters would be considered a tool for fast, on spot probing of breast cancer in excised tissue samples.

Elshemey, Wael M.; Desouky, Omar S.; Fekry, Mostafa M.; Talaat, Sahar M.; Elsayed, Anwar A. [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Department of Radiation Physics, National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Madinet Nasr 13759 (Egypt); Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Concept to diagnose mix with imaging x-ray Thomson scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Turbulent mixing of two fluid species is a ubiquitous problem, prevalent in systems such as inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule implosions, supernova remnants, and other astrophysical systems. In complex, high Reynolds number compressible high energy density (HED) flows such as these, hydrodynamic instabilities initiate the turbulent mixing process, which can then feedback and alter the mean hydrodynamic motion through nonlinear processes. In order to predict how these systems evolve under turbulent conditions, models are used. However, these models require detailed quantitative data to validate and constrain their detailed physics models as well as improve them. Providing this much needed data is currently at the forefront of HED research but is proving elusive due to a lack of available diagnostics capable of directly measuring detailed flow variables. Thomson scattering is a promising technique in this regard as it provides fundamental conditions of the flow ({rho}, T, Zbar) due to its direct interaction with the small scales of the fluid or plasma and was recently considered as a possible mix diagnostic. With the development of imaging x-ray Thomson scattering (IXRTS) obtaining spatial profiles of these variables is within reach. We propose a novel use of the IXRTS technique that will provide more detailed quantitative data required for model validation in mix experiments.

Keiter, Paul A.; Gamboa, Eliseo J.; Huntington, Channing M.; Kuranz, Carolyn C. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Large-scale Nanostructure Simulations from X-ray Scattering Data On Graphics Processor Clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray scattering is a valuable tool for measuring the structural properties of materialsused in the design and fabrication of energy-relevant nanodevices (e.g., photovoltaic, energy storage, battery, fuel, and carbon capture andsequestration devices) that are key to the reduction of carbon emissions. Although today's ultra-fast X-ray scattering detectors can provide tremendousinformation on the structural properties of materials, a primary challenge remains in the analyses of the resulting data. We are developing novelhigh-performance computing algorithms, codes, and software tools for the analyses of X-ray scattering data. In this paper we describe two such HPCalgorithm advances. Firstly, we have implemented a flexible and highly efficient Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS) simulation code based on theDistorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) theory with C++/CUDA/MPI on a cluster of GPUs. Our code can compute the scattered light intensity from any givensample in all directions of space; thus allowing full construction of the GISAXS pattern. Preliminary tests on a single GPU show speedups over 125x compared tothe sequential code, and almost linear speedup when executing across a GPU cluster with 42 nodes, resulting in an additional 40x speedup compared to usingone GPU node. Secondly, for the structural fitting problems in inverse modeling, we have implemented a Reverse Monte Carlo simulation algorithm with C++/CUDAusing one GPU. Since there are large numbers of parameters for fitting in the in X-ray scattering simulation model, the earlier single CPU code required weeks ofruntime. Deploying the AccelerEyes Jacket/Matlab wrapper to use GPU gave around 100x speedup over the pure CPU code. Our further C++/CUDA optimization deliveredan additional 9x speedup.

Sarje, Abhinav; Pien, Jack; Li, Xiaoye; Chan, Elaine; Chourou, Slim; Hexemer, Alexander; Scholz, Arthur; Kramer, Edward

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Wide angle x-ray scattering of proteins : effect of beam exposure on protein integrity.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wide-angle X-ray scattering patterns from proteins in solution contain information relevant to the determination of protein fold. At relevant scattering angles, however, these data are weak, and the degree to which they might be used to categorize the fold of a protein is unknown. Preliminary work has been performed at the BioCAT insertion-device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source which demonstrates that one can collect X-ray scattering data from proteins in solution to spacings of at least 2.2 {angstrom} (q = 2.8 {angstrom}-1). These data are sensitive to protein conformational states, and are in good agreement with the scattering predicted by the program CRYSOL using the known three-dimensional atomic coordinates of the protein. An important issue in the exploitation of this technique as a tool for structural genomics is the extent to which the high intensity of X-rays available at third-generation synchrotron sources chemically or structurally damage proteins. Various data-collection protocols have been investigated demonstrating conditions under which structural degradation of even sensitive proteins can be minimized, making this technique a viable tool for protein fold categorization, the study of protein folding, unfolding, protein-ligand interactions and domain movement.

Fischetti, R. F.; Rodi, D. J.; Mirza, A.; Makowski, L.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Field control of single x-ray photons in nuclear forward scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Means to coherently control single x-ray photons in resonant scattering of light off nuclei by electric or magnetic fields are investigated theoretically. In order to derive the time response in nuclear forward scattering, we adapt the Maxwell-Bloch equations known from quantum optics to describe the resonant light pulse propagation through a nuclear medium. Two types of time-dependent perturbations of nuclear forward scattering are considered for coherent control of the resonantly scattered x-ray quanta. First, the simultaneous coherent propagation of two pulses through the nuclear sample is addressed. We find that the signal of a weak pulse can be enhanced or suppressed by a stronger pulse simultaneously propagating through the sample in counter-propagating geometry. Second, the effect of a time-dependent hyperfine splitting is investigated and we put forward a scheme that allows parts of the spectrum to be shifted forward in time. This is the inverse effect of coherent photon storage and may become a valuable technique if single x-ray photon wavepackets are to become the information carriers in future photonic circuits.

Xiangjin Kong; Wen-Te Liao; Adriana Plffy

2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

An In-vacuum Diffractometer for Resonant elastic Soft X-ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the design, construction, and performance of a 4-circle in-vacuum diffractometer for resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering. The diffractometer, installed on the resonant elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering beamline at the Canadian Light Source, includes 9 in-vacuum motions driven by in-vacuum stepper motors and operates in ultra-high vacuum at base pressure of 2 x 10{sup -10} Torr. Cooling to a base temperature of 18 K is provided with a closed-cycle cryostat. The diffractometer includes a choice of 3 photon detectors: a photodiode, a channeltron, and a 2D sensitive channelplate detector. Along with variable slit and filter options, these detectors are suitable for studying a wide range of phenomena having both weak and strong diffraction signals. Example measurements of diffraction and reflectivity in Nd-doped (La,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 4} and thin film (Ga,Mn)As are shown.

D Hawthorn; F He; L Venema; H Davis; A Achkar; J Zhang; R Sutarto; H Wadati; A Radi; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Structure and dynamics of cadmium telluride studied by x-ray and inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a combined study of density functional theory, x-ray diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering examining the temperature dependent structure and lattice dynamics of commercially available cadmium telluride. A subtle change in the structure is evinced near 80?K, which manifests also in the measured phonon density of states. There is no change to the long-range ordered structure. The implications of the change in relation to structural defects are discussed.

Niedziela, J. L., E-mail: niedzielajl@ornl.gov [Instrument and Source Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Stone, M. B., E-mail: stonemb@ornl.gov [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

Structure and dynamics of cadmium telluride studied by x-ray and inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a combined study of density functional theory, x-ray diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering examining the temperature dependent structure and lattice dynamics of commercially available cadmium telluride. A subtle change in the structure is evinced near 80~K, which manifests also in the measured phonon density of states. There is no change to the long-range ordered structure. The implications of the change in relation to structural defects are discussed.

Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Maximum entropy deconvolution of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) has become a powerful tool in the study of the electronic structure of condensed matter. Although the linewidths of many RIXS features are narrow, the experimental broadening can often hamper the identification of spectral features. Here, we show that the Maximum Entropy technique can successfully be applied in the deconvolution of RIXS spectra, improving the interpretation of the loss features without a severe increase in the noise ratio.

J. Laverock; A. R. H. Preston; D. Newby Jr; K. E. Smith; S. B. Dugdale

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

Scattering Theory When an x-ray beam (or neutron or light) passes through a material with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scattering Theory When an x-ray beam (or neutron or light) passes through a material radiation is scattered in directions that differ from that of the incident beam. Scattering arises since x of scattered radiation resulting from this process bears a direct relationship to the structure (the pattern

Beaucage, Gregory

85

X-ray Dust Scattering at Small Angles: The Complete Halo around GX13+1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The exquisite angular resolution available with Chandra should allow precision measurements of faint diffuse emission surrounding bright sources, such as the X-ray scattering halos created by interstellar dust. However, the ACIS CCDs suffer from pileup when observing bright sources, and this creates difficulties when trying to extract the scattered halo near the source. The initial study of the X-ray halo around GX13+1 using only the ACIS-I detector done by Smith, Edgar & Shafer (2002) suffered from a lack of sensitivity within 50'' of the source, limiting what conclusions could be drawn. To address this problem, observations of GX13+1 were obtained with the Chandra HRC-I and simultaneously with the RXTE PCA. Combined with the existing ACIS-I data, this allowed measurements of the X-ray halo between 2-1000''. After considering a range of dust models, each assumed to be smoothly distributed with or without a dense cloud along the line of sight, the results show that there is no evidence in this data for a dense cloud near the source, as suggested by Xiang et al. (2005). Finally, although no model leads to formally acceptable results, the Weingartner & Draine (2001) and nearly all of the composite grain models from Zubko, Dwek & Arendt (2004) give poor fits.

Randall K. Smith

2008-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

86

USING THE X-RAY DUST SCATTERING HALO OF CYGNUS X-1 TO DETERMINE DISTANCE AND DUST DISTRIBUTIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed study of the X-ray dust scattering halo of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 based on two Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observations. Using 18 different dust models, including ...

Xiang, Jingen

87

Compact x-ray source based on burst-mode inverse Compton scattering at 100kHz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness ...

Bessuille, J.

88

Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ?200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ?160 as pulses in the range of 3300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ?5 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed attosecond physics..

Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China) [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)] [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China) [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)] [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

Accurate small and wide angle x-ray scattering profiles from atomic models of proteins and nucleic acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method is introduced to compute X-ray solution scattering profiles from atomic models of macromolecules. The three-dimensional version of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) from liquid-state statistical mechanics is employed to compute the solvent distribution around the solute, including both water and ions. X-ray scattering profiles are computed from this distribution together with the solute geometry. We describe an efficient procedure for performing this calculation employing a Lebedev grid for the angular averaging. The intensity profiles (which involve no adjustable parameters) match experiment and molecular dynamics simulations up to wide angle for two proteins (lysozyme and myoglobin) in water, as well as the small-angle profiles for a dozen biomolecules taken from the BioIsis.net database. The RISM model is especially well-suited for studies of nucleic acids in salt solution. Use of fiber-diffraction models for the structure of duplex DNA in solution yields close agreement with the observed scattering profiles in both the small and wide angle scattering (SAXS and WAXS) regimes. In addition, computed profiles of anomalous SAXS signals (for Rb{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+}) emphasize the ionic contribution to scattering and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. In cases where an absolute calibration of the experimental data at q = 0 is available, one can extract a count of the excess number of waters and ions; computed values depend on the closure that is assumed in the solution of the OrnsteinZernike equations, with results from the KovalenkoHirata closure being closest to experiment for the cases studied here.

Nguyen, Hung T. [BioMaPS Institute for Quantitative Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Case, David A., E-mail: case@biomaps.rutgers.edu [BioMaPS Institute for Quantitative Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

2014-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Magnetic X-Ray Scattering Study of GdCo2Ge2 and NdCo2Ge2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of magnetic x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES) experiments are important to the development of an understanding of magnetic interactions in materials. The advantages of high Q resolution, polarization analysis, and the ability to study many different types of materials make it a vital tool in the field of condensed matter physics. Though the concept of XRES was put forth by Platzman and Tzoar in 1970, the technique did not gain much attention until the work of Gibbs and McWhan et al. in 1988. Since then, the technique of XRES has grown immensely in use and applicability. Researchers continue to improve upon the procedure and detection capabilities in order to study magnetic materials of all kinds. The XRES technique is particularly well suited to studying the rare earth metals because of the energy range involved. The resonant L edges of these elements fall between 5-10 KeV. Resonant and nonresonant x-ray scattering experiments were performed in order to develop an understanding of the magnetic ordering in GdCo{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and NdCo{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}.

William Good

2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

91

Z .Reviews in Molecular Biotechnology 74 2000 207 231 X-ray and neutron surface scattering for studying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Z .Reviews in Molecular Biotechnology 74 2000 207 231 X-ray and neutron surface scattering,U , Tonya L. Kuhlb , Joyce Y. Wongc , Gregory S. Smitha,1 a Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center is defined as the Zratio of the number of particles neutrons or .photons elastically and specularly scattered

Kuhl, Tonya L.

92

New X-ray Scattering Facility at Ris National Laboratory Jens Wenzel Andreasen, Dag Werner Breiby, Martin Drews, Martin Meedom Nielsen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New X-ray Scattering Facility at Risø National Laboratory Jens Wenzel Andreasen, Dag Werner Breiby, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark The new X-ray facility at the Danish Polymer Centre, Risø National

93

X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond time D. VON DER LINDE and K. SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray diffraction experiments with femtosecond time resolution D. VON DER LINDE and K. SOKOLOWSKI-essen.de (Received 4 March 2002) Abstract. Intense ultrashort laser pulses enable the generation of subpico- second X-ray pulses in the multi-kilovolt range of photon energies. These X- ray pulses have opened the door

von der Linde, D.

94

Protein folding and protein metallocluster studies using synchrotron small angler X-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proteins, biological macromolecules composed of amino-acid building blocks, possess unique three dimensional shapes or conformations which are intimately related to their biological function. All of the information necessary to determine this conformation is stored in a protein`s amino acid sequence. The problem of understanding the process by which nature maps protein amino-acid sequences to three-dimensional conformations is known as the protein folding problem, and is one of the central unsolved problems in biophysics today. The possible applications of a solution are broad, ranging from the elucidation of thousands of protein structures to the rational modification and design of protein-based drugs. The scattering of X-rays by matter has long been useful as a tool for the characterization of physical properties of materials, including biological samples. The high photon flux available at synchrotron X-ray sources allows for the measurement of scattering cross-sections of dilute and/or disordered samples. Such measurements do not yield the detailed geometrical information available from crystalline samples, but do allow for lower resolution studies of dynamical processes not observable in the crystalline state. The main focus of the work described here has been the study of the protein folding process using time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements. The original intention was to observe the decrease in overall size which must accompany the folding of a protein from an extended conformation to its compact native state. Although this process proved too fast for the current time-resolution of the technique, upper bounds were set on the probable compaction times of several small proteins. In addition, an interesting and unexpected process was detected, in which the folding protein passes through an intermediate state which shows a tendency to associate. This state is proposed to be a kinetic molten globule folding intermediate.

Eliezer, D.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Development of a Time-resolved Soft X-ray Spectrometer for Laser Produced Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2400 line/mm variable spaced grating spectrometer (VSG) has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 {angstrom}) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x-rays emitted from the back of mylar and copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx} 120 at 19 {angstrom} with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolution of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K V; Dunn, J; Schneider, M B; Baldis, H A; Brown, G V; Emig, J; James, D L; May, M J; Park, J; Shepherd, R; Widmann, K

2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

96

Development of a time-resolved soft x-ray spectrometer for laser produced plasma experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 2400 lines/mm variable-spaced grating spectrometer has been used to measure soft x-ray emission (8-22 A) from laser-produced plasma experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) Laser Facility. The spectrometer was coupled to a Kentech x-ray streak camera to study the temporal evolution of soft x rays emitted from the back of the Mylar and the copper foils irradiated at 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The instrument demonstrated a resolving power of {approx}120 at 19 A with a time resolution of 31 ps. The time-resolved copper emission spectrum was consistent with a photodiode monitoring the laser temporal pulse shape and indicated that the soft x-ray emission follows the laser heating of the target. The time and spectral resolutions of this diagnostic make it useful for studies of high temperature plasmas.

Cone, K. V.; Park, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Dunn, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; James, D. L.; May, M. J.; Shepherd, R.; Widmann, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Baldis, H. A. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Time Resolved Collapse of a Folding Protein Observed with Small Angle X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-intensity, ''pink'' beam from an undulator was used in conjunction with microfabricated rapid-fluid mixing devices to monitor the early events in protein folding with time resolved small angle x-ray scattering. This Letter describes recent work on the protein bovine {beta} -lactoglobulin where collapse from an expanded to a compact set of states was directly observed on the millisecond time scale. The role of chain collapse, one of the initial stages of protein folding, is not currently understood. The characterization of transient, compact states is vital in assessing the validity of theories and models of the folding process.

Pollack, L.; Tate, M. W.; Finnefrock, A. C.; Kalidas, C.; Trotter, S.; Darnton, N. C.; Lurio, L.; Austin, R. H.; Batt, C. A.; Gruner, S. M. (and others)

2001-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

98

Characterization of porous materials using combined small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combination of ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) is used to characterize porous materials. The analysis methods yield quantitative information, including the mean skeletal chord length, mean pore chord length, skeletal density, and composition. A mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane with a manufacturer-labeled pore size of 0.1 {mu}m was used as a model to elucidate the specifics of the method. Four approaches describing four specific scenarios (different known parameters and form of the scattering data) are compared. Pore chords determined using all four approaches are in good agreement with the scanning electron microscopy estimates but are larger than the manufacturer's nominal pore size. Our approach also gives the average chord of the skeletal solid (struts) of the membrane, which is also consistent for all four approaches. Combined data from USAXS and USANS gives the skeletal density and the strut composition.

Hu, Naiping; Borkar, Neha; Kohls, Doug; Schaefer, Dale W. (UCIN)

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

99

X-ray resonant exchange scattering of rare-earth nickel borocarbides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the systematics of the microscopic magnetic order within a series of isostructural compounds and, at the same, to develop the relatively young experimental method of x-ray resonant exchange scattering (XRES). In this thesis, the author presents XRES studies of several rare-earth nickel borocarbides, RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. He shows that XRES, similar to the neutron techniques, allows the determination of the orientation of the magnetic moment by measuring the Q-dependence of the scattered intensity of magnetic Bragg reflections. As samples in this study, he chose the recently discovered family of rare-earth nickel borocarbides, RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C, which display a wide variety of magnetic structures. Furthermore, in several of these materials, long range magnetic order coexists with superconductivity over some temperature range.

Detlefs, C.

1997-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

100

Resonant Soft X-ray Scattering Studies of Multiferroic YMn2O5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We performed soft x-ray resonant scattering at the MnL{sub 2,3}- and OK edges of YMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. While the resonant intensity at the MnL{sub 2,3} edges represent the magnetic order parameter, the resonant scattering at the OK edge is found to be directly related to the macroscopic ferroelectric polarization. The latter observation reveals the important role of the spin-dependent Mn-O hybridization for the multiferroicity of YMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We present details about how to obtain correct energy dependent lineshapes and discuss the origin of the resonant intensity at the OK edge.

Partzsch, S.; Wilkins, S.B.; Schierle, E.; Soltwisch, V.; Hill, J.P.; Weschke, E.; Souptel, D.; Buchner, B.; Geck, J.

2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Supplementary data for HIV-1 Tat membrane interaction probed using X-ray and neutron scattering, CD, and MD simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Supplementary data for HIV-1 Tat membrane interaction probed using X-ray and neutron scattering- spacing are linearly related. Figure S3. Neutron scattering from stacks of DOPC:DOPE (3:1)/Tat, x=0 of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180, 3 NIST Center for Neutron

Nagle, John F.

102

Flat panel X-ray detector with reduced internal scattering for improved attenuation accuracy and dynamic range  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector is disclosed that has had all unnecessary material removed from the x-ray beam path, and all of the remaining material in the beam path made as light and as low in atomic number as possible. The resulting detector is essentially transparent to x-rays and, thus, has greatly reduced internal scatter. The result of this is that x-ray attenuation data measured for the object under examination are much more accurate and have an increased dynamic range. The benefits of this improvement are that beam hardening corrections can be made accurately, that computed tomography reconstructions can be used for quantitative determination of material properties including density and atomic number, and that lower exposures may be possible as a result of the increased dynamic range.

Smith, Peter D. (Santa Fe, NM); Claytor, Thomas N. (White Rock, NM); Berry, Phillip C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Charles R. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

103

Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-ray Inelastic Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

16. Yu. Shvydko, X-Ray Optics, Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ultra-high Resolution Optics for EUV and Soft X-rayspectral resolution soft x-ray optics. Conventionally in the

Voronov, Dmitry L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction / MSE 603 Spring 2002 Qun Shen / CHESS qs11@cornell.edu 1. X-ray production & basic properties ­ common sources for diffraction experiments ­ synchrotron radiation ­ response to x-rays by an electron ­ refraction index ­ total external reflection & evanescent wave, TXRF 2. X-ray scattering basics

Shen, Qun

105

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Building 223 Auditorium, Room B002 September 24 -October 11, 2008 Argonne National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Building 223 Auditorium, Room B002 September 24 (HFIR) Neutron Scattering Science Division Oak Ridge Laboratory 10:15 - 10:30 Break 9:30 - 9:45 Break 10 School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Building 8600, Main Lobby September 24 - October 11, 2008 Oak

Pennycook, Steve

106

Neutron and X-ray experiments at high temperature P. Aldebert (*)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

649 Neutron and X-ray experiments at high temperature P. Aldebert (*) LA 302, E.N.S.C.P., 11, rue récemment celle des neutrons sont devenues des sondes puissantes propres à fournir des infor- mations'échantillon avec son environnement, en fait l'atmosphère ambiante et le support de l'échantillon. Les neutrons

Boyer, Edmond

107

Small angle neutron and X-ray scattering studies of carbons prepared using inorganic templates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small angle neutron (SANS) and X-ray (SAXS) scattering analyses of carbons derived from organic-loaded inorganic template materials, used as anodes in lithium ion cells, have been performed. Two clays were used as templates to load the organic precursors, pillared montmorrillonite (PILC), a layered silicate clay whose sheets have been permanently propped open by sets of thermally stable molecular props, and sepiolite, a natural channeled clay. Five different organic precursors were used to load the PILC: pyrene, styrene, pyrene/trioxane copolymer, ethylene and propylene, whereas only propylene and ethylene were used to load sepiolite. Pyrolysis took place at 700{degrees}C under nitrogen. Values such as hole radius, fractal dimension, cutoff length and density of the final carbons will be compared as a function of the clay and carbon precursors.

Sandi, G.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Inelastic x-ray scattering study of supercooled liquid and solid silicon.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Momentum-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique is one of the powerful methods for the study of dynamical properties of a given system even in extreme conditions like high temperature and high pressure. At the same time, experimental studies of physical and structural properties of liquids have multiplied in recent years with the advent of containerless techniques. These methods reduce the possibility of contamination of specimens and remove external nucleation sites. Therefore, by combining the IXS method with the levitation method, the dynamical properties of stable liquids up to 3000 K and supercooled phase of liquids can be studied. Silicon is a basic material in the semiconductor industry and has been the subject of a large amount of experimental and theoretical studies over a long time. In the crystalline phase at ambient conditions, silicon is a diamond-structured semiconductor, but upon melting it undergoes a semiconductor-to-metal transition accompanied by significant changes in the structure and density. The coordination number increases from 4 in the solid to about 6.5 in the liquid, and liquid density is increased by about 10%. The principal purpose of the present study was to determine silicon's elastic modulus from the measurement of averaged sound speed determined from IXS. The experiments were carried out at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) beamline 3-ID with a high-resolution monochromator consisting of two nested channel-cut crystals and four backscattering analyzer setups in the horizontal scattering plane 6 m from the sample. The requirements for very high energy resolution and the basic principles of such instrumentation are discussed elsewhere as referenced. The levitation apparatus was enclosed in a bell jar specially designed for backscattering geometry with a separation of 10 cm between the sample and the detector. Silicon spheres of 2 to 3 mm in diameter were suspended in an argon gas jet and heated with a 270 W CO{sub 2} laser beam. Temperatures were measured during the experiment with a pyrometer whose operating wavelength was 0.65 {micro}m. The temperature gradient on the sample was estimated to be about +/- 20 K. The energy scans were taken for supercooled-liquid and hot-solid silicon at temperature T=1620 K. Sound velocities were determined from the initial slope of the excitation frequencies. Then, the longitudinal moduli for hotsolid and supercooled-liquid silicon were calculated from L = v{sub L}{sup 2}{rho} using measured velocities. In these calculations, density values were taken from Ohsaka et al. as referenced. Results are presented in Table 1. together with room-temperature, hot-solid single-crystal measurements, and stable-liquid values. Room-temperature longitudinal moduli were calculated from the values of the single-crystal elastic constants. They were measured between 300 K and 870 K. Since there was no phase transition up to temperature 1620 K for hot-solid silicon, it is reasonable to extrapolate these data to 1620 K in order to compare to our results for the hot solid. A significant difference (about 20%) is observed between our measurement and the extrapolated single-crystal value of the longitudinal modulus for solid silicon at temperature 1620K. This reduction of the longitudinal modulus may be an indication of the pre-melting. The factor of more than two change in the elastic modulus between supercooled liquid and hot solid at the same temperature can be attributed to the semiconductor-to-metal transition in silicon associated with melting. Also, the longitudinal modulus of the stable liquid is reported in Table 1. About a 10% difference is observed between the modulus of the supercooled and the stable liquid silicon. This can be interpreted as silicon still maintaining metallic properties with a significant increase in the degree of the directional bonding upon supercooling, as found in the x-ray diffraction and ab initio MD studies. All these results are discussed in reference.

Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Kodituwakku, C.N.; Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; X-Ray Science Division; Western Michigan Univ.; Purdue Univ.; CRMD-CNRS; CRMHT-CNRS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Monitoring simultaneously the growth of nanoparticles and aggregates by in situ ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-small-angle x-ray scattering can provide information about primary particles and aggregates from a single scattering experiment. This technique is applied in situ to flame aerosol reactors for monitoring simultaneously the primary particle and aggregate growth dynamics of oxide nanoparticles in a flame. This was enabled through the use of a third generation synchrotron source (Advanced Photon Source, Argonne IL, USA) using specialized scattering instrumentation at the UNICAT facility which is capable of simultaneously measuring nanoscales to microscales (1 nm to 1 {mu}m). More specifically, the evolution of primary-particle diameter, mass-fractal dimension, geometric standard deviation, silica volume fraction, number concentration, radius of gyration of the aggregate, and number of primary particles per aggregate are measured along the flame axis for two different premixed flames. All these particle characteristics were derived from a single and nonintrusive measurement technique. Flame temperature profiles were measured in the presence of particles by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermophoretic sampling was used to visualize particle growth with height above the burner as well as in the radial direction.

Kammler, Hendrik K.; Beaucage, Gregory; Kohls, Douglas J.; Agashe, Nikhil; Ilavsky, Jan [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, ML F23, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, 540 Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012 (United States); UNICAT, Advanced Photon Source, Building 438D, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Schedule for Saturday, June 12, 2010 School participants arrive at Argonne and check in at the Argonne Guest House, Building 460. 3:00 PM until 8:00 PM - Registration and informal get

Pennycook, Steve

111

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory May 30-June 14, 2009 Air Travel Arrangements The Argonne Division of Educational Programs has made to Argonne - June 8 through and including June 13, 2009 Daily bus transportation will be provided for School

Pennycook, Steve

112

Molecular structures of fluid phase phosphatidylglycerol bilayers as determined by small angle neutron and X-ray scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

neutron and X-ray scattering Jianjun Pan a, , Frederick A. Heberle a , Stephanie Tristram-Nagle b Matter Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 378316100 Institute for Neutron Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 378316453, USA e Canadian

Nagle, John F.

113

Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter studies that a wide variety of sample environments have been developed in consquence. Many  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Foreword Neutron and X-ray Scattering Techniques have proved so successful in condensed matter whose function is to develop and optimise the techniques appropriate to neutron scattering. Since other neutron and X-ray research centres have similar technical support groups, it was felt timely to unité

Boyer, Edmond

114

Combining Single-Molecule Optical Trapping and Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements to Compute the Persistence Length of a Protein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and purification For small-angle x-ray scattering and circular dichroism ER/K a-helix sequences from the myosin VICombining Single-Molecule Optical Trapping and Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Measurements to Compute. In this study, we quantify this flexibility in terms of persistence length, namely the length scale over which

Spudich, James A.

115

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype Chemical Systems: Theory vs. Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acids by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS)X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of Prototype ChemicalGlaeser Spring 2010 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study of

Schwartz, Craig Philip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Nucleation and Ordering of an Electrodeposited Two-Dimensional Crystal: Real-Time X-Ray Scattering and Electronic Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied {ital in situ} the ordering of a two-dimensional Cu-Cl crystal electrodeposited on a Pt(111) surface. We simultaneously measured x-ray scattering and chronoamperometric transients during Cu desorption and subsequent ordering of the Cu-Cl crystal. In all cases, the current transient occurs on a shorter time scale than the development of crystalline order. The ordering time diverges with applied potential, consistent with the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands. We see a time-dependent narrowing of the x-ray peak, corresponding to the growing islands. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Finnefrock, A.C.; Ringland, K.L.; Brock, J.D. [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Buller, L.J.; Abruna, H.D. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Spectrum bandwidth narrowing of Thomson scattering X-rays with energy chirped electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90 Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of the scattered radiation.

Xu, Tong; Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei-Yu; Yu, Lu-Le [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

118

AN EFFICIENT PARALLEL GPU EVALUATION OF SMALL ANGLE X-RAY SCATTERING PROFILES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the scat- tering curve from a condensation of a gas of "dummy beads" to an experi-ray Scattering (SAXS) provides information on the excess electron density of the sample versus the surrounding of the experiment. For this procedure to be successful, an efficient procedure for both sampling protein structures

Hamelryck, Thomas

119

anomalous x-ray scattering: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

120

Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

Bu, Wei

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Neutron and x-ray scattering studies of the metallurgical condition and residual stresses in Weldalite welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Weldalite is a lithium-containing aluminum alloy which is being considered for aerospace applications because its favorable strength-to-weight ratio. Successful welding of this alloy depends on the control of the metallurgical condition and residual stresses in the heat affected zone. Neutron and x-ray scattering methods of residual stress measurement were applied to plasma arc welds made in aluminum-lithium alloy test panels as part of an evaluation of materials for use in welded structures. In the course of these studies discrepancies between x-ray and neutron results from the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the weld were found. Texture changes and recovery from the cold work, indicated in peak widths, were found in the HAZ as well. The consideration of x-ray and neutron results leads to the conclusion that there is a change in solute composition which modifies the d-spacings in the HAZ which affects the neutron diffraction determination of residual stresses. The composition changes give the appearance of significant compressive strains in the HAZ. This effect and sharp gradients in the texture give severe anomalies in the neutron measurement of residual stress. The use of combined x-ray and neutron techniques and the solution to the minimizing of the neutron diffraction anomalies are discussed.

Spooner, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pardue, E.B.S. [Technology for Energy Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Sub-second Morphological Changes in Nafion during Water Uptake Detected by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability of Nafion membrane to absorb water rapidly and create a network of hydrated interconnected water domains provides this material with an unmatched ability to conduct ions through a chemically and mechanically robust membrane. The morphology and composition of these hydrated membranes significantly affects their transport properties and performance. This work demonstrates that differences in interfacial interactions between the membranes exposed to vapor or liquid water can cause significant changes in kinetics of water uptake. In-situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments captured the rapid swelling of the membrane in liquid water with nanostructure rearrangement on the order of seconds. For membranes in contact with water vapor, morphological changes are four-orders-of-magnitude slower than in liquid water, suggesting that interfacial resistance limits the penetration of water into the membrane. Also, upon water absorption from liquid water, a structural rearrangement from a distribution of spherical and cylindrical domains to exclusively cylindrical-like domains is suggested. These differences in water-uptake kinetics and morphology provide a new perspective into Schroeders Paradox, which dictates different water contents for vaporand liquid-equilibrated ionomers at unit activity. The findings of this work provide critical insights into the fast kinetics of water absorption of Nafion membrane, which can aid in the design of energy conversion devices that operate under frequent changes in environmental conditions.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Modestino, Miguel A.; Hexemer, Alexander; Segalman, Rachel A.; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

123

Simulating x-ray Thomson scattering signals from high-density, millimetre-scale plasmas at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a model for analysing x-ray Thomson scattering data from high-density, millimetre-scale inhomogeneous plasmas created during ultra-high pressure implosions at the National Ignition Facility in a spherically convergent geometry. The density weighting of the scattered signal and attenuation of the incident and scattered x-rays throughout the target are included using radial profiles of the density, opacity, ionization state, and temperature provided by radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. These simulations show that the scattered signal is strongly weighted toward the bulk of the shocked plasma and the Fermi degenerate material near the ablation front. We show that the scattered signal provides a good representation of the temperature of this highly nonuniform bulk plasma and can be determined to an accuracy of ca. 15% using typical data analysis techniques with simple 0D calculations. On the other hand, the mean ionization of the carbon in the bulk is underestimated. We suggest that this discrepancy is due to the convolution of scattering profiles from different regions of the target. Subsequently, we discuss modifications to the current platform to minimise the impact of inhomogeneities, as well as opacity, and also to enable probing of conditions more strongly weighted toward the compressed core.

Chapman, D. A., E-mail: david.chapman@awe.co.uk [Plasma Physics Group, Radiation Physics Department, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kraus, D.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Gaffney, J. A.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Nilsen, J.; Pak, A.; Swift, D. C.; Dppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94309 (United States); Guymer, T. M. [Plasma Physics Group, Radiation Physics Department, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Neumayer, P. [Gesellschaft fr Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Redmer, R. [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Torsional Oscillator and Synchrotron X-Ray Experiments on Solid [superscript 4]He in Aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction experiments show that solid {sup 4}He grown in aerogel is highly polycrystalline, with an hcp crystal structure (as in bulk) and a crystallite size of approximately 100 nm. In contrast to the expectation that the highly disordered solid will have a large supersolid fraction, torsional oscillator measurements show a behavior that is strikingly similar to high purity crystals grown from the superfluid phase. The low temperature supersolid fraction is only -3 x 10{sup -4}, and the onset temperature is -100 mK.

Mulders, N.; West, J.T.; Chan, M.H.W.; Kodituwakku, C.N.; Burns, C.A.; Lurio, L.B. (NIU); (Delaware); (WMU); (Penn)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Torsional oscillator and synchrotron x-ray experiments on solid {sup 4}He in aerogel.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray diffraction experiments show that solid {sup 4}He grown in aerogel is highly polycrystalline, with an hcp crystal structure (as in bulk) and a crystallite size of approximately 100 nm. In contrast to the expectation that the highly disordered solid will have a large supersolid fraction, torsional oscillator measurements show a behavior that is strikingly similar to high purity crystals grown from the superfluid phase. The low temperature supersolid fraction is only {approx}3 x 10{sup -4}, and the onset temperature is {approx}100 mK.

Mulders, N.; West, J. T.; Chan, M. H. W.; Kodituwakku, C. N.; Burns, C. A.; Lurio, L. B.; Univ. of Delaware; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Western Michigan Univ.; Northern Illinois Univ.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the complex compounds | Stanford  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore thanX-RayX-ray Image

127

Phase-based x-ray scatteringA possible method to detect cancer cells in a very early stage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: This theoretical work contains a detailed investigation of the potential and sensitivity of phase-based x-ray scattering for cancer detection in biopsies if cancer is in a very early stage of development. Methods: Cancer cells in their early stage of development differ from healthy ones mainly due to their faster growing cell nuclei and the enlargement of their densities. This growth is accompanied by an altered nucleusplasma relation for the benefit of the cell nuclei, that changes the physical properties especially the index of refraction of the cell and the one of the cell nuclei. Interaction of radiation with matter is known to be highly sensitive to small changes of the index of refraction of matter; therefore a detection of such changes of volume and density of cell nuclei by means of high angular resolved phase-based scattering of x rays might provide a technique to distinguish malignant cells from healthy ones ifthe cellcell nucleus system is considered as a coherent phase shifting object. Then one can observe from a thin biopsy which represents a monolayer of cells (no multiple scattering) that phase-based x-ray scattering curves from healthy cells differ from those of cancer cells in their early stage of development. Results: Detailed calculations of x-ray scattering patterns from healthy and cancer cell nuclei yield graphs and numbers with which one can distinguish healthy cells from cancer ones, taking into account that both kinds of cells occur in a tissue within a range of size and density. One important result is the role and the influence of the (lateral) coherence width of the radiation on the scattering curves and the sensitivity of phase-based scattering for cancer detection. A major result is that a larger coherence width yields a larger sensitivity for cancer detection. Further import results are calculated limits for critical sizes and densities of cell nuclei in order to attribute the investigated tissue to be healthy or diseased. Conclusions: With this proposed method it should be in principle possible to detect cancer cells in apparently healthy tissues in biopsies and/or in samples of the far border region of abscised or excised tissues. Thus this method could support established methods in diagnostics of cancer-suspicious samples.

Feye-Treimer, U., E-mail: feye-treimer@helmholtz-berlin.de; Treimer, W. [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, University of Applied Sciences, D-13353 Berlin, Germany and Joint Department G-GTOMO, Helmholtz Zentrum fuer Materialien und Energie Berlin, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Anomalous small angle x-ray scattering studies of amorphous metal-germanium alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This dissertation addresses the issue of composition modulation in sputtered amorphous metal-germanium thin films with the aim of understanding the intermediate range structure of these films as a function of composition. The investigative tool used in this work is anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering (ASAXS). The primary focus of this investigation is the amorphous iron-germanium (a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) system with particular emphasis on the semiconductor-rich regime. Brief excursions are made into the amorphous tungsten-germanium (a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) and the amorphous molybdenum-germanium (a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}) systems. All three systems exhibit an amorphous structure over a broad composition range extending from pure amorphous germanium to approximately 70 atomic percent metal when prepared as sputtered films. Across this composition range the structures change from the open, covalently bonded, tetrahedral network of pure a-Ge to densely packed metals. The structural changes are accompanied by a semiconductor-metal transition in all three systems as well as a ferromagnetic transition in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system and a superconducting transition in the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} system. A long standing question, particularly in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} and the a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems, has been whether the structural changes (and therefore the accompanying electrical and magnetic transitions) are accomplished by homogeneous alloy formation or phase separation. The application of ASAXS to this problem proves unambiguously that fine scale composition modulations, as distinct from the simple density fluctuations that arise from cracks and voids, are present in the a-Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, a-W{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x}, and a-Mo{sub x}Ge{sub 100-x} systems in the semiconductor-metal transition region. Furthermore, ASAXS shows that germanium is distributed uniformly throughout each sample in the x<25 regime of all three systems.

Rice, M.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

Henke, B.L.; Gullikson, E.M.; Davis, J.C.

130

Tunable X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

131

INHOMOGENEITIES IN TYPE Ib/c SUPERNOVAE: AN INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING ORIGIN OF THE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inhomogeneities in a synchrotron source can severely affect the conclusions drawn from observations regarding the source properties. However, their presence is not always easy to establish, since several other effects can give rise to similar observed characteristics. It is argued that the recently observed broadening of the radio spectra and/or light curves in some Type Ib/c supernovae is a direct indication of inhomogeneities. As compared to a homogeneous source, this increases the deduced velocity of the forward shock and the observed correlation between total energy and shock velocity could in part be due to a varying covering factor. The X-ray emission from at least some Type Ib/c supernovae is unlikely to be synchrotron radiation from an electron distribution accelerated in a nonlinear shock. Instead it is shown that the observed correlation during the first few hundred days between the radio, X-ray, and bolometric luminosities indicates that the X-ray emission is inverse Compton scattering of the photospheric photons. Inhomogeneities are consistent with equipartition between electrons and magnetic fields in the optically thin synchrotron emitting regions.

Bjoernsson, C.-I., E-mail: bjornsson@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

132

Week 2 AGENDA: National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering page 1 of 5 Oak Ridge National Laboratory [9/30/08  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Week 2 AGENDA: National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering page 1 of 5 Oak Ridge National Ridge National Laboratory Dean Myles, Director ORNL Neutron Scattering Science Division 1 GROUPS [A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I] Iran Thomas Auditorium Lecture Inelastic Neutron Scattering R. Osborn, ANL ALL

Pennycook, Steve

133

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution $\\Delta E/E = 1.1\\cdot 10^{-4}$ and wave-number resolution of $\\Delta k/k = 3\\cdot 10^{-3}$, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to $5.2/$\\AA\\ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34\\% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418~eV/$13.5\\,\\mu$m agrees with predictions within 1.3\\%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic HAPG spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1~eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf; Foerster, Eckhart; Galtier, Eric Ch; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Heimann, Philipp; Marschner, Heike; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Wehrhan, Ortrud; Lee, Hae Ja

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Bent crystal spectrometer for both frequency and wavenumber resolved x-ray scattering at a seeded free-electron laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a cylindrically curved GaAs x-ray spectrometer with energy resolution ?E/E = 1.1 ?10{sup ?4} and wave-number resolution of ?k/k = 3 ?10{sup ?3}, allowing plasmon scattering at the resolution limits of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free-electron laser. It spans scattering wavenumbers of 3.6 to 5.2/ in 100 separate bins, with only 0.34% wavenumber blurring. The dispersion of 0.418 eV/13.5??m agrees with predictions within 1.3%. The reflection homogeneity over the entire wavenumber range was measured and used to normalize the amplitude of scattering spectra. The proposed spectrometer is superior to a mosaic highly annealed pyrolytic graphite spectrometer when the energy resolution needs to be comparable to the LCLS seeded bandwidth of 1 eV and a significant range of wavenumbers must be covered in one exposure.

Zastrau, Ulf, E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fletcher, Luke B.; Galtier, Eric Ch.; Gamboa, Eliseo; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Heimann, Philipp; Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Lee, Hae Ja [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Frster, Eckhart [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, Frbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Marschner, Heike; Wehrhan, Ortrud [Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Universit di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/?E of order 10?000 and spatial resolution better than 10 ?m. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

Hill, K. W., E-mail: khill@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lu, J. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics at Femtosecond  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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138

X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The Ames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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139

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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140

X-ray scattering studies of structure and dynamics of surfaces and interfaces of polymeric liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and S. K. Sinha, Structure and dynamics of thin polymer ?Scattering Studies of Structure and Dynamics of Surfaces andScattering Studies of Structure and Dynamics of Surfaces and

Jiang, Zhang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Global molecular structure and interfaces : refining an RNA : RNA complex structure using solution x-ray scattering data.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determining the global architecture of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding biomacromolecular machines. Defining interfaces among components and the global structure of multicomponent systems is a central problem in understanding the biological interactions on a molecular level. We demonstrate that solution X-ray scattering data can be used to precisely determine intermolecular interfaces from just the subunit structures, in the complete absence of intermolecular NMR restraints using an example of a 30 kDa RNA-RNA complex. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) between structures that are determined using the scattering data and using intermolecular distance restraints is about 0.4 {angstrom}. Further, we refined the global structure of the complex using scattering data as a global restraint. The rmsd in backbone structures that are determined with and without the scattering data refinement is about 3.2 {angstrom}, suggesting the impact of the refinement to the overall structure. Information about the 'global correctness' of solution RNA structures could not be practically obtained otherwise, due to the molecular nature of the RNA molecules, but could only be defined by the scattering data together by residual dipolar couplings. This method provides a powerful new approach for refining global structures of macromolecular complexes whose subunits are elongated.

Zuo, X.; Wang, J.; Foster, T. R.; Schwieters, C. D.; Tiede, D. M.; Butcher, S. E.; Wang, Y.-X.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; NCI-Frederick; Univ. of Wisconin at Madison; NIH

2008-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

142

X-ray holographic microscopy experiments at the Brookhaven synchrotron light source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soft x-ray holographic microscopy is discussed from an experimental point of view. Three series of measurements have been carried out using the Brookhaven 750 MeV storage ring as an x-ray source. Young slits fringes, Gabor (in line) holograms and various data pertaining to the soft x-ray performance of photographic plates are reported. The measurements are discussed in terms of the technique for recording them and the experimental limitations in effect. Some discussion is also given of the issues involved in reconstruction using visible light.

Howells, M.R.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Kirz, J.; Rarback, H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Structure of Flame-Made Silica Nanoparticles by Ultra-Small-Angle X-ray Scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by thermophoretic sampling and microscopy that provided consistent results with light scattering with respect thermophoretically collected samples and image analysis of t

Beaucage, Gregory

144

Transverse dynamics of water across the melting point: A parallel neutron and x-ray inelastic scattering study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering measurements have been performed on heavy water across the melting point. The spectra bear clear evidence of low- and high-frequency inelastic shoulders related to transverse and longitudinal modes, respectively. Upon increasing the momentum transfer, the spectral shape evolves from a viscoelastic regime, where the low-frequency mode is clearly over-damped, toward an elastic one where its propagation becomes instead allowed. The crossover between the two regimes occurs whenever both the characteristic frequency and the linewidth of the low-frequency mode match the inverse of the structural relaxation time. Furthermore, we observe that the frequency of the transverse mode undergoes a discontinuity across the melting, whose extent reduces upon increasing the exchanged momentum.

Cunsolo A.; Kodituwakku C.; Bencivenga, F.; Frontzek, M.; Leu, b.M.; Said, A.H.

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

145

Small angle x-ray scattering study of fluctuations in 1-propanol-water and 2-propanol-water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been carried out on the 1-propanol (NPA)-water system and on the 2-propanol (IPA)-water system at 20{degree}C. In the NPA-water system, the zero angle intensity, the concentration fluctuation, the Kirkwood-Buff parameters, and Debye's correlation lengths have been determined at various concentrations. In the IPA-water system, the zero angle intensity and Debye's correlation lengths have also been determined. In both the NPA-water and IPA-water systems, all obtained parameters have maxima at about 0.2 of the mole fraction of alcohol. In terms of these parameters, the mixing state of the NPA-water and IPA-water systems is discussed and compared with that of the TBA-water system.

Hayashi, Hisashi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Iijima, Takao (Gakushuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

146

Acoustic plasmons and doping evolution of Mott physics in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering from cuprate superconductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By incorporating a long-range Coulomb interaction into the framework of the one-band Hubbard model, they delineate how the low-energy plasmon around 1 eV, which is a universal feature of the charge dynamics of the cuprates, manifests itself in the resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) spectra. The long-range Coulomb interaction in the doped system control sthe form of the intraband RIXS dispersion near the Brillouin zone center around the {Gamma} point. The out-of-plane momentum transfer component q{sub z} is found to play a key role in determining whether or not the RIXS spectrum shows a plasmon-related gap at {Gamma}.

Markiewicz, R.S.; Hasan, M.Z.; Bansil, A.; (NEU); (Princeton)

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

147

Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements of the microstructure of liquid helium mixtures adsorbed in aerogel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to measure the microstructure of isotopic mixtures of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He adsorbed into silica aerogels as a function of temperature and {sup 3}He concentration. The SAXS measurements could be well described by the formation of a nearly pure film of {sup 4}He which separates from the bulk mixture onto the aerogel strands and which thickens with decreasing temperature. Previous observations of a superfluid {sup 3}He-rich phase are consistent with superfluidity existing within this film phase. Observed differences between different density aerogels are explained in terms of the depletion of {sup 4}He from the bulk mixture due to film formation.

Lurio, L. B.; Mulders, N.; Paetkau, M.; Chan, M. H. W.; Mochrie, S. G. J. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, British Columbia V1Y4X8 (Canada); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering study of charge excitations in superconducting and nonsuperconducting PrFeAsO??y  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

We report the first observation by momentum-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of charge excitations in an iron-based superconductor and its parent compound, PrFeAsO?.? and PrFeAsO, respectively, with two main results. First, using calculations based on a 16-band dp model, we show that the energy of the lowest-lying excitations, identified as dd interband transitions of dominant xz,yz orbital character, exhibits a dramatic dependence on electron correlation. This enables us to estimate the Coulomb repulsion U and Hund's coupling J, and to highlight the role played by J in these peculiar orbital-dependent electron correlation effects. Second, we show that short-range antiferromagnetic correlations, which are a prerequisite to the occurrence of these excitations at the ? point, are still present in the superconducting state.

Jarrige, I.; Nomura, T.; Ishii, K.; Gretarsson, H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kim, J.; Upton, M.; Casa, D.; Gog, T.; Ishikado, M.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hill, J. P.; Liu, X.; Hiraoka, N.; Tsuei, K. D.; Shamoto, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The phonon density of states of (alpha) and (delta)-Plutonium by inelastic x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the phonon density of states (DOS) were performed on polycrystalline samples of pure {alpha}-Pu and {delta}-Pu{sub 0.98}Ga{sub 0.02} at room temperature. The heat capacity of {alpha}-Pu is well reproduced by contributions calculated from the measured phonon DOS plus conventional thermal expansion and electronic contributions, showing that {alpha}-Pu is a 'well-behaved' metal in this regard. A comparison of the phonon DOS of the two phases at room temperature surprised us in that the vibrational entropy difference between them is only a quarter of the total entropy difference expected from known thermodynamic measurements. The missing entropy is too large to be accounted for by conventional electronic entropy and evidence from the literature rules out a contribution from spin fluctuations. Possible alternative sources for the missing entropy are discussed.

Manley, M E; Said, A; Fluss, M J; Wall, M; Lashley, J C; Alatas, A; Moore, K T

2008-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Narrowband inverse Compton scattering x-ray sources at high laser intensities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Narrowband x- and gamma-ray sources based on the inverse Compton scattering of laser pulses suffer from a limitation of the allowed laser intensity due to the onset of nonlinear effects that increase their bandwidth. It has been suggested that laser pulses with a suitable frequency modulation could compensate this ponderomotive broadening and reduce the bandwidth of the spectral lines, which would allow to operate narrowband Compton sources in the high-intensity regime. In this paper we, therefore, present the theory of nonlinear Compton scattering in a frequency modulated intense laser pulse. We systematically derive the optimal frequency modulation of the laser pulse from the scattering matrix element of nonlinear Compton scattering, taking into account the electron spin and recoil. We show that, for some particular scattering angle, an optimized frequency modulation completely cancels the ponderomotive broadening for all harmonics of the backscattered light. We also explore how sensitive this compensation ...

Seipt, D; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr K{alpha} source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. The contrast ratio (K{alpha} to continuum) is 65, with a competitive ultra short pulse laser to x-ray conversion efficiency of 10{sup -5}. Filtered shadowgraphy indicates that the Kr K{alpha} and K{beta} x-rays are emitted from a roughly 1 x 2 mm emission volume, making this source suitable for area backlighting and scattering. Spectral calculations indicate a typical bulk electron temperature of 50-70 eV (i.e. mean ionization state 13-16), based on the observed ratio of K{alpha} to K{beta}. Kr gas jets provide a debris-free high energy K{alpha} source for time-resolved diagnosis of dense matter.

Kugland, N; Constantin, C G; Niemann, C; Neumayer, P; Chung, H; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Glenzer, S H; Girard, F

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

152

A convenient alignment approach for x-ray imaging experiments based on laser positioning devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a two-laser alignment approach for facilitating the precise alignment of various imaging and measuring components with respect to the x-ray beam. The first laser constantly pointed to the output window of the source, in a direction parallel to the path along which the components are placed. The second laser beam, originating from the opposite direction, was calibrated to coincide with the first laser beam. Thus, a visible indicator of the direction of the incident x-ray beam was established, and the various components could then be aligned conveniently and accurately with its help.

Zhang Da; Donovan, Molly; Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States); Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering Oak Ridge National Laboratory June 12-26, 2010 Oak ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SCHEDULE FOR SATURDAY, JUNE 19, 2010 School participants arrive in Oak Ridge, TN and check in at the Comfort Inn. Dinner hosted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Pennycook, Steve

154

Temporal synchronization of GHz repetition rate electron and laser pulses for the optimization of a compact inverse-Compton scattering x-ray source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The operation of an inverse-Compton scattering source of x-rays or gamma-rays requires the precision alignment and synchronization of highly focused electron bunches and laser pulses at the collision point. The arrival times of electron and laser pulses must be synchronized with picosecond precision. We have developed an RF synchronization technique that reduces the initial timing uncertainty from 350 ps to less than 2 ps, greatly reducing the parameter space to be optimized while commissioning the x-ray source. We describe the technique and present measurements of its performance.

Hadmack, Michael R; Madey, John M J; Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Probing the MgATP-Bound Conformation of the Nitrogenase Fe Protein By Solution Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MgATP-bound conformation of the Fe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii has been examined in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and compared to existing crystallographically characterized Fe protein conformations. The results of the analysis of the crystal structure of an Fe protein variant with a Switch II single-amino acid deletion recently suggested that the MgATP-bound state of the Fe protein may exist in a conformation that involves a large-scale reorientation of the dimer subunits, resulting in an overall elongated structure relative to the more compact structure of the MgADP-bound state. It was hypothesized that the Fe protein variant may be a conformational mimic of the MgATP-bound state of the native Fe protein largely on the basis of the observation that the spectroscopic properties of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the variant mimicked in part the spectroscopic signatures of the native nitrogenase Fe protein in the MgATP-bound state. In this work, SAXS studies reveal that the large-scale conformational differences between the native Fe protein and the variant observed by X-ray crystallography are also observed in solution. In addition, comparison of the SAXS curves of the Fe protein nucleotide-bound states to the nucleotide-free states indicates that the conformation of the MgATP-bound state in solution does not resemble the structure of the variant as initially proposed, but rather, at the resolution of this experiment, it resembles the structure of the nucleotide-free state. These results provide insights into the Fe protein conformations that define the role of MgATP in nitrogenase catalysis.

Sarma, R.; Mulder, D.W.; Brecht, E.; Szilagyi, R.K.; Seefeldt, L.C.; Tsuruta, H.; Peters, J.W.; /Montana State U. /SLAC, SSRL /Utah State U.

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Protein Folding Dynamics Detected By Time-Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Small-Angle Scattering Technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The polypeptide collapse is an essential dynamics in protein folding. To understand the mechanism of the collapse, in situ observation of folding by various probes is necessary. The changes in secondary and tertiary structures in the folding process of globular proteins, whose chain lengths are less than 300 polypeptides, were observed by circular dichrosim and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopies, respectively. On the other hand, those in protein compactness could be only detected by using time-resolved synchrotron x-ray small-angle scattering technique. The observed dynamics for several proteins with different topologies suggested a common folding mechanism termed 'collapse and search' dynamics, in which the polypeptide collapse precedes the formation of the native contact formation. In 'collapse and search' dynamics, the most outstanding feature lied in the compactness of the initial intermediates. The collapsed intermediates demonstrated the scaling relationship between radius of gyration (Rg) and chain length with a scaling exponent of 0.35 {+-} 0.11, which is close to the value (1/3) predicted by mechano-statistical theory for the collapsed globules of polymers in poor solvent. Thus, it was suggested that the initial collapse is caused by the coil-globule transition of polymers. Since the collapse is essential to the folding of larger proteins, further investigations on the collapse likely lead to an important insight into the protein folding phenomena.

Fujisawa, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Satoshi [RIKEN Harima Institute, SPring-8 Center, Laboratory for Biometal Science, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University Suita Osaka 565-0871/CREST, JST (Japan)

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the occurrence of solar X-ray flare, when light travel time delay is accounted, suggesting that X-rays fromX-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND ANIL BHARDWAJ Flight center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA Scattering of solar X-ray radiation mainly produces the non

?stgaard, Nikolai

158

Influence of the multiple scattering of relativistic electrons on the line width of backward Parametric X-ray Radiation in the absence of photo absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The multiple scattering effect on the line width of backward Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) in the extremely Bragg geometry, produced by low energy relativistic electrons traversing a single crystal, is discussed. It is shown that there exist conditions, when the influence of photo absorption on the line width can be neglected, and the only multiple scattering process of relativistic electrons in crystal leads to the broadening of backward PXR lines. Based on the obtained theoretical results, the line width broadening of backward PXR, caused by the multiple scattering of 30 MeV and 50 MeV relativistic electrons in a Si crystal of varying thicknesses, is numerically obtained.

Tabrizi, Mehdi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

X-ray crystal spectrometer upgrade for ITER-like wall experiments at JET  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high resolution X-Ray crystal spectrometer at the JET tokamak has been upgraded with the main goal of measuring the tungsten impurity concentration. This is important for understanding impurity accumulation in the plasma after installation of the JET ITER-like wall (main chamber: Be, divertor: W). This contribution provides details of the upgraded spectrometer with a focus on the aspects important for spectral analysis and plasma parameter calculation. In particular, we describe the determination of the spectrometer sensitivity: important for impurity concentration determination.

Shumack, A. E., E-mail: amy.shumack@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Rzadkiewicz, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja So?tana 7, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Karpinski, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowska, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Universit Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France); Scholz, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakw (Poland); Byszuk, A.; Cieszewski, R.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Dominik, W. [Faculty of Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Conway, N. J.; Dalley, S.; Tyrrell, S.; Zastrow, K.-D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Figueiredo, J. [EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Associao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Av Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Investigating Silicon-Based Photoresists with Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering and X-ray Micro-spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIGHT (X- RAYS , EUV, ULTRAFAST PULSES ), OR HEAT . T HEthe on time of an ultrafast pulse is referred to as thepeak-power of the ultrafast pulses, purely electronic four-

Caster, Allison G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Hydrostatic low-range pressure applications of the Paris-Edinburgh cell utilising polymer gaskets for diffuse x-ray scattering measurements.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a polymeric Torlon (polyamide-imide) gasket material in a Paris-Edinburgh pressure cell for in situ high-pressure X-ray scattering measurements is demonstrated. The relatively low bulk modulus of the gasket allows for fine control of the sample pressure over the range 0.01-0.42 GPa. The quality of the data obtained in this way is suitable for Bragg and pair distribution function analysis.

Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Kurtz, C.; Locke, D.; Parise, J. B.; Hriljac, J. A.; Stony Brook Univ.; Univ. of Birmingham

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Mass fractal characteristics of wet sonogels as determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low density silica sonogels were prepared from acid sonohydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. Wet gels were studied by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The DSC tests were carried out under a heating rate of 2 deg. C/min from -120 deg. C up to 30 deg. C. Aerogels were obtained by CO{sub 2} supercritical extraction and characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SAXS. The DSC thermogram displays two distinct endothermic peaks. The first, a broad peak extending from about -80 deg. C up to practically 0 deg. C, was associated to the melting of ice nanocrystals with a crystal size distribution with 'pore' diameter ranging from 1 or 2 nm up to about 60 nm, as estimated from Thomson's equation. The second, a sharp peak with onset temperature close to 0 deg. C, was attributed to the melting of macroscopic crystals. The DSC incremental 'nanopore' volume distribution is in reasonable agreement with the incremental pore volume distribution of the aerogel as determined from nitrogen adsorption. No macroporosity was detected by nitrogen adsorption, probably because the adsorption method applies stress on the sample during measurement, leading to a underestimation of pore volume, or because often positive curvature of the solid surface is in aerogels, making the nitrogen condensation more difficult. According to the SAXS results, the solid network of the wet gels behaves as a mass fractal structure with mass fractal dimension D=2.20{+-}0.01 in a characteristic length scale below {xi}=7.9{+-}0.1 nm. The mass fractal characteristics of the wet gels have also been probed from DSC data by means of an earlier applied modeling for generation of a mass fractal from the incremental ''pore'' volume distribution curves. The results are shown to be in interesting agreement with the results from SAXS.

Vollet, D. R.; Donatti, D. A.; Ibanez Ruiz, A.; Gatto, F. R. [Departamento de Fisica, Unesp-Univerisdade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, P.O. Box 178 CEP 13500-970 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Mass fractal characteristics of silica sonogels as determined by small-angle x-ray scattering and nitrogen adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample series of silica sonogels was prepared using different water-tetraethoxysilane molar ratio (r{sub w}) in the gelation step of the process in order to obtain aerogels with different bulk densities after the supercritical drying. The samples were analyzed by means of small-angle x-ray-scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen-adsorption techniques. Wet sonogels exhibit mass fractal structure with fractal dimension D increasing from {approx}2.1 to {approx}2.4 and mass-fractal correlation length {xi} diminishing from {approx}13 nm to {approx}2 nm, as r{sub w} is changed in the nominal range from 66 to 6. The process of obtaining aerogels from sonogels and heat treatment at 500 deg. C, in general, increases the mass-fractal dimension D, diminishes the characteristic length {xi} of the fractal structure, and shortens the fractal range at the micropore side for the formation of a secondary structured particle, apparently evolved from the original wet structure at a high resolution level. The overall mass-fractal dimension D of aerogels was evaluated as {approx}2.4 and {approx}2.5, as determined from SAXS and from pore-size distribution by nitrogen adsorption, respectively. The fine structure of the 'secondary particle' developed in the obtaining of aerogels could be described as a surface-mass fractal, with the correlated surface and mass-fractal dimensions decreasing from {approx}2.4 to {approx}2.0 and from {approx}2.7 to {approx}2.5, respectively, as the aerogel bulk density increases from 0.25 (r{sub w}=66) up to 0.91 g/cm{sup 3} (r{sub w}=6)

Donatti, D.A.; Vollet, D.R.; Ibanez Ruiz, A.; Mesquita, A.; Silva, T.F.P. [Unesp-Universidade Estadual Paulista, IGCE, Departamento de Fisica, P.O. Box 178 CEP, 13500-970 Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Structural and magnetic properties of transition metal substituted BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds studied by x-ray and neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of my dissertation is to understand the structural and magnetic properties of the newly discovered FeAs-based superconductors and the interconnection between superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and structure. X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are powerful tools to directly observe the structure and magnetism in this system. I used both xray and neutron scattering techniques on di#11;erent transition substituted BaFe2As2 compounds in order to investigate the substitution dependence of structural and magnetic transitions and try to understand the connections between them.

Kim, Min Gyu [Ames Laboratory

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

In Situ Synchrotron Based X-ray Fluorescence and Scattering Measurements During Atomic Layer Deposition: Initial Growth of HfO2 on Si and Ge Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The initial growth of HfO{sub 2} was studied by means of synchrotron based in situ x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). HfO{sub 2} was deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and H{sub 2}O on both oxidized and H-terminated Si and Ge surfaces. XRF quantifies the amount of deposited material during each ALD cycle and shows an inhibition period on H-terminated substrates. No inhibition period is observed on oxidized substrates. The evolution of film roughness was monitored using GISAXS. A correlation is found between the inhibition period and the onset of surface roughness.

K Devloo-Casier; J Dendooven; K Ludwig; G Lekens; J DHaen; C Detavernier

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Simulation of the shape of chaperonins using the small-angle x-ray scattering curves and torus form factor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The inverse scattering problem has been solved for protein complexes whose surfaces can be described by a set of the simplest doubly connected surfaces in the uniform approximation (a scattering potential inside the molecule is a constant). Solutions of two proteins-well-known GroEL bacterial chaperonin and poor-studied bacteriophage chaperonin, which is a product of 146 gene (gp146)-were taken for the experiment. The shapes of protein complexes have been efficiently reconstructed from the experimental scattering curves. The shell method, the method of the rotation of amino acid sequences with the use of the form factor of an amino acid, and the method of seeking the model parameters of a protein complex with the preliminarily obtained form factor of the model have been used to reconstruct the shape of these particles.

Amarantov, S. V., E-mail: amarantov_s@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Naletova, I. N. [Moscow State University, Belozerskii Institute of Molecular Biology and Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kurochkina, L. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

A Survey of Students from the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering: Communication Habits and Preferences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) offers the scientific community unique access to two types of world-class neutron sources at a single site - the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The 85-MW HFIR provides one of the highest steady-state neutron fluxes of any research reactor in the world. And the SNS is one of the world's most intense pulse neutron beams. Management of these resources is the responsibility of the Neutron Sciences Directorate (NScD). NScD started conducting the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering (NXS) in conjunction with the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory in 2007. This survey was conducted to determine the most effective ways to reach students with information about what SNS and HFIR offer the scientific community, including content and communication vehicles. The emphasis is on gaining insights into compelling messages and the most effective channels, e.g., Web sites and social media, for communicating with students about neutron science The survey was conducted in two phases using a classic qualitative investigation to confirm language and content followed by a survey designed to quantify issues, assumptions, and working hypotheses. Phase I consisted of a focus group in late June 2010 with students attending NXS. The primary intent of the group was to inform development of an online survey. Phase two consisted of an online survey that was developed and pre-tested in July 2010 and launched on August 9, 2010 and remained in the field until September 9, 2010. The survey achieved an overall response rate of 48% for a total of 157 completions. The objective of this study is to determine the most effective ways to reach students with information about what SNS and HFIR offer the scientific community, including content and communication vehicles. The emphasis is on gaining insights into compelling messages and the most effective channels, e.g., Web sites, social media, for communicating with students about neutron science.

Bryant, Rebecca [Bryant Research, LLC

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Sub-100-ps structural dynamics of horse heart myoglobin probed by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sub-100-ps structural dynamics of horse heart myoglobin probed by time-resolved X-ray solution-slicing Structural dynamics Myoglobin a b s t r a c t Here we report sub-100-ps structural dynamics of horse heart to the measurement and subsequent deconvolution, we investigate the protein structural dynamics that occur faster

Ihee, Hyotcherl

169

Quasi-zero dimensional CuB2O4: a resonant inelastic X-ray scattering case study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore the general phenomenology of resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) using CuB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, a network of CuO{sub 4} plaquettes electronically isolated by B{sup +3} ions. Spectra show a small number of well-separated features, and we exploit the simple electronic structure to explore RIXS phenomenology by developing a calculation which allows for intermediate-state effects ignored in standard approaches. These effects are found to be non-negligible and good correspondence between our model and experiment leads to a simple picture of such phenomenology as the genesis of d {yields} d excitations at the K edge and intermediate-state interference effects.

Hancock, J.N.

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ray tracing flux calculation for the small and wide angle x-ray scattering diffraction station at the SESAME synchrotron radiation facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The calculation for the optics of the synchrotron radiation small and wide angle x-ray scattering beamline, currently under construction at SESAME is described. This beamline is based on a cylindrically bent germanium (111) single crystal with an asymmetric cut of 10.5 deg., followed by a 1.2 m long rhodium coated plane mirror bent into a cylindrical form. The focusing properties of bent asymmetrically cut crystals have not yet been studied in depth. The present paper is devoted to study of a particular application of a bent asymmetrically cut crystal using ray tracing simulations with the SHADOW code. These simulations show that photon fluxes of order of 1.09x10{sup 11} photons/s will be available at the experimental focus at 8.79 keV. The focused beam dimensions will be 2.2 mm horizontal full width at half maximum (FWHM) by 0.12 mm vertical (FWHM).

Salah, Wa'el [Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East (SESAME), P.O. Box 7, Allan 19252 (Jordan); Department of Physics, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115 (Jordan); Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Bp 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Hoorani, H. [Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East (SESAME), P.O. Box 7, Allan 19252 (Jordan)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10?eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gamboa, E. J. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States) [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 72, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Tzeferacos, P. [Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)] [Flash Center for Computational Science, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Benage, J. F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States) [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Crystal Structures and Small-angle X-ray Scattering Analysis of UDP-galactopyranose Mutase from the Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the conversion of UDP-galactopyranose to UDP-galactofuranose, which is a central reaction in galactofuranose biosynthesis. Galactofuranose has never been found in humans but is an essential building block of the cell wall and extracellular matrix of many bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The importance of UGM for the viability of many pathogens and its absence in humans make UGM a potential drug target. Here we report the first crystal structures and small-angle x-ray scattering data for UGM from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, the causative agent of aspergillosis. The structures reveal that Aspergillus UGM has several extra secondary and tertiary structural elements that are not found in bacterial UGMs yet are important for substrate recognition and oligomerization. Small-angle x-ray scattering data show that Aspergillus UGM forms a tetramer in solution, which is unprecedented for UGMs. The binding of UDP or the substrate induces profound conformational changes in the enzyme. Two loops on opposite sides of the active site move toward each other by over 10 {angstrom} to cover the substrate and create a closed active site. The degree of substrate-induced conformational change exceeds that of bacterial UGMs and is a direct consequence of the unique quaternary structure of Aspergillus UGM. Galactopyranose binds at the re face of the FAD isoalloxazine with the anomeric carbon atom poised for nucleophilic attack by the FAD N5 atom. The structural data provide new insight into substrate recognition and the catalytic mechanism and thus will aid inhibitor design.

Dhatwalia, Richa; Singh, Harkewal; Oppenheimer, Michelle; Karr, Dale B.; Nix, Jay C.; Sobrado, Pablo; Tanner, John J. (Missouri); (LBNL); (VPI-SU)

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

Investigations of the R5(SixGe1-x)4 Intermetallic Compounds by X-Ray Resonant Magnetic Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The XRMS experiment on the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} system has shown that, below the Neel temperature, T{sub N} = 127 K, the magnetic unit cells is the same as the chemical unit cell. From azimuth scans and the Q dependence of the magnetic scattering, all three Gd sites in the structure were determined to be in the same magnetic space group Pnma. The magnetic moments are aligned along the c-axis and the c-components of the magnetic moments at the three different sites are equal. The ferromagnetic slabs are stacked antiferromagnetically along the b-direction. They found an unusual order parameter curve in Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}. A spin-reorientation transition is a possibility in Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}, which is similar to the Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} case. Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} possesses the same Sm{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type crystallographic structure and the same magnetic space group as Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} does. The difference in magnetic structure is that Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} has a canted one but Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} has nearly a collinear one in the low temperature antiferromagnetic phase. The competition between the magneto-crystalline anisotropy and the nearest-neighbor magnetic exchange interactions may allow a 3-dimensional canted antiferromagnetic structure in Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}. The spin-reorientation transition in both Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} and Tb{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} may arise from the competition between the magnetic anisotropy from the spin-orbit coupling of the conduction electrons and the dipolar interactions anisotropy.

Lizhi Tan

2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

174

X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate an effect of a partially reversible x-ray-induced increase of diffuse x-ray scattering in both congruent been attributed to x-ray-induced decay of the ferroelectric phase at room temperature. The x-ray

Byer, Robert L.

175

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Data Booklet X-RAY DATA BOOKLET Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction X-Ray Properties of Elements Electron Binding Energies X-Ray Levels of Few Electron Ions Now Available Order X-Ray Data Booklet http://xdb.lbl.gov/ (1 of 3) [2

Meagher, Mary

176

X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

177

Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R. [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Total reflection inelastic x-ray scattering from a 10 nm thick La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3} thin film.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To study equilibrium changes in composition, valence, and electronic structure near the surface and into the bulk, we demonstrate the use of a new approach, total-reflection inelastic x-ray scattering, as a sub-keV spectroscopy capable of depth profiling chemical changes in thin films with nanometer resolution. By comparing data acquired under total x-ray reflection and penetrating conditions, we are able to separate the O K-edge spectra from a 10 nm La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3} thin film from that of the underlying SrTiO{sub 3} substrate. With a smaller wavelength probe than comparable soft x-ray absorption measurements, we also describe the ability to easily access dipole-forbidden final states, using the dramatic evolution of the La N{sub 4,5} edge with momentum transfer as an example.

Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Eastman, J. A.; Iddir, H.; Zapol, P.; Fuoss, P. H.; Balasubramanian, M.; Gordon, R. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. R.; Salvador, P. A.; Simon Fraser Univ.; Carnegie Mellon Univ.

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

179

X-ray Crystallographic Center (XCC) User Registration Form Peter Y. Zavalij X-ray Crystallographi Center 091 Chemistry Bldg. / College Park, MD 20742  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Crystallographic Center (XCC) User Registration Form Peter Y. Zavalij X-ray Crystallographi. or advisor confirmation e-mail X-ray Diffractometer that will be used: User Level and Status Smart Apex2X'Pert Pro MRD (Reflectivity & low angles) Xeuss (Small/Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) Submitting user ­ only

Thirumalai, Devarajan

180

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

1987-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

X-ray beamsplitter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Chest x-Rays  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

183

X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the nuclear astrophysics aspects of accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. We summarize open astrophysical questions in light of recent observations and their relation to the underlying nuclear physics. Recent progress in the understanding of the nuclear physics, especially of X-ray bursts, is also discussed.

H. Schatz; K. E. Rehm

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Surface Area and Microporosity of Carbon Aerogels from Gas Adsorption and Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A carbon aerogel was obtained by carbonization of an organic aerogel prepared by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in water. The carbon aerogel was then CO2 activated at 800 C to increase its surface area and widen its microporosity. Evolution of these parameters was followed by gas adsorption and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS, respectively) with contrast variation by using dry and wet (immersion in benzene and m-xylene) samples. For the original carbon aerogel, the surface area, SSAXS, obtained by SAXS, is larger than that obtained by gas adsorption (Sads). The values become nearly the same as the degree of activation of the carbon aerogel increases. This feature is due to the widening of the narrow microporosity in the carbon aerogel as the degree of activation is increased. In addition, WAXS results show that the short-range spatial correlations into the assemblies of hydrocarbon molecules confined inside the micropores are different from those existing in the liquid phase. 1.

David Fairn-jimnez; Francisco Carrasco-marn; David Djurado; Franoise Bley; Franoise Ehrburger-dolle; Carlos Moreno-castilla

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A promising concept for using near-surface measuring angles in angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy considering elastic scattering effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing number of applications of very thin films requires both reliable thin-layer and interface characterization. A powerful method for characterization in the nanometer thickness range is the angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). This is a nondestructive depth-profiling method, which can provide elemental content as well as chemical information. Two of the drawbacks of ARXPS are, that it requires dedicated mathematical modeling and that, at least up until now, its use has been restricted away from near-surface angles. In this paper we present a method for the mathematical description of a few, hitherto unaccounted, measurement effects in order to improve the simulations of ARXPS data for complex surface structures. As an immediate application, we propose a simple algorithm to consider the effects of elastic scattering in the standard ARXPS data interpretation, which in principle would allow the use of the whole angular range for the analysis; thus leading to a significant increase in the usable information content from the measurements. The potential of this approach is demonstrated with model calculations for a few thin film examples.

Oswald, S.; Oswald, F. [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics.

Price, R.H.

1983-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

187

X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics.

Price, R.H.

1981-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

188

X-ray laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

009-9473-8 REVIEW X-ray absorption spectroscopy Junko Yano and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bothX-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-

Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type: Review X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Junko Yano andPhotosystem II; XAS, X-ray absorption spectroscopy; EXAFS,X-ray absorption fine structure; EPR, electron paramagnetic

Yano, Junko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

AN X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF MANGANESE CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC SPINACH CHLOROPLASTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

II. Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) TheoryIII. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) ExperimentIII. EXTENDED X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE (EXAFS) DATA

Kirby, Jon Allan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

X-ray dark-field imaging modeling * F. Pfeiffer,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray dark-field imaging modeling W. Cong,1, * F. Pfeiffer,2 M. Bech,2 and G. Wang1 1 Biomedical-field images are formed from x-ray small-angle scattering signals. The small-angle scattering signals to describe the relationship between x-ray small-angle scattering coefficients of an object and dark

Wang, Ge

193

Columbia University X-Ray Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Columbia University X-Ray Measurements of the Levitated Dipole Experiment J. L. Ellsworth, J. Kesner MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center D.T. Garnier, A.K. Hansen, M.E. Mauel Columbia University

194

Structural dynamics and ssDNA binding activity of the three N-terminal domains of the large subunit of Replication Protein A from small angle X-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Replication Protein A (RPA) is the primary eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein utilized in diverse DNA transactions in the cell. RPA is a heterotrimeric protein with seven globular domains connected by flexible linkers, which enable substantial inter-domain motion that is essential to its function. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments on two multi-domain constructs from the N-terminus of the large subunit (RPA70) were used to examine the structural dynamics of these domains and their response to the binding of ssDNA. The SAXS data combined with molecular dynamics simulations reveal substantial interdomain flexibility for both RPA70AB (the tandem high affinity ssDNA binding domains A and B connected by a 10-residue linker) and RPA70NAB (RPA70AB extended by a 70-residue linker to the RPA70N protein interaction domain). Binding of ssDNA to RPA70NAB reduces the interdomain flexibility between the A and B domains, but has no effect on RPA70N. These studies provide the first direct measurements of changes in orientation of these three RPA domains upon binding ssDNA. The results support a model in which RPA70N remains structurally independent of RPA70AB in the DNA bound state and therefore freely available to serve as a protein recruitment module.

Pretto, Dalyir I.; Tsutakawa, Susan; Brosey, Chris A.; Castillo, Amalchi; Chagot, Marie-Eve; Smith, Jarrod A.; Tainer, John A.; Chazin, Walter J.

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

195

Applications of holography to x-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we consider various applications of holographic techniques to the problem of soft x-ray imaging. We give special attention to imaging biological material using x-rays in the wavelength range 24 to 45A. We describe some experiments on formation and reconstruction of x-ray holograms and propose some ways in which holographic techniques might contribute to the difficult problem of fabricating optical elements for use in the soft x-ray region.

Howells, M.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Rarback, H.; Rosser, R.; Yun, W.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Applications of holography to X-ray imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors consider various applications of holographic techniques to the problem of soft x-ray imaging. Special attention is given to imaging biological material using x-rays in the wavelength range 24-45A. The authors describe some experiments on formation and reconstruction of x-ray holograms and propose some ways in which holographic techniques might contribute to the difficult problem of fabricating optical elements for use in the soft x-ray region.

Howells, M.; Iarocci, M.; Kenney, J.; Rarback, H.; Rosser, R.; Yun, W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Core and Valence Excitations in Resonant X-ray Spectroscopy using Restricted Excitation Window Time-dependent Density Functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur K and L2,3 edges. The simulated XANES signals from the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the static exchange (STEX) method are compared with experiments, showing that REW-TDDFT is more accurate and computationally less expensive than STEX. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals from REW-TDDFT give some insights on the correlation of different excitations in the molecule.

Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

198

Development of a Microchannel Plate-Based Gated X-ray Imager for Imaging and Spectroscopy Experiments on Z  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This poster describes a microchannelplate (MCP)based, gated x-ray imager developed by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), and Sandia National Laboratories(SNL) over the past several years. The camera consists of a 40 mm 40 mm MCP, coated with eight 4 mm wide microstrips. The camera is gated by sending subnanosecond high-voltage pulses across the striplines. We have performed an extensive characterization of the camera, the results of which we present here. The camera has an optical gate profile width (time resolution) as narrow as 150 ps and detector uniformity of better than 30% along the length of a strip, far superior than what was achieved in previous designs. The spatial resolution is on the order of 40 microns for imaging applications and a dynamic range of between ~100 and ~1000. We also present results from a Monte Carlo simulation code developed by NSTec over the last several years. Agreement between the simulation results and the experimental measurements is very good.

Wu, M., Kruschwitz, C. A., Tibbitts, A., Rochau, G.

2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

199

X-ray beam finder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, H.W.

1983-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

200

Electronic Structure of the Mn(4)Ca Cluster in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem Ii Studied By Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen-evolving complex (Mn{sub 4}Ca cluster) of Photosystem II cycles through five intermediate states (S{sub i}-states, i=0--4) before a molecule of dioxygen is released. During the S-state transitions, electrons are extracted from the OEC, either from Mn or alternatively from a Mn ligand. The oxidation state of Mn is widely accepted as Mn{sub 4}(III{sub 2},IV{sub 2}) and Mn{sub 4}(III,IV{sub 3}) for S{sub 1} and S{sub 2} states, while it is still controversial for the S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states. We used resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) to study the electronic structure of Mn{sub 4}Ca complex in the OEC. The RIXS data yield two-dimensional plots that provide a significant advantage by obtaining both K-edge pre-edge and L-edge-like spectra simultaneously. The second energy dimension separates the pre-edge (1s to 3d) transitions from the main K-edge (1s to 4p), and thus more precise analysis is possible. The 1s2p RIXS final state electron configuration along the energy transfer axis is identical to conventional L-edge absorption spectroscopy and the RIXS spectra are therefore sensitive to the metal spin state. We have collected data from PS II samples in the each of the S-states and compared them with data from various inorganic Mn complexes. The spectral changes in the Mn 1s2p{sub 3/2} RIXS spectra between the S-states are small compared to those of the oxides of Mn and coordination complexes. The results indicate strong covalency for the electronic configuration in the OEC, and we conclude that the electron is transferred from a strongly delocalized orbital, compared to those in Mn oxides or coordination complexes. The magnitude for the S{sub 0} to S{sub 1}, and S{sub 1} to S{sub 2} transitions is twice as large as that during the S{sub 2} to S{sub 3} transition, indicating that the electron for this transition is extracted from a highly delocalized orbital with little change in charge density at the Mn atoms. The RIXS spectra of S{sub 0} and S{sub 3} states also showed characteristic features which were not clear from the K-edge spectroscopy.

Yano, J.; Pushkar, Y.; Messinger, J.; Bergmann, U.; Glatzel, P.; Yachandra, V.K.

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

202

Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory: Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University Doc. No: SOPSAXSLA Rev No: Issue date: 1.001 12/26/2008Standard Operating Procedure Title: Small Angle X-ray Scattering approved: December 26 2009 Small Angle X-ray Scattering, Rotating Anode PURPOSE: This Standard Operating

Meagher, Mary

205

Synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study of oxidation/passivation of copper and silicon.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron x-ray-scattering technique studies of copper and silicon electrochemical interfaces are reported. These two examples illustrate the application of synchrotron x-ray techniques for oxidation, passivation, and dissolution of metals and semiconductors.

Chu, Y.; Nagy, Z.; Parkhutik, V.; You, H.

1999-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - accreting x-ray binaries Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-ray eclipse... ; it is likely that we observe photons scattered in an accretion disk wind. The X-ray spectrum of V603 Aql... accretion rate, non-magnetic CVs seen at high...

207

X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

Characterization of a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide interface using neutron and x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of metal/oxide interfaces is important to the radiation resistance of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels. We find evidence of gradual variations in stoichiometry and magnetization across a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide heterophase interface using neutron and x-ray reflectometry. These findings suggest that the Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is a transitional zone approximately ?64?-thick containing mixtures or compounds of Fe, Y, and O. Our results illustrate the complex chemical and magnetic nature of Fe/oxide interfaces and demonstrate the utility of combined neutron and x-ray techniques as tools for characterizing them.

Watkins, E. B.; Majewski, J., E-mail: demkowicz@mit.edu, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kashinath, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Computational Modeling Technology, Aramco Research CenterBoston, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wang, P. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon, 97006 (United States); Baldwin, J. K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Demkowicz, M. J., E-mail: demkowicz@mit.edu, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

209

Theoretical standards in x-ray spectroscopies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to extend our state-of-the-art, ab initio XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) codes, FEFF. Our current work has been highly successful in achieving accurate, user-friendly XAFS standards, exceeding the performance of both tabulated standards and other codes by a considerable margin. We now propose to add the capability to treat more complex materials. This includes multiple-scattering, polarization dependence, an approximate treatment of XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure), and other improvements. We also plan to adapt FEFF to other spectroscopies, e.g. photoelectron diffraction (PD) and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS).

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Principles of X-ray Navigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray navigation is a new concept in satellite navigation in which orientation, position and time are measured by observing stellar emissions in x-ray wavelengths. X-ray navigation offers the opportunity for a single instrument to be used to measure these parameters autonomously. Furthermore, this concept is not limited to missions in close proximity to the earth. X-ray navigation can be used on a variety of missions from satellites in low earth orbit to spacecraft on interplanetary missions. In 1997 the Unconventional Stellar Aspect Experiment (USA) will be launched as part of the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). USA will provide the first platform for real-time experimentation in the field of x-ray navigation and also serves as an excellent case study for the design and manufacturing of space qualified systems in small, autonomous groups. Current techniques for determining the orientation of a satellite rely on observations of the earth, sun and stars in infrared, visible or ultraviolet wavelengths. It is possible to use x-ray imaging devices to provide arcsecond level measurement of attitude based on star patterns in the x-ray sky. This technique is explored with a simple simulation. Collimated x-ray detectors can be used on spinning satellites to provide a cheap and reliable measure of orientation. This is demonstrated using observations of the Crab Pulsar taken by the high Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-1) in 1977. A single instrument concept is shown to be effective, but dependent on an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity and thus susceptible to errors in that estimate. A star scanner based on a differential measurement from two x-ray detectors eliminates the need for an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity. A first order model and a second order model of the two star scanner concepts are considered. Many of the stars that emit in the x-ray regime are also x-ray pulsars with frequency stability approaching a part in 10{sup 9}. By observing these pulsations, a satellite can keep accurate time autonomously. They have demonstrated the acquisition and tracking of the Crab nebula pulsar by simulating the operation of a phase-locked loop.

Hanson, John Eric; /SLAC

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

211

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL); McKay, Timothy (Ann Arbor, MI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

X-ray lithography source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling of polar-drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments featuring laser-imploded plastic-shell targets filled with hydrogen or deuterium were performed on the National Ignition Facility. The shells (some deuterated) were doped in selected locations with Cu, Ga, and Ge, whose spectroscopic signals (indicative of local plasma conditions) were collected with a time-integrated, 1-D imaging, spectrally resolved, and absolute-intensity calibrated instrument. The experimental spectra compare well with radiation hydrodynamics simulations post-processed with a non-local thermal equilibrium atomic kinetics and spectroscopic-quality radiation-transport model. The obtained degree of agreement between the modeling and experimental data supports the application of spectroscopic techniques for the determination of plasma conditions, which can ultimately lead to the validation of theoretical models for thermonuclear burn in the presence of mix. Furthermore, the use of a lower-Z dopant element (e.g., Fe) is suggested for future experiments, since the ?2?keV electron temperatures reached in mixed regions are not high enough to drive sufficient H-like Ge and Cu line emissions needed for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics.

Hakel, P., E-mail: hakel@lanl.gov; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Tregillis, I. L.; Kanzleieter, R. J.; Batha, S. H.; Fontes, C. J.; Sherrill, M. E.; Kilcrease, D. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

New x-ray measurements in Helium-like Atoms increase discrepancy between experiment and theoretical QED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent 15 parts-per-million (ppm) experiment on muonic hydrogen found a major discrepancy with QED and independent nuclear size determinations. Here we find a significant discrepancy in a different type of exotic atom, a medium-Z nucleus with two electrons. Investigation of the data collected is able to discriminate between available QED formulations and reveals a pattern of discrepancy of almost 6 standard errors of experimental results from the most recent theoretical predictions with a functional dependence proportional to Z^n where n=4. In both the muonic and highly charged systems, the sign of the discrepancy is the same, with the measured transition energy higher than predicted. Some consequences are possible or probable, and some are more speculative. This may give insight into effective nuclear radii, the Rydberg, the fine-structure constant or unexpectedly large QED terms.

Christopher T. Chantler; Andrew T. Payne; John D. Gillaspy; Lawrence T. Hudson; Lucas F. Smale; Albert Henins; Justin A. Kimpton; Endre Takacs

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

216

X-Ray Diagnostics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore than 20X-Ray Diagnostics

217

X-Ray Source Based on the Parametric X-Rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prospects of parametric x-rays (PXR) application for the development of a tuneable quasi-monochromatic x-ray source for medical imaging are discussed. Analysis of basic requirements for electron accelerator shows that it must be relatively low-energy and high-current linac. In comparison with known ultra-relativistic cases, at low energies PXR properties will be modified to a great extent by multiple scattering of the electrons. PXR intensity dependence on target thickness and beam energy are calculated taking multiple scattering into account. It is concluded that PXR source based on real medical accelerators is feasible and can provide x-ray flux needful for obtaining high quality medical images.

Alexander Lobko; Olga Lugovskaya

2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

218

Neutron and X-Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V: CENTENNIAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2012 the diffraction community will celebrate 100 years since the prediction of X-ray diffraction by M. Laue, and following his suggestion the first beautiful diffraction experiment by W. Friedrich and P. Knipping. The significance of techniques based on the analysis of the diffraction of X-rays, neutrons, electrons and Mossbauer photons discovered later, has continued to increase in the past 100 years. The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum for discussion of using state-of-the-art neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for probing advanced materials. These techniques have been widely used to characterize materials structures across all length scales, from atomic to nano, meso, and macroscopic scales. With the development of sample environments, in-situ experiments, e.g., at temperatures and applied mechanical load, are becoming routine. The development of ultra-brilliant third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, together with advances in X-ray optics, has created intense X-ray microbeams, which provide the best opportunities for in-depth understanding of mechanical behavior in a broad spectrum of materials. Important applications include ultra-sensitive elemental detection by X-ray fluorescence/absorption and microdiffraction to identify phase and strain with submicrometer spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of crystalline structure, orientation and strain. X-ray microdiffraction is non-destructive with good strain resolution, competitive or superior spatial resolution in thick samples, and with the ability to probe below the sample surface. Advances in neutron sources and instrumentation also bring new opportunities in neutron scattering research. In addition to characterizing the structures, neutrons are also a great tool for elucidating the dynamics of materials. Because neutrons are highly penetrating, neutrons have been used to map stress in engineering systems. Neutrons have also played a vital role in our understanding of the magnetism and magnetic properties. Specialized instruments have been built to gain physical insights of the fundamental mechanisms governing phase transformation and mechanical behaviors of materials. The application of those techniques, in combination with theoretical simulations and numerical modeling, will lead to major breakthroughs in materials science in the foreseeable future that will contribute to the development of materials technology and industrial innovation.

Spanos, George

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

X-ray and neutron scattering studies of the Rb?MnF? and Cu???xMgx̳GeO? in an external magnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents results of two scattering studies of low dimensional magnetic materials. The first is a neutron scattering study of Rb2MnF4, a nearly ideal two-dimensional square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet ...

Christianson, Rebecca J. (Rebecca Jean), 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Directional fine structure in absorption of white x rays: A tomographic interpretation P. Korecki,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure in absorption of white x rays can be interpreted as real-space projections of atomic structure from neigh- boring atoms.1 A straightforward analysis of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure of the absorbing atoms. Thus, the absorption cross section is effectively modulated by the x-ray scattering

Korecki, Pawe³

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

X-Ray Diamond Anvil Cell Facility at NSLS: 2010 Progress Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diamond Anvil Cell Facility at NSLS: 2010 Progress Report Zhiqiang ChenZhiqiang Chen Stony) Powder X-ray Diffraction, Total Scattering Pair-Distributiony , g Function (PDF) under high P and high, yield strength, amorphization, texturing, compressibility Hydrothermal DAC (Bassett) Angle Dispersive X-ray

Duffy, Thomas S.

222

X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

Bitter, Manfred L. (Princeton, NJ); Fraenkel, Ben (Jerusalem, IL); Gorman, James L. (Bordentown, NJ); Hill, Kenneth W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Roquemore, A. Lane (Cranbury, NJ); Stodiek, Wolfgang (Princeton, NJ); von Goeler, Schweickhard E. (Princeton, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

X-ray Pinhole Camera Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of the rod pinch diode [1] has led to high-resolution radiography for dynamic events such as explosive tests. Rod pinch diodes use a small diameter anode rod, which extends through the aperture of a cathode plate. Electrons borne off the aperture surface can self-insulate and pinch onto the tip of the rod, creating an intense, small x-ray source (Primary Pinch). This source has been utilized as the main diagnostic on numerous experiments that include high-value, single-shot events. In such applications there is an emphasis on machine reliability, x-ray reproducibility, and x-ray quality [2]. In tests with the baseline rod pinch diode, we have observed that an additional pinch (Secondary Pinch) occurs at the interface near the anode rod and the rod holder. This suggests that stray electrons exist that are not associated with the Primary Pinch. In this paper we present measurements on both pinches using an x-ray pinhole camera. The camera is placed downstream of the Primary Pinch at an angle of 60 with respect to the diode centerline. This diagnostic will be employed to diagnose x-ray reproducibility and quality. In addition, we will investigate the performance of hybrid diodes relating to the formation of the Primary and Secondary Pinches.

Nelson, D. S. [NSTec; Berninger, M. J. [NSTec; Flores, P. A. [NSTec; Good, D. E. [NSTec; Henderson, D. J. [NSTec; Hogge, K. W. [NSTec; Huber, S. R. [NSTec; Lutz, S. S. [NSTec; Mitchell, S. E. [NSTec; Howe, R. A. [NSTec; Mitton, C. V. [NSTec; Molina, I. [NSTec; Bozman, D. R. [SNL; Cordova, S. R. [SNL; Mitchell, D. R. [SNL; Oliver, B. V. [SNL; Ormond, E. C. [SNL

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

Reis, David

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Combined microstructure x-ray optics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multilayers are man-made microstructures which vary in depth and are now of sufficient quality to be used as x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics. Gratings are man-made in plane microstructures which have been used as optic elements for most of this century. Joining of these two optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical microstructures to form combined microstructure optical elements has the potential for greatly enhancing both the throughput and the resolution attainable in these spectral ranges. The characteristics of these new optic elements will be presented and compared to experiment with emphasis on the unique properties of these combined microstructures. These results reported are general in nature and not limited to the soft x-ray or extreme ultraviolet spectral domains and also apply to neutrons. 19 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Barbee, T.W. Jr.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

X-ray fluorescence mapping  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biololgical cells, over the measurement of impurities in solar cells, to the rare earth content of geological materials. A somewhat 'typical' layout for a X-ray fluorescence...

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous solution x-ray Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

anhydride), abbreviated as PODMA in aqueous solutions neutralized by cesium hydro... polyelectrolytes by small angle x-ray scattering 4,5,6,7. ION DISTRIBUTION FOR...

229

Cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The appearance of x-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) opens new possibilities to perform molecular imaging by x ray. In the previous XLCT system, the sample was irradiated by a sequence of narrow x-ray beams and the x-ray luminescence was measured by a highly sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. This resulted in a relatively long sampling time and relatively low utilization of the x-ray beam. In this paper, a novel cone beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography strategy is proposed, which can fully utilize the x-ray dose and shorten the scanning time. The imaging model and reconstruction method are described. The validity of the imaging strategy has been studied in this paper. Methods: In the cone beam XLCT system, the cone beam x ray was adopted to illuminate the sample and a highly sensitive CCD camera was utilized to acquire luminescent photons emitted from the sample. Photons scattering in biological tissues makes it an ill-posed problem to reconstruct the 3D distribution of the x-ray luminescent sample in the cone beam XLCT. In order to overcome this issue, the authors used the diffusion approximation model to describe the photon propagation in tissues, and employed the sparse regularization method for reconstruction. An incomplete variables truncated conjugate gradient method and permissible region strategy were used for reconstruction. Meanwhile, traditional x-ray CT imaging could also be performed in this system. The x-ray attenuation effect has been considered in their imaging model, which is helpful in improving the reconstruction accuracy. Results: First, simulation experiments with cylinder phantoms were carried out to illustrate the validity of the proposed compensated method. The experimental results showed that the location error of the compensated algorithm was smaller than that of the uncompensated method. The permissible region strategy was applied and reduced the reconstruction error to less than 2 mm. The robustness and stability were then evaluated from different view numbers, different regularization parameters, different measurement noise levels, and optical parameters mismatch. The reconstruction results showed that the settings had a small effect on the reconstruction. The nonhomogeneous phantom simulation was also carried out to simulate a more complex experimental situation and evaluated their proposed method. Second, the physical cylinder phantom experiments further showed similar results in their prototype XLCT system. With the discussion of the above experiments, it was shown that the proposed method is feasible to the general case and actual experiments. Conclusions: Utilizing numerical simulation and physical experiments, the authors demonstrated the validity of the new cone beam XLCT method. Furthermore, compared with the previous narrow beam XLCT, the cone beam XLCT could more fully utilize the x-ray dose and the scanning time would be shortened greatly. The study of both simulation experiments and physical phantom experiments indicated that the proposed method was feasible to the general case and actual experiments.

Chen Dongmei; Zhu Shouping; Yi Huangjian; Zhang Xianghan; Chen Duofang; Liang Jimin [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Tian Jie [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071 (China); Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Your access to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is approved beginning Sunday, June 20, 2010, for the second week of the Neutron X-ray Scattering School.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Your access to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is approved beginning Sunday, June 20, 2010, Neutron Scattering Science User Office Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL Neutron Scattering School June 20-25, 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee #12;

Pennycook, Steve

231

Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

X-ray shearing interferometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

233

The X-ray background and the evolution of AGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the constraints on the AGN evolution from the cosmic X-ray background and source counts. A synthesis model to fit the X-ray background is presented. In the model, the spectrum of type 2 AGN has been modeled including Compton down--scattering within the absorbing material. Besides, we introduced a dependence on redshift of the relative number of obscured sources and found a decrease of the fraction of type 2 AGN at redshifts larger than 2.

Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca; Giorgio Matt

1999-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

234

Sapphire analyzers for high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) analyzer for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with 31-meV energy resolution. The analyzer is designed for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the CuK{sub a} absorption edge near 8990 eV. The performance of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring phonon excitations in beryllium because of its known dynamical structure and high counting rates.

Yavas, H.; Alp, E.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Said, A.; Shvydko, Y.; Toellner, T.; Khachatryan, R.; Billinge, S.; Hasan, Z.; Sturhahn, W.; Michigan State Univ.; Princeton Univ.; DESY

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

235

X-rays only when you want them: Report on Pseudo-single-bunch...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Room 108A Speaker: David Robin, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Program Description Laser pump - x-ray probe experiments require control over the x-ray pulse pattern and...

236

Atomic holography with electrons and x-rays: Theoretical and experimental studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gabor first proposed holography in 1948 as a means to experimentally record the amplitude and phase of scattered wavefronts, relative to a direct unscattered wave, and to use such a {open_quotes}hologram{close_quotes} to directly image atomic structure. But imaging at atomic resolution has not yet been possible in the way he proposed. Much more recently, Szoeke in 1986 noted that photoexcited atoms can emit photoelectron of fluorescent x-ray wavefronts that are scattered by neighboring atoms, thus yielding the direct and scattered wavefronts as detected in the far field that can then be interpreted as holographic in nature. By now, several algorithms for directly reconstructing three-dimensional atomic images from electron holograms have been proposed (e.g. by Barton) and successfully tested against experiment and theory. Very recently, Tegze and Faigel, and Grog et al. have recorded experimental x-ray fluorescence holograms, and these are found to yield atomic images that are more free of the kinds of aberrations caused by the non-ideal emission or scattering of electrons. The basic principles of these holographic atomic imaging methods are reviewed, including illustrative applications of the reconstruction algorithms to both theoretical and experimental electron and x-ray holograms. The author also discusses the prospects and limitations of these newly emerging atomic structural probes.

Len, P M [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Time-, frequency-, and wavevector-resolved x-ray diffraction from single molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a quantum electrodynamic framework, we calculate the off-resonant scattering of a broadband X-ray pulse from a sample initially prepared in an arbitrary superposition of electronic states. The signal consists of single-particle (incoherent) and two-particle (coherent) contributions that carry different particle form factors that involve different material transitions. Single-molecule experiments involving incoherent scattering are more influenced by inelastic processes compared to bulk measurements. The conditions under which the technique directly measures charge densities (and can be considered as diffraction) as opposed to correlation functions of the charge-density are specified. The results are illustrated with time- and wavevector-resolved signals from a single amino acid molecule (cysteine) following an impulsive excitation by a stimulated X-ray Raman process resonant with the sulfur K-edge. Our theory and simulations can guide future experimental studies on the structures of nano-particles and proteins.

Bennett, Kochise, E-mail: kcbennet@uci.edu; Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang, Yu; Dorfman, Konstantin E.; Mukamel, Shaul, E-mail: smukamel@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Structure of low-density nanoporous dielectrics revealed by low-vacuum electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy to image directly the ligament and pore size and shape distributions of representative aerogels over a wide range of length scales ({approx} 10{sup 0}-10{sup 5} nm). The images are used for unambiguous, real-space interpretation of small-angle scattering data for these complex nanoporous systems.

Kucheyev, S O; Toth, M; Baumann, T F; Hamza, A V; Ilavsky, J; Knowles, W R; Thiel, B L; Tileli, V; van Buuren, T; Wang, Y M; Willey, T M

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

239

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

240

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22 Astrostats X-ray Stacking Tom Aldcroft SAO/CXC #12;X-ray Stacking 2008 analysis for a sample Stacking ­ mean properties of sample Chandra X-ray data (faint point sources) are photon-limited with low background => stacking in X-rays is very effective #12;X-ray Stacking 2008-Apr-22

Wolfe, Patrick J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Refinement of the crystal structure of the high-temperature phase G0 in (NH4)2WO2F4 (powder, x-ray, and neutron scattering)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The (NH4)2WO2F4 compound undergoes a series of phase transitions: G0 -> 201 K -> G1 -> 160 K -> G2, with a significant change in entropy ( S1 ~ Rln10 at the G0 -> G1 transition), which indicates significant orientational disordering in the G0 phase and the order disorder type of the phase transition. X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystal structure of the G0 phase as rhombohedral (sp. gr. Cmcm, Z = 4), determine the lattice parameters and the positions of all atoms (except hydrogen), and show that [WO2F4]2 ions can form a superposition of dynamic and static orientational disorders in the anionic sublattice. A determination of the orientational position of [NH4]+ ions calls for the combined method of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to determine the state of hindered rotation for ammonium ions in the G0 phase. Powder neutron diffraction shows that the orientational disorder of NH4 ions can adequately be described within the free rotation approximation.

Novak, D. M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Smirnov, Lev S [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow, Russia; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Voronin, Vladimir [Institute of Metal Physics, Russia; Berger, I. F. [Institute of Metal Physics, Russia; Laptash, N. M. [Institute of Chemistry, Vladivostok, Russia; Vasil'ev, N. M. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Krasnoyarsk, Russia; Flerov, I. N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Miniature x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Measurement and characterization of x-ray spot size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In planning an x-ray imaging experiment one must have an accurate model of the imaging system to obtain optimum results. The blurring caused by the finite size of the x-ray source is often the least understood element in the system. We have developed experimental and analytical methods permitting accurate measurement and modeling of the x-ray source. The model offers a simple and accurate way to optimize the radiographic geometry for any given experimental requirement (i.e., resolution and dose at detector). Any text on radiography will mention the effects of the finite size of the x-ray source on image quality and how one can minimize this influence by the choice of a small radiographic magnification. The film blur (independent of the source blur) is often treated as a single number and combined with an effective blur dimension for the x-ray source to give a total blur on the film. In this paper, we will develop a treatment of x-ray sources based on the modulation transfer function (MTF). This approach allows us to infer the spatial distribution function of the electron beam that produces the bremsstrahlung x-rays and to predict the performance of an x-ray imaging system if we know the MTF of the detector. This treatment is much more accurate than a single number characterization. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Mueller, K.H.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

Guo, J.-H.

2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Automated high pressure cell for pressure jump x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure cell for small and wide-angle x-ray diffraction measurements of soft condensed matter samples has been developed, incorporating a fully automated pressure generating network. The system allows both static and pressure jump measurements in the range of 0.1-500 MPa. Pressure jumps can be performed as quickly as 5 ms, both with increasing and decreasing pressures. Pressure is generated by a motorized high pressure pump, and the system is controlled remotely via a graphical user interface to allow operation by a broad user base, many of whom may have little previous experience of high pressure technology. Samples are loaded through a dedicated port allowing the x-ray windows to remain in place throughout an experiment; this facilitates accurate subtraction of background scattering. The system has been designed specifically for use at beamline I22 at the Diamond Light Source, United Kingdom, and has been fully integrated with the I22 beamline control systems.

Brooks, Nicholas J.; Gauthe, Beatrice L. L. E.; Templer, Richard H.; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Terrill, Nick J. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rogers, Sarah E. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

Luquot, Linda

247

X-Ray Diagnostics for the Levitated Dipole Jennifer L. Ellsworth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diagnostics for the Levitated Dipole Experiment by Jennifer L. Ellsworth Submitted by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neil E. Todreas? Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;X-Ray DiagnosticsV). As a consequence of these fast electrons, substantial x-ray flux is expected. In the initial run campaign we plan

248

X-Ray Emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: A Short Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth - the three planets having dense atmosphere and a well developed magnetosphere - are known to emit X-rays. Recently, Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed X-rays from these planets, and XMM-Newton has observed them from Jupiter and Saturn. These observations have provided improved morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics of X-rays from these planets. Both auroral and non-auroral (low-latitude) 'disk' X-ray emissions have been observed on Earth and Jupiter. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence for X-ray aurora on Saturn has been observed. The non-auroral disk X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, are mostly produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. X-ray aurora on Earth is mainly generated via bremsstrahlung from precipitating electrons and on Jupiter via charge exchange of highlyionized energetic heavy ions precipitating into the polar atmosphere. Recent unpublished work suggests that at higher (>2 keV) energies electron bremsstrahlung also plays a role in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. This paper summarizes the recent results of X-ray observations on Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth mainly in the soft energy (~0.1-2.0 keV) band and provides a comparative overview.

Anil Bhardwaj

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

Supplemental information I. OPTICAL-LASER AND X-RAY CONFIGURATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supplemental information I. OPTICAL-LASER AND X-RAY CONFIGURATION The experiment used 70 fs x-ray and x-ray pulses was established by the initial decrease in the 111 diffraction peak in a laser pulses at 10 keV from the LCLS in the high-charge (250 pC) mode at 120 Hz. The x-ray beam was focused

Loss, Daniel

250

Self-similarity during growth of the Au/TiO{sub 2}(110) model catalyst as seen by the scattering of x-rays at grazing-angle incidence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of gold nanoparticles on TiO{sub 2}(110) was investigated in situ by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques. The in-plane diffraction showed complex epitaxial relationships with a preferential alignment of dense gold direction along the bridging oxygen rows of TiO{sub 2}(110) ([110]{sub Au} parallel [001]{sub TiO{sub 2}}) with a low lattice mismatch. Whatever the growth temperature (T=300,600 K), two nearly equiproportional epitaxial planes, i.e., (111){sub Au} parallel (110){sub TiO{sub 2}} and (112){sub Au} parallel (110){sub TiO{sub 2}}, were observed. The small angle scattering from the nanoparticles was analyzed using a truncated sphere shape with models [R. Lazzari, F. Leroy, and G. Renaud, Phys. Rev. B 76, 125411 (2007)] that account for (i) multiple scattering effects due to the graded profile of refraction index in the normal direction and (ii) the correlation between the particle spacing and sizes. At the beginning of the growth, gold particles are pinned on defects and grow through a diffusion-limited mechanism. However, coalescence does not occur via a static mechanism. It rather involves surface diffusion of clusters. It proceeds through a self-similar mechanism, not only on the size distribution but also on the spatial ordering. Particle locations, which are no longer controlled by the randomness of nucleation centers, become dominated by the correlation between the particle size and its influence area. A strong link between island height and radius indicates that particles are close to equilibrium. Indeed, the value derived for contact angle (adhesion energy) compares well with tabulated data. In addition, the cluster size before the onset of coalescence compares with that of the gold particles at the maximum of catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO.

Lazzari, Remi; Jupille, Jacques [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universites Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6) et Denis Diderot (Paris 7), CNRS UMR 7588 Campus Boucicaut, 140 Rue de Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France); Renaud, Gilles [Nanostructures et Rayonnement Synchrotron, Service de Physique des Materiaux et Microstructures, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Leroy, Frederic [Centre de Recherche en Matiere Condensee et NanoSciences, CNRS-UPR 7281, Campus de Luminy Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

High resolution x-ray microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using a microspot x-ray tube with a multilayer optic and a 92-element parabolic compound refractive lens (CRL) made of a plastic containing only hydrogen and carbon. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using an area source with a spherical lens and a spherical lens with multilayer condenser. The authors found the best image quality using the multilayer condenser with a parabolic lens, compared to images with a spherical lens and without the multilayer optics. The resolution was measured using a 155-element parabolic CRL and a multilayer condenser with the microspot tube. The experiment demonstrates about 1.1 {mu}m resolution.

Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Lombardo, L. W.; Piestrup, M. A.; Cremer, J. T.; Pantell, R. H.; Dudchik, Y. I. [Adelphi Technology, Inc. 981-B Industrial Road, San Carlos, California 94070 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics Problems, Kurchatova 7, Minsk 220064 (Belarus)

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore be related to the production of X-rays on massive stars. If so, massive stars' X-rays are much different than those found our own Sun and other cooler stars like the Sun that produce X-rays via magnetic activity

Cohen, David

253

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore #12;What is the mechanism by which massive stars produce x-rays? New results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory ­ high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy: measuring Doppler broadening in emission lines Testing

Cohen, David

254

Linear accelerator x-ray sources with high duty cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray cargo inspection systems typically use a several-MV pulsed linear accelerator (linac) to produce a bremsstrahlung spectrum of x rays by bombarding a target with electrons. The x rays traverse the cargo and are detected by a detector array. Spectroscopy of the detected x rays is very desirable: if one can determine the spectrum of the transmitted x rays, one can determine the Z of the material they traversed. Even in relatively low-dose modes of operation, thousands of x rays arrive at each detector element during each pulse, unless the x rays are heavily absorbed or scattered by the cargo. For portal or fixed-site systems, dose rates, and therefore x-ray count rates, are even higher. Because of the high x-ray count rate, spectroscopy is impractical in conventional cargo inspection systems, except in certain special cases. For a mobile system, typical pulse durations are a few microseconds, and the number of pulses is on the order of 100 per second, leading to a duty factor of about 0.04%. Clearly, a linear accelerator x-ray source with much higher duty factor would be useful, since then the same number of x rays could be spread out over time, reducing the x-ray count rate. In this paper, we explore the possibility of designing a linear accelerator system, using more or less Conventional Off the Shelf (COTS) components, capable of duty cycles of 1% or greater. A survey was conducted of available linac RF source options and, given the possibilities, calculations were performed for suitable beam centerline designs. Keeping in mind that the size and cost of the accelerator system should be practical for use in a mobile cargo inspection system, only a few options are shown to be reasonably feasible, both requiring the use of klystrons instead of the magnetrons used in conventional systems. An S-Band design appears clearly possible, and there is also a promising X-Band design.

Condron, Cathie; Brown, Craig; Gozani, Tsahi; Langeveld, Willem G. J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, Inc., 520 Almanor Ave. Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Hernandez, Michael [XScell corp., 2134 Old Middlefield Way, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

255

A high pressure cell for supercritical CO{sub 2} on-line chemical reactions studied with x-ray techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A versatile high pressure X-ray sample cell has been developed for conducting in situ time-resolved X-ray scattering experiments in the pressure and temperature regime required (pressures up to 210 bars and temperatures up to 120 C) for chemical reactions in supercritical fluids. The large exit opening angle of the cell allows simultaneous performance of SAXS-WAXS experiments. Diamond windows are used in order to benefit from the combination of maximum strength, minimal X-ray absorption and chemical inertia. The sample cell can also be utilised for X-ray spectroscopy experiments over a wide range of photon energies. Results of the online synthesis of a block copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate-block-poly(benzyl methacrylate), by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) in a supercritical CO{sub 2} dispersion polymerisation will be discussed. The contribution of the density fluctuations, as function of temperature, to the X-ray scattering signal has been quantified in order to allow appropriate background subtractions.

Hermida-Merino, Daniel; Portale, Giuseppe; Bras, Wim, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.eu, E-mail: Steve.Howdle@nottingham.ac.uk [DUBBLE@ESRF, Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (N.W.O.), CS40220, 38043, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Fields, Peter; Wilson, Richard; Bassett, Simon P.; Jennings, James; Dellar, Martin; Howdle, Steven M., E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.eu, E-mail: Steve.Howdle@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gommes, Cedric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Lige B6A, alle du 6 Aot 3, B-4000 Lige (Belgium); Vrolijk, Benno C. M. [Element Six BV, P.O. Box 119, 5430 AC Cuijk (Netherlands)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

National Ignition Facility core x-ray streak camera  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) core x-ray streak camera will be used for laser performance verification experiments as well as a wide range of physics experiments in the areas of high-energy-density science, inertial confinement fusion, and basic science. The x-ray streak camera system is being designed to record time-dependent x-ray emission from NIF targets using an interchangeable family of snouts for measurements such as one-dimensional (1D) spatial imaging or spectroscopy. the NIF core x-ray streak camera will consist of an x-ray-sensitive photocathode that detects x rays with 1D spatial resolution coupled to an electron streak tube to detect a continuous time history of the x rays incident on the photocathode over selected time periods. A charge-coupled-device (CCD) readout will record the signal from the streak tube. The streak tube, CCD, and associated electronics will reside in an electromagnetic interference, and electromagnetic pulse protected, hermetically sealed, temperature-controlled box whose internal pressure is approximately 1 atm. The streak tube itself will penetrate through the wall of the box into the target chamber vacuum. We are working with a goal of a spatial resolution of 15 lp/mm with 50% contrast transfer function at the photocathode and adjustment sweep intervals of 1--50 ns. The camera spectral sensitivity extends from soft x rays to 20 keV x rays, with varying quantum efficiency based on photocathode selection. The system will have remote control, monitoring, and Ethernet communications through an embedded controller. The core streak camera will be compatible with the instrument manipulators at the OMEGA (University of Rochester) and NIF facilities.

Kimbrough, J. R.; Bell, P. M.; Christianson, G. B.; Lee, F. D.; Kalantar, D. H.; Perry, T. S.; Sewall, N. R.; Wootton, A. J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Solution Structure of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer from Escherichia coli and Its 146 kDa Complex with HPr Using Residual Dipolar Couplings and Small- and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solution structures of free Enzyme I (EI, {approx}128 kDa, 575 x 2 residues), the first enzyme in the bacterial phosphotransferase system, and its complex with HPr ({approx}146 kDa) have been solved using novel methodology that makes use of prior structural knowledge (namely, the structures of the dimeric EIC domain and the isolated EIN domain both free and complexed to HPr), combined with residual dipolar coupling (RDC), small- (SAXS) and wide- (WAXS) angle X-ray scattering and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The calculational strategy employs conjoined rigid body/torsion/Cartesian simulated annealing, and incorporates improvements in calculating and refining against SAXS/WAXS data that take into account complex molecular shapes in the description of the solvent layer resulting in a better representation of the SAXS/WAXS data. The RDC data orient the symmetrically related EIN domains relative to the C{sub 2} symmetry axis of the EIC dimer, while translational, shape, and size information is provided by SAXS/WAXS. The resulting structures are independently validated by SANS. Comparison of the structures of the free EI and the EI-HPr complex with that of the crystal structure of a trapped phosphorylated EI intermediate reveals large ({approx}70-90{sup o}) hinge body rotations of the two subdomains comprising the EIN domain, as well as of the EIN domain relative to the dimeric EIC domain. These large-scale interdomain motions shed light on the structural transitions that accompany the catalytic cycle of EI.

Schwieters, Charles D.; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Grishaev, Alexander; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Takayama, Yuki; Clore, G. Marius (NIH)

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction Studies for Photovoltaic Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Anomalous X-ray Diffraction (AXRD) has become a useful technique in characterizing bulk and nanomaterials as it provides specific information about the crystal structure of materials. In this project we present the results of AXRD applied to materials for photovoltaic applications: ZnO loaded with Ga and ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel. The X-ray diffraction data collected for various energies were plotted in Origin software. The peaks were fitted using different functions including Pseudo Voigt, Gaussian, and Lorentzian. This fitting provided the integrated intensity data (peaks area values), which when plotted as a function of X-ray energies determined the material structure. For the first analyzed sample, Ga was not incorporated into the ZnO crystal structure. For the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel Co was found in one or both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. The use of anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) provides element and site specific information for the crystal structure of a material. This technique lets us correlate the structure to the electronic properties of the materials as it allows us to probe precise locations of cations in the spinel structure. What makes it possible is that in AXRD the diffraction pattern is measured at a number of energies near an X-ray absorption edge of an element of interest. The atomic scattering strength of an element varies near its absorption edge and hence the total intensity of the diffraction peak changes by changing the X-ray energy. Thus AXRD provides element specific structural information. This method can be applied to both crystalline and liquid materials. One of the advantages of AXRD in crystallography experiments is its sensitivity to neighboring elements in the periodic tables. This method is also sensitive to specific crystallographic phases and to a specific site in a phase. The main use of AXRD in this study is for transparent conductors (TCs) analysis. TCs are considered to be important materials because of their efficiency and low risk of environmental pollution. These materials are important to solar cells as a result of their remarkable combination of optical and electrical properties, including high electrical conductivity and high optical transparency in the spectrum of visible light. TCs provide a transparent window, which allows sunlight to pass through while also allowing electricity to conduct out of the cell. Spinel materials have the chemical form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and are made of a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice of oxygen anions and cations in specific interstitial sites. A normal spinel has all A cations on tetrahedral sites and B cations on octahedral sites. In contrast; an inverse spinel has the A and half of the B cations on octahedral sites and the other half of the B cations on tetrahedral sites; a mixed spinel lies between. In the spinel structure, 8 of 64 possible tetrahedral sites and 16 of 32 possible octahedral sites are filled. Normal spinels have particularly high conduction as the linear octahedral chains of B cations likely serve as conduction paths. In this paper we present how the data obtained with AXRD is used to analyze TCs properties as they apply to photovoltaic applications. One of the materials used for this analysis is zinc oxide. It has been loaded with 5% and 10% of Ga, which has an absorption edge of 10367 eV. The peak (100) was measured for the zinc oxide loaded with 10% Ga. In the case of 5% Ga, we measured peaks (100) and (101). With the information provided by the AXRD we can identify if Ga is being incorporated in the ZnO crystal structure. The analysis of 311 plane in the ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel shows if Co is in tetrahedral or octahedral site.

Not Available

2011-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

259

Compact x-ray source and panel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

260

Theory of angular dispersive imaging hard x-ray spectrographs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spectrograph is an optical instrument that disperses photons of different energies into distinct directions and space locations, and images photon spectra on a position-sensitive detector. Spectrographs consist of collimating, angular dispersive, and focusing optical elements. Bragg reflecting crystals arranged in an asymmetric scattering geometry are used as the dispersing elements. A ray-transfer matrix technique is applied to propagate x-rays through the optical elements. Several optical designs of hard x-ray spectrographs are proposed and their performance is analyzed. Spectrographs with an energy resolution of 0.1 meV and a spectral window of imaging up to a few tens of meVs are shown to be feasible for inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy applications. In another example, a spectrograph with a 1-meV spectral resolution and 85-meV spectral window of imaging is considered for Cu K-edge resonant IXS (RIXS).

Shvyd'ko, Yuri

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Ultrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: ultrafast x-rays, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, terawatt lasers, ultrafast reaction dynamics, atomic motion atomic motion by scrutinizing the changes in x- ray absorption spectra during reactions. FirstUltrafast X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy using Laser-Driven Electron X-ray Sources (LEXS) Guangjun

Guo, Ting

262

Quantitative x-ray imager (abstract)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on development of a quantitative x-ray imager (QXI) for the national Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Included in this development is a study of photocathode response as a function of photon energy, 2--17.5 keV, which is related to diagnostic development on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The QXI is defined as being a quantative imager due to the repeated characterization. This instrument is systematically checked out, electronically as well as its photocathode x-ray response, both on a direct current and pulsed x-ray sources, before and after its use on a shot campaign. The QXI is a gated x-ray imager1 used for a variety of experiments conducted in the Inertial Confinement Fusion and Radiation Physics Program. The camera was assembled in Los Alamos and has been under development since 1997 and has now become the workhorse framing camera by the program. The electronics were built by Grant Applied Physics of San Fransisco, CA.2 The QXI has been used at the LANL Trident, LLNL Nova, and University of Rochester Laboratory OMEGA laser facilities. The camera consists of a grated microchannel plate (MCP), a phosphor coated fiberoptic faceplate coupled to film for data readout, along with high speed electronic pulsers to drive the x-ray detector. The QXI has both a two-strip and a four-strip detection head and has the ability to individually bias the gain of each of the strips. The timing of the QXI was done at the Trident short pulse laboratory, using 211 nm light. Single strip jitter was looked at as well and determined to be <25 ps. Flatfielding of the photocathode across the MCP was done with the Trident main laser with 150 J on a gold disk with a 1 ns. Spatial resolution was determined to be <5 {mu}m by using the same laser conditions as before and a backlit 1000 lp/in. grid. The QXI has been used on cylindrical implosion work at the Nova Laser Facility, and on direct-drive cylinder mix and indirect-drive high convergence implosion experiments at OMEGA. Its two-strip module has provided the capability to look at point backlighters, as part of technique development for experiments on the NIF. Its next use will be in March 2000 with its off axis viewer nose at Omega, providing a perpendicular view of Rayleigh--Taylor spike dissipation.

Evans, Scott C.; Archuleta, Tom N.; Oertel, John A.; Walsh, Peter J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

The X-ray Telescope of CAST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Cern Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is in operation and taking data since 2003. The main objective of the CAST experiment is to search for a hypothetical pseudoscalar boson, the axion, which might be produced in the core of the sun. The basic physics process CAST is based on is the time inverted Primakoff effect, by which an axion can be converted into a detectable photon in an external electromagnetic field. The resulting X-ray photons are expected to be thermally distributed between 1 and 7 keV. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a pn-CCD detector combined with a Wolter I type X-ray mirror system. With the X-ray telescope of CAST a background reduction of more than 2 orders off magnitude is achieved, such that for the first time the axion photon coupling constant g_agg can be probed beyond the best astrophysical constraints g_agg < 1 x 10^-10 GeV^-1.

M. Kuster; H. Bruninger; S. Cbrian; M. Davenport; C. Elefteriadis; J. Englhauser; H. Fischer; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; F. H. Heinsius; D. H. H. Hoffmann; G. Hoffmeister; J. N. Joux; D. Kang; K. Knigsmann; R. Kotthaus; T. Papaevangelou; C. Lasseur; A. Lippitsch; G. Lutz; J. Morales; A. Rodrguez; L. Strder; J. Vogel; K. Zioutas

2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

264

Focused X-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

265

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

Jones, Keith W.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Towards hard X-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard X-rays ({approx}> 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and X-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one X-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards X-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are (a) Avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) Microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwiatkowski, Kris K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapustinsky, Jon S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

267

Towards hard x-ray imaging at GHz frame rate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gigahertz (GHz) imaging using hard x-rays ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10 keV) can be useful to high-temperature plasma experiments, as well as research and applications using coherent photons from synchrotron radiation and x-ray free electron lasers. GHz framing rate can be achieved by using multiple cameras through multiplexing. The advantages and trade-offs of single-photon detection mode, when no more than one x-ray photon is detected per pixel, are given. Two possible paths towards x-ray imaging at GHz frame rates using a single camera are: (a) avalanche photodiode arrays of high-Z materials and (b) microchannel plate photomultipliers in conjunction with materials with large indices of refraction.

Wang Zhehui; Morris, C. L.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Luo, S.-N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Gravitational and Relativistic Deflection of X-Ray Superradiance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring Einstein's theories of relativity in quantum systems, for example by using atomic clocks at high speeds can deepen our knowledge in physics. However, many challenges still remain on finding novel methods for detecting effects of gravity and of special relativity and their roles in light-matter interaction. Here we introduce a scheme of x-ray quantum optics that allows for a millimeter scale investigation of the relativistic redshift by directly probing a fixed nuclear crystal in Earth's gravitational field with x-rays. Alternatively, a compact rotating crystal can be used to force interacting x-rays to experience inhomogeneous clock tick rates in a crystal. We find that an association of gravitational or special-relativistic time dilation with quantum interference will be manifested by deflections of x-ray photons. Our protocol suggests a new and feasible tabletop solution for probing effects of gravity and special relativity in the quantum world.

Wen-Te Liao; Sven Ahrens

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

269

Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is 0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi [Toyota Technical Development Corporation, 1-21 Imae, Hanamoto-cho, Toyota, Aichi 470-0334 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshicho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kato, Ryukou [The Institute of Science and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

RYLLA. [X-ray transport code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

Hyde, R.A.

1983-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

272

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

273

Microgap x-ray detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

Wuest, Craig R. (Danville, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Ables, Elden (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

Fridriksson, Joel Karl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

276

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities...

277

Producing X-rays at the APS  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

None

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

278

Phase-sensitive X-ray imager  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

Baker, Kevin Louis

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

279

Neutron Scattering Experiment Automation with Python  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory currently holds the Guinness World Record as the world most powerful pulsed spallation neutron source. Neutrons scattered off atomic nuclei in a sample yield important information about the position, motions, and magnetic properties of atoms in materials. A neutron scattering experiment usually involves sample environment control (temperature, pressure, etc.), mechanical alignment (slits, sample and detector position), magnetic field controllers, neutron velocity selection (choppers) and neutron detectors. The SNS Data Acquisition System (DAS) consists of real-time sub-system (detector read-out with custom electronics, chopper interface), data preprocessing (soft real-time) and a cluster of control and ancillary PCs. The real-time system runs FPGA firmware and programs running on PCs (C++, LabView) typically perform one task such as motor control and communicate via TCP/IP networks. PyDas is a set of Python modules that are used to integrate various components of the SNS DAS system. It enables customized automation of neutron scattering experiments in a rapid and flexible manner. It provides wxPython GUIs for routine experiments as well as IPython command line scripting. Matplotlib and numpy are used for data presentation and simple analysis. We will present an overview of SNS Data Acquisition System and PyDas architectures and implementation along with the examples of use. We will also discuss plans for future development as well as the challenges that have to be met while maintaining PyDas for 20+ different scientific instruments.

Zolnierczuk, Piotr A [ORNL] [ORNL; Riedel, Richard A [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St in hot gas about 250 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/E.Bulbul, et al-Newton has revealed a mysterious X-ray signal in the data. This signal is represented in the circled data

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2/9/07 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 9, 07] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

282

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Wesleyan Univ./R.Kilgard, et al; Optical: NASA with optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (red, green, and blue). The X-ray data reveal hundreds

283

Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cool Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has addressed not only various topics in coronal physics of stars, but has also uncovered important features relevant for our understanding of stellar evolution and the stellar environment. I summarize recent progress in coronal X-ray spectroscopy and in particular also discuss new results from studies of X-rays from pre-main sequence stars.

M. Guedel

2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

285

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Physics Evan Berkowitz Junior, MIT Department of Physics (Dated: October 25, 2006) We measure a variety of phenomena related to X-Ray absorption and production. We present data which conforms within, as are 22 Na electron-positron annhilation lines. The importance of understanding x-rays is demonstrated

286

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St 200 million light years from Earth. (Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/UAH/M.Sun et al; Optical: NASA, ESA, & the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Caption: This composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue

287

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

9/6/09 1 X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Metallobiomolecules The Outskirts of Structural Biology 6, 09] This is a tutorial about the use of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in biology, RG; Eisenberger, P; Kincaid, BM "X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biological Molecules" Annu. Rev

Scott, Robert A.

288

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chandra X-ray Observatory Center Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 USA http://chandra.harvard.edu Four Supernova Remnants: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory's Chandra X-ray Observatory, four newly processed images of supernova remnants dramatically illustrate

289

Spatial resolution of synchrotron x-ray microtomography in high energy range: Effect of x-ray energy and sample-to-detector distance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spatial resolution of three-dimensional images obtained by synchrotron X-ray microtomography technique is evaluated using cyclic bar patterns machined on a steel wire. Influences of X-ray energy and the sample-to-detector distance on spatial resolution were investigated. High X-ray energies of 33-78 keV are applied due to the high X-ray absorption of transition metals. Best spatial resolution of about 1.2 {mu}m pitch was observed at the sample-to-detector distance range of 20-110 mm and at the energy range of 68-78 keV. Several factors such as X-ray scattering and diffraction phenomena affecting the degradation of spatial resolution are also discussed.

Seo, D.; Tomizato, F.; Toda, H.; Kobayashi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Uesugi, K.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

290

X-ray spectroscopy of low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy of neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) using instruments onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). The first ...

Juett, Adrienne Marie, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Extending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the radiation damage. While the radiation damage problem can be mitigated somewhat by using cryogenic techniques resolution without serious radiation damage to the specimens. Although X-ray crystallography becomesExtending The Methodology Of X-ray Crystallography To Allow X-ray Microscopy Without X-ray Optics

Miao, Jianwei "John"

292

X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

P. C. Schmidtke; A. P. Cowley

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

293

X-Ray Diffraction on NIF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently a 192 beam, 1.6 MJ laser. NIF Ramp-Compression Experiments have already made the relevant exo-planet pressure range from 1 to 50 Mbar accessible. We Proposed to Study Carbon Phases by X-Ray Diffraction on NIF. Just a few years ago, ultra-high pressure phase diagrams for materials were very 'simple'. New experiments and theories point out surprising and decidedly complex behavior at the highest pressures considered. High pressures phases of aluminum are also predicted to be complex. Recent metadynamics survey of carbon proposed a dynamic pathway among multiple phases. We need to develop diagnostics and techniques to explore this new regime of highly compressed matter science. X-Ray Diffraction - Understand the phase diagram/EOS/strength/texture of materials to 10's of Mbar. Strategy and physics goals: (1) Powder diffraction; (2) Begin with diamond; (3) Continue with metals etc.; (4) Explore phase diagrams; (5) Develop liquid diffraction; and (6) Reduce background/improve resolution.

Eggert, J H; Wark, J

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

J. R. Peterson; A. C. Fabian

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

295

X-ray transmissive debris shield  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Synchronization of x-ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast x-ray facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted fromOF X-RAY PULSES TO THE PUMP LASER IN AN ULTRAFAST X-RAY

Corlett, J.N.; Barry, W.; Byrd, J.M.; Schoenlein, R.; Zholents, A.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Polarity characterization by anomalous x-ray dispersion of ZnO films and GaN lateral polar structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the use of anomalous x-ray scattering of constituent cations at their absorption edge, in a conventional Bragg-Brentano diffractometer, to measure absolutely and quantitatively the polar orientation and polarity fraction of unipolar and mixed polar wurtzitic crystals. In one set of experiments, the gradual transition between c+ and c? polarity of epitaxial ZnO films on sapphire as a function of MgO buffer layer thickness is monitored quantitatively, while in a second experiment, we map the polarity of a lateral polar homojunction in GaN. The dispersion measurements are compared with piezoforce microscopy images, and we demonstrate how x-ray dispersion and scanning probe methods can provide complementary information that can discriminate between polarity fractions at a material surface and polarity fractions averaged over the film bulk.

Shelton, Christopher T.; Sachet, Edward; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Rajan, Joseph; Collazo, Ramn; Sitar, Zlatko; Maria, Jon-Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

299

X-ray Imaging Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1of EnergyX-ray Computed TomographyImaging

300

X-ray fluorescence mapping  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1of EnergyX-rayNew Materialsray

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

X-Ray Science Education  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption byAbout SRNL Home SRNL main campusMore thanX-Ray Imagingfeed

302

Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

Rhodes, Charles K. (Chicago, IL); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Solem, Johndale C. (Los Alamos, NM); Haddad, Waleed S. (Chicago, IL)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

1990-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

304

Vacuum photodiode detectors for soft x-ray ITER plasma tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A special type of vacuum photodiode detector (VPD) for x-ray tomography of (ITER) plasma is described. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that VPD has high sensitivity to thermal x-rays and low sensitivity to hard gamma rays and neutrons. It was shown that in ITER environment the signal due to thermal x-rays will surpass the background signal by more than a factor of 100.

Gott, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, M.M. [RRC, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatov sq.1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Controlling X-rays With Light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

2010-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

306

X-ray Observations of Mrk 231  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

T. J. Turner

1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

307

Techniques for synchronization of X-Ray pulses to the pump laser in an ultrafast X-Ray facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synchronization of ultrafast x-ray pulses produced in theAccurate timing of ultrafast x-ray probe pulses emitted fromOF X-RAY PULSES TO THE PUMP LASER IN AN ULTRAFAST X-RAY

Corlett, J.N.; Doolittle, L.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA /SLAC; ,

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hard x-ray imaging from explorer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coded aperture X-ray detectors were applied to obtain large increases in sensitivity as well as angular resolution. A hard X-ray coded aperture detector concept is described which enables very high sensitivity studies persistent hard X-ray sources and gamma ray bursts. Coded aperture imaging is employed so that approx. 2 min source locations can be derived within a 3 deg field of view. Gamma bursts were located initially to within approx. 2 deg and X-ray/hard X-ray spectra and timing, as well as precise locations, derived for possible burst afterglow emission. It is suggested that hard X-ray imaging should be conducted from an Explorer mission where long exposure times are possible.

Grindlay, J.E.; Murray, S.S.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Analysis of the optical design of the NSLS-II Coherent Hard X-ray beamline  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultra-low emittance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the NSLS-II offer excellent opportunities for the development of experimental techniques exploiting x-ray coherence. Coherent light scattered by a heterogeneous sample produces a speckle pattern characteristic for the specific arrangement of the scatterers. This may vary over time, and the resultant intensity fluctuations can be measured and analyzed to provide information about the sample dynamics. X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) extends the capability of dynamic light scattering to opaque and turbid samples and extends the measurements of time evolution to nanometer length scales. As a consequence XPCS became crucial in the study of dynamics in systems including, but not being limited to, colloids, polymers, complex fluids, surfaces and interfaces, phase ordering alloys, etc. In this paper we present the conceptual optical design and the theoretical performance of the Coherent Hard X-ray (CHX) beamline at NSLS-II, dedicated to XPCS and other coherent scattering techniques. For the optical design of this beamline, there is a tradeoff between the coherence needed to distinguish individual speckles and the phase acceptance (high intensity) required to measure fast dynamics with an adequate signal-to-noise level. As XPCS is a 'photon hungry' technique, the beamline optimization requires maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured intensity-intensity autocorrelation function. The degree of coherence, as measured by a two-slit (Young) experiment, is used to characterize the speckle pattern visibilities. The beamline optimization strategy consists of maximization of the on-sample intensity while keeping the degree of coherence within the 0.1-0.5 range. The resulted design deviates substantially from an ad-hoc modification of a hard x-ray beamline for XPCS measurements. The CHX beamline will permit studies of complex systems and measurements of bulk dynamics down to the microsecond time scales. In general, the 10-fold increase in brightness of the NSLS-II, compared to other sources, will allow for measurements of dynamics on time-scales that are two orders of magnitude faster than what is currently possible. We also conclude that the common approximations used in evaluating the transverse coherence length would not be sufficiently accurate for the calculation of the coherent properties of an undulator-based beamline, and a thorough beamline optimization at a low-emittance source such as the NSLS-II requires a realistic wave-front propagation analysis.

Fluerasu A.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Baltser, J.; Wiegart, Lutz; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Carlucci-Dayton, M.; Berman, L.

2011-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

311

X-ray laser frequency near-doubling and generation of tunable coherent x rays in plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray laser frequency near-doubling and generation of tunable coherent x rays in plasma P. L plasmas in which efficient x-ray laser frequency near-doubling is expected for a number of available x-ray of coherent x rays and tunable optical radiation may result in tunable coherent x-ray radiation powerful

Kaplan, Alexander

312

A Java-based Science Portal for Neutron Scattering Experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Java-based Science Portal for Neutron Scattering Experiments Sudharshan S. Vazhkudai James A scattering facility recently commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The neutron beam produced (SNS) [14] is a large-scale leading- edge neutron scattering facility that hopes to fundamen- tally

Vazhkudai, Sudharshan

313

Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

Schrapp, Michael J. [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Physik Department E21, Technische Universitt Mnchen, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Goldammer, Matthias [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Schulz, Michael [Physik Department E21, Technische Universitt Mnchen, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universitt Mnchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Bangalore (India); Bni, Peter [Physik Department E21, Technische Universitt Mnchen, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

High speed x-ray beam chopper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

McPherson, Armon (Oswego, IL); Mills, Dennis M. (Naperville, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

X-ray populations in galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today's sensistive, high resolution Chandra X-ray observations allow the study of many populations of X-ray sources. The traditional astronomical tools of photometric diagrams and luminosity functions are now applied to these populations, and provide the means for classifying the X-ray sources and probing their evolution. While overall stellar mass drives the amount of X-ray binaries in old stellar population, the amount of sources in star-forming galaxies is related to the star formation rate. Shart-lived, luminous, high mass binaries (HNXBs) dominate these young populations.

G. Fabbiano

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

316

X-RAY MICROBEAM SPEECH PRODUCTION DATABASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-RAY MICROBEAM SPEECH PRODUCTION DATABASE USER'S HANDBOOK Version 1.0 (June 1994) prepared by John . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter Two: XRMB History

317

X-ray laser microscope apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Compound refractive X-ray lens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA); Cahn, Robert (Walnut Creek, CA); Cederstrom, Bjorn (Traellborg, SE); Danielsson, Mats (Stocksund, SE); Vestlund, Jonas (Stockholm, SE)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

X-Ray Science Division (XSD)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Science Division (XSD) Search Button About Welcome Overview Visiting the APS Mission & Goals Find People Organization Charts Committees Job Openings User Information...

320

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy under flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy was used to probe the diffusive dynamics of colloidal particles in a shear flow. Combining X-ray techniques with microfluidics is an experimental strategy that reduces the risk of x-ray induced beam damage and also allows time-resolved studies of processes taking place in flowcells. The experimental results and theoretical predictions presented here, show that in the low shear limit, for a ``transverse flow'' scattering geometry (scattering wave vector q perpendicular to the direction of flow) the measured relaxation times are independent of the flow rate and determined only by the diffusive motion of the particles. This is not generally valid and in particular, for a ``longitudinal flow'' (q || flow) scattering geometry, the relaxation times are strongly affected by the flow-induced motion of the particles. Our results show that the Brownian diffusion of colloidal particles can be measured in a flowing sample and that, up to flux limitations, the experimental conditions under which this is possible are easier to achieve at higher values of q.

Andrei Fluerasu; Abdellatif Moussaid; Henri Gleyzolle; Peter Falus; Anders Madsen

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (?75?nm and ?155?nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6?eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500?eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg K? (1253.6?eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha, E-mail: s.kulkarni@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Sarkar, Indranil [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Shirolkar, Mandar M. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Science Park, Hsinchu 3007-6, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

322

X-ray spectroscopy of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I present work spanning a variety of topics relating to neutron star lowmass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and utilize spectral information from X-ray observations to further our understanding of these sources. ...

Krauss, Miriam Ilana

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Ultraluminous X-ray Sources: The most extreme X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Ultraluminous X-ray Sources: The most extreme X-ray binaries Luca Zampieri INAF ULXs ­ Lubiana ­ May 11, 2012- LZ #12;6 · X-ray observations of nearby galaxies show a population of pointlike, off-nuclear sources with L >> Ledd for 1 Msun (L>1.0e39 erg/s) UltraLuminous X-ray Sources (e

?umer, Slobodan

324

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) · 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction · 2.0 Basics of Crystallography · 3.0 Production of X-rays · 4.0 Applications of XRD · 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error · 6.0 Conclusions #12 why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (theta

Moeck, Peter

325

Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High-Harmonic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 7 Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High science have made it possible to generate x-ray pulses at the femto- and attosecond frontiers using either-ray pulses paves the way for a completely new generation of experiments that can capture the coupled dynamics

Aeschlimann, Martin

327

Tunable coherent radiation at soft X-ray wavelengths: Generation and interferometric applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The availability of high power, spectrally and spatially coherent soft x-rays (SXR) would facilitate a wide variety of experiments as this energy region covers the primary resonances of many magnetic and biological materials. Specifically, there are the carbon and oxygen K-edges that are critical for biological imaging in the water window and the L-edges of iron, nickel, and cobalt for which imaging and scattering studies can be performed. A new coherent soft X-ray branchline at the Advanced Light Source has begun operation (beamline 12.0.2). Using the third harmonic from an 8 cm period undulator, this branch delivers coherent soft x-rays with photon energies ranging from 200eV to 1keV. This branchline is composed of two sub-branches one at 14X demagnification and the other 8X demagnification. The former is optimized for use at 500eV and the latter at 800eV. Here the expected power from the third harmonic of this undulator and the beamline design and characterization is presented. The characterization includes measurements on available photon flux as well as a series of double pinhole experiments to determine the coherence factor with respect to transverse distance. The first high quality Airy patterns at SXR wavelengths are created with this new beamline. The operation of this new beamline allows for interferometry to be performed in the SXR region. Here an interferometric experiment designed to directly determine the index of refraction of a material under test is performed. Measurements are first made in the EUV region using an established beamline (beamline12.0.1) to measure silicon, ruthenium and tantalum silicon nitride. This work is then extended to the SXR region using beamline 12.0.2 to test chromium and vanadium.

Rosfjord, Kristine Marie

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

X-ray source populations in galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Today's sensitive, high-resolution X-ray observations allow the study of populations of X-ray sources, in the luminosity range of Galactic X-ray binaries, in galaxies as distant as 20-30 Mpc. The traditional astronomical tools of photometric diagrams and luminosity functions are now applied to these populations, providing a direct probe of the evolved binary component of different stellar populations. The study of the X-ray populations of E and S0 galaxies has revamped the debate on the formation and evolution of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and on the role of globular clusters in these processes. While overall stellar mass drives the amount of X-ray binaries in old stellar populations, the amount of sources in star forming galaxies is related to the star formation rate. Short-lived, luminous, high-mass binaries (HMXBs) dominate these young populations. The most luminous sources in these systems are the debated ULXs, which have been suggested to be ~100-1000 Msol black holes, but could alternatively include a number of binaries with stellar mass black holes. Very soft sources have also been discovered in many galaxies and their nature is currently being debated. Observations of the deep X-ray sky, and comparison with deep optical surveys, are providing the first evidence of the X-ray evolution of galaxies.

G. Fabbiano

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

329

Aneta Siemiginowska Chandra X-ray Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray and gamma-ray · High Energy Sky · Chandra X-ray Observatory · examples of typical X-ray data, · an example of a data analysis process · statistical challenges · what do we learn from the data? #12;What is Astronomy and phenomena do we study and how? Solar System: Sun and sollar wind, planets, moons, asteroids, comets Our

Wolfe, Patrick J.

330

Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

Erin Miller

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nuclear surface studies with antiprotonic atom X-rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent and older level shifts and widths in pbar atoms are analyzed. The results are fitted by an antiproton-nucleus optical potential with two basic complex strength parameters. These parameters are related to average S and P wave scattering parameters in the subthreshold energy region. A fair consistency of the X-ray data for all Z values, stopping pbar data and the Nbar-N scattering data has been achieved. The determination of neutron density profiles at the nuclear surface is undertaken, and the determination of the neutron R_{rms} radii is attempted. Uncertainties due to the input data and the procedure are discussed.

Wycech, S; Jastrzebski, J J; Klos, B; Trzcinska, A; Von Egidy, T

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

2007-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

335

Optimized Volumetric Scanning for X-Ray Array Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) is the science and technology of determining non-invasively the internal structure of manufactured parts, objects, and materials. NDE application areas include medicine, industrial manufacturing, military, homeland security, and airport luggage screening. X-ray measurement systems are most widely used because of their ability to image through a wide range of material densities (from human tissue in medical applications to the dense materials of weapon components). Traditional x-ray systems involve a single source and detector system that rotate and/or translate about the object under evaluation. At each angular location, the source projects x-rays through the object. The rays undergo attenuation proportional to the density of the object's constitutive material. The detector records a measure of the attenuation. Mathematical algorithms are used to invert the forward attenuated ray projection process to form images of the object. This is known as computed tomography (CT). In recent years, the single-source x-ray NDE systems have been generalized to arrays of x-ray sources. Array sources permit multiple views of the object with fewer rotations and translations of the source/detector system. The spatially diverse nature of x-ray array sources has the potential of reducing data collection time, reducing imaging artifacts, and increasing the resolution of the resultant images. Most of the existing CT algorithms were not derived from array source models with a spatially diverse set of viewing perspectives. Single-source x-ray CT data collection, processing, and imaging methods and algorithms are not applicable when the source location is expanded from one dimension (a rotating and/or translating point source) to two (a rotating and/or translating array). They must be reformulated. The goal of this project is to determine the applicability of x-ray array sources to problems of interest to LLNL and its customers. It is believed array source data collection will be faster while yielding higher resolution reconstructions with fewer artifacts. There are three tasks in the research: (1) Develop forward array source analytic and computational models; (2) Research and develop array source reconstruction algorithms; and (3) Perform experiments.

Lehman, S K; Foudray, A M; Wang, A; Kallman, J S; Martz, H

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the cubic and hexagonal polytypes of zinc sulfide B. Gilbert,1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the cubic and hexagonal polytypes of zinc sulfide B. Gilbert,1 Received 18 June 2002; published 26 December 2002 We investigate the sensitivity of x-ray absorption. Experimental spectra and multiple-scattering calculations are reported at the major absorption edges

Haskel, Daniel

337

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Practicals Series 1 Advanced Data Reduction Instructor J. Reibenspies, Ph. D. Nattamai Bhuvanesh, Ph.D. Version 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 2 #12;X-ray Practicals Series 3 #12;X-ray is good. The y direction is shifting the most, but the shift is ok #12;X-ray Practicals Series 5 Other

Meagher, Mary

338

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

1992-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

339

Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Diffraction The X-Ray Diffraction facility is equipped with state-of-the-art diffractometers offering both single crystal and powder X-Ray diffraction. Powder X-Ray Diffraction High resolution data For more details on powder X-Ray analysis contact Dr J Hriljac on 0121 414 4458 or email: j

Birmingham, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Novel X-Ray Imaging Opportunities for the RPI Linear Accelerator's Tunable, Quasi-monochromatic X-ray Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Novel X-Ray Imaging Opportunities for the RPI Linear Accelerator's Tunable, Quasi-monochromatic X-ray of an intense, tunable, polarized, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source has been ongoing at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute since 2001 [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. This X-ray source, known as Parametric X-rays (PXR

Danon, Yaron

342

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

X-Ray Physics in Confinement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun1of Energy WorldwideX-RayX-RayX-Ray

344

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Biologically Relevant Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

308, Messer, B. M. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of AqueousSarcosine via X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy 5.1 Introductionwith Carboxylate by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Liquid

Uejio, Janel Sunayo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

346

X-ray grid-detector apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

347

X-ray source for mammography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

X-ray induced optical reflectivity  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

Durbin, Stephen M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

350

X-ray source for mammography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

Logan, C.M.

1994-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell...

352

Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for a Berea Sandstone: Resolution Effect. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for...

353

Indus-2 X-ray lithography beamline for X-ray optics and material science applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray lithography is an ideal technique by which high aspect ratio and high spatial resolution micro/nano structures are fabricated using X-rays from synchrotron radiation source. The technique has been used for fabricating optics (X-ray, visible and infrared), sensors and actuators, fluidics and photonics. A beamline for X-ray lithography is operational on Indus-2. The beamline offers wide lithographic window from 1-40keV photon energy and wide beam for producing microstructures in polymers upto size ?100mm 100mm. X-ray exposures are possible in air, vacuum and He gas environment. The air based exposures enables the X-ray irradiation of resist for lithography and also irradiation of biological and liquid samples.

Dhamgaye, V. P., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: vishal@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

354

X-ray views of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A neutron star low-mass X-ray binary is a binary stellar system with a neutron star and a low-mass companion star rotating around each other. In this system the neutron star accretes mass from the companion, and as this matter falls into the deep potential well of the neutron star, the gravitational potential energy is released primarily in the X-ray wavelengths. Such a source was first discovered in X-rays in 1962, and this discovery formally gave birth to the "X-ray astronomy". In the subsequent decades, our knowledge of these sources has increased enormously by the observations with several X-ray space missions. Here we give a brief overview of our current understanding of the X-ray observational aspects of these systems.

Sudip Bhattacharyya

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

X-Ray Observations of Radio Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review some of the ways that X-ray observations provide unique information on radio galaxies. Thermal bremsstrahlung X-ray emission provides detailed data on ambient densities and temperatures. These parameters in turn can be used for pressure balance calculations and can demonstrate how the ambient gas affects radio source structure. Additionally, many signatures of the interaction of radio jets and lobes with the hot gas are found in high resolution X-ray maps. Non-thermal X-ray emission from knots and hotspots of radio jets can give us constraints on the relativistic electron population for energies greater that that normally sampled in the radio (in the case of synchrotron emission) or can give us an independent estimate of the average magnetic field strength (if inverse Compton emission is the origin of the X-rays). From recent ROSAT HRI observations of 3C 390.3 and 3C 120, we show evidence that X-ray emission from knots and hotspots appears to be associated with regions of large gradients in the radio surface brightness; i.e. at the location of powerful shocks.

D. E. Harris

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

X-ray Emission Processes in Radio Jets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The emission processes responsible for the observed X-rays from radio jets are commonly believed to be non-thermal, but in any particular case, it is unclear if synchrotron emission or one or more varieties of inverse Compton emission predominates. We present a formulation of inverse Compton emission from a relativistically moving jet (``IC/beaming'') which relies on radio emitting synchrotron sources for which the energy densities in particles and fields are comparable. We include the non-isotropic nature of inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on photons of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and provide beaming parameters for a number of jets. A list of X-ray emitting jets is given and the jets are classified on the basis of their morphology and spectral energy distribution to determine their likely emission process. We conclude that these jets have significant bulk relativistic velocities on kpc scales; that higher redshift sources require less beaming because the energy density of the CMB is significantly greater than locally; and that for some nearby sources, synchrotron X-ray emission predominates because the jet makes a large angle to the line of sight.

D. E. Harris; H. Krawczynski

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy Beamline at SSRF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commissioning of the soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beanmline at SSRF was formally started on Dec 26, 2008. Beamline performance has reached or surpassed the designing goals according to the measurements by domestic experts, especially for its high energy resolution and high spatial resolution. Since its first operation by users on May 6, 2009, tens of experiments have been conducted, and some preliminary exciting results have been acquired.

Guo, Z.; Tai, R.; Wand, Y.; Yan, R.; Chen, M.; Wu, Y.; Chen, J.; Xue, S.; Xu, H. [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Appled Physics, CAS 239 Zhang Heng Road, Pudong District, Shanghai (China)

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

358

High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.

Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Characteristic x-ray emission from undermines plasmas irradiated by ultra-intense lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between FY09 and FY11 we have conducted more than a dozen three-week experimental campaigns at high-power laser facilities around the world to investigate laser-channeling through x-ray and optical imaging and the conversion from laser-energy to xrays. We have performed simultaneous two-wavelength x-ray imaging (K-alpha and He-alpha) to distinguish the hot-plasma region (hot-spot) from the laser-produced electrons (K-alpha). In addition, we have initiated a new collaboration with SNL and have performed first shots on the 100 TW beamlet chamber to commission a fast x-ray streak camera to be used to investigate the temporal evolution of our K-alpha sources. We also collaborated on campaigns at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) and the LANL Trident laser to employ laser produced x-ray sources for Thomson scattering off dense matter.

Niemann, Christoph

2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

360

Projections of local atomic structure revealed by wavelet analysis of x-ray absorption anisotropy P. Korecki,1,* D. V. Novikov,2 and M. Tolkiehn2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projections of local atomic structure revealed by wavelet analysis of x-ray absorption anisotropy P x-ray field amplitude at the sites of absorbing atoms and effectively changes the atomic absorption in an experiment a wavelet transform approach for analysis of x-ray absorption anisotropy XAA patterns recorded

Korecki, Pawe³

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

X-Ray Measurements Of A Thermo Scientific P385 DD Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is experimenting with electrical neutron generators, as potential replacements for californium-252 radioisotopic neutron sources in its PINS prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) system for the identification of military chemical warfare agents and explosives. In addition to neutron output, we have recently measured the x-ray output of the Thermo Scientific P385 deuterium-deuterium neutron generator. X rays are a normal byproduct from neutron generators, but depending on their intensity and energy, x rays can interfere with gamma rays from the object under test, increase gamma-spectrometer dead time, and reduce PGNAA system throughput. The P385 x-ray energy spectrum was measured with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and a broad peak is evident at about 70 keV. To identify the source of the x rays within the neutron generator assembly, it was scanned by collimated scintillation detectors along its long axis. At the strongest x-ray emission points, the generator also was rotated 60 deg. between measurements. The scans show the primary source of x-ray emission from the P385 neutron generator is an area 60 mm from the neutron production target, in the vicinity of the ion source. Rotation of the neutron generator did not significantly alter the x-ray count rate, and its x-ray emission appears to be axially symmetric. A thin lead shield, 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) thick, reduced the 70-keV generator x rays to negligible levels.

Wharton, C. J.; Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Caffrey, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 N. Freemont Avenue, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Simpson, J.; Lemchak, M. [Thermo-Fisher Scientific/MF Physics, 5074 List Drive, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80919 (United States)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A theoretical analysis of reflection of X-rays from water at energies relevant for diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflection of X-rays from a semi-infinite water target, for energies used in X-ray diagnostics, is treated by the analog Monte Carlo simulation. In the developed procedure it was possible to calculate separately contributions of photons scattered, before reflection, fixed number of times with target electrons. It turned out that multiple collision type of reflection dominates at all energies investigated, whenever the absorption is small. The same process was also treated analytically as the classical albedo problem for isotropic scattering without energy loss. Very good agreement of results of the two approaches is obtained.

Arsenovic, Dusan [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, P.O. Box 57, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Davidovic, Dragomir M.; Vukanic, Jovan [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O Box 522, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

363

Earth X-ray albedo for cosmic X-ray background radiation in the 1--1000 keV band  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present calculations of the reflection of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) by the Earth's atmosphere in the 1--1000 keV energy range. The calculations include Compton scattering and X-ray fluorescent emission and are based on a realistic chemical composition of the atmosphere. Such calculations are relevant for CXB studies using the Earth as an obscuring screen (as was recently done by INTEGRAL). The Earth's reflectivity is further compared with that of the Sun and the Moon -- the two other objects in the Solar system subtending a large solid angle on the sky, as needed for CXB studies.

E. Churazov; S. Sazonov; R. Sunyaev; M. Revnivtsev

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

364

Water Window Ptychographic Imaging with Characterized Coherent X-rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on a ptychographical coherent diffractive imaging experiment in the water window with focused soft X-rays at $500~\\mathrm{eV}$. An X-ray beam with high degree of coherence was selected for ptychography at the P04 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron radiation source. We measured the beam coherence with the newly developed non-redundant array method. A pinhole $2.6~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ in size selected the coherent part of the beam and was used for ptychographic measurements of a lithographically manufactured test sample and fossil diatom. The achieved resolution was $53~\\mathrm{nm}$ for the test sample and only limited by the size of the detector. The diatom was imaged at a resolution better than $90~\\mathrm{nm}$.

Rose, Max; Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Gorobtsov, Oleg; Senkbeil, Tobias; von Gundlach, Andreas; Gorniak, Thomas; Shabalin, Anatoly; Viefhaus, Jens; Rosenhahn, Axel; Vartanyants, Ivan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A New Measurement of Kaonic Hydrogen X rays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The $\\bar{K}N$ system at threshold is a sensitive testing ground for low energy QCD, especially for the explicit chiral symmetry breaking. Therefore, we have measured the $K$-series x rays of kaonic hydrogen atoms at the DA$\\Phi$NE electron-positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, and have determined the most precise values of the strong-interaction energy-level shift and width of the $1s$ atomic state. As x-ray detectors, we used large-area silicon drift detectors having excellent energy and timing resolution, which were developed especially for the SIDDHARTA experiment. The shift and width were determined to be $\\epsilon_{1s} = -283 \\pm 36 \\pm 6 {(syst)}$ eV and $\\Gamma_{1s} = 541 \\pm 89 {(stat)} \\pm 22 {(syst)}$ eV, respectively. The new values will provide vital constraints on the theoretical description of the low-energy $\\bar{K}N$ interaction.

M. Bazzi; G. Beer; L. Bombelli; A. M. Bragadireanu; M. Cargnelli; G. Corradi; C. Curceanu; A. d'Uffizi; C. Fiorini; T. Frizzi; F. Ghio; B. Girolami; C. Guaraldo; R. S. Hayano; M. Iliescu; T. Ishiwatari; M. Iwasaki; P. Kienle; P. Levi Sandri; A. Longoni; V. Lucherini; J. Marton; S. Okada; D. Pietreanu; T. Ponta; A. Rizzo; A. Romero Vidal; A. Scordo; H. Shi; D. L. Sirghi; F. Sirghi; H. Tatsuno; A. Tudorache; V. Tudorache; O. Vazquez Doce; E. Widmann; J. Zmeskal

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

366

Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass- radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

Tod E. Strohmayer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Oscillations During Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High amplitude, nearly coherent X-ray brightness oscillations during thermonuclear X-ray bursts were discovered with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in early 1996. Spectral and timing evidence strongly supports the conclusion that these oscillations are caused by rotational modulation of the burst emission and that they reveal the spin frequency of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries, a long sought goal of X-ray astronomy. Studies carried out over the past year have led to the discovery of burst oscillations in four new sources, bringing to ten the number with confirmed burst oscillations. I review the status of our knowledge of these oscillations and indicate how they can be used to probe the physics of neutron stars. For a few burst oscillation sources it has been proposed that the strongest and most ubiquitous frequency is actually the first overtone of the spin frequency and hence that two nearly antipodal hot spots are present on the neutron star. This inference has important implications for both the physics of thermonuclear burning as well as the mass - radius relation for neutron stars, so its confirmation is crucial. I discuss recent attempts to confirm this hypothesis for 4U 1636-53, the source for which a signal at the putative fundamental (290 Hz) has been claimed.

Tod E. Strohmayer

2001-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

368

X-ray lithography using holographic images  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

372

X-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336342  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Chicago, IL 60637, USA 3 Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source and School of Applied and EngineeringX-RAY SPECTROMETRY X-Ray Spectrom. 2007; 36: 336­342 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www to establish a breakthrough in high-resolution, simultaneous area mapping of multiple trace elements

Limburg, Karin E.

373

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In Operando X-ray Diffraction and Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Lithium Sulfur Batteries Johanna Information ABSTRACT: Rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great potential for high of these batteries for commercial use. The two primary obstacles are the solubility of long chain lithium

Cui, Yi

374

Predicted X-ray backgrounds for the International X-ray Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The background that will be observed by IXO's X-ray detectors naturally separates into two components: (1) a Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB), primarily due to unresolved point sources at high energies (E>2 keV), along with ...

Bautz, Marshall W.

375

Virtual experiments: Combining realistic neutron scattering instrument and sample simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new sample component is presented for the Monte Carlo, ray-tracing program, McStas, which is widely used to simulate neutron scattering instruments. The new component allows the sample to be described by its material dynamic structure factor, which is separated into coherent and incoherent contributions. The effects of absorption and multiple scattering are treated and results from simulations and previous experiments are compared. The sample component can also be used to treat any scattering material which may be close to the sample and therefore contaminates the total, measured signal.

Farhi, E. [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: farhi@ill.fr; Hugouvieux, V. [INRA, UR1268 Biopolymeres Interactions Assemblages, F-44300 Nantes (France); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kob, W. [Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, Universite Montpellier II, place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Itinerant and localized magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 2}CoGa thin films identified with x-ray magnetic linear dichroism: experiment and ab initio theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial thin films of the half-metallic X{sub a}-compound Mn{sub 2}CoGa (Hg{sub 2}CuTi prototype) were prepared by dc magnetron co-sputtering with different heat treatments on MgO (001) substrates. High-quality #12;lms with a bulk magnetization of 1.95(5) {mu}{sub #22;}B per unit cell were obtained. The average Mn magnetic moment and the Co moment are parallel, in agreement with theory. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra agree with calculations based on density functional theory and reveal the antiparallel alignment of the two inequivalent Mn moments. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism allows to distinguish between itinerant and localized Mn moments. It is shown that one of the two Mn moments has localized character, whereas the other Mn moment and the Co moment are itinerant.

Meinert, M.; Schmalhorst, J; Klewe, C.; Reiss, G.; Arenholz, E.; Bohnert, T.; Nielsch, K.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

377

X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

Ocko, B.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

X-ray variability in M87  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the evidence for X-ray variability from the core and from knot A in the M87 jet based on data from two observations with the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Imager (HRI) and three observations with the ROSAT HRI. The core intensity showed a 16% increase in 17 months ('79-'80); a 12% increase in the 3 years '92 to '95; and a 17% drop in the last half of 1995. The intensity of knot A appears to have decreased by 16% between 92Jun and 95Dec. Although the core variability is consistent with general expectations for AGN nuclei, the changes in knot A provide constraints on the x-ray emission process and geometry. Thus we predict that the x-ray morphology of knot A will differ significantly from the radio and optical structure.

D. E. Harris; J. A. Biretta; W. Junor

1996-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

379

The X-ray/submillimetre link  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is widely believed that most of the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) is produced by a vast, hitherto undetected population of obscured AGN. Deep X-ray surveys with Chandra and XMM will soon test this hypothesis. Similarly, recent sub-mm surveys with SCUBA have revealed an analogous population of exceptionally luminous, dust-enshrouded {\\em star-forming} galaxies at high redshift. There is now growing evidence for an intimate link between these obscured populations. There are currently large uncertainties in the models, but several independent arguments lead to the conclusion that a significant fraction of the SCUBA sources ($10-30% $) will contain quasars. Recent observational studies of SCUBA survey sources appear to confirm these predictions, although the relative roles of AGN and star-forming activity in heating the dust are unclear. Forthcoming surveys combining X-ray and sub-mm observations will provide a very powerful tool for disentangling these processes.

O. Almaini

2000-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

X-ray atlas of rheumatic diseases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This atlas comprises instructive X-rays of the various inflammatory rheumatic joint diseases in all stages at the extremities and the spinal column. In addition, the complex pattern of the wide range of arthroses, also known as degenerative rheumatic disease is included. Besides the instructive pointers to X-ray diagnosis, the book is also a guide to differential diagnosis. Hence, this book is actually an X-ray atlas of joint diseases in general. Selected Contents: Introduction: What Does ''Rheumatism'' Actually Mean./Radiographic Methodology in Rheumatic Diseases of the Locomotor System/The Mosaic of Arthritis/Adult Rheumatoid Arthritis/Seronegative Spondylarthritis/Classic Collagen Diseases/Enthesiopathies/Gout-Pseudogout

Dihlmann, W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

Gilbert, Hubert W. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1985-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland) [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S. [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States)] [DxRay, Inc., Northridge, California 91324 (United States); Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F. [UCSF Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)] [UCSF Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

383

Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout.

Lyons, P.B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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386

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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387

X-ray Computed Tomography | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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388

What can we learn about extragalactic radio jets from X-ray data?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the current status of resolved X-ray emission associated with extragalactic radio jets and hotspots. The primary question for any particular jet is to decide if the X-rays come from the synchrotron process or from inverse Compton scattering. There is considerable evidence supporting synchrotron emission for knots in the jets of FRI galaxies. For FRII terminal hotspots detected in the X-ray band, synchrotron self-Compton emission continues to provide viable models with one possible exception (so far). Inverse Compton scattering on photons of the cosmic microwave background is indicated for a few powerful jets, and is expected to be an important contributor if not the dominating mechanism for higher redshift objects. The application of a model generally yields physical parameters and in many cases, these include the Doppler boosting factor.

D. E. Harris

2003-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

389

High-energy radiation visualizer (HERV): A new system for imaging in x-ray and gamma-ray emission regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors present a description and results of the operation for {gamma}-ray and X-ray objects for the compact visualization system high-energy radiation visualizer (HERV). The imaging in this system is based on use of a conical collimator, scintillator plate, and image intensifier as a detector and CCD matrix as a readout device. The use of HERV as a two-dimensional X-ray image visualizer for the Compton scatter inspection system was considered and first results are discussed. The possibility of using different hexagonal-coded apertures imaging for HERV is discussed and results of Monte Carlo simulation and experiments with optical analog of coded aperture are presented.

Sudarkin, A.N.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkovich, A.G.; Turin, A.S.; Danilovich, A.S.; Rybakov, D.D.; Urutskoev, L.I. [RECOM Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)] [RECOM Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

391

X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

Grush, M.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Science; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

393

Catalog of supersoft X-ray sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This catalog comprises an up-to-date (December 1999) list of luminous (>10^36 erg/s), binary supersoft X-ray sources. This electronic version (including the accompannying Web-pages) supersedes the printed version of Greiner (1996).

J. Greiner

2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

394

Constraints on new interactions from neutron scattering experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Constraints for the constants of hypothetical Yukawa-type corrections to the Newtonian gravitational potential are obtained from analysis of neutron scattering experiments. Restrictions are obtained for the interaction range between 10^{-12} and 10^{-7} cm, where Casimir force experiments and atomic force microscopy are not sensitive. Experimental limits are obtained also for non-electromagnetic inverse power law neutron-nucleus potential. Some possibilities are discussed to strengthen these constraints.

Yu. N. Pokotilovski

2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

395

Measurement of 238U muonic x-rays with a germanium detector setup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the field of nuclear non-proliferation muon interactions with materials are of great interest. This paper describes an experiment conducted at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland where a muon beam is stopped in a uranium target. The muons produce characteristic muonic x-rays. Muons will penetrate shielding easily and the produced characteristic x-rays can be used for positive isotope identification. Furthermore, the x-rays for uranium isotopes lie in the energy range of 6-7 MeV, which allows them to have an almost optimal mean free path in heavy shielding such as lead or steel. A measurement was conducted at PSI to prove the feasibility of detecting muonic x-rays from a large sample of depleted uranium (several kilograms) with a germanium detector. In this paper, the experimental setup and analysis of the measurement itself is presented.

Esch, Ernst I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jason, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyadera, Haruo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoteling, Nathan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heffner, Robert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adelmann, Andreas [PAUL SCHERRER INSTITUT; Stocki, Trevor [HEALTH CANADA; Mitchell, Lee [NAVAL RESEARCH LAB

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

397

Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

398

Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an accurate value of the emittance. If the emittance was approximately half of the measured value, the beam envelope is slightly space charge dominated, but envelope measurements would set reasonable bounds on the emittance value. For an emittance much less than 100 cm-mr, the envelope measurements would be insensitive to emittance. The outcome of this envelope experiment determines if a redesigned diode is needed or if more sophisticated emittance measurements should be pursued.

Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

399

X-ray standing waves and surface EXAFS studies of electrochemical interfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of their penetrative power, X-rays are ideally suited for in-situ studies of interfaces in general and solid/liquid interfaces in particular. The recent advent of powerful X-ray synchrotron sources has made experiments of this type feasible. Synchrotron sources offer a broad spectral range of polarized, highly collimated X-rays with intensities that are 10{sup 3}-10{sup 6} higher than those of conventional sources. Moreover, third-generation synchrotron sources, with their projected increase in brightness on the order of 10{sup 4}, will allow for new types of experiments, including the study of dynamic processes in real time. There are a number of X-ray-based surface-sensitive techniques that can be employed in the study of solid/liquid interfaces, including surface EXAFS, X-ray standing waves (XSW), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD), and others. In this Account the authors focus on the use of XSW and surface EXAFS. The authors begin with a brief theoretical description followed by experimental aspects of these techniques. The authors then discuss specific examples with emphasis on the underpotential deposition of copper on platinum in the presence and absence of coadsorbates, the potential dependent distribution of interfacial species, and potential dependent structural changes of a redox-active self-assembling monolayer. 33 refs., 7 figs.

Abruna, H.D.; Bommarito, G.M.; Yee, H.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The hard X-ray spectrum of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies and the synthesis of the XRB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A synthesis model for the cosmic X-ray Background (XRB) is presented, which includes a proper treatment of Compton scattering in the absorbing matter for type 2 AGN. Evidence for a decrease of the relative importance of type 2 AGN at high redshift is found, which may be due either to a decrease of the relative number of obscured sources, or (more plausibly) to an increase of the fraction of Compton-thick absorbed sources. The XRB spectrum, soft X-rays and hard X-rays source counts can be simultaneously fitted only if the XRB normalization as derived from BeppoSAX/MECS measurements is adopted.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

Complete Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutron Scattering Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the far past, it was not possible to accurately correct for the finite geometry and the finite sample size of a neutron scattering set-up. The limited calculation power of the ancient computers as well as the lack of powerful Monte Carlo codes and the limitation in the data base available then prevented a complete simulation of the actual experiment. Using e.g. the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNPX [1], neutron scattering experiments can be simulated almost completely with a high degree of precision using a modern PC, which has a computing power that is ten thousand times that of a super computer of the early 1970s. Thus, (better) corrections can also be obtained easily for previous published data provided that these experiments are sufficiently well documented. Better knowledge of reference data (e.g. atomic mass, relativistic correction, and monitor cross sections) further contributes to data improvement. Elastic neutron scattering experiments from liquid samples of the helium isotopes performed around 1970 at LANL happen to be very well documented. Considering that the cryogenic targets are expensive and complicated, it is certainly worthwhile to improve these data by correcting them using this comparatively straightforward method. As two thirds of all differential scattering cross section data of {sup 3}He(n,n){sup 3}He are connected to the LANL data, it became necessary to correct the dependent data measured in Karlsruhe, Germany, as well. A thorough simulation of both the LANL experiments and the Karlsruhe experiment is presented, starting from the neutron production, followed by the interaction in the air, the interaction with the cryostat structure, and finally the scattering medium itself. In addition, scattering from the hydrogen reference sample was simulated. For the LANL data, the multiple scattering corrections are smaller by a factor of five at least, making this work relevant. Even more important are the corrections to the Karlsruhe data due to the inclusion of the missing outgoing self-attenuation that amounts to up to 15%.

Drosg, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

403

Beyond hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Simultaneous combination with x-ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful and novel emerging technique for the nondestructive determination of electronic properties and chemical composition of bulk, buried interfaces and surfaces. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons, increasing the information depth up to several tens of nanometers. Complementing HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique (such as x-ray diffraction) opens a new research field with major applications for materials science. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we have developed a novel experimental set-up that combines HAXPES and x-ray diffraction (x-ray reflectivity, surface x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space maps). Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a robust 2S + 3D diffractometer hosting a ultrahigh vacuum chamber equipped with a unique photoelectron spectrometer (few eV < electron kinetic energy < 15 keV), x-ray tube (Mg/Ti), 15 keV electron gun, and auxiliary standard surface facilities (molecular beam epitaxy evaporator, ion gun, low energy electron diffraction, sample heating/cooling system, leak valves, load-lock sample transfer, etc.). This end-station offers the unique possibility of performing simultaneous HAXPES + x-ray diffraction studies. In the present work, we describe the experimental set-up together with two experimental examples that emphasize its outstanding capabilities: (i) nondestructive characterization of the Si/Ge and HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} interfaces on Ge-based CMOS devices, and (ii) strain study on La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} ultrathin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrate.

Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France) and ICMM-CSIC Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

404

Theoretical standards in x-ray spectroscopies. Annual progress report, 1991--1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose to extend our state-of-the-art, ab initio XAFS (X-ray absorption fine structure) codes, FEFF. Our current work has been highly successful in achieving accurate, user-friendly XAFS standards, exceeding the performance of both tabulated standards and other codes by a considerable margin. We now propose to add the capability to treat more complex materials. This includes multiple-scattering, polarization dependence, an approximate treatment of XANES (x-ray absorption near edge structure), and other improvements. We also plan to adapt FEFF to other spectroscopies, e.g. photoelectron diffraction (PD) and diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS).

Not Available

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

X-ray radiography for container inspection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

Katz, Jonathan I. (Clayton, MO); Morris, Christopher L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

406

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

407

The X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer onboard of IXO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One of the instruments on the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), under study with NASA, ESA and JAXA, is the X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS). This instrument, which will provide high spectral resolution images, ...

Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

408

Local structure of Rb{sub 2}Li{sub 4}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O by the modeling of X-ray diffuse scattering - from average-structure to microdomain model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Local structure of dirubidium tetralithium tris(selenate(VI)) dihydrate - Rb{sub 2}Li{sub 4}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 3}{center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O has been determined basing on the modeling of X-ray diffuse scattering. The origin of observed structured diffuse streaks is SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra switching between two alternative positions in two quasi-planar layers existing in each unit cell and formation of domains with specific SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra configuration locally fulfilling condition for C-centering in the 2a Multiplication-Sign 2b Multiplication-Sign c superstructure cell. The local structure solution is characterized by a uniform distribution of rather large domains (ca. thousand of unit cells) in two layers, but also monodomains can be taken into account. Inside a single domain SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra are ordered along ab-diagonal forming two-string ribbons. Inside the ribbons SeO{sub 4} and LiO{sub 4} tetrahedra share the oxygen corners, whereas ribbons are bound to each other by a net of hydrogen bonds and fastened by corner sharing SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra of the neighboring layers. - Graphical abstract: Experimental sections of the reciprocal space showing diffraction effects observed for RLSO. Bragg spots are visible on sections with integer indices (1 kl section - on the left), streaks - on sections with fractional ones (1.5 kl section - on the right). At the center: resulting local structure of the A package modeled as a microdomain: two-string ribbons of ordered oxygen-corners-sharing SeO{sub 4} and LiO{sub 4} terahedra extended along ab-diagonal are seen; ribbons are bound by hydrogen bonds (shown in pink); the multiplied 2a Multiplication-Sign 2b unit cell is shown. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray diffuse scattering in RLSO was registered and modeled. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The origin of diffuse streaks is SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra switching in two structure layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The local structure is characterized by a uniform distribution of microdomains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inside a single domain SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra are ordered along ab-diagonal forming ribbons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ribbons are bound to each other by a net of hydrogen bonds.

Komornicka, Dorota [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland); Wolcyrz, Marek, E-mail: m.wolcyrz@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland); Pietraszko, Adam [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okolna 2, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

Hesch, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Columbia University X-Ray Measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V-720 keV · NaI 2x2x2" detector views an energy range of 1 keV-3 MeV Store signal in the tree. computer configuration. Plasmas were created using multi-frequency ECRH, and we find that most of the plasma energy is stored in the fast electrons. The energy spectrum of the x-ray emission below 740 keV is measured

411

X-rays from Supernova Remnants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A summary of X-ray observations of supernova remnants is presented including the explosion fragment A of the Vela SNR, Tycho, N132D, RX J0852-4622, the Crab Nebula and the 'bulls eye', and SN 1987A, high-lighting the progress made with Chandra and XMM-Newton and touching upon the questions which arise from these observations and which might inspire future research.

B. Aschenbach

2002-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

ASCA Discovery of Diffuse 6.4 keV Emission Near the Sgr C Complex: A New X-ray Reflection Nebula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an ASCA discovery of diffuse hard X-ray emission from the Sgr C complex with its peak in the vicinity of the molecular cloud core. The X-ray spectrum is characterized by a strong 6.4-keV line and large absorption. These properties suggest that Sgr C is a new X-ray reflection nebula which emits fluorescent and scattered X-rays via irradiation from an external X-ray source. We found no adequately bright source in the immediate Sgr C vicinity to fully account for the fluorescence. The irradiating source may be the Galactic nucleus Sgr A*, which was brighter in the past than it is now as is suggested from observations of the first X-ray reflection nebula Sgr B2.

H. Murakami; K. Koyama; M. Tsujimoto; Y. Maeda; M. Sakano

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ?217 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ?10 improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (?100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ?64. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for measure-and-sort at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses.

Bionta, M. R., E-mail: mina.bionta@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrgats Ractivit, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartmann, N. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Nicholson, D. J. [The Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Cryan, J. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Baker, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Kane, D. J. [Mesa Photonics, LLC., 1550 Pacheco St., Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505 (United States); and others

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

X-ray Free-electron Lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

Feldhaus, J.; /DESY; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

416

X-Ray Searches for Solar Axions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Axions generated thermally in the solar core can convert nearly directly to X-rays as they pass through the solar atmosphere via interaction with the magnetic field. The result of this conversion process would be a diffuse centrally-concentrated source of few-keV X-rays at disk center; it would have a known dimension, of order 10% of the solar diameter, and a spectral distribution resembling the blackbody spectrum of the solar core. Its spatial structure in detail would depend on the distribution of mass and field in the solar atmosphere. The brightness of the source depends upon these factors as well as the unknown coupling constant and the unknown mass of the axion; this particle is hypothetical and no firm evidence for its existence has been found yet. We describe the solar magnetic environment as an axion/photon converter and discuss the upper limits obtained by existing and dedicated observations from three solar X-ray observatories: Yohkoh, RHESSI, and Hinode

Hugh S. Hudson; L. W. Acton; E. DeLuca; I. G. Hannah; K. Reardon; K. Van Bibber

2012-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

417

X-ray MicroCT Training Presentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray MicroCT Training Presentation T. Fettah Kosar, PhD Center for Nanoscale Systems Harvard) Model: HMXST225 (max. 225 kV) #12;Overview 3 Introduction to X-ray imaging and Computed Tomography (CT) · What are X-rays and how do we generate and image them? · How do we magnify X-ray images and keep them

418

Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Laboratory Department of Chemistry Texas A & M University College Station, Texas Phone : 979-845-9125 www.chem.tamu.edu/xray xray@tamu.edu X-rayDiffractionLaboratory DepartmentofChemistry 3255TAMU CollegeStation,TX77843-3255 Mission The purpose of our laboratory is to provide X-ray

Meagher, Mary

420

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Diffraction Practicals 1 Graphics Programs that will read SHELX or CIF files J. Reibenspies, N. Bhuvanesh ver 1.0.0 #12;X-ray Diffraction Practicals 2 Free software. Gretep : Reads SHELX files shelx files or output thermal ellipsoid plots. http://www.umass.edu/microbio/rasmol/ #12;X-ray

Meagher, Mary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore University, Oct. 13, 2005 astro.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/ #12;Outline 1. What you need to know: a. X-rays from the Sun - magnetic activity, x-ray spectra b. Hot stars c. Radiation-driven winds and the Doppler shift d

Cohen, David

422

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy XPS Mark Engelhard 1 #12;EMSL XPS Instrumentation 2 Physical Electronics Quantera XPS High Energy Resolution Focused X-ray Beam Capability Catalysis reaction and processing chamber with inert atmosphere glove box connected to a PHI Quantera Scanning X-ray Microprobe

423

ASCA Observations of the Sgr B2 Cloud: An X-Ray Reflection Nebula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the ASCA results of imaging spectroscopy of the giant molecular cloud Sgr B2. The X-ray spectrum is found to be very peculiar; it exhibits a strong emission line at 6.4 keV, a low energy cutoff below about 4 keV and a pronounced edge-structure at 7.1 keV. The X-ray image is extended and its peak position is shifted from the core of the molecular cloud toward the Galactic center by about 1--2 arcminute. The X-ray spectrum and the morphology are well reproduced by a scenario that X-rays from an external source located in the Galactic center direction are scattered by the molecular cloud Sgr B2, and come into our line of sight. Thus Sgr B2 may be called an X-ray reflection nebula. Possible implications of the Galactic center activity related to this unique source are presented.

H. Murakami; K. Koyama; M. Sakano; M. Tsujimoto; Y. Maeda

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

424

Single molecule imaging with longer x-ray laser pulses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In serial femtosecond crystallography, x-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes because Bragg diffraction exceeds the damage-induced background scattering for longer pulses ($\\sim$ 50--100 fs). This is due to a "self-gating pulse" effect whereby damage terminates Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if that diffraction were produced by a shorter pulse of equal fluence. We show here that a similar gating effect applies to single molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage ("damage noise"). Our results suggest that sub-nanometer single molecule imaging with longer pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The...

Martin, Andrew V; Caleman, Carl; Quiney, Harry M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-? x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

MacDonald, M. J., E-mail: macdonm@umich.edu; Gamboa, E. J. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Montgomery, D. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Streit, J. [Schafer Corporation, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Calibrating X-ray Imaging Devices for Accurate Intensity Measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project presented is to develop methods to accurately calibrate X-ray imaging devices. The approach was to develop X-ray source systems suitable for this endeavor and to develop methods to calibrate solid state detectors to measure source intensity. NSTec X-ray sources used for the absolute calibration of cameras are described, as well as the method of calibrating the source by calibrating the detectors. The work resulted in calibration measurements for several types of X-ray cameras. X-ray camera calibration measured efficiency and efficiency variation over the CCD. Camera types calibrated include: CCD, CID, back thinned (back illuminated), front illuminated.

Haugh, M. J.

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

427

Proceedings of the workshop on X-ray computed microtomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report consists of vugraphs from the nine presentations at the conference. Titles of the presentations are: CMT: Applications and Techniques; Computer Microtomography Using X-rays from Third Generation Synchrotron X-ray; Approaches to Soft-X-ray Nanotomography; Diffraction Enhanced Tomography; X-ray Computed Microtomography Applications at the NSLS; XCMT Applications in Forestry and Forest Products; 3DMA: Investigating Three Dimensional Pore Geometry from High Resolution Images; X-ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Volcanic Rock; and 3-D Visualization of Tomographic Volumes.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

Wilcox, Russell B. (El Cerrito, CA); Holzwarth, Ronald (Munich, DE)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

429

Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

Steinmeyer, P.A.

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

430

Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

Steinmeyer, Peter A. (Arvada, CO)

1991-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

431

Inner-Shell Excitation Spectroscopy of Fused-Ring Aromatic Molecules by Electron Energy Loss and X-ray Raman Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recorded under scattering conditions where electric dipole transitions dominate (2.5 keV residual energy aromatics in bulk samples that are opaque to soft X-rays, such as coals and heavy hydrocarbon deposits. 1

Hitchcock, Adam P.

432

THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING OF NANOSCALE MATERIALS BY UISNG COHERENT X-RAYS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray crystallography is currently the primary methodology used to determine the 3D structure of materials and macromolecules. However, many nanostructures, disordered materials, biomaterials, hybrid materials and biological specimens are noncrystalline and, hence, their structures are not accessible by X-ray crystallography. Probing these structures therefore requires the employment of different approaches. A very promising technique currently under rapid development is X-ray diffraction microscopy (or lensless imaging), in which the coherent X-ray diffraction pattern of a noncrystalline specimen is measured and then directly phased to obtain a high-resolution image. Through the DOE support over the past three years, we have applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to quantitative imaging of GaN quantum dot particles, and revealed the internal GaN-Ga2O3 core shell structure in three dimensions. By exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross-section near electronic resonances, we carried out the first experimental demonstration of resonant X-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent X-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M5 edge. We have also applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to nondestructive imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials - intramuscular fish bone - at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization and proposed a dynamic mechanism to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. In addition, we have also discovered a novel 3D imaging modality, denoted ankylography, which allows for complete 3D structure determination without the necessity of sample titling or scanning. We showed that when the diffraction pattern of a finite object is sampled at a sufficiently fine scale on the Ewald sphere, the 3D structure of the object is determined by the 2D spherical pattern. We confirmed the theoretical analysis by performing 3D numerical reconstructions of a sodium silicate glass structure at 2 ? resolution from a 2D spherical diffraction pattern alone. As X-ray free electron lasers are under rapid development worldwide, ankylography may open up a new horizon to obtain the 3D structure of a non-crystalline specimen from a single pulse and allow time-resolved 3D structure determination of disordered materials.

Jianwei Miao

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

433

Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.

Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouze, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Khnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Kpper, Jochen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

X-ray emission properties of galaxies in Abell 3128  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data to investigate X-ray emission from early-type galaxies in the rich z=0.06 cluster Abell 3128. By combining the X-ray count-rates from an input list of optically-selected galaxies, we obtain a statistical detection of X-ray flux, unbiased by X-ray selection limits. Using 87 galaxies with reliable Chandra data, X-ray emission is detected for galaxies down to M_B ~ -19.0, with only an upper limit determined for galaxies at M_B ~ -18.3. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosities is consistent with recent determinations of the low-mass X-ray binary content of nearby elliptical galaxies. Taken individually, in contrast, we detect significant (3sigma) flux for only six galaxies. Of these, one is a foreground galaxy, while two are optically-faint galaxies with X-ray hardness ratios characteristic of active galactic nuclei. The remaining three detected galaxies are amongst the optically-brightest cluster members, and have softer X-ray spectra. Their X-ray flux is higher than that expected from X-ray binaries, by a factor 2-10; the excess suggests these galaxies have retained their hot gaseous haloes. The source with the highest L_X / L_B ratio is of unusual optical morphology with prominent sharp-edged shells. Notwithstanding these few exceptions, the cluster population overall exhibits X-ray properties consistent with their emission being dominated by X-ray binaries. We conclude that in rich cluster environments, interaction with the ambient intra-cluster medium acts to strip most galaxies of their hot halo gas.

Russell J. Smith

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

X-ray generation using carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these sys- tems are illustrated in Figure 2(b) also outlines the principle mode of operation. Here, sealed in an inexpensive and eas- ily fabricated evacuated glass or ceramic envelope, the elec- trons are liberated from a metallic filament, often made... - ment of CNT-based FE sources is provided in [152]. Here we provide a condensed review of the progress, as it pertains to X-ray sources, since then. CNTs have some of the highest attainable aspect ratios, high thermal conductivity, low chemical...

Parmee, Richard J.; Collins, Clare M.; Milne, William I.; Cole, Matthew T.

2015-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C H NLensless X-Ray Imaging in

437

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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438

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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439

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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440

SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0 ResourceAwards SAGE Awards ,#2446Small Angle X-Ray

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "x-ray scattering experiments" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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442

X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: FAQs  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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443

X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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444

X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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445

X-Ray Science Division (XSD)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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446

Gamma Radiation & X-Rays  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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447

Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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448

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs spaceLaser The SRSSPECIALLenslessX-Ray Imaging in

449

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs spaceLaser The SRSSPECIALLenslessX-Ray Imaging

450

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformationPostdocs spaceLaser The SRSSPECIALLenslessX-Ray

451

The BMW X-ray Cluster Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.

Alberto Moretti; Luigi Guzzo; Sergio Campana; Stefano Covino; Davide Lazzati; Marcella Longhetti; Emilio Molinari; Maria Rosa Panzera; Gianpiero Tagliaferri; Ian Dell'Antonio

2001-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

452

The BMW X-ray Cluster Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe the main features of the BMW survey of serendipitous X-ray clusters, based on the still unexploited ROSAT-HRI archival observations. The sky coverage, surface density and first deep optical CCD images of the candidates indicate that this sample can represent an excellent complement to the existing PSPC deep cluster surveys and will provide us with a fully independent probe of the evolution of the cluster abundance, in addition to significantly increasing the number of clusters known at z>0.6.

Moretti, A; Campana, S; Covino, S; Lazzati, D; Longhetti, M; Molinari, E; Panzera, M R; Tagliaferri, G; Dell'Antonio, I P; Moretti, Alberto; Guzzo, Luigi; Campana, Sergio; Covino, Stefano; Lazzati, Davide; Longhetti, Marcella; Molinari, Emilio; Panzera, Maria Rosa; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Antonio, Ian Dell'

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

2011 X-Ray Science Gordon Research Conference (August 7-12, 2011, Colby, College. Waterville, ME)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2011 Gordon Research Conference on X-ray Science will feature forefront x-ray-based science enabled by the rapid improvements in synchrotron and x-ray laser sources. Across the world, x-ray sources are playing an increasingly important role in physics, materials, chemistry, and biology, expanding into ever broadening areas of science and engineering. With the first hard x-ray free electron laser source beginning operation and with other advanced x-ray sources operational and planned, it is a very exciting and pivotal time for exchange ideas about the future of x-ray science and applications. The Conference will provide the forum for this interaction. An international cast of speakers will illuminate sessions on ultrafast science, coherence, imaging, in situ studies, extreme conditions, new developments in optics, sources, and detectors, inelastic scattering, nanoscience, life science, and energy sciences. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of these areas, and will provide a venue for young scientists entering a career in x-ray research to present their research in poster format, hold discussions in a friendly setting, and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. Some poster presenters will be selected for short talks. The collegial atmosphere of this Conference, with ample time for discussion as well as opportunities for informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings, will provide an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to exchange ideas about forefront x-ray techniques and will promote cross-fertilization between the various research areas represented.

Gregory Stephenson

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

454

Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

Parker, Sherwood (Berkeley, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z{sub 1} above upper collimator plane, distance z{sub 2} above the lower collimator plane, and distance z{sub 3} above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3} proportional to z{sub 1}, z{sub 2} and z{sub 3}, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site. 5 figs.

Parker, S.

1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

456

Improved backscatter x-ray detection for anti-terrorist applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently the most common method to determine the contents of a package suspected of containing an explosive device is to use transmission radiography. This technique requires that an x-ray source and film be placed on opposite sides of the package. This poses a problem if the package is placed so that only one side is accessible, such as against a wall. There is also a threat to personnel and property since explosive devices may be booby trapped. The authors have developed a method to x-ray a package using backscattered x-rays based on similar work for landmine detection. This procedure eliminates the use of film behind the target. All of the detection is done from the same side as the source. Backscatter experiments at Sandia National Laboratories have been conducted on mock bombs in packages. They are able to readily identify the bomb components. The images that are obtained in this procedure are done in real time and the image is displayed on a computer screen. Preliminary experiments have also imaged objects within or behind a wall. They are currently using a scanning x-ray source and scintillating plastic detectors. It can take several hours to image a briefcase size object. This time could be reduced if better x-ray detection methods could be used. They have looked at using pinhole photography and CCD cameras to reduce this time.

Shope, S.L.; Lockwood, G.J.; Selph, M.M.; Wehlburg, J.C.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Development of all-solid-state flash x-ray generator with photoconductive semiconductor switches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A compact, low-jitter, and high repetitive rate all-solid-state flash x-ray generator making use of photo conductive semiconductor switches was developed recently for the diagnostic purpose of some hydrokinetical experiments. The generator consisted of twelve stages of Blumlein pulse forming networks, and an industrial cold cathode diode was used to generate intense x-ray radiations with photon energy up to 220 keV. Test experiments showed that the generator could produce >1 kA electron beam currents and x-ray pulses with ?40 ns duration under 100 Hz repetitive rates at least (limited by the triggering laser on hand), also found was that the delay time of the cathode explosive emission is crucial to the energy transfer efficiency of the whole system. In addition, factors affecting the diode impedance, how the switching synchronization and diode impedance determining the allowable operation voltage were discussed.

Xun, Ma; Jianjun, Deng; Hongwei, Liu; Jianqiang, Yuan; Jinfeng, Liu; Bing, Wei; Yanling, Qing; Wenhui, Han; Lingyun, Wang; Pin, Jiang; Hongtao, Li [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

RESULTS FROM LONG-TERM OPTICAL MONITORING OF THE SOFT X-RAY TRANSIENT SAX J1810.8-2609  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the long-term optical observation of the faint soft X-ray transient SAX J1810.8-2609 from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) and Microlensing Observations in Astrophysics (MOA). We have focused on the 2007 outburst, and also cross-correlated its optical light curves and quasi-simultaneous X-ray observations from RXTE/Swift. Both the optical and X-ray light curves of the 2007 outburst show multi-peak features. Quasi-simultaneous optical/X-ray luminosity shows that both the X-ray reprocessing and viscously thermal emission can explain the observed optical flux. There is a slight X-ray delay of 0.6 {+-} 0.3 days during the first peak, while the X-ray emission lags the optical emission by {approx}2 days during the rebrightening stage, which suggests that X-ray reprocessing emission contributes significantly to the optical flux in the first peak, but the viscously heated disk origin dominates it during rebrightening. This implies variation of the physical environment of the outer disk, with even the source remaining in a low/hard state during the entire outburst. The {approx}2 day X-ray lag indicates a small accretion disk in the system, and its optical counterpart was not detected by OGLE and MOA during quiescence, which constrained it to be fainter than M{sub I} = 7.5 mag. There is a suspected short-time optical flare detected at MJD = 52583.5 with no detected X-ray counterpart; this single flux increase implies a magnetic loop reconnection in the outer disk, as proposed by Zurita et al. The observations cover all stages of the outburst; however, due to the low sensitivity of RXTE/ASM, we cannot conclude whether it is an optical precursor at the initial rise of the outburst.

Zhu Ling; Di Stefano, Rosanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wyrzykowski, Lukasz, E-mail: zhul04@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

459

X-ray Spectral Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We summarize the spectral characteristics of a sample of 22 bright gamma-ray bursts detected with the gamma-ray burst sensors aboard the satellite Ginga. This instrument employed a proportional and scintillation counter to provide sensitivity to photons in the 2 - 400 keV range, providing a unique opportunity to characterize the largely unexplored X-ray properties of gamma-ray bursts. The photon spectra of the Ginga bursts are well described by a low energy slope, a bend energy, and a high energy slope. In the energy range where they can be compared, this result is consistent with burst spectral analyses obtained from the BATSE experiment aboard the Compton Observatory. However, below 20 keV we find evidence for a positive spectral number index in approximately 40% of our burst sample, with some evidence for a strong rolloff at lower energies in a few events. There is a correlation (Pearson's r = -0.62) between the low energy slope and the bend energy. We find that the distribution of spectral bend energies extends below 10 keV. The observed ratio of energy emitted in the X-rays relative to the gamma-rays can be much larger than a few percent and, in fact, is sometimes larger than unity. The average for our sample is 24%.

T. E. Strohmayer; E. E. Fenimore; T. Murakami; A. Yoshida

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

460

Exploring X-Ray Lines as Scotogenic Signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider some implications of X-ray lines from certain astronomical objects as potential effects of dark matter decay in the context of the scotogenic model, where neutrinos acquire mass radiatively via one-loop interactions with dark matter. As an example, we focus on the 3.5 keV line recently detected in the X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters, assuming that it stands future scrutiny. We explore the scenario in which the line originates from the slow decay of fermionic dark matter in the model. After obtaining a number of benchmark points representing the parameter space consistent with the new data and various other constraints, we make predictions on several observables in leptonic processes. They include the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double-beta decay, the sum of neutrino masses, and the rate of flavor-changing decay mu -> e gamma, as well as the cross sections of e+e- collisions into final states containing nonstandard particles in the model. These are testable in ongoing or future experiments and thus offer means to probe the scotogenic scenario studied.

Gaber Faisel; Shu-Yu Ho; Jusak Tandean

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

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