National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for x-ray energy resolution

  1. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  2. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  3. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Goodman, Claude A.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  4. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  5. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W. Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Efthimion, P.; Pablant, N. A.; Lu, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Magee, E.

    2014-11-15

    A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically bent crystal and a 2D pixelated detector is being optimized for diagnostics of small sources such as high energy density physics (HEDP) and synchrotron radiation or x-ray free electron laser experiments. This instrument is used on tokamak experiments for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma flow velocity profiles. Laboratory measurements demonstrate a resolving power, E/ΔE of order 10 000 and spatial resolution better than 10 μm. Initial tests of the high resolution instrument on HEDP plasmas are being performed.

  6. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  7. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  8. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer ...

  9. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density (HED) plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal ...

  10. Developing a bright 17 keV x-ray source for probing high-energy-density states of matter at high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Maddox, B. R.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, R.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Remington, B. A.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-04-15

    A set of experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to develop and optimize a bright, 17 keV x-ray backlighter probe using laser-irradiated Nb foils. High-resolution one-dimensional imaging was achieved using a 15 μm wide slit in a Ta substrate to aperture the Nb He{sub α} x-rays onto an open-aperture, time integrated camera. To optimize the x-ray source for imaging applications, the effect of laser pulse shape and spatial profile on the target was investigated. Two laser pulse shapes were used—a “prepulse” shape that included a 3 ns, low-intensity laser foot preceding the high-energy 2 ns square main laser drive, and a pulse without the laser foot. The laser spatial profile was varied by the use of continuous phase plates (CPPs) on a pair of shots compared to beams at best focus, without CPPs. A comprehensive set of common diagnostics allowed for a direct comparison of imaging resolution, total x-ray conversion efficiency, and x-ray spectrum between shots. The use of CPPs was seen to reduce the high-energy tail of the x-ray spectrum, whereas the laser pulse shape had little effect on the high-energy tail. The measured imaging resolution was comparably high for all combinations of laser parameters, but a higher x-ray flux was achieved without phase plates. This increased flux was the result of smaller laser spot sizes, which allowed us to arrange the laser focal spots from multiple beams and produce an x-ray source which was more localized behind the slit aperture. Our experiments are a first demonstration of point-projection geometry imaging at NIF at the energies (>10 keV) necessary for imaging denser, higher-Z targets than have previously been investigated.

  11. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  12. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  13. High energy resolution five-crystal spectrometer for high quality fluorescence and absorption measurements on an x-ray absorption spectroscopy beamline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llorens, Isabelle; Lahera, Eric; Delnet, William; Proux, Olivier; Dermigny, Quentin; Gelebart, Frederic; Morand, Marc; Shukla, Abhay; Bardou, Nathalie; Ulrich, Olivier; and others

    2012-06-15

    Fluorescence detection is classically achieved with a solid state detector (SSD) on x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beamlines. This kind of detection however presents some limitations related to the limited energy resolution and saturation. Crystal analyzer spectrometers (CAS) based on a Johann-type geometry have been developed to overcome these limitations. We have tested and installed such a system on the BM30B/CRG-FAME XAS beamline at the ESRF dedicated to the structural investigation of very dilute systems in environmental, material and biological sciences. The spectrometer has been designed to be a mobile device for easy integration in multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamlines or even with a laboratory x-ray source. The CAS allows to collect x-ray photons from a large solid angle with five spherically bent crystals. It will cover a large energy range allowing to probe fluorescence lines characteristic of all the elements from Ca (Z = 20) to U (Z = 92). It provides an energy resolution of 1-2 eV. XAS spectroscopy is the main application of this device even if other spectroscopic techniques (RIXS, XES, XRS, etc.) can be also achieved with it. The performances of the CAS are illustrated by two experiments that are difficult or impossible to perform with SSD and the complementarity of the CAS vs SSD detectors is discussed.

  14. A Versatile Medium-Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometer for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. ...

  15. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  16. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich ; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  17. SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    include X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES), Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS), High Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detection (HERFD) and X-ray Raman Spectroscopy (XRS). ...

  18. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ... Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for ...

  19. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ... Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ...

  20. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  1. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  2. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  3. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  4. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray ...

  5. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses ...

  6. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 ...

  7. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  8. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemoreexcitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.less

  9. Wide band focusing x-ray spectrograph with spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-01-15

    A new, wide spectral bandwidth x-ray spectrograph, the wide-bandwidth focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution (WB-FSSR), based on spherically bent mica crystals, is described. The wide bandwidth is achieved by combining three crystals to form a large aperture dispersive element. Since the WB-FSSR covers a wide spectral band, it is very convenient for application as a routine diagnostic tool in experiments in which the desired spectral coverage is different from one test to the next. The WB-FSSR has been tested in imploding wire-array experiments on a 1 MA pulsed power machine, and x-ray spectra were recorded in the 1-20 A spectral band using different orders of mica crystal reflection. Using a two mirror-symmetrically placed WB-FSSR configuration, it was also possible to distinguish between a real spectral shift and a shift of recorded spectral lines caused by the spatial distribution of the radiating plasma. A spectral resolution of about 2000 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of {approx}100 {mu}m was achieved in the spectral band of 5-10 A in second order of mica reflection. A simple method of numerical analysis of spectrograph capability is proposed.

  10. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machek, Pavel; Froeba, Michael; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brueggmann, Ulf; Draeger, Guenter

    2007-01-19

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 {mu}m thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5x1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  11. Spatial resolution of imaging plate with flash X-rays and its utilization for radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaikh, A. M.; Romesh, C.; Kolage, T. S.; Sharma, Archana

    2015-06-24

    A flash X-ray source developed using pulsed electron accelerator with electron energy range of 400keV to 1030keV and a field emission cathode is characterized using X-ray imaging plates. Spatial resolution of the imaging system is measured using edge spread function fitted to data obtained from radiograph of Pb step wedge. A spatial resolution of 150±6 µm is obtained. The X-ray beam size is controlled by the anode-cathode configuration. Optimum source size of ∼13±2 mm diameter covering an area with intensity of ∼27000 PSL/mm{sup 2} is obtained on the imaging plate kept at a distance of ∼200 mm from the tip of the anode. It is used for recording radiographs of objects like satellite cable cutter, aero-engine turbine blade and variety of pyro-devices used in aerospace industry.

  12. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  13. Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and layout of a high-resolution x-ray imaging ...

  14. A versatile medium-resolution x-ray emission spectrometer for diamond anvil cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, D. R.; Seidler, G. T.; Bradley, J. A.; Lipp, M. J.; Evans, W. J.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.-M.; Boman, G.; Bowden, M. E.

    2013-08-15

    We present design and performance details for a polycapillary-coupled x-ray spectrometer that provides very high collection efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. Using a single Bragg analyzer operating close to backscattering geometry so as to minimize the effect of the weak divergence of the quasicollimated exit beam from the polycapillary optic, this instrument can maintain a typical energy resolution of 5 eV over photon energies from 5 keV to 10 keV. We find dramatically improved count rates as compared to a traditional higher-resolution instrument based on a single spherically bent crystal analyzer.

  15. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Hiller, Larry J.; Barfknecht, Andrew T.

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  16. A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for intense laser plasma interaction experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A high-resolution imaging X-ray crystal spectrometer for intense laser plasma ...

  17. Dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test a method to quantify the effect of dimensionality on the noise in energy selective x-ray imaging.Methods: The Cramr-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a universal lower limit of the covariance of any unbiased estimator, is used to quantify the noise. It is shown that increasing dimensionality always increases, or at best leaves the same, the variance. An analytic formula for the increase in variance in an energy selective x-ray system is derived. The formula is used to gain insight into the dependence of the increase in variance on the properties of the additional basis functions, the measurement noise covariance, and the source spectrum. The formula is also used with computer simulations to quantify the dependence of the additional variance on these factors. Simulated images of an object with three materials are used to demonstrate the trade-off of increased information with dimensionality and noise. The images are computed from energy selective data with a maximum likelihood estimator.Results: The increase in variance depends most importantly on the dimension and on the properties of the additional basis functions. With the attenuation coefficients of cortical bone, soft tissue, and adipose tissue as the basis functions, the increase in variance of the bone component from two to three dimensions is 1.4 10{sup 3}. With the soft tissue component, it is 2.7 10{sup 4}. If the attenuation coefficient of a high atomic number contrast agent is used as the third basis function, there is only a slight increase in the variance from two to three basis functions, 1.03 and 7.4 for the bone and soft tissue components, respectively. The changes in spectrum shape with beam hardening also have a substantial effect. They increase the variance by a factor of approximately 200 for the bone component and 220 for the soft tissue component as the soft tissue object thickness increases from 1 to 30 cm. Decreasing the energy resolution of the detectors increases

  18. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopies | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies Tuesday, July 23, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Dimosthenis Sokaras, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Modern high brilliance beamlines coupled with recent advances in hard-x-ray optics are establishing high-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopies as a powerful analytical tool for

  19. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  20. 7 Resolution in Protein 2-Dimentional-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: 7 Resolution in Protein 2-Dimentional-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction at Linac Coherent Light Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 7 Resolution in...

  1. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their

  2. Novel X-ray imaging diagnostics of high energy nanosecond pulse accelerators.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Graham W.; Gallegos, Roque Rosauro; Hohlfelder, Robert James; Beutler, David Eric; Dudley, John; Seymour, Calvin L. G.; Bell, John D.

    2004-08-01

    Pioneering x-ray imaging has been undertaken on a number of AWE's and Sandia National Laboratories radiation effects x-ray simulators. These simulators typically yield a single very short (<50ns) pulse of high-energy (MeV endpoint energy bremsstrahlung) x-ray radiation with doses in the kilorad (krad(Si)) region. X-ray source targets vary in size from 2 to 25cm diameter, dependent upon the particular simulator. Electronic imaging of the source x-ray emission under dynamic conditions yields valuable information upon how the simulator is performing. The resultant images are of interest to the simulator designer who may configure new x-ray source converter targets and diode designs. The images can provide quantitative information about machine performance during radiation effects testing of components under active conditions. The effects testing program is a valuable interface for validation of high performance computer codes and models for the radiation effects community. A novel high-energy x-ray imaging spectrometer is described whereby the spectral energy (0.1 to 2.5MeV) profile may be discerned from the digitally recorded and viewable images via a pinhole/scintillator/CCD imaging system and knowledge of the filtration parameters. Unique images, analysis and a preliminary evaluation of the capability of the spectrometer are presented. Further, a novel time resolved imaging system is described that captures a sequence of high spatial resolution temporal images, with zero interframe time, in the nanosecond timeframe, of our source x-rays.

  3. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  4. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-02-12

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seedingmore » and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.« less

  5. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  6. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  7. Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Objectives and Layout of a High-Resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  8. Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Spectrometer for the Large Helical Device (LHD) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design Parameters and Objectives of a High--Resolution X--ray Imaging Crystal ...

  9. Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layout And Results From The Initial Opeeration Of The High-resolution X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer On The Large Helical Device First results of ion and electron temperature pro le measurements from the x-ray imaging

  10. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  11. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  12. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  13. High resolution, high rate x-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, F.S.; Landis, D.A.

    1983-07-14

    It is an object of the invention to provide a pulse processing system for use with detected signals of a wide dynamic range which is capable of very high counting rates, with high throughput, with excellent energy resolution and a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is a further object to provide a pulse processing system wherein the fast channel resolving time is quite short and substantially independent of the energy of the detected signals. Another object is to provide a pulse processing system having a pile-up rejector circuit which will allow the maximum number of non-interfering pulses to be passed to the output. It is also an object of the invention to provide new methods for generating substantially symmetrically triangular pulses for use in both the main and fast channels of a pulse processing system.

  14. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  15. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris; Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, B.P. 48, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette ; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris ; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05; CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  16. Beam collimation with polycapillary x-ray optics for high contrast high resolution monochromatic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiro, Francisca R.; Li Danhong; MacDonald, C.A.

    2004-12-01

    Monochromatic imaging can provide better contrast and resolution than conventional broadband radiography. In broadband systems, low energy photons do not contribute to the image, but are merely absorbed, while high energy photons produce scattering that degrades the image. By tuning to the optimal energy, one can eliminate undesirable lower and higher energies. Monochromatization is achieved by diffraction from a single crystal. A crystal oriented to diffract at a particular energy, in this case the characteristic line energy, diffracts only those photons within a narrow range of angles. The resultant beam from a divergent source is nearly parallel, but not very intense. To increase the intensity, collimation was performed with polycapillary x-ray optics, which can collect radiation from a divergent source and redirect it into a quasi parallel beam. Contrast and resolution measurements were performed with diffracting crystals with both high and low angular acceptance. Testing was first done at 8 keV with an intense copper rotating anode x-ray source, then 17.5 keV measurements were made with a low power molybdenum source. At 8 keV, subject contrast was a factor of five higher than for the polychromatic case. At 17.5 keV, monochromatic contrast was two times greater than the conventional polychromatic contrast. The subject contrasts measured at both energies were in good agreement with theory. An additional factor of two increase in contrast, for a total gain of four, is expected at 17.5 keV from the removal of scatter. Scatter might be simply removed using an air gap, which does not degrade resolution with a parallel beam.

  17. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod A new energy ...

  18. The Application of Monochromatic Energies to Investigate Multiphase Porous Media Systems using Synchrotron X-ray Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, Kyungmin; Willson, Clinton S.

    2006-01-31

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is becoming a useful tool for nondestructive imaging of many geoenvironmental and geotechnical systems. Conventional X-ray CT systems typically utilize a polychromatic X-ray beam. While providing a high throughput of photons, the use of polychromatic energy can make quantifying material concentrations, densities or composition very difficult or impossible without appropriate standards. Synchrotron X-rays have an extremely small angular divergence, thus permitting spatial resolution that is only limited by the optical components of the system. In addition, the ability to tune to a monochromatic X-ray energy allows better phase contrast by reducing beam hardening and allowing for elemental discrimination. In this work we will show how monochromatic energy can be used to provide high-quality images allowing for phase separation several different porous media systems thus improving our ability to quantify a range of processes and phenomena.

  19. High resolution, high rate X-ray spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goulding, Frederick S.; Landis, Donald A.

    1987-01-01

    A pulse processing system (10) for use in an X-ray spectrometer in which a ain channel pulse shaper (12) and a fast channel pulse shaper (13) each produce a substantially symmetrical triangular pulse (f, p) for each event detected by the spectrometer, with the pulse width of the pulses being substantially independent of the magnitude of the detected event and with the pulse width of the fast pulses (p) being substantially shorter than the pulse width of the main channel pulses (f). A pile-up rejector circuit (19) allows output pulses to be generated, with amplitudes linearly related to the magnitude of the detected events, whenever the peak of a main channel pulse (f) is not affected by a preceding or succeeding main channel pulse, while inhibiting output pulses wherein peak magnitudes of main channel pulses are affected by adjacent pulses. The substantially symmetrical triangular main channel pulses (f) are generated by the weighted addition (27-31) of successive RC integrations (24, 25, 26) of an RC differentiated step wave (23). The substantially symmetrical triangular fast channel pulses (p) are generated by the RC integration ( 43) of a bipolar pulse (o) in which the amplitude of the second half is 1/e that of the first half, with the RC time constant of integration being equal to one-half the width of the bipolar pulse.

  20. X-ray structure determination using low-resolution electron microscopy maps for molecular replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Ryan N.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-07-30

    Structures of multi-subunit macromolecular machines are primarily determined by either electron microscopy (EM) or X-ray crystallography. In many cases, a structure for a complex can be obtained at low resolution (at a coarse level of detail) with EM and at higher resolution (with finer detail) by X-ray crystallography. The integration of these two structural techniques is becoming increasingly important for generating atomic models of macromolecular complexes. A low-resolution EM image can be a powerful tool for obtaining the "phase" information that is missing from an X-ray crystallography experiment, however integration of EM and X-ray diffraction data has been technically challenging. Here we show a step-by-step protocol that explains how low-resolution EM maps can be placed in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement, and how initial phases computed from the placed EM density are extended to high resolution by averaging maps over non-crystallographic symmetry. As the resolution gap between EM and Xray crystallography continues to narrow, the use of EM maps to help with X-ray crystal structure determination, as described in this protocol, will become increasingly effective.

  1. X-ray structure determination using low-resolution electron microscopy maps for molecular replacement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jackson, Ryan N.; McCoy, Airlie J.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Read, Randy J.; Wiedenheft, Blake

    2015-07-30

    Structures of multi-subunit macromolecular machines are primarily determined by either electron microscopy (EM) or X-ray crystallography. In many cases, a structure for a complex can be obtained at low resolution (at a coarse level of detail) with EM and at higher resolution (with finer detail) by X-ray crystallography. The integration of these two structural techniques is becoming increasingly important for generating atomic models of macromolecular complexes. A low-resolution EM image can be a powerful tool for obtaining the "phase" information that is missing from an X-ray crystallography experiment, however integration of EM and X-ray diffraction data has been technically challenging.more » Here we show a step-by-step protocol that explains how low-resolution EM maps can be placed in the crystallographic unit cell by molecular replacement, and how initial phases computed from the placed EM density are extended to high resolution by averaging maps over non-crystallographic symmetry. As the resolution gap between EM and Xray crystallography continues to narrow, the use of EM maps to help with X-ray crystal structure determination, as described in this protocol, will become increasingly effective.« less

  2. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer The engineering ...

  3. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  4. Novel detector design for reducing intercell x-ray cross-talk in the variable resolution x-ray CT scanner: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arabi, Hosein; Asl, Ali Reza Kamali; Ay, Mohammad Reza; Zaidi, Habib

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The variable resolution x-ray (VRX) CT scanner provides substantial improvement in the spatial resolution by matching the scanner's field of view (FOV) to the size of the object being imaged. Intercell x-ray cross-talk is one of the most important factors limiting the spatial resolution of the VRX detector. In this work, a new cell arrangement in the VRX detector is suggested to decrease the intercell x-ray cross-talk. The idea is to orient the detector cells toward the opening end of the detector. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were used for performance assessment of the oriented cell detector design. Previously published design parameters and simulation results of x-ray cross-talk for the VRX detector were used for model validation using the GATE Monte Carlo package. In the first step, the intercell x-ray cross-talk of the actual VRX detector model was calculated as a function of the FOV. The obtained results indicated an optimum cell orientation angle of 28 deg. to minimize the x-ray cross-talk in the VRX detector. Thereafter, the intercell x-ray cross-talk in the oriented cell detector was modeled and quantified. Results: The intercell x-ray cross-talk in the actual detector model was considerably high, reaching up to 12% at FOVs from 24 to 38 cm. The x-ray cross-talk in the oriented cell detector was less than 5% for all possible FOVs, except 40 cm (maximum FOV). The oriented cell detector could provide considerable decrease in the intercell x-ray cross-talk for the VRX detector, thus leading to significant improvement in the spatial resolution and reduction in the spatial resolution nonuniformity across the detector length. Conclusions: The proposed oriented cell detector is the first dedicated detector design for the VRX CT scanners. Application of this concept to multislice and flat-panel VRX detectors would also result in higher spatial resolution.

  5. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  6. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  7. PHERMEX: pulsed high energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompass the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz radio-frequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intense sub-microsecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result in (1) an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three-time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  8. PHERMEX: Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompasses the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz-radiofrequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intensive submicrosecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result (1) in an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  9. High spatial resolution X-ray and gamma ray imaging system using diffraction crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2011-05-17

    A method and a device for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation are provided. The device comprises a plurality of arrays, with each array comprising a plurality of elements comprising a first collimator, a diffracting crystal, a second collimator, and a detector.

  10. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  11. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Rock Lab Analysis Core Analysis Cuttings Analysis Isotopic...

  12. Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline...

  13. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances...

  14. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerpowell.pdf (1.19 MB) More Documents & ...

  15. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  16. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90 from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and ?66.33 mV, respectively. The detectors energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 2045 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the detector. The

  17. INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INTERMEDIATE ENERGY X-RAY (IEX) BEAMLINE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE Jessica McChesney, APS beamline scientist, connecting the transition edge sensor (TES) detector to the...

  18. High-resolution monochromatic x-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1998-08-01

    We have developed an improved x-ray imaging system based on spherically curve crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 {Angstrom}, R=200 mm) has been used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the x-ray optical system is 1.7 {mu}m in selected places and 2{endash}3 {mu}m over a larger area. Time-resolved backlit monochromatic images of polystyrene planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with a spatial resolution of 2.5 {mu}m in selected places and 5 {mu}m over the focal spot of the Nike laser. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America

  19. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-05

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687 A, R=200 mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3-4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6-7 {mu}m spatial resolution.

  20. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; Patthey, L.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Feng, Y.; David, C.

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy of >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.

  2. Feasibility study of a high-spatial resolution x-ray computed tomography using sub-pixel shift method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoneyama, Akio Baba, Rika; Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    2015-02-23

    A high-spatial resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) adopting a sub-pixel shift method has been developed. By calculating sectional images, using plural CT datasets obtained by scanning the X-ray imager, the spatial resolution can be reduced relative to the sub-pixel size of an X-ray imager. Feasibility observations of a biomedical sample were performed using 12-keV monochromatic synchrotron radiation and a photon-counting X-ray imager 174-μm pixels in size. Four CT measurements were performed to obtain datasets at different positions of the X-ray imager. Fine sectional images were obtained successfully, and the spatial resolution was estimated as 80-μm, which corresponds to just under half the pixel size of the imager. In addition, a fine 3D image was also obtained by scanning the imager two-dimensionally.

  3. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S.; Paulus, Michael J.; Mullens, James A.

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  4. Near optimal energy selective x-ray imaging system performance with simple detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: This article describes a method to achieve near optimal performance with low energy resolution detectors. Tapiovaara and Wagner [Phys. Med. Biol. 30, 519-529 (1985)] showed that an energy selective x-ray system using a broad spectrum source can produce images with a larger signal to noise ratio (SNR) than conventional systems using energy integrating or photon counting detectors. They showed that there is an upper limit to the SNR and that it can be achieved by measuring full spectrum information and then using an optimal energy dependent weighting. Methods: A performance measure is derived by applying statistical detection theory to an abstract vector space of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients of the two function approximation to the x-ray attenuation coefficient. The approach produces optimal results that utilize all the available energy dependent data. The method can be used with any energy selective detector and is applied not only to detectors using pulse height analysis (PHA) but also to a detector that simultaneously measures the total photon number and integrated energy, as discussed by Roessl et al. [Med. Phys. 34, 959-966 (2007)]. A generalization of this detector that improves the performance is introduced. A method is described to compute images with the optimal SNR using projections in a ''whitened'' vector space transformed so the noise is uncorrelated and has unit variance in both coordinates. Material canceled images with optimal SNR can also be computed by projections in this space. Results: The performance measure is validated by showing that it provides the Tapiovaara-Wagner optimal results for a detector with full energy information and also a conventional detector. The performance with different types of detectors is compared to the ideal SNR as a function of x-ray tube voltage and subject thickness. A detector that combines two bin PHA with a simultaneous measurement of integrated photon energy provides near ideal

  5. Development of a High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The affects of x-ray and nuclear-radiation background on the measurement uncertainties are ... Resource Relation: Related Information: Invention Disclosure. Title X-ray Imaging Crystal ...

  6. High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.

    2008-12-23

    A method for high spatial resolution imaging of a plurality of sources of x-ray and gamma-ray radiation is provided. High quality mechanically bent diffracting crystals of 0.1 mm radial width are used for focusing the radiation and directing the radiation to an array of detectors which is used for analyzing their addition to collect data as to the location of the source of radiation. A computer is used for converting the data to an image. The invention also provides for the use of a multi-component high resolution detector array and for narrow source and detector apertures.

  7. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  8. Real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements on shocked crystals at a synchrotron facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Y. M.; Turneaure, Stefan J.; Perkins, K.; Zimmerman, K.; Arganbright, N.; Shen, G.; Chow, P.

    2012-12-15

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory was used to obtain real-time, high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements to determine the microscopic response of shock-compressed single crystals. Disk shaped samples were subjected to plane shock wave compression by impacting them with half-inch diameter, flat-faced projectiles. The projectiles were accelerated to velocities ranging between 300 and 1200 m/s using a compact powder gun designed specifically for use at a synchrotron facility. The experiments were designed to keep the sample probed volume under uniaxial strain and constant stress for a duration longer than the 153.4 ns spacing between x-ray bunches. X-rays from a single pulse (<100 ps duration) out of the periodic x-ray pulses emitted by the synchrotron were used for the diffraction measurements. A synchronization and x-ray detection technique was developed to ensure that the measured signal was obtained unambiguously from the desired x-ray pulse incident on the sample while the sample was in a constant uniaxial strain state. The synchronization and x-ray detection techniques described can be used for a variety of x-ray measurements on shock compressed solids and liquids at the APS. Detailed procedures for applying the Bragg-Brentano parafocusing approach to single crystals at the APS are presented. Analytic developments to determine the effects of crystal substructure and non-ideal geometry on the diffraction pattern position and shape are presented. Representative real-time x-ray diffraction data, indicating shock-induced microstructural changes, are presented for a shock-compressed Al(111) sample. The experimental developments presented here provided, in part, the impetus for the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) currently under development at the APS. Both the synchronization/x-ray detection methods and the analysis equations for high-resolution single crystal x-ray diffraction can be used at the DCS.

  9. High-resolution dichroic imaging of magnetic flux distributions in superconductors with scanning x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruoß, S. Stahl, C.; Weigand, M.; Schütz, G.; Albrecht, J.

    2015-01-12

    The penetration of magnetic flux into high-temperature superconductors has been observed using a high-resolution technique based on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Superconductors coated with thin soft-magnetic layers are observed in a scanning x-ray microscope under the influence of external magnetic fields. Resulting electric currents in the superconductor create an inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution above the superconductor and lead to a local reorientation of the ferromagnetic layer. Measuring the local magnetization of the ferromagnet by x-ray absorption microscopy with circular-polarized radiation allows the analysis of the magnetic flux distribution in the superconductor with a spatial resolution on the nanoscale.

  10. Taheri-Saramad x-ray detector (TSXD): A novel high spatial resolution x-ray imager based on ZnO nano scintillator wires in polycarbonate membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, A. Saramad, S.; Ghalenoei, S.; Setayeshi, S.

    2014-01-15

    A novel x-ray imager based on ZnO nanowires is designed and fabricated. The proposed architecture is based on scintillation properties of ZnO nanostructures in a polycarbonate track-etched membrane. Because of higher refractive index of ZnO nanowire compared to the membrane, the nanowire acts as an optical fiber that prevents the generated optical photons to spread inside the detector. This effect improves the spatial resolution of the imager. The detection quantum efficiency and spatial resolution of the fabricated imager are 11% and <6.8 μm, respectively.

  11. Measurement of high energy x-ray beam penumbra with Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT radiochromic film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-08-15

    High energy x-ray beam penumbra are measured using Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT, due to its limited energy dependence and high spatial resolution provide a high level of accuracy for dose assessment in penumbral regions. The spatial resolution of film detector systems is normally limited by the scanning resolution of the densitometer. Penumbral widths (80%/20%) measured at D{sub max} were found to be 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, and 3.4 mm ({+-}0.2 mm) using 5, 10, 20, and 30 cm square field sizes, respectively, for a 6 MV linear accelerator produced x-ray beam. This is compared to 3.2 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak EDR2) and 3.6 mm{+-}0.2 mm (Kodak X-Omat V) at 10 cmx10 cm measured using radiographic film. Using a zero volume extrapolation technique for ionization chamber measurements, the 10 cmx10 cm field penumbra at D{sub max} was measured to be 3.1 mm, a close match to Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT results. Penumbral measurements can also be made at other depths, including the surface, as the film does not suffer significantly from dosimetric variations caused by changing x-ray energy spectra. Gafchromic trade mark sign EBT film provides an adequate measure of penumbral dose for high energy x-ray beams.

  12. TMX-upgrade. X-ray diagnostic: low-energy temperature determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacoby, B.A.

    1981-05-01

    In order to properly design the x-ray filter set, a reasonable computational model of the plasma emission had to be developed. The radiation continuum computed consisted of two components: bremsstrahlung and recombination radiation. The contribution of line radiation from low Z impurities was estimated to be negligible for x-ray energies above 1 keV.

  13. xMDFF: molecular dynamics flexible fitting of low-resolution X-ray structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Ryan; Singharoy, Abhishek; Li, Qufei; Zhang, Jingfen; Xu, Dong; Perozo, Eduardo; Schulten, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    A new real-space refinement method for low-resolution X-ray crystallography is presented. The method is based on the molecular dynamics flexible fitting protocol targeted at addressing large-scale deformations of the search model to achieve refinement with minimal manual intervention. An explanation of the method is provided, augmented by results from the refinement of both synthetic and experimental low-resolution data, including an independent electrophysiological verification of the xMDFF-refined crystal structure of a voltage-sensor protein. X-ray crystallography remains the most dominant method for solving atomic structures. However, for relatively large systems, the availability of only medium-to-low-resolution diffraction data often limits the determination of all-atom details. A new molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF)-based approach, xMDFF, for determining structures from such low-resolution crystallographic data is reported. xMDFF employs a real-space refinement scheme that flexibly fits atomic models into an iteratively updating electron-density map. It addresses significant large-scale deformations of the initial model to fit the low-resolution density, as tested with synthetic low-resolution maps of d-ribose-binding protein. xMDFF has been successfully applied to re-refine six low-resolution protein structures of varying sizes that had already been submitted to the Protein Data Bank. Finally, via systematic refinement of a series of data from 3.6 to 7 resolution, xMDFF refinements together with electrophysiology experiments were used to validate the first all-atom structure of the voltage-sensing protein Ci-VSP.

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  15. Laboratory-based x-ray reflectometer for multilayer characterization in the 15150 keV energy band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windt, David L.

    2015-04-15

    A laboratory-based X-ray reflectometer has been developed to measure the performance of hard X-ray multilayer coatings at their operational X-ray energies and incidence angles. The instrument uses a sealed-tube X-ray source with a tungsten anode that can operate up to 160 kV to provide usable radiation in the 15150 keV energy band. Two sets of adjustable tungsten carbide slit assemblies, spaced 4.1 m apart, are used to produce a low-divergence white beam, typically set to 40 ?m 800 ?m in size at the sample. Multilayer coatings under test are held flat using a vacuum chuck and are mounted at the center of a high-resolution goniometer used for precise angular positioning of the sample and detector; additionally, motorized linear stages provide both vertical and horizontal adjustments of the sample position relative to the incident beam. A CdTe energy-sensitive detector, located behind a third adjustable slit, is used in conjunction with pulse-shaping electronics and a multi-channel analyzer to capture both the incident and reflected spectra; the absolute reflectance of the coating under test is computed as the ratio of the two spectra. The instruments design, construction, and operation are described in detail, and example results are presented obtained with both periodic, narrow-band and depth-graded, wide-band hard X-ray multilayer coatings.

  16. Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods (Stanford, CA) - JCAP Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray Methods (Stanford, CA) Research Opportunities in Photochemistry, Solar Energy & Advanced X-ray Methods (Stanford, CA) Thu, Jun 16, 2016 12:00pm 12:00 Fri, Jun 17, 2016 1:00pm 13:00 "The workshop is aimed at strengthening the connection between mission needs in Basic Energy Sciences and the X-ray facilities and in particular identifying key questions in solar energy conversion

  17. Following Dynamic Processes by X-ray Tomographic Microscopy with Sub-second Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokso, R.; Marone, F.; Mikuljan, G.; Isenegger, A.; Haberthuer, D.; Schittny, J. C.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    Several non-destructive imaging techniques offer the possibility to observe rapid phenomena in real time, yet most of these techniques fail when it comes to bulky samples and micrometer precision in three dimensions. Therefore there is clearly a need to develop approaches that address such conditions. We identified the large potential that lies in synchrotron-based x-rays as a probe and developed a direct-space tomographic instrument suitable to provide sub-second temporal resolution with several-micrometers spatial resolution. Selected applications from the field of biology and material science are shown in order to demonstrate the unique capabilities in generating three-dimensional images with very high quality making image segmentation and analysis possible for samples that could, until now, only be studied in two dimensions due to the occurrence of rapid structural changes.

  18. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD.

  19. High resolution biomedical imaging system with direct detection of x-rays via a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, M.; McKay, T.A.

    1998-04-21

    An imaging system is provided for direct detection of x-rays from an irradiated biological tissue. The imaging system includes an energy source for emitting x-rays toward the biological tissue and a charge coupled device (CCD) located immediately adjacent the biological tissue and arranged transverse to the direction of irradiation along which the x-rays travel. The CCD directly receives and detects the x-rays after passing through the biological tissue. The CCD is divided into a matrix of cells, each of which individually stores a count of x-rays directly detected by the cell. The imaging system further includes a pattern generator electrically coupled to the CCD for reading a count from each cell. A display device is provided for displaying an image representative of the count read by the pattern generator from the cells of the CCD. 13 figs.

  20. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  1. The LCLS variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich, David; Zhu, Diling; Turner, James; Zhang, Dehong; Hill, Bruce; Feng, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The engineering design, implementation, operation and performance of the new variable-energy hard X-ray single-shot spectrometer (HXSSS) for the LCLS free-electron laser (FEL) are reported. The HXSSS system is based on a cylindrically bent Si thin crystal for dispersing the incident polychromatic FEL beam. A spatially resolved detector system consisting of a Ce:YAG X-ray scintillator screen, an optical imaging system and a low-noise pixelated optical camera is used to record the spectrograph. The HXSSS provides single-shot spectrum measurements for users whose experiments depend critically on the knowledge of the self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL spectrum. It also helps accelerator physicists for the continuing studies and optimization of self-seeding, various improved mechanisms for lasing mechanisms, and FEL performance improvements. The designed operating energy range of the HXSSS is from 4 to 20 keV, with the spectral range of order larger than 2% and a spectral resolution of 2 × 10-5or better. Those performance goals have all been achieved during the commissioning of the HXSSS.

  2. High-energy x-ray response of photographic films: models and measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henke, B.L.; Uejio, J.Y.; Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Fujiwara, F.G.

    1986-11-01

    A detailed characterization has been established for the new, high-sensitivity double-emulsion Kodak Direct Exposure Film (DEF). The experimental data base consisted of density-versus-exposure measurements that were duplicated at several laboratories for x radiations in the 1000-10,000-eV region. The absortpion and geometric properties of the film were determined, which, along with the density-exposure data, permitted the application of a relatively simple analytical model description for the optical density, D, as a function of the intensity, I (photons/..mu..m/sup 2/), the photon energy, E (eV), and the angle of incidence, 0, of the exposing radiation. A detailed table is presented for the I values corresponding to optical densities in the 0.2--2.0 range and to photon energies, E (eV), in the 1000-10,000-eV region. Experimentally derived conversion relations have been obtained that allow the density values to be expressed as either diffuse of specular. Also presented here is a similar characterization of the complementary, single-emulsion x-ray film, Kodak SB-5 (or 392). For the 1000-10,000-eV region this x-ray film is appreciably less sensitive but has higher resolution.

  3. Determination of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel using high resolution X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Kathryn G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Havrilla, George J.

    2015-05-30

    Characterization of Pu is an essential aspect of safeguards operations at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. A novel analysis technique called hiRX (high resolution X-ray) has been developed for the direct measurement of Pu in spent nuclear fuel dissolver solutions. hiRX is based on monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF), which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional XRF techniques. A breadboard setup of the hiRX instrument was calibrated using spiked surrogate spent fuel (SSF) standards prepared as dried residues. Samples of actual spent fuel were utilized to evaluate the performance of the hiRX. The direct detection of just 39 ng of Pu is demonstrated. Initial quantitative results, with error of 4–27% and precision of 2% relative standard deviation (RSD), were obtained for spent fuel samples. The limit of detection for Pu (100 s) within an excitation spot of 200 μm diameter was 375 pg. This study demonstrates the potential for the hiRX technique to be utilized for the rapid, accurate, and precise determination of Pu. Moreover, the results highlight the analytical capability of hiRX for other applications requiring sensitive and selective nondestructive analyses.

  4. Determination of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel using high resolution X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McIntosh, Kathryn G.; Reilly, Sean D.; Havrilla, George J.

    2015-05-30

    Characterization of Pu is an essential aspect of safeguards operations at nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. A novel analysis technique called hiRX (high resolution X-ray) has been developed for the direct measurement of Pu in spent nuclear fuel dissolver solutions. hiRX is based on monochromatic wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (MWDXRF), which provides enhanced sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional XRF techniques. A breadboard setup of the hiRX instrument was calibrated using spiked surrogate spent fuel (SSF) standards prepared as dried residues. Samples of actual spent fuel were utilized to evaluate the performance of the hiRX. The direct detection of just 39more » ng of Pu is demonstrated. Initial quantitative results, with error of 4–27% and precision of 2% relative standard deviation (RSD), were obtained for spent fuel samples. The limit of detection for Pu (100 s) within an excitation spot of 200 μm diameter was 375 pg. This study demonstrates the potential for the hiRX technique to be utilized for the rapid, accurate, and precise determination of Pu. Moreover, the results highlight the analytical capability of hiRX for other applications requiring sensitive and selective nondestructive analyses.« less

  5. In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials Tuesday, July 9, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Johanna Nelson, Stanford Postdoctoral Scholar, SSRL MSD Hard X-ray Department A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel range, slow recharge, and costly price tag. Li-ion batteries promise the high

  6. Fat to muscle ratio measurements with dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, A.; Luo, J.; Wang, A.; Broadbent, C.; Zhong, J.; Dilmanian, F. A.; Zafonte, F.; Zhong, Z.

    2015-03-14

    Accurate measurement of the fat-to-muscle ratio in animal model is important for obesity research. In addition, an efficient way to measure the fat to muscle ratio in animal model using dual-energy absorptiometry is presented in this paper. A radioactive source exciting x-ray fluorescence from a target material is used to provide the two x-ray energies needed. The x-rays, after transmitting through the sample, are measured with an energy-sensitive Ge detector. Phantoms and specimens were measured. The results showed that the method was sensitive to the fat to muscle ratios with good linearity. A standard deviation of a few percent inmore » the fat to muscle ratio could be observed with the x-ray dose of 0.001 mGy.« less

  7. High-resolution Bent-crystal Spectrometer for the Ultra-soft X-ray Region

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Walling, R. S.

    1988-10-01

    A multichannel vacuum Brag-crystal spectrometer has been developed for high-resolution measurements of the line emission from tokamak plasmas in the wavelength region between 4 and 25 angstrom. The spectrometer employs a bent crystal in Johann geometry and a microchannel-plate intensified photodiode array. The instrument is capable of measuring high-resolution spectra (lambda/..delta..lambda approx. 3000) with fast time resolution (4 msec per spectrum) and good spatial resolution (3 cm). The spectral bandwidth is ..delta..lambda/lambda{sub 0} = 8 angstrom. A simple tilt mechanism allows access to different wavelength intervals. In order to illustrate the utility of the new spectrometer, time- and space-resolved measurements of the n = 3 to n = 2 spectrum of selenium from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak plasmas are presented. The data are used to determine the plasma transport parameters and to infer the radial distribution of fluorinelike, neonlike, and sodiumlike ions of selenium in the plasma. The new ultra-soft x-ray spectrometer has thus enabled us to demonstrate the utility of high-resolution L-shell spectroscopy of neonlike ions as a fusion diagnostic.

  8. Boundary displacement measurements using multi-energy soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritz, K. Stutman, D.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S.

    2014-11-15

    The Multi-Energy Soft X-ray (ME-SXR) system on NSTX provides radial profiles of soft X-ray emission, measured through a set of filters with varying thickness, which have been used to reconstruct the electron temperature on fast time scales (∼10 kHz). In addition to this functionality, here we show that the ME-SXR system can be used to measure the boundary displacement of the NSTX plasma with a few mm spatial resolution during magnetohydrodyamic (MHD) activity. Boundary displacement measurements can serve to inform theoretical predictions of neoclassical toroidal viscosity, and will be used to investigate other edge phenomena on NSTX-U. For example, boundary measurements using filtered SXR measurements can provide information on pedestal steepness and dynamic evolution leading up to and during edge localized modes (ELMs). Future applications include an assessment of a simplified, filtered SXR edge detection system as well as its suitability for real-time non-magnetic boundary feedback for ELMs, MHD, and equilibrium position control.

  9. High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makita, M.; Karvinen, P.; Zhu, D.; Juranic, P. N.; Grünert, J.; Cartier, S.; Jungmann-Smith, J. H.; Lemke, H. T.; Mozzanica, A.; Nelson, S.; et al

    2015-10-16

    We have developed an on-line spectrometer for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation based on a nanostructured diamond diffraction grating and a bent crystal analyzer. Our method provides high spectral resolution, interferes negligibly with the XFEL beam, and can withstand the intense hard x-ray pulses at high repetition rates of >100 Hz. The spectrometer is capable of providing shot-to-shot spectral information for the normalization of data obtained in scientific experiments and optimization of the accelerator operation parameters. We have demonstrated these capabilities of the setup at the Linac Coherent Light Source, in self-amplified spontaneous emission mode at full energy ofmore » >1 mJ with a 120 Hz repetition rate, obtaining a resolving power of Ε/δΕ > 3 × 104. In conclusion, the device was also used to monitor the effects of pulse duration down to 8 fs by analysis of the spectral spike width.« less

  10. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to find the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.

  11. Performance of bent-crystal x-ray microscopes for high energy density physics research

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schollmeier, Marius S.; Geissel, Matthias; Shores, Jonathon E.; Smith, Ian C.; Porter, John L.

    2015-05-29

    We present calculations for the field of view (FOV), image fluence, image monochromaticity, spectral acceptance, and image aberrations for spherical crystal microscopes, which are used as self-emission imaging or backlighter systems at large-scale high energy density physics facilities. Our analytic results are benchmarked with ray-tracing calculations as well as with experimental measurements from the 6.151 keV backlighter system at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, the analytic expressions can be used for x-ray source positions anywhere between the Rowland circle and object plane. We discovered that this enables quick optimization of the performance of proposed but untested, bent-crystal microscope systems to findmore » the best compromise between FOV, image fluence, and spatial resolution for a particular application.« less

  12. Vibronic fine structure in high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra from ion-bombarded boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petravic, Mladen; Peter, Robert; Varasanec, Marijana; Li Luhua; Chen Ying; Cowie, Bruce C. C.

    2013-05-15

    The authors have applied high-resolution near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements around the nitrogen K-edge to study the effects of ion-bombardment on near-surface properties of boron nitride nanotubes. A notable difference has been observed between surface sensitive partial electron yield (PEY) and bulk sensitive total electron yield (TEY) fine-structure measurements. The authors assign the PEY fine structure to the coupling of excited molecular vibrational modes to electronic transitions in NO molecules trapped just below the surface. Oxidation resistance of the boron nitride nanotubes is significantly reduced by low energy ion bombardment, as broken B-N bonds are replaced by N-O bonds involving oxygen present in the surface region. In contrast to the PEY spectra, the bulk sensitive TEY measurements on as-grown samples do not exhibit any fine structure while the ion-bombarded samples show a clear vibronic signature of molecular nitrogen.

  13. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardberg, Anna S.; Del Castillo, Alexis R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Myles, Dean A.A.

    2010-11-19

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 {angstrom} resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH{sub 3}-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the {sigma} level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 {angstrom} resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are {approx}8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0{sigma} level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 {angstrom} resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0{sigma} level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  14. Runaway electron energy measurement using hard x-ray spectroscopy in 'Damavand' tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasouli, C.; Farahbod, A. H.; Rasouli, H.; Lamehi, M.; Iraji, D.; Akhtari, K.; Modarresi, H.

    2009-01-15

    Set of experiments has been developed to study existing runaway electrons in ''Damavand'' tokamak plasma upon characteristics of hard x-ray emissions produced by collision of the runaway electrons with the plasma particles and limiters. As a first step, spatial distribution of hard x-ray emissions on the equatorial plane of the torus was considered. Obtained spectra of hard x-ray emissions for different alignments of shielded detector indicate isotropic emissivity in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with wide angle cone of bremsstrahlung radiations, deduced from the mean value of energy of the runaway electrons. The mean energy was calculated from the slope of the energy spectrum of hard x-ray photons. In the second stage in order to investigate time evolution of energy of the runaway electrons, similar technique were applied to obtain hard x-ray energy in every 3 ms intervals, from the beginning to the end of plasma. The mean energy of the runaway electrons increases during the ramp up phase and reaches its maximum between 3 and 9 ms after plasma formation. Also considering the time dependence of the counted photons in each energy range shows that energetic photons are emitted during the ramp up phase of the plasma current in Damavand tokamak.

  15. Pulse energy measurement at the hard x-ray laser in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Saito, N.; Kurosawa, T.; Richter, M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Tiedtke, K.; Kudo, T.; Yabashi, M.; Tono, K.; Ishikawa, T.

    2012-07-09

    The pulse energies of a free electron laser have accurately been measured in the hard x-ray spectral range. In the photon energy regime from 4.4 keV to 16.8 keV, pulse energies up to 100 {mu}J were obtained at the hard x-ray laser facility SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser). Two independent methods, using a cryogenic radiometer and a gas monitor detector, were applied and agreement within 3.3% was achieved. Based on our validated pulse energy measurement, a SACLA online monitor detector could be calibrated for all future experiments.

  16. X-ray grating interferometry at photon energies over 180 keV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Yaniz, M.; Koch, F.; Meyer, P.; Kunka, D.; Mohr, J.; Zanette, I.; Rack, A.; Hipp, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-04-13

    We report on the implementation and characterization of grating interferometry operating at an x-ray energy of 183 keV. With the possibility to use this technique at high x-ray energies, bigger specimens could be studied in a quantitative way. Also, imaging strongly absorbing specimens will benefit from the advantages of the phase and dark-field signals provided by grating interferometry. However, especially at these high photon energies the performance of the absorption grating becomes a key point on the quality of the system, because the grating lines need to keep their small width of a couple of micrometers and exhibit a greater height of hundreds of micrometers. The performance of high aspect ratio absorption gratings fabricated with different techniques is discussed. Further, a dark-field image of an alkaline multicell battery highlights the potential of high energy x-ray grating based imaging.

  17. High-energy and Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Technologies and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August » High-energy and Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Technologies and Applications High-energy and Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Technologies and Applications WHEN: Aug 02, 2016 8:00 AM - Aug 03, 2016 5:00 PM WHERE: Hilton Santa Fe at Buffalo Thunder CONTACT: Zhehui (Jeff) Wang (505) 665-5353 CATEGORY: Community Science TYPE: Conference INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The goal of this workshop is to gather leading experts in the fields related to ultrafast high-energy photon imaging and

  18. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ~ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vernon, S P; Lowry, M E; Baker, K L; Bennett, C V; Celeste, J R; Cerjan, C; Haynes, S; Hernandez, V J; Hsing, W W; London, R A; Moran, B; von Wittenau, A S; Steele, P T; Stewart, R E

    2012-05-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with {approx} ps resolution.

  19. Upgrades of the high resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, B.; Wang, F.; Fu, J.; Li, Y.; Wan, B.; Shi, Y.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Lee, S. G.

    2012-10-15

    Two imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers, the so-called 'poloidal' and 'tangential' spectrometers, were recently implemented on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to provide spatially and temporally resolved impurity ion temperature (T{sub i}), electron temperature (T{sub e}) and rotation velocity profiles. They are derived from Doppler width of W line for Ti, the intensity ratio of Li-like satellites to W line for Te, and Doppler shift of W line for rotation. Each spectrometer originally consisted of a spherically curved crystal and a two-dimensional multi-wire proportional counter (MWPC) detector. Both spectrometers have now been upgraded. The layout of the tangential spectrometer was modified, since it had to be moved to a different port, and the spectrometer was equipped with two high count rate Pilatus detectors (Model 100 K) to overcome the count rate limitation of the MWPC and to improve its time resolution. The poloidal spectrometer was equipped with two spherically bent crystals to record the spectra of He-like and H-like argon simultaneously and side by side on the original MWPC. These upgrades are described, and new results from the latest EAST experimental campaign are presented.

  20. High-Energy and Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Technologies and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MaRIE High-energy and Ultrafast X-Ray Imaging Technologies and Applications Date : August 2-3, 2016 Hotel venue: Hilton Santa Fe at Buffalo Thunder The goal of this workshop is to gather leading experts in the fields related to ultrafast high-energy photon imaging and prioritize the path forward for ultrafast hard x-ray imaging technology development, identify important applications in the next 5-10 years, and establish foundations for near-term R&D collaboration. This workshop is one in a

  1. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  2. In situ X-ray Characterization of Energy Storage Materials |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A key factor in the global move towards clean, renewable energy is the electrification of the automobile. Current battery technology limits EV (electric vehicles) to a short travel ...

  3. Diagnosing x-ray power and energy of tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kun-lun; Ren, Xiao-dong; Huang, Xian-bin Zhang, Si-qun; Zhou, Shao-tong; Dan, Jia-kun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Ouyang, Kai; Cai, Hong-chun; Wei, Bing; Ji, Ce; Feng, Shu-ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-ping; Deng, Jian-jun

    2015-11-15

    Fast z-pinch is a very efficient way of converting electromagnetic energy to radiation. With an 8-10 MA current on primary test stand facility, about 1 MJ electromagnetic energy is delivered to vacuum chamber, which heats z-pinch plasma to radiate soft x-ray. To develop a pulsed high power x-ray source, we studied the applicability of diagnosing x-ray power from tungsten wire array z-pinch with a flat spectral response x-ray diode (FSR-XRD). The detector was originally developed to diagnose radiation of a hohlraum in SG-III prototype laser facility. It utilized a gold cathode XRD and a specially configured compound gold filter to yield a nearly flat spectral response in photon energy range of 0.1-4 keV. In practice, it was critical to avoid surface contamination of gold cathode. It is illustrated that an exposure of an XRD to multiple shots caused a significant change of response. Thus, in diagnosing x-ray power and energy, we used each XRD in only one shot after calibration. In a shot serial, output of FSR-XRD was compared with output of a nickel bolometer. In these shots, the outputs agreed with each other within their uncertainties which were about 12% for FSR-XRD and about 15% for bolometer. Moreover, the ratios between the FSR-XRD and the bolometer among different shots were explored. In 8 shots, the standard deviation of the ratio was 6%. It is comparable to XRD response change of 7%.

  4. An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Howells, M. R.; Beetz, T.; Chapman, H. N.; Cui, C.; Holton, J. M.; Jacobsen, C. J.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Marchesini, S.; Miao, H.; et al

    2008-11-17

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is a new form of x-ray imaging that is being practiced at several third-generation synchrotron-radiation x-ray facilities. Nine years have elapsed since the technique was first introduced and it has made rapid progress in demonstrating high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and promises few-nm resolution with much larger samples than can be imaged in the transmission electron microscope. Both life- and materials-science applications of XDM are intended, and it is expected that the principal limitation to resolution will be radiation damage for life science and the coherent power of available x-ray sources for material science. In this paper wemore » address the question of the role of radiation damage. We use a statistical analysis based on the so-called "dose fractionation theorem" of Hegerl and Hoppe to calculate the dose needed to make an image of a single life-science sample by XDM with a given resolution. We find that for simply-shaped objects the needed dose scales with the inverse fourth power of the resolution and present experimental evidence to support this finding. To determine the maximum tolerable dose we have assembled a number of data taken from the literature plus some measurements of our own which cover ranges of resolution that are not well covered otherwise. The conclusion of this study is that, based on the natural contrast between protein and water and "Rose-criterion" image quality, one should be able to image a frozen-hydrated biological sample using XDM at a resolution of about 10 nm.« less

  5. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  6. Demonstration of x-ray fluorescence imaging of a high-energy-density plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, M. J. Gamboa, E. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Fein, J. R.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Biener, M. M.; Fournier, K. B.; Streit, J.

    2014-11-15

    Experiments at the Trident Laser Facility have successfully demonstrated the use of x-ray fluorescence imaging (XRFI) to diagnose shocked carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde (CRF) foams doped with Ti. One laser beam created a shock wave in the doped foam. A second laser beam produced a flux of vanadium He-α x-rays, which in turn induced Ti K-shell fluorescence within the foam. Spectrally resolved 1D imaging of the x-ray fluorescence provided shock location and compression measurements. Additionally, experiments using a collimator demonstrated that one can probe specific regions within a target. These results show that XRFI is a capable alternative to path-integrated measurements for diagnosing hydrodynamic experiments at high energy density.

  7. WHOLE CELL TOMOGRAPHY/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Affordable x-ray microscopy with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Blackborow, Paul; Horne, Stephen J.; Gelb, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Biological research spans 10 orders of magnitude from angstroms to meters. While electron microscopy can reveal structural details at most of these spatial length scales, transmission electron tomography only reliably reconstructs three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of cellular material with a spatial resolution between 1-5 nm from samples less than 500 nm thick1. Most biological cells are 2-30 times thicker than this threshold, which means that a cell must be cut into consecutive slices with each slice reconstructed individually in order to approximate the contextual information of the entire cell. Fortunately, due to a larger penetration depth2, X-ray computed tomography bypasses the need to physically section a cell and enables imaging of intact cells and tissues on the micrometer or larger scale with tens to hundreds of nanometer spatial resolution. While the technique of soft x-ray microscopy has been extensively developed in synchrotron facilities, advancements in laboratory x-ray source designs now increase its accessibility by supporting commercial systems suitable for a standard laboratory. In this paper, we highlight a new commercial compact cryogenic soft x-ray microscope designed for a standard laboratory setting and explore its capabilities for mesoscopic investigations of intact prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  8. Thermal Acoustic Sensor for High Pulse Energy X-ray FEL Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.J.; Frisch, J.C.; Kraft, E.M.; Loos, J.; Bentsen, G.S.; /Rochester U.

    2011-12-13

    The pulse energy density of X-ray FELs will saturate or destroy conventional X-ray diagnostics, and the use of large beam attenuation will result in a beam that is dominated by harmonics. We present preliminary results at the LCLS from a pulse energy detector based on the thermal acoustic effect. In this type of detector an X-ray resistant material (boron carbide in this system) intercepts the beam. The pulse heating of the target material produces an acoustic pulse that can be detected with high frequency microphones to produce a signal that is linear in the absorbed energy. The thermal acoustic detector is designed to provide first- and second-order calorimetric measurement of X-ray FEL pulse energy. The first-order calorimetry is a direct temperature measurement of a target designed to absorb all or most of the FEL pulse power with minimal heat leak. The second-order measurement detects the vibration caused by the rapid thermoelastic expansion of the target material each time it absorbs a photon pulse. Both the temperature change and the amplitude of the acoustic signal are directly related to the photon pulse energy.

  9. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer with 25meV resolution at the Cu K -edge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Harder, Manuel; Klementiev, Konstantin; Upton, Mary; Taherkhani, Mehran; Spiwek, Manfred; Dill, Frank-Uwe; Wille, Hans-Christian; Yavaş, Hasan

    2015-06-27

    An unparalleled resolution is reported with an inelastic X-ray scattering instrument at the CuK-edge. Based on a segmented concave analyzer, featuring single-crystal quartz (SiO2) pixels, the spectrometer delivers a resolution near 25meV (FWHM) at 8981eV. Besides the quartz analyzer, the performance of the spectrometer relies on a four-bounce Si(553) high-resolution monochromator and focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez optics. The measured resolution agrees with the ray-tracing simulation of an ideal spectrometer. The performance of the spectrometer is demonstrated by reproducing the phonon dispersion curve of a beryllium single-crystal.

  10. Filter-fluorescer measurement of low-voltage simulator x-ray energy spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, G.T.; Craven, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray energy spectra of the Maxwell Laboratories MBS and Physics International Pulserad 737 were measured using an eight-channel filter-fluorescer array. The PHOSCAT computer code was used to calculate channel response functions, and the UFO code to unfold spectrum.

  11. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueland, B. G.; Saunders, S. M.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Kreyssig, A.; Goldman, A. I.

    2015-11-30

    In this study, YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below a temperature of T*=0.7K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0.4K, a Kondo temperature of TK ? 1K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting on the order of E/kB = 1 10K. Whereas the compound has a face-centered-cubic lattice at ambient temperature, certain experimental data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining its crystalline-electric-field scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-resolution, high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ? 6 10 105 , no structural phase transition occurs between T = 1.5 and 50 K. In combination with results from dilatometry measurements, we further show that the compound's thermal expansion has a minimum at ? 18 K and a region of negative thermal expansion for 9 ? T ? 18 K. Despite diffraction patterns taken at 1.6 K which indicate that the lattice is face-centered cubic and that the Yb resides on a crystallographic site with cubic point symmetry, we demonstrate that the linear thermal expansion may be modeled using crystalline-electric-field level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry.

  12. Spectral Resolution for Five-Element, Filtered, X-Ray Detector (XRD) Arrays Using the Methods of Backus and Gilbert

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FEHL,DAVID LEE; BIGGS,F.; CHANDLER,GORDON A.; STYGAR,WILLIAM A.

    2000-01-17

    The generalized method of Backus and Gilbert (BG) is described and applied to the inverse problem of obtaining spectra from a 5-channel, filtered array of x-ray detectors (XRD's). This diagnostic is routinely fielded on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories to study soft x-ray photons ({le}2300 eV), emitted by high density Z-pinch plasmas. The BG method defines spectral resolution limits on the system of response functions that are in good agreement with the unfold method currently in use. The resolution so defined is independent of the source spectrum. For noise-free, simulated data the BG approximating function is also in reasonable agreement with the source spectrum (150 eV black-body) and the unfold. This function may be used as an initial trial function for iterative methods or a regularization model.

  13. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  14. An x-ray backlit Talbot-Lau deflectometer for high-energy-density electron density diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-02-10

    X-ray phase-contrast techniques can measure electron density gradients in high-energy-density plasmas through refraction induced phase shifts. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer consisting of free standing ultrathin gratings was deployed at an ultra-short, high-intensity laser system using K-shell emission from a 1-30 J, 8 ps laser pulse focused on thin Cu foil targets. Grating survival was demonstrated for 30 J, 8 ps laser pulses. The first x-ray deflectometry images obtained under laser backlighting showed up to 25% image contrast and thus enabled detection of electron areal density gradients with a maximum value of 8.1 ± 0.5 × 1023 cm₋3 in amore » low-Z millimeter sized sample. An electron density profile was obtained from refraction measurements with an error of <8%. We found the 50 ± 15 μm spatial resolution achieved across the full field of view was limited by the x-ray source-size, similar to conventional radiography.« less

  15. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction

  16. MASS AND ENERGY OF ERUPTING SOLAR PLASMA OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung; Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K.

    2015-01-10

    We investigate seven eruptive plasma observations by Hinode/XRT. Their corresponding EUV and/or white light coronal mass ejection features are visible in some events. Five events are observed in several passbands in X-rays, which allows for the determination of the eruptive plasma temperature using a filter ratio method. We find that the isothermal temperatures vary from 1.6 to 10 MK. These temperatures are an average weighted toward higher temperature plasma. We determine the mass constraints of eruptive plasmas by assuming simplified geometrical structures of the plasma with isothermal plasma temperatures. This method provides an upper limit to the masses of the observed eruptive plasmas in X-ray passbands since any clumping causes the overestimation of the mass. For the other two events, we assume the temperatures are at the maximum temperature of the X-ray Telescope (XRT) temperature response function, which gives a lower limit of the masses. We find that the masses in XRT, ∼3 × 10{sup 13}-5 × 10{sup 14} g, are smaller in their upper limit than the total masses obtained by LASCO, ∼1 × 10{sup 15} g. In addition, we estimate the radiative loss, thermal conduction, thermal, and kinetic energies of the eruptive plasma in X-rays. For four events, we find that the thermal conduction timescales are much shorter than the duration of eruption. This result implies that additional heating during the eruption may be required to explain the plasma observations in X-rays for the four events.

  17. TU-A-9A-07: X-Ray Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT): 100% Sensitivity to X-Ray Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, L; Ahmad, M; Nikoozadeh, A; Pratx, G; Khuri-Yakub, B; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess whether X-ray acoustic computed tomography (XACT) is more sensitive to X-ray absorption than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. Methods: First, a theoretical model was built to analyze the X-ray absorption sensitivity of XACT imaging and conventional X-ray imaging. Second, an XACT imaging system was developed to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation as well as the sensitivity improvement over transmission x-ray imaging. Ultra-short x-ray pulses (60-nanosecond) were generated from an X-ray source operated at the energy of 150 kVp with a 10-Hz repetition rate. The X-ray pulse was synchronized with the acoustic detection via a x-ray scintillation triggering to acquire the X-ray induced acoustic signal. Results: Theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signal is sensitive only to the X-ray absorption, while completely insensitive to out the X-ray scattering and fluorescence. XACT has reduced background and increased contrast-to-noise ratio, and therefore has increased sensitivity compared to transmission x-ray imaging. For a 50-μm size, gadolinium insertion in tissue exposed to 40 keV X-rays; the sensitivity of XACT imaging is about 28.9 times higher than that of conventional X-ray imaging. Conclusion: X-ray acoustic computer tomography (XACT) as a new imaging modality combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. It is feasible to improve the imaging sensitivity with XACT imaging compared with conventional X-ray imaging. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, it is possible to perform 3-D imaging with a single x-ray pulse with arrays of transducers without any mechanical motion of the imaging system. This single-shot capability offers the potential of reducing radiation dose by a factor of 1000, and imaging 100 times faster when compared to the conventional X-ray CT, and thus revolutionizing x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology. The authors

  18. Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almaviva, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Franzini, I.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R. M.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2006-07-31

    An innovative route for deep-submicrometer spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy with tabletop x-ray source is proposed. A film of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as imaging detector in contact mode. We present here the x-ray images recorded on LiF films of a Fresnel zone plate with submicrometer gold structures and of an onion cataphyll. The images were read with an optical confocal microscope in fluorescence mode. The measured spatial resolution was about 250 nm, i.e., close to the resolution limit of the confocal microscope. The advantages and drawbacks, and the possible improvements, of this route are discussed.

  19. Single-crystal sapphire microstructure for high-resolution synchrotron X-ray monochromators

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Asadchikov, Victor E.; Butashin, Andrey V.; Buzmakov, Alexey V.; Deryabin, Alexander N.; Kanevsky, Vladimir M.; Prokhorov, Igor A.; Roshchin, Boris S.; Volkov, Yuri O.; Zolotov, Dennis A.; Jafari, Atefeh; et al

    2016-03-22

    We report on the growth and characterization of several sapphire single crystals for the purpose of x-ray optics applications. Structural defects were studied by means of laboratory double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and white beam synchrotron-radiation topography. The investigations confirmed that the main defect types are dislocations. The best quality crystal was grown using the Kyropoulos technique with a dislocation density of 102-103 cm-2 and a small area with approximately 2*2 mm2 did not show dislocation contrast in many reflections and has suitable quality for application as a backscattering monochromator. As a result, a clear correlation between growth rate and dislocation densitymore » is observed, though growth rate is not the only parameter impacting the quality.« less

  20. X-Ray Energy Responses of Silicon Tomography Detectors Irradiated with Fusion Produced Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Nishitani, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    In order to clarify the effects of fusion-produced neutron irradiation on silicon semiconductor x-ray detectors, the x-ray energy responses of both n- and p-type silicon tomography detectors used in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak (n-type) and the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror (p-type) are studied using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The fusion neutronics source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is employed as well-calibrated D-T neutron source with fluences from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto these semiconductor detectors. Different fluence dependence is found between these two types of detectors; that is, (i) for the n-type detector, the recovery of the degraded response is found after the neutron exposure beyond around 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto the detector. A further finding is followed as a 're-degradation' by a neutron irradiation level over about 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, (ii) the energy response of the p-type detector shows only a gradual decrease with increasing neutron fluences. These properties are interpreted by our proposed theory on semiconductor x-ray responses in terms of the effects of neutrons on the effective doping concentration and the diffusion length of a semiconductor detector.

  1. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  2. High-resolution x-ray diffraction study of the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ueland, B. G.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Saunders, S. M.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Bud'ko, S. L.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Canfield, P. C.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA; Kreyssig, A.; et al

    2015-11-30

    In this study, YbBiPt is a heavy-fermion compound possessing significant short-range antiferromagnetic correlations below a temperature of T*=0.7K, fragile antiferromagnetic order below TN = 0.4K, a Kondo temperature of TK ≈ 1K, and crystalline-electric-field splitting on the order of E/kB = 1 – 10K. Whereas the compound has a face-centered-cubic lattice at ambient temperature, certain experimental data, particularly those from studies aimed at determining its crystalline-electric-field scheme, suggest that the lattice distorts at lower temperature. Here, we present results from high-resolution, high-energy x-ray diffraction experiments which show that, within our experimental resolution of ≈ 6 – 10 × 10–5 Å,more » no structural phase transition occurs between T = 1.5 and 50 K. In combination with results from dilatometry measurements, we further show that the compound's thermal expansion has a minimum at ≈ 18 K and a region of negative thermal expansion for 9 ≲ T ≲ 18 K. Despite diffraction patterns taken at 1.6 K which indicate that the lattice is face-centered cubic and that the Yb resides on a crystallographic site with cubic point symmetry, we demonstrate that the linear thermal expansion may be modeled using crystalline-electric-field level schemes appropriate for Yb3+ residing on a site with either cubic or less than cubic point symmetry.« less

  3. The simultaneous measurement of energy and linear polarization of the scattered radiation in resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braicovich, L. Minola, M.; Dellea, G.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Le Tacon, M.; Moretti Sala, M.; Morawe, C.; Peffen, J.-Ch.; Yakhou, F.; Brookes, N. B.; Supruangnet, R.

    2014-11-15

    Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) in the soft x-ray range is an element-specific energy-loss spectroscopy used to probe the electronic and magnetic excitations in strongly correlated solids. In the recent years, RIXS has been progressing very quickly in terms of energy resolution and understanding of the experimental results, but the interpretation of spectra could further improve, sometimes decisively, from a full knowledge of the polarization of incident and scattered photons. Here we present the first implementation, in a high resolution soft-RIXS spectrometer used to analyze the scattered radiation, of a device allowing the measurement of the degree of linear polarization. The system, based on a graded W/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror installed in proximity of the CCD detector, has been installed on the AXES spectrometer at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); it has been fully characterized and it has been used for a demonstration experiment at the Cu L{sub 3} edge on a high-T{sub c} superconducting cuprate. The loss in efficiency suffered by the spectrometer equipped with this test facility was a factor 17.5. We propose also a more advanced version, suitable for a routine use on the next generation of RIXS spectrometers and with an overall efficiency up to 10%.

  4. 7 Resolution in Protein 2-Dimentional-Crystal X-Ray Diffraction at Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrini, Bill; Tsai, Ching-Ju; Capitani, Guido; Padeste, Celestino; Hunter, Mark; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Barty, Anton; Benner, Henry; Boutet, Sebastien; Feld, Geoffrey K.; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Kirian, Rick; Kupitz, Christopher; Messerschmidt, Marc; Ogren, John I.; Pardini, Tommaso; Segelke, Brent; Williams, Garth J.; Spence , John C.; Abela, Rafael; Coleman, Matthew A.; Evans, James E.; Schertler, Gebhard; Frank, Matthias; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2014-06-09

    Membrane proteins arranged as two-dimensional (2D) crystals in the lipid en- vironment provide close-to-physiological structural information, which is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of protein function. X-ray diffraction from individual 2D crystals did not represent a suitable investigation tool because of radiation damage. The recent availability of ultrashort pulses from X-ray Free Electron Lasers (X-FELs) has now provided a mean to outrun the damage. Here we report on measurements performed at the LCLS X-FEL on bacteriorhodopsin 2D crystals mounted on a solid support and kept at room temperature. By merg- ing data from about a dozen of single crystal diffraction images, we unambiguously identified the diffraction peaks to a resolution of 7 A, thus improving the observable resolution with respect to that achievable from a single pattern alone. This indicates that a larger dataset will allow for reliable quantification of peak intensities, and in turn a corresponding increase of resolution. The presented results pave the way to further X-FEL studies on 2D crystals, which may include pump-probe experiments at subpicosecond time resolution.

  5. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  6. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  7. Development of vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires scintillators for high spatial resolution x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu Komori, Jun; Shimidzu, Kaiji; Izaki, Masanobu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2015-02-23

    Newly designed scintillator of (0001)-oriented ZnO vertical nanowires (vnws) for X-ray imaging was prepared on a Ga-doped ZnO/soda-lime glass by electrodeposition, and the light emission feature was estimated in a synchrotron radiation facility. The ZnO-vnws scintillator revealed a strong light emission and improved resolution on CMOS image compared with that for the ZnO-layer scintillator, although the light emission performance was deteriorated in comparison to the Lu{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12:}Ce{sup 3+}. The light emission property closely related to the nanostructure and the resultant photoluminescence characteristic.

  8. A high resolution and large solid angle x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Mori, R. Alonso; Bergmann, U.; Qian, Q.

    2012-04-15

    We present a new x-ray Raman spectroscopy end-station recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The end-station is located at wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two monochromators-Si(111) and Si(311) as well as collimating and focusing optics. It consists of two multi-crystal Johann type spectrometers arranged on intersecting Rowland circles of 1 m diameter. The first one, positioned at the forward scattering angles (low-q), consists of 40 spherically bent and diced Si(110) crystals with 100 mm diameters providing about 1.9% of 4{pi} sr solid angle of detection. When operated in the (440) order in combination with the Si (311) monochromator, an overall energy resolution of 270 meV is obtained at 6462.20 eV. The second spectrometer, consisting of 14 spherically bent Si(110) crystal analyzers (not diced), is positioned at the backward scattering angles (high-q) enabling the study of non-dipole transitions. The solid angle of this spectrometer is about 0.9% of 4{pi} sr, with a combined energy resolution of 600 meV using the Si (311) monochromator. These features exceed the specifications of currently existing relevant instrumentation, opening new opportunities for the routine application of this photon-in/photon-out hard x-ray technique to emerging research in multidisciplinary scientific fields, such as energy-related sciences, material sciences, physical chemistry, etc.

  9. Development of a lab-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) materials characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J.C.E. Williams, J.J. Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-06-01

    The design and construction of a modular high resolution X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is highlighted in this paper. The design approach is detailed for meeting a specified set of instrument performance goals tailored towards experimental versatility and high resolution imaging. The XCT tool is unique in the detector and X-ray source design configuration, enabling control in the balance between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. The system package is also unique: The sample manipulation approach implemented enables a wide gamut of in situ experimentation to analyze structure evolution under applied stimulus, by optimizing scan conditions through a high degree of controllability. The component selection and design process is detailed: Incorporated components are specified, custom designs are shared, and the approach for their integration into a fully functional XCT scanner is provided. Custom designs discussed include the dual-target X-ray source cradle which maintains position and trajectory of the beam between the two X-ray target configurations with respect to a scintillator mounting and positioning assembly and the imaging sensor, as well as a novel large-format X-ray detector with enhanced adaptability. The instrument is discussed from an operational point of view, including the details of data acquisition and processing implemented for 3D imaging via micro-CT. The performance of the instrument is demonstrated on a silica-glass particle/hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene (HTPB) matrix binder PBX simulant. Post-scan data processing, specifically segmentation of the sample's relevant microstructure from the 3D reconstruction, is provided to demonstrate the utility of the instrument. - Highlights: Custom built X-ray tomography system for microstructural characterization Detector design for maximizing polychromatic X-ray detection efficiency X-ray design offered for maximizing X-ray flux with respect to imaging resolution Novel lab

  10. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  11. A stochastic approach to quantifying the blur with uncertainty estimation for high-energy X-ray imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Michael J.; Howard, Marylesa; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-06-03

    One of the primary causes of blur in a high-energy X-ray imaging system is the shape and extent of the radiation source, or ‘spot’. It is important to be able to quantify the size of the spot as it provides a lower bound on the recoverable resolution for a radiograph, and penumbral imaging methods – which involve the analysis of blur caused by a structured aperture – can be used to obtain the spot’s spatial profile. We present a Bayesian approach for estimating the spot shape that, unlike variational methods, is robust to the initial choice of parameters. The posterior is obtained from a normal likelihood, which was constructed from a weighted least squares approximation to a Poisson noise model, and prior assumptions that enforce both smoothness and non-negativity constraints. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to obtain samples from the target posterior, and the reconstruction and uncertainty estimates are the computed mean and variance of the samples, respectively. Lastly, synthetic data-sets are used to demonstrate accurate reconstruction, while real data taken with high-energy X-ray imaging systems are used to demonstrate applicability and feasibility.

  12. A stochastic approach to quantifying the blur with uncertainty estimation for high-energy X-ray imaging systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fowler, Michael J.; Howard, Marylesa; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Webb, Timothy J.

    2015-06-03

    One of the primary causes of blur in a high-energy X-ray imaging system is the shape and extent of the radiation source, or ‘spot’. It is important to be able to quantify the size of the spot as it provides a lower bound on the recoverable resolution for a radiograph, and penumbral imaging methods – which involve the analysis of blur caused by a structured aperture – can be used to obtain the spot’s spatial profile. We present a Bayesian approach for estimating the spot shape that, unlike variational methods, is robust to the initial choice of parameters. The posteriormore » is obtained from a normal likelihood, which was constructed from a weighted least squares approximation to a Poisson noise model, and prior assumptions that enforce both smoothness and non-negativity constraints. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to obtain samples from the target posterior, and the reconstruction and uncertainty estimates are the computed mean and variance of the samples, respectively. Lastly, synthetic data-sets are used to demonstrate accurate reconstruction, while real data taken with high-energy X-ray imaging systems are used to demonstrate applicability and feasibility.« less

  13. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  14. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  15. X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (802 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia National Laboratories has created an improved efficiency compact X-ray source to address a wide range of applications. The high average power large area X-ray tube provides increased X-ray generation efficiency

  16. Toward resolving the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase using neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallography [Neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallography reveals water as the proton donor in the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wan, Qun; Bennett, Brad C.; Wilson, Mark A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Langan, Paul; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Dealwis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). An important step in the mechanism involves proton donation to the N5 atom of DHF. The inability to determine the protonation states of active site residues and substrate has led to the lack of consensus on a catalytic mechanism. To resolve this ambiguity, we conducted neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallographic studies of the pseudo-Michaelis ternary complex of DHFR with folate and NADP+ from E. coli. The neutron data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a 3.6 mm3 crystal with the quasi-Laue technique, and the structuremore » reveals that the N3 atom of folate is protonated while Asp27 is negatively charged. Previous mechanisms have proposed a keto-to-enol tautomerization of the substrate to facilitate protonation of the N5 atom. The structure supports the existence of the keto tautomer due to protonation of the N3 atom, suggesting tautomerization is unnecessary for catalysis. In the 1.05 Å resolution X-ray structure of the ternary complex, conformational disorder of the Met20 side chain is coupled to electron density for a partially occupied water within hydrogen-bonding distance of the N5 atom of folate; this suggests direct protonation of substrate by solvent. We propose a catalytic mechanism for DHFR that involves stabilization of the keto tautomer of the substrate, elevation of the pKa of the N5 atom of DHF by Asp27, and protonation of N5 by water whose access to the active site is gated by fluctuation of the Met20 side chain even though the Met-20 loop is closed.« less

  17. Toward resolving the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase using neutron and ultrahigh-resolution X-ray crystallography [Neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallography reveals water as the proton donor in the catalytic mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Qun; Bennett, Brad C.; Wilson, Mark A.; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Langan, Paul; Howell, Elizabeth E.; Dealwis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of dihydrofolate (DHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). An important step in the mechanism involves proton donation to the N5 atom of DHF. The inability to determine the protonation states of active site residues and substrate has led to the lack of consensus on a catalytic mechanism. To resolve this ambiguity, we conducted neutron and ultrahigh resolution X-ray crystallographic studies of the pseudo-Michaelis ternary complex of DHFR with folate and NADP+ from E. coli. The neutron data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using a 3.6 mm3 crystal with the quasi-Laue technique, and the structure reveals that the N3 atom of folate is protonated while Asp27 is negatively charged. Previous mechanisms have proposed a keto-to-enol tautomerization of the substrate to facilitate protonation of the N5 atom. The structure supports the existence of the keto tautomer due to protonation of the N3 atom, suggesting tautomerization is unnecessary for catalysis. In the 1.05 Å resolution X-ray structure of the ternary complex, conformational disorder of the Met20 side chain is coupled to electron density for a partially occupied water within hydrogen-bonding distance of the N5 atom of folate; this suggests direct protonation of substrate by solvent. We propose a catalytic mechanism for DHFR that involves stabilization of the keto tautomer of the substrate, elevation of the pKa of the N5 atom of DHF by Asp27, and protonation of N5 by water whose access to the active site is gated by fluctuation of the Met20 side chain even though the Met-20 loop is closed.

  18. Crystal Dynamics of (delta) fcc Pu-Ga by High Resolution Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, J; Krisch, M; Farber, D; Occelli, F; Xu, R; Chiang, T C; Clatterbuck, D; Schwartz, A J; Wall, M; Boro, C

    2004-09-28

    We have used a microbeam on large grain sample concept to carry out an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium.

  19. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  20. Efficacy of fixed filtration for rapid kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Yuan; Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.; Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305; Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Dose efficiency of dual kVp imaging can be improved if the two beams are filtered to remove photons in the common part of their spectra, thereby increasing spectral separation. While there are a number of advantages to rapid kVp-switching for dual energy, it may not be feasible to have two different filters for the two spectra. Therefore, the authors are interested in whether a fixed added filter can improve the dose efficiency of kVp-switching dual energy x-ray systems. Methods: The authors hypothesized that a K-edge filter would provide the energy selectivity needed to remove overlap of the spectra and hence increase the precision of material separation at constant dose. Preliminary simulations were done using calcium and water basis materials and 80 and 140 kVp x-ray spectra. Precision of the decomposition was evaluated based on the propagation of the Poisson noise through the decomposition function. Considering availability and cost, the authors chose a commercial Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screen as the filter for their experimental validation. Experiments were conducted on a table-top system using a phantom with various thicknesses of acrylic and copper and 70 and 125 kVp x-ray spectra. The authors kept the phantom exposure roughly constant with and without filtration by adjusting the tube current. The filtered and unfiltered raw data of both low and high energy were decomposed into basis material and the variance of the decomposition for each thickness pair was calculated. To evaluate the filtration performance, the authors measured the ratio of material decomposition variance with and without filtration. Results: Simulation results show that the ideal filter material depends on the object composition and thickness, and ranges across the lanthanide series, with higher atomic number filters being preferred for more attenuating objects. Variance reduction increases with filter thickness, and substantial reductions (40%) can be achieved with a 2 loss in

  1. Modeling energy dependence of the inner-shell x-ray emission produced by femtosecond-pulse laser irradiation of xenon clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgan, James P

    2008-01-01

    We employ the Los Alamos suite of atomic physics codes to model the inner-shell x-ray emission spectrum of xenon and compare results with those obtained via high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of xenon clusters irradiated by 30 fs Ti:Sa laser pulses. We find that the commonly employed configuration average approximation breaks down and significant spin-orbit splitting necessitates a detailed level accounting. Additionally, we reproduce an interesting spectral trend for a series of experimental spectra taken with varying pulse energy for fixed pulse duration. To simulate the experimental measurements at increasing beam energies, we find that spectral modeling requires an increased hot electron fraction, but decreased atomic density and bulk electron temperature. We believe these latter conditions to be a result of partial cluster destruction due to the increased energy in the laser prepulse.

  2. Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Data Collection and Mapping 2-M Probe Survey Fault Mapping Field...

  3. The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser August 17, 2010 - 6:19pm Addthis The World's First Free-Electron X-ray Laser John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Yesterday, Secretary Chu participated in the dedication of the world's first free-electron and most powerful X-ray laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). In light of this occasion (pun intended), we posted an in-depth look at the innovative

  4. Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fuchs, Silvio; Rödel, Christian; Blinne, Alexander; Zastrau, Ulf; Wünsche, Martin; Hilbert, Vinzenz; Glaser, Leif; Viefhaus, Jens; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul; et al

    2016-02-10

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT) and thus introduce a new technique for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of nanometer structures. XCT exploits the nanometerscale coherence lengthsmore » corresponding to the spectral transmission windows of, e.g., silicon samples. The axial resolution of coherence tomography is thus improved from micrometers to a few nanometers. Tomographic imaging with an axial resolution better than 18 nm is demonstrated for layer-type nanostructures buried in a silicon substrate. Using wavelengths in the water transmission window, nanometer-scale layers of platinum are retrieved with a resolution better than 8 nm. As a result, XCT as a nondestructive method for sub-surface tomographic imaging holds promise for several applications in semiconductor metrology and imaging in the water window.« less

  5. Note: Characterization of a high-photon-energy X-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, M.; Schiebel, P.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.; Eichman, B.; Theobald, W.; Mileham, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Begishev, I. A.; Fiksel, G.; Zhong, Z.; Stephens, R. B.

    2013-10-15

    The Bragg angle, rocking curve, and reflection efficiency of a quartz crystal x-ray imager (Miller indices 234) were measured at photon energy of 15.6909 keV, corresponding to the K{sub α2} line of Zr, using the X15A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One flat and three spherically curved samples were tested. The peak reflectivity of the best-performing crystal was determined to be (3.6 ± 0.7) × 10{sup −4} with a rocking-curve full width at half maximum of 0.09°. The Zr K{sub α2} emission was imaged from a hot Zr plasma generated by a 10-J multiterawatt laser.

  6. THE EFFECT OF LIMITED SPATIAL RESOLUTION OF STELLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WIND AND CORONAL X-RAY EMISSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Downs, C.

    2013-02-10

    We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5 Degree-Sign and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

  7. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HYBRID ELECTRIC TRANSIT BUS EVALUATIONS The role of AVTA is to bridge the gap between R&D and commercial availability of advanced vehicle technologies that reduce U.S. petroleum use while improving air quality. AVTA supports the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program in moving these technologies from R&D to market deployment by examining market factors and customer requirements, evaluating performance and durability of alternative

  8. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  9. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  10. Spatially resolved high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy of high-current plasma-focus discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZajaPc, S.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Scholz, M.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Rosmej, O.; Yongtao, Zhao; Gojska, A.

    2010-10-15

    Soft x-ray emission from a Mather-type plasma-focus device (PF-1000) operated at {approx}400 kJ was measured. The high density and temperature plasma were generated by the discharge in the deuterium-argon gas mixture in the modified (high-current) plasma-focus configuration. A spherically bent mica crystal spectrograph viewing the axial output of the pinch region was used to measure the x-ray spectra. Spatially resolved spectra including the characteristic x-ray lines of highly ionized Ar and continua were recorded by means of an x-ray film. The x-ray emission of PF-1000 device was studied at different areas of the pinch.

  11. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  12. Learning to Apply Metrology Principles to the Measurement of X-ray Intensities in the 500 eV to 110 keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J.; Pond, T.; Silbernagel, C.; Torres, P.; Marlett, K.; Goldin, F.; Cyr, S.

    2011-02-08

    National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Livermore Operations, has two optical radiation calibration laboratories accredited by “the National Voluntary Laboratories Accreditation Program (NVLAP) which is the accrediting body of” the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and is now working towards accreditation for its X-ray laboratories. NSTec operates several laboratories with X-ray sources that generate X-rays in the energy range from 50 eV to 115 keV. These X-ray sources are used to characterize and calibrate diagnostics and diagnostic components used by the various national laboratories, particularly for plasma analysis on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) National Ignition Facility (NIF). Because X-ray photon flux measurement methods that can be accredited, i.e., traceable to NIST, have not been developed for sources operating in these energy ranges, NSTec, NIST, and the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP) together have defined a path toward the development and validation of accredited metrology methods for X-ray energies. The methodology developed for the high energy X-ray (HEX) Laboratory was NSTec’s starting point for X-ray metrology accreditation and will be the basis for the accredited processes in the other X-ray laboratories. This paper will serve as a teaching tool, by way of this example using the NSTec X-ray sources, for the process and methods used in developing an accredited traceable metrology.

  13. Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_kastengren.pdf (17.93 MB) More Documents & Publications Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry

  14. Note: Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effect of photodiode aluminum cathode frame on spectral sensitivity in the soft x-ray energy band M. B. McGarry 1,a) , P. Franz 2 , D. J. Den Hartog 1 , J. A. Goetz 1 and J. Johnson 1 a) Electronic mail: mbmcgarry@wisc.edu Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 096105 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894656 Abstract Silicon photodiodes used for soft x-ray detection typically have a thin metal electrode partially covering the active area of the photodiode, which subtly alters the spectral sensitivity of the

  15. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  16. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  17. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S.; Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Muoz Caro, G. M.; Jimnez-Escobar, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  18. A semianalytic model to extract differential linear scattering coefficients of breast tissue from energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Boileau, Michel M.; Wang Yinkun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this work is to develop a technique to measure the x-ray diffraction signals of breast biopsy specimens. A biomedical x-ray diffraction technology capable of measuring such signals may prove to be of diagnostic use to the medical field. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements coupled with a semianalytical model were used to extract the differential linear scattering coefficients [{mu}{sub s}(x)] of breast tissues on absolute scales. The coefficients describe the probabilities of scatter events occurring per unit length of tissue per unit solid angle of detection. They are a function of the momentum transfer argument, x=sin({theta}/2)/{lambda}, where {theta}=scatter angle and {lambda}=incident wavelength. The technique was validated by using a 3 mm diameter 50 kV polychromatic x-ray beam incident on a 5 mm diameter 5 mm thick sample of water. Water was used because good x-ray diffraction data are available in the literature. The scatter profiles from 6 deg. to 15 deg. in increments of 1 deg. were measured with a 3 mmx3 mmx2 mm thick cadmium zinc telluride detector. A 2 mm diameter Pb aperture was placed on top of the detector. The target to detector distance was 29 cm and the duration of each measurement was 10 min. Ensemble averages of the results compare well with the gold standard data of A. H. Narten [''X-ray diffraction data on liquid water in the temperature range 4 deg. C-200 deg. C, ORNL Report No. 4578 (1970)]. An average 7.68% difference for which most of the discrepancies can be attributed to the background noise at low angles was obtained. The preliminary measurements of breast tissue are also encouraging.

  19. On the variation of solar flare coronal X-ray source sizes with energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Bian, Nicolas H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow (United Kingdom); Emslie, A. Gordon, E-mail: n.jeffrey@physics.gla.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Observations with RHESSI have enabled the detailed study of the structure of dense hard X-ray coronal sources in solar flares. The variation of source extent with electron energy has been discussed in the context of streaming of non-thermal particles in a one-dimensional cold target model and the results used to constrain both the physical extent of, and density within, the electron acceleration region. Here, we extend this investigation to a more physically realistic model of electron transport that takes into account the finite temperature of the ambient plasma, the initial pitch angle distribution of the accelerated electrons, and the effects of collisional pitch angle scattering. The finite temperature results in the thermal diffusion of electrons, which leads to the observationally inferred value of the acceleration region volume being an overestimate of its true value. The different directions of the electron trajectories, a consequence of both the non-zero injection pitch angle and scattering within the target, cause the projected propagation distance parallel to the guiding magnetic field to be reduced, so that a one-dimensional interpretation can overestimate the actual density by a factor of up to ?6. The implications of these results for the determination of acceleration region properties (specific acceleration rate, filling factor, etc.) are discussed.

  20. An analytic model for the response of a CZT detector in diagnostic energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeClair, Robert J.; Wang Yinkun; Zhao Peiying; Boileau, Michel; Wang, Lilie; Fleurot, Fabrice [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada) and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    A CdZnTe detector (CZTD) can be very useful for measuring diagnostic x-ray spectra. The semiconductor detector does, however, exhibit poor hole transport properties and fluorescence generation upon atomic de-excitations. This article describes an analytic model to characterize these two phenomena that occur when a CZTD is exposed to diagnostic x rays. The analytical detector response functions compare well with those obtained via Monte Carlo calculations. The response functions were applied to 50, 80, and 110 kV x-ray spectra. Two 50 kV spectra were measured; one with no filtration and the other with 1.35 mm Al filtration. The unfiltered spectrum was numerically filtered with 1.35 mm of Al in order to see whether the recovered spectrum resembled the filtered spectrum actually measured. A deviation curve was obtained by subtracting one curve from the other on an energy bin by bin basis. The deviation pattern fluctuated around the zero line when corrections were applied to both spectra. Significant deviations from zero towards the lower energies were observed when the uncorrected spectra were used. Beside visual observations, the exposure obtained using the numerically attenuated unfiltered beam was compared to the exposure calculated with the actual filtered beam. The percent differences were 0.8% when corrections were applied and 25% for no corrections. The model can be used to correct diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with a CdZnTe detector.

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  2. A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folkard, Melvyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Schettino, Giuseppe; Atkinson, Kirk; Prise, Kevin, M.; Michael, Barry, D.

    2007-01-23

    The Gray Cancer Institute has pioneered the use of X ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro irradiating individual cells and sub cellular targets in vitro. Cellular micro irradiation is now recognised as a highly versatile technique for understanding how ionising radiation interacts with living cells and tissues. The strength of the technique lies in its ability to deliver precise doses of radiation to selected individual cells (or sub cellular targets). The application of this technique in the field of radiation biology continues to be of great interest for investigating a number of phenomena currently of concern to the radiobiological community. One important phenomenon is the so called ‘bystander effect’ where it is observed that unirradiated cells can also respond to signals transmitted by irradiated neighbours. Clearly, the ability of a microbeam to irradiate just a single cell or selected cells within a population is well suited to studying this effect. Our prototype ‘tabletop’ X-ray microprobe was optimised for focusing 278 eV C-K X rays and has been used successfully for a number of years. However, we have sought to develop a new variable energy soft X-ray microprobe capable of delivering focused CK (0.28 keV), Al-K (1.48 keV) and notably, Ti-K (4.5 keV) X rays. Ti-K X rays are capable of penetrating several cell layers and are therefore much better suited to studies involving tissues and multi cellular layers. In our new design, X-rays are generated by the focussed electron bombardment of a material whose characteristic-K radiation is required. The source is mounted on a 1.5 x 1.0 metre optical table. Electrons are generated by a custom built gun, designed to operate up to 15 kV. The electrons are focused using a permanent neodymium iron boron magnet assembly. Focusing is achieved by adjusting the accelerating voltage and by fine tuning the target position via a vacuum position feedthrough. To analyze the electron beam properties, a

  3. Using X-Rays to Zap the Zika Virus | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using X-Rays to Zap the Zika Virus Using X-Rays to Zap the Zika Virus July 29, 2016 - 2:55pm Addthis New knowledge about the Zika Virus gets us closer to finding effective treatment. | Video by Argonne National Laboratory. Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs The Zika virus is a growing public health crisis. We don't yet have a vaccine or drug treatment to combat the spreading problem, but a team of researchers just got a big step closer. Researchers from the

  4. High resolution absorption spectroscopy of exploding wire plasmas using an x-pinch x-ray source and spherically bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Hansen, S. B.

    2011-06-15

    We present here the use of absorption spectroscopy of the continuum radiation from x-pinch-produced point x-ray sources as a diagnostic to investigate the properties of aluminum plasmas created by pulsed power machines. This technique is being developed to determine the charge state, temperature, and density as a function of time and space under conditions that are inaccessible to x-ray emission spectroscopic diagnostics. The apparatus and its characterization are described, and the spectrometer dispersion, magnification, and resolution are calculated and compared with experimental results. Spectral resolution of about 5000 and spatial resolution of about 20 {mu}m are demonstrated. This spectral resolution is the highest available to date in an absorption experiment. The beneficial properties of the x-pinch x-ray source as the backlighter for this diagnostic are the small source size (<5 {mu}m), smooth continuum radiation, and short pulse duration (<0.1 ns). Results from a closely spaced (1 mm) exploding wire pair are shown and the general features are discussed.

  5. THE SAP3 COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR QUANTITATIVE MULTIELEMENT ANALYSIS BY ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, K. K.; Sanders, R. W.

    1982-04-01

    SAP3 is a dual-function FORTRAN computer program which performs peak analysis of energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectra and then quantitatively interprets the results of the multielement analysis. It was written for mono- or bi-chromatic excitation as from an isotopic or secondary excitation source, and uses the separate incoherent and coherent backscatter intensities to define the bulk sample matrix composition. This composition is used in performing fundamental-parameter matrix corrections for self-absorption, enhancement, and particle-size effects, obviating the need for specific calibrations for a given sample matrix. The generalized calibration is based on a set of thin-film sensitivities, which are stored in a library disk file and used for all sample matrices and thicknesses. Peak overlap factors are also determined from the thin-film standards, and are stored in the library for calculating peak overlap corrections. A detailed description is given of the algorithms and program logic, and the program listing and flow charts are also provided. An auxiliary program, SPCAL, is also given for use in calibrating the backscatter intensities. SAP3 provides numerous analysis options via seventeen control switches which give flexibility in performing the calculations best suited to the sample and the user needs. User input may be limited to the name of the library, the analysis livetime, and the spectrum filename and location. Output includes all peak analysis information, matrix correction factors, and element concentrations, uncertainties and detection limits. Twenty-four elements are typically determined from a 1024-channel spectrum in one-to-two minutes using a PDP-11/34 computer operating under RSX-11M.

  6. Deciphering Ni sequestration in soil ferromanganese nodules by combining x-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction at micrometer scales of resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manceau, Alain; Tamura, Nobumichi; Marcus, Matthew A.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; Celestre, Richard S.; Sublett, Robert E.; Sposito, Garrison; Padmore, Howard A.

    2002-11-06

    X-ray microprobes are among the most important new analytical techniques to emerge from third generation synchrotron facilities. Here we show how X-ray fluorescence, diffraction, and absorption can be used in parallel to determine the structural form of trace elements in heterogeneous matrices at the micrometer-scale of resolution. Scanning X-ray microfluorescence (microSXRF) and microdiffraction (microSXRD) first are used to identify the host solid phase by mapping the distributions of elements and solid species, respectively. Micro-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (microEXAFS) spectroscopy is then used to determine the mechanism of trace element binding by the host phase at the molecular scale. To illustrate the complementary application of these three techniques, we studied how nickel is sequestered in soil ferromanganese nodules, an overwhelmingly complex natural matrix consisting of submicrometer to nanometer sized particles with varying structures and chemical composition s. We show that nickel substitutes for Mn3+ in the manganese layer of the MnO2-Al(OH)3 mixed-layer oxide lithiophorite. The affinity of Ni for lithiophorite was characteristic of micromodules sampled from soils across the U.S.A. and Europe. Since many natural and synthetic materials are heterogeneous at nanometer to micrometer scales, the synergistic use of microSXRF, microSXRD and microEXAFS is expected to have broad applications to earth and materials science.

  7. High Energy X-Ray System Specification for the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, David A.

    2012-08-10

    This specification establishes requirements for an X-Ray System to be used at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) to support radiography of experimental assemblies for Laboratory (LANL, LLNL, SNL) programs conducting work at the NNSS.

  8. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization

  9. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  10. Low-energy X-ray dosimetry studies (6 to 16 keV) at SSRL beamline 1-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ipe, N.E.; Chatterji, S.; Fasso, A.; Kase, K.R.; Seefred, R.; Olko, P.; Bilski, P.; Soares, C.

    1997-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) are described. Polish lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), MTS-N(LiF:Mg, Ti-0.4 mm thick), MCP-N(LiF:Mg, Cu, P-0.4 mm thick) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (6--16 keV). These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. The responses (counts/Gy) of MTS-N and MCP-N were generally found to increase with increasing energy. The response at 16 keV is about 3 and 4 times higher than the response at 6 keV for MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both types of TLDs over a dose range of 0.01 to 0.4 Gy. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. The energy response of the PTW ionization chamber type 23342 relative to the SSRL ionization chamber is within {+-}4.5% between 6 and 16 keV. Both the TLDs and the PTW ionization chamber can also be used for beam dosimetry.

  11. Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (6 to 16 keV) at SSRL beamline 1-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ipe, N. E.; Chatterji, S.; Fasso, A.; Kase, K. R.; Seefred, R.; Olko, P.; Bilski, P.; Soares, C.

    1997-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation facilities provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) are described. Polish lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), MTS-N(LiF:Mg, Ti- 0.4 mm thick), MCP-N (LiF:Mg, Cu, P - 0.4 mm thick) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (6-16 keV). These exposures were monitored with an SSRL ionization chamber. The responses (counts/Gy) of MTS-N and MCP-N were generally found to increase with increasing energy. The response at 16 keV is about 3 and 4 times higher than the response at 6 keV for MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively. Irradiation at 6 keV indicates a fairly linear dose response for both type of TLDs over a dose range of 0.01 to 0.4 Gy. In addition there appears to be no significant difference in responses between irradiating the TLDs from the front and the back sides. The energy response of the PTW ionization chamber type 23342 relative to the SSRL ionization chamber is within {+-}4.5% between 6 and 16 keV. Both the TLDs and the PTW ionization chamber can also be used for beam dosimetry.

  12. Biomedical nuclear and X-ray imager using high-energy grazing incidence mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Craig, William W.; Hasegawa, Bruce; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2005-09-27

    Imaging of radiation sources located in a subject is explored for medical applications. The approach involves using grazing-incidence optics to form images of the location of radiopharmaceuticals administered to a subject. The optics are "true focusing" optics, meaning that they project a real and inverted image of the radiation source onto a detector possessing spatial and energy resolution.

  13. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  14. OSTIblog Articles in the X-Ray Nanoprobe Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information X-Ray Nanoprobe Topic Solving the mystery of superconductivity by Kathy Chambers 17 Oct, 2013 in Products and Content 9539 yongchu.jpg Solving the mystery of superconductivity Read more about 9539 At the legendary 1987 American Physical Society conference, sometimes called the "Woodstock of physics", thousands of physicists descended upon a New York Hilton ballroom to hear about the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity (HTS)

  15. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  16. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chica, U.; Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Vilches, M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  17. Application of PILATUS II Detector Modules for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.L. Bitter, Ch. Borennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, K.W. Hill, A. Ince-Chushman, S.G. Lee, J.E. Rice, and S. Scott.

    2007-07-23

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for Doppler measurements of the radial profiles of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity in tokamak plasmas is presently being developed in a collaboration between various laboratories. The spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent crystal and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector; and it will record temporally and spatially resolved X-ray line spectra from highly-charged ions. The detector must satisfy challenging requirements with respect to count rate and spatial resolution. The paper presents the results from a recent test of a PILATUS II detector module on Alcator C-Mod, which demonstrate that the PILATUS II detector modules will satisfy these requirements.

  18. High resolution short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer for copper K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kujala, N. G.; Barrea, R. A.; Karanfil, C.

    2011-06-15

    We have developed a compact short focal distance Bent Crystal Laue Analyzer (BCLA) for Cu speciation studies of biological systems with specific applications to cancer biology. The system provides high energy resolution and high background rejection. The system is composed of an aluminum block serving as a log spiral bender for a 15 micron thick Silicon 111 crystal and a set of soller slits. The energy resolution of the BCLA--about 14 eV at the Cu K{alpha} line-- allows resolution of the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} and CuK{alpha}{sub 2} lines. The system is easily aligned by using a set of motorized XYZ linear stages. Two operation modes are available: incident energy scans (IES) and emission energy scans (EES). IES allows scanning of the incident energy while the BCLA system is maintained at a preselected fixed position - typically CuK{alpha}{sub 1} line. EES is used when the incident energy is fixed and the analyzer is scanned to provide the peak profile of the emission lines of Cu.

  19. A comparative analysis of OTF, NPS, and DQE in energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: One of the benefits of photon counting (PC) detectors over energy integrating (EI) detectors is the absence of many additive noise sources, such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that thresholding voltage gains to detect individual x rays actually generates an unexpected source of white noise in photon counters. Methods: To distinguish the two detector types, their point spread function (PSF) is interpreted differently. The PSF of the energy integrating detector is treated as a weighting function for counting x rays, while the PSF of the photon counting detector is interpreted as a probability. Although this model ignores some subtleties of real imaging systems, such as scatter and the energy-dependent amplification of secondary quanta in indirect-converting detectors, it is useful for demonstrating fundamental differences between the two detector types. From first principles, the optical transfer function (OTF) is calculated as the continuous Fourier transform of the PSF, the noise power spectra (NPS) is determined by the discrete space Fourier transform (DSFT) of the autocovariance of signal intensity, and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) is found from combined knowledge of the OTF and NPS. To illustrate the calculation of the transfer functions, the PSF is modeled as the convolution of a Gaussian with the product of rect functions. The Gaussian reflects the blurring of the x-ray converter, while the rect functions model the sampling of the detector. Results: The transfer functions are first calculated assuming outside noise sources such as electronic noise and secondary quantum noise are negligible. It is demonstrated that while OTF is the same for two detector types possessing an equivalent PSF, a frequency-independent (i.e., ''white'') difference in their NPS exists such that NPS{sub PC}{>=}NPS{sub EI} and hence DQE{sub PC}{<=}DQE{sub EI}. The necessary and sufficient condition for

  20. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  1. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M. Hill, K. W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N.; Lu, Jian; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, Hui

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer, which can be used in combination with gated x-ray detectors to obtain spectra from laser-produced plasmas with a high (sub-ns) time resolution. The spectrometer consists of a convex, spherically bent crystal, which images individual spectral lines as perfectly straight lines across multiple, sequentially gated, strip detectors. Since the Bragg-reflected rays are divergent, the distance between detector and crystal is arbitrary, so that this distance can be appropriately chosen to optimize the experimental arrangement with respect to the detector parameters. The spectrometer concept was verified in proof-of-principle experiments by imaging the L?{sub 1}- and L?{sub 2}-lines of tungsten, at 9.6735 and 9.96150 keV, from a micro-focus x-ray tube with a tungsten target onto a two-dimensional pixilated Pilatus detector, using a convex, spherically bent Si-422 crystal with a radius of curvature of 500 mm.

  2. Ionization energy shift of characteristic K x-ray lines from high-Z materials for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S?abkowska, K.; Szyma?ska, E.; Polasik, M.; Pereira, N. R.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Seely, J. F.; Weber, B. V.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-03-15

    The energy of the characteristic x-rays emitted by high atomic number atoms in a plasma that contains energetic electrons depends on the atom's ionization. For tungsten, the ionization energy shift of the L-lines has recently been used to diagnose the plasma's ionization; the change in energy of a K-line has been measured for iridium and observed for ytterbium. Here, we present detailed computations of the ionization energy shift to K-lines of these and an additional element, dysprosium; for these atoms, some K-lines nearly coincide in energy with K-edges of slightly lower Z atoms so that a change in transmission behind a K-edge filter betrays a change in energy. The ionization energy shift of such high-energy K-lines may enable a unique diagnostic when the plasma is inside an otherwise opaque enclosure such as hohlraums used on the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  4. Note: Design and construction of a multi-scale, high-resolution, tube-generated X-Ray computed-tomography system for three-dimensional (3D) imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-01-15

    The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.

  5. Wide-Band KB Optics for Spectro-Microscopy Imaging Applications in the 6-13 keV X-ray Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, E.; De Panfilis, S.; Peverini, L.; Vaerenbergh, P. van; Rocca, F.

    2007-01-19

    We present a Kirkpatrick-Baez optics (KB) system specially optimized to operate in the 6-13 keV X-ray range, where valuable characteristic lines are present. The mirrors are coated with aperiodic laterally graded (Ru/B4C)35 multilayers to define a 15% energy bandpass and to gain flux as compared to total reflection mirrors. For any X-ray energy selected the shape of each mirror can be optimized with a dynamical bending system so as to concentrate the X-ray beam into a micrometer-size spot. Once the KB mirrors are aligned at the X-ray energy corresponding to the barycenter of the XAS spectrum to be performed they remain in a steady state during the micro-XAS scans to minimize beam displacements. Results regarding the performance of the wideband KB optics and of the spectro-microscopy setup are presented, including beam stability issues.

  6. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  7. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carini, Gabriella; Denes, Peter; Gruener, Sol; Lessner, Elianne

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  8. Simulations of Microchannel Plate Sensitivity to <20 keV X-rays as a Function of Energy and Incident Angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruschwitz, Craig; Wu, M.; Rochau, G. A.

    2013-06-13

    We present results of Monte Carlo simulations of microchannel plate (MCP) response to x-rays in the 250 eV to 20 keV energy range as a function of both x-ray energy and impact angle. The model is based on the model presented in Rochau et al. (2006). However, while the Rochau et al. (2006) model was two-dimensional, and their results only went to 5 keV, our results have been expanded to 20 keV, and our model has been incorporated into a three-dimensional Monte Carlo MCP model that we have developed over the past several years (Kruschwitz et al. 2011). X-ray penetration through multiple MCP pore walls is increasingly important above 5 keV. The effect of x-ray penetration through multiple pores on MCP performance was studied and is presented.

  9. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  10. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  11. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  12. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid, energy-related, and tailored nanomaterials The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe, located at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and operated by our group and APS, is the only dedicated X-ray microscopy beamline within the portfolios of the nation's Nanoscale Science Research Centers. Our scientific program seeks to understand

  13. Improved Ga grading of sequentially produced Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells studied by high resolution X-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schöppe, Philipp; Schnohr, Claudia S.; Oertel, Michael; Kusch, Alexander; Johannes, Andreas; Eckner, Stefanie; Reislöhner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Burghammer, Manfred; Martínez-Criado, Gema

    2015-01-05

    There is particular interest to investigate compositional inhomogeneity of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell absorbers. We introduce an approach in which focused ion beam prepared thin lamellas of complete solar cell devices are scanned with a highly focused synchrotron X-ray beam. Analyzing the resulting fluorescence radiation ensures high resolution compositional analysis combined with high spatial resolution. Thus, we are able to detect subtle variations of the Ga/(Ga + In) ratio down to 0.01 on a submicrometer scale. We observed that for sequentially processed solar cells a higher selenization temperature leads to absorbers with almost homogenous Ga/(Ga + In) ratio, which significantly improved the conversion efficiency.

  14. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  15. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is ... removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. ...

  16. High-resolution Elemental Mapping of Human Placental Chorionic Villi Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punshon, Tracy; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Howard, Louisa; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Ornvold, Kim

    2015-09-01

    The placenta is the organ that mediates transport of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microanalysis is a tool for imaging the distribution and quantity of elements in biological tissue, which can be used to study metal transport across biological membranes. Our aims were to pilot placental biopsy specimen preparation techniques that could be integrated into an ongoing epidemiology birth cohort study without harming rates of sample acquisition. We studied the effects of fixative (formalin or glutaraldehyde) and storage duration (30 days or immediate processing) on metal distribution and abundance and investigated a thaw-fixation protocol for archived specimens stored at -80 A degrees C. We measured fixative elemental composition with and without a placental biopsy via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify fixative-induced elemental changes. Formalin-fixed specimens showed hemolysis of erythrocytes. The glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution in HEPES buffer (GTA-HEPES) had superior anatomical preservation, avoided hemolysis, and minimized elemental loss, although some cross-linking of exogenous Zn was evident. Elemental loss from tissue stored in fixative for 1 month showed variable losses (a parts per thousand 40 % with GTA-HEPES), suggesting storage duration be controlled for. Thawing of tissue held at -80 A degrees C in a GTA-HEPES solution provided high-quality visual images and elemental images

  17. High-resolution elemental mapping of human placental chorionic villi using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Punshon, Tracy; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Howard, Louisa; Jackson, Brian P.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Ornvold, Kim

    2015-07-03

    The placenta is the organ that mediates transport of nutrients and waste materials between mother and fetus. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microanalysis is a tool for imaging the distribution and quantity of elements in biological tissue, which can be used to study metal transport across biological membranes. Our aims were to pilot placental biopsy specimen preparation techniques that could be integrated into an ongoing epidemiology birth cohort study without harming rates of sample acquisition. We studied the effects of fixative (formalin or glutaraldehyde) and storage duration (30 days or immediate processing) on metal distribution and abundance and investigated a thaw-fixationmore » protocol for archived specimens stored at -80° C. We measured fixative elemental composition with and without a placental biopsy via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to quantify fixative-induced elemental changes. Formalin-fixed specimens showed hemolysis of erythrocytes. The glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution in HEPES buffer (GTA-HEPES) had superior anatomical preservation, avoided hemolysis, and minimized elemental loss, although some cross-linking of exogenous Zn was evident. Elemental loss from tissue stored in fixative for 1 month showed variable losses (≈ 40 % with GTA-HEPES), suggesting storage duration be controlled for. Lastly, thawing of tissue held at -80 °C in a GTA-HEPES solution provided high-quality visual images and elemental images« less

  18. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  19. High resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy of low Z K-shell emission from laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J; Magee, E W; Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Hansen, S B; Moon, S J; Brown, G V; Gu, M; Beiersdorfer, P; Purvis, M A

    2008-05-21

    A large radius, R = 44.3 m, High Resolution Grating Spectrometer (HRGS) with 2400 line/mm variable line spacing has been designed for laser-produced plasma experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility. The instrument has been run with a low-noise, charge-coupled device detector to record high signal-to-noise spectra in the 10-50 {angstrom} wavelength range. The instrument can be run with a 10-20 {micro}m wide slit to achieve the best spectral resolving power, approaching 1000 and similar to crystal spectrometers at 12-20 {angstrom}, or in slitless operation with a small symmetrical emission source. We describe preliminary spectra emitted from various H-like and He-like low Z ion plasmas heated by 100-500 ps (FWHM), 527 nm wavelength laser pulses. This instrument can be developed as a useful spectroscopy platform relevant to laboratory-based astrophysics as well as high energy density plasma studies.

  20. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  1. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.

    2015-08-28

    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk.

  2. In situ, energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction study of natural gas conversion by CO[sub 2] reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashcroft, A.T. ); Cheetham, A.K. ); Jones, R.H.; Natarajan, S.; Thomas, J.M.; Waller, D. ); Clark, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    The selective CO[sub 2] reforming of methane to synthesis gas over a rare-earth iridate pyrochlore, Ln[sub 2]Ir[sub 2]O[sub 7] (Ln = Eu), and rare-earth ruthenate pyrochlores, Ln[sub 2]Ru[sub 2]O[sub 7] (Ln = Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd), has been studied in situ by using energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. Analysis of the diffraction data shows that the oxides are activated by reduction to the platinum group metal, the iridate by a second-order kinetic reaction, and the ruthenates by a first-order process. Temperature programmed reductions under carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane establish that the iridates proceed directly to the metal, whereas the ruthenates reduce via an oxygen deficient pyrochlore. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. High-energy X-ray focusing and applications to pair distribution function investigation of Pt and Au nanoparticles at high pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Xinguo; Ehm, Lars; Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit; Duffy, Thomas S.; Weidner, Donald J.

    2016-02-23

    We report development of micro-focusing optics for high-energy x-rays by combining a sagittally bent Laue crystal monchromator with Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) X-ray focusing mirrors. The optical system is able to provide a clean, high-flux X-ray beam suitable for pair distribution function (PDF) measurements at high pressure using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). A focused beam of moderate size (10–15 μm) has been achieved at energies of 66 and 81keV. PDF data for nanocrystalline platinum (n-Pt) were collected at 12.5 GPa with a single 5 s X-ray exposure, showing that the in-situ compression, decompression, and relaxation behavior of samples in the DACmore » can be investigated with this technique. PDFs of n-Pt and nano Au (n-Au) under quasi-hydrostatic loading to as high as 71GPa indicate the existence of substantial reduction of grain or domain size for Pt and Au nanoparticles at pressures below 10 GPa. In conclusion, the coupling of sagittally bent Laue crystals with K–B mirrors provides a useful means to focus high-energy synchrotron X-rays from a bending magnet or wiggler source.« less

  4. X-ray lasers and methods utilizing two component driving illumination provided by optical laser means of relatively low energy and small physical size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, Mordecai D.; Matthews, Dennis L.

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10), and related methodology, are disclosed wherein an X-ray laser target (12) is illuminated with a first pulse of optical laser radiation (14) of relatively long duration having scarcely enough energy to produce a narrow and linear cool plasma of uniform composition (38). A second, relatively short pulse of optical laser radiation (18) is uniformly swept across the length, from end to end, of the plasma (38), at about the speed of light, to consecutively illuminate continuously succeeding portions of the plasma (38) with optical laser radiation having scarcely enough energy to heat, ionize, and invert them into the continuously succeeding portions of an X-ray gain medium. This inventive double pulse technique results in a saving of more than two orders of magnitude in driving optical laser energy, when compared to the conventional single pulse approach.

  5. Space X-ray Solves Mysteries of Black Holes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternative Energy Confidential Draft - For Discussion Only Oxford Solar Project Lessons Learned February, 2016 Rebecca Kauffman, SUAE President Southern Ute Alternative Energy Confidential Draft - For Discussion Only Agenda Background - Southern Ute Indian Tribe - Southern Ute Alternative Energy Solar Project Overview - Why Now? - Why this particular project? Project Development Process - Permitting - Land access - Utility Negotiation Project Next Steps - Remaining Activities 2 Southern Ute

  6. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  7. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  8. New Constraints on Dark Energy from Chandra X-rayObservations of the Largest Relaxed Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, S.W.; Rapetti, D.A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Schmidt, R.W.; /Heidelberg, Astron. Rechen Inst.; Ebeling, H.; /Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Morris, G.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2007-06-06

    We present constraints on the mean matter density, {Omega}{sub m}, dark energy density, {Omega}{sub DE}, and the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, using Chandra measurements of the X-ray gas mass fraction (fgas) in 42 hot (kT > 5keV), X-ray luminous, dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters spanning the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.1. Using only the fgas data for the 6 lowest redshift clusters at z < 0.15, for which dark energy has a negligible effect on the measurements, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 (68% confidence, using standard priors on the Hubble Constant, H{sub 0}, and mean baryon density, {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}). Analyzing the data for all 42 clusters, employing only weak priors on H{sub 0} and {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2}, we obtain a similar result on {Omega}{sub m} and detect the effects of dark energy on the distances to the clusters at {approx}99.99% confidence, with {Omega}{sub DE}=0.86{+-}0.21 for a non-flat LCDM model. The detection of dark energy is comparable in significance to recent SNIa studies and represents strong, independent evidence for cosmic acceleration. Systematic scatter remains undetected in the f{sub gas} data, despite a weighted mean statistical scatter in the distance measurements of only {approx}5%. For a flat cosmology with constant w, we measure {Omega}{sub m}=0.28{+-}0.06 and w=-1.14{+-}0.31. Combining the fgas data with independent constraints from CMB and SNIa studies removes the need for priors on {Omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} and H{sub 0} and leads to tighter constraints: {Omega}{sub m}=0.253{+-}0.021 and w=-0.98{+-}0.07 for the same constant-w model. More general analyses in which we relax the assumption of flatness and/or allow evolution in w remain consistent with the cosmological constant paradigm. Our analysis includes conservative allowances for systematic uncertainties. The small systematic scatter and tight constraints bode well for future dark energy studies using the f{sub gas} method.

  9. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  10. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  11. Electron energy partition in the ‘above-the-looptop’ solar hard X-ray sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The presentation begins by considering the non-thermal fraction of electron energies (Rε) in 'above-the-looptop' (ALT). Several spectral models area considered: isothermal model, power-law, and the newly derived kappa distribution. Technically, all 3 non-thermal models can fit the data. In the discussion of flare scenario, energy partition, energization mechanism, and collisionality are considered. It is concluded that the kappa distribution works (Rε ≲ 50%), magnetic reconnection scenario works, and Coulomb collisions may reduce the non-thermal fraction of electron energies.

  12. A theoretical comparison of x-ray angiographic image quality using energy-dependent and conventional subtraction methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2012-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is widely used for vascular imaging. However, the need to subtract a mask image can result in motion artifacts and compromised image quality. The current interest in energy-resolving photon-counting (EPC) detectors offers the promise of eliminating motion artifacts and other advanced applications using a single exposure. The authors describe a method of assessing the iodine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that may be achieved with energy-resolved angiography (ERA) to enable a direct comparison with other approaches including DSA and dual-energy angiography for the same patient exposure. Methods: A linearized noise-propagation approach, combined with linear expressions of dual-energy and energy-resolved imaging, is used to describe the iodine SNR. The results were validated by a Monte Carlo calculation for all three approaches and compared visually for dual-energy and DSA imaging using a simple angiographic phantom with a CsI-based flat-panel detector. Results: The linearized SNR calculations show excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. While dual-energy methods require an increased tube heat load of 2x to 4x compared to DSA, and photon-counting detectors are not yet ready for angiographic imaging, the available iodine SNR for both methods as tested is within 10% of that of conventional DSA for the same patient exposure over a wide range of patient thicknesses and iodine concentrations. Conclusions: While the energy-based methods are not necessarily optimized and further improvements are likely, the linearized noise-propagation analysis provides the theoretical framework of a level playing field for optimization studies and comparison with conventional DSA. It is concluded that both dual-energy and photon-counting approaches have the potential to provide similar angiographic image quality to DSA.

  13. High-resolution x-ray spectrometer based on spherically bent crystals for investigations of femtosecond laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.K.; Osterheld, A.L.; Price, D.F.; Shepherd, R.; Stewart, R.E.; Faenov, A.Y.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Y.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Letardi, T.; Grilli, A.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1998-12-01

    Ultrashort-pulse, laser-produced plasmas have become very interesting laboratory sources to study spectroscopically due to their very high densities and temperatures, and the high laser-induced electromagnetic fields present. Typically, these plasmas are of very small volume and very low emissivity. Thus, studying these near point source plasmas requires advanced experimental techniques. We present a new spectrometer design called the focusing spectrometer with spatial resolution (FSSR-2D) based on a spherically bent crystal which provides simultaneous high spectral ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx}10{sup 4}) and spatial resolution ({approx}10thinsp{mu}m) as well as high luminosity (high collection efficiency). We described in detail the FSSR-2D case in which a small, near point source plasma is investigated. An estimate for the spectral and spatial resolution for the spectrometer is outlined based on geometric considerations. Using the FSSR-2D instrument, experimental data measured from both a 100 fs and a nanosecond pulse laser-produced plasma are presented. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  15. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  16. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  17. Absolute Calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS Film Response to X Rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV Energy Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F.J.; Knauer, J.P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.L.

    2006-09-28

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory e-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations.

  18. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  19. Towards three-dimensional and attosecond x-ray imaging at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray wavelength appears desirable to achieve maximal spatial resolution in x-ray diffraction experiments, longer wavelengths turns out to enable the identification of...

  20. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these. 2. Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. It readily penetrates most materials and is sometimes called "penetrating radiation." 3. X-rays are like gamma rays.

  1. Colossal Magnetoresistive Manganite Based Fast Bolometric X-ray Sensors for Total Energy Measurements of Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Adhikari, S; Mundle, R M; Cox, D W; Davidson III, A L; Liang, Y; Drury, O B; Hau-Riege, S P; Gardner, C; Ables, E; Bionta, R M; Friedrich, S

    2008-12-17

    Bolometric detectors based on epitaxial thin films of rare earth perovskite manganites have been proposed as total energy monitors for X-ray pulses at the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. We demonstrate such a detector scheme based on epitaxial thin films of the perovskite manganese oxide material Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub x0.33}MnO{sub 3}, grown by pulsed laser deposition on buffered silicon substrates. The substrate and sensor materials are chosen to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, speed and linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. The key challenge in the material development is the integration of the sensor material with Si. Si is required to withstand the free electron laser pulse impact and to achieve a readout speed three orders of magnitude faster than conventional cryoradiometers for compatibility with the Linac Coherent Light Source pulse rate. We discuss sensor material development and the photoresponse of prototype devices. This Linac Coherent Light Source total energy monitor represents the first practical application of manganite materials as bolometric sensors.

  2. Catalytic Mechanism of Perosamine N-Acetyltransferase Revealed by High-Resolution X-ray Crystallographic Studies and Kinetic Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoden, James B.; Reinhardt, Laurie A.; Cook, Paul D.; Menden, Patrick; Cleland, W.W.; Holden, Hazel M.

    2012-09-17

    N-Acetylperosamine is an unusual dideoxysugar found in the O-antigens of some Gram-negative bacteria, including the pathogenic Escherichia coli strain O157:H7. The last step in its biosynthesis is catalyzed by PerB, an N-acetyltransferase belonging to the left-handed {beta}-helix superfamily of proteins. Here we describe a combined structural and functional investigation of PerB from Caulobacter crescentus. For this study, three structures were determined to 1.0 {angstrom} resolution or better: the enzyme in complex with CoA and GDP-perosamine, the protein with bound CoA and GDP-N-acetylperosamine, and the enzyme containing a tetrahedral transition state mimic bound in the active site. Each subunit of the trimeric enzyme folds into two distinct regions. The N-terminal domain is globular and dominated by a six-stranded mainly parallel {beta}-sheet. It provides most of the interactions between the protein and GDP-perosamine. The C-terminal domain consists of a left-handed {beta}-helix, which has nearly seven turns. This region provides the scaffold for CoA binding. On the basis of these high-resolution structures, site-directed mutant proteins were constructed to test the roles of His 141 and Asp 142 in the catalytic mechanism. Kinetic data and pH-rate profiles are indicative of His 141 serving as a general base. In addition, the backbone amide group of Gly 159 provides an oxyanion hole for stabilization of the tetrahedral transition state. The pH-rate profiles are also consistent with the GDP-linked amino sugar substrate entering the active site in its unprotonated form. Finally, for this investigation, we show that PerB can accept GDP-3-deoxyperosamine as an alternative substrate, thus representing the production of a novel trideoxysugar.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies to near-atomic resolution of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, Benjamin R.; Dobson, Renwick C. J. Dogovski, Con; Jameson, Geoffrey B.; Parker, Michael W.; Perugini, Matthew A.

    2008-07-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme of the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis to 1.45 Å resolution of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant S. aureus is reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. DHDPS is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, coupling (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, an important bacterial pathogen, are reported. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly from PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.45 Å resolution. The space group was P1 and the unit-cell parameters were a = 65.4, b = 67.6, c = 78.0 Å, α = 90.1, β = 68.9, γ = 72.3°. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.34 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 47% for four monomers per asymmetric unit. The structure of the enzyme will help to guide the design of novel therapeutics against the methicillin-resistant S. aureus pathogen.

  4. SPATIALLY RESOLVING A STARBURST GALAXY AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC253

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Yukita, M.; Ptak, A.; Venters, T.; Zhang, W. W.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Argo, M. K.; Bechtol, K.; Boggs, S.; Craig, W.; Krivonos, R.; Christensen, F.; Hailey, C.; Harrison, F.; Maccarone, T. J.; Stern, D.

    2014-12-20

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR data set, comprised of three ?165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC253. Above ?10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100'' of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxydominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXsfalls steeply (photon index ? 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is detected at E > 40 keV. We report upper limits on diffuse inverse Compton emission for a range of spatial models. For the most extended morphologies considered, these hard X-ray constraints disfavor a dominant inverse Compton component to explain the ?-ray emission detected with Fermi and H.E.S.S. If NGC253 is typical of starburst galaxies at higher redshift, their contribution to the E > 10 keV cosmic X-ray background is <1%.

  5. High energy X-ray pinhole imaging at the Z facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McPherson, L. Armon; Ampleford, David J.; Coverdale, Christine A.; Argo, Jeffrey W.; Owen, Albert C.; Jaramillo, Deanna M.

    2016-06-06

    A new high photon energy (hv > 15 keV) time-integrated pinhole camera (TIPC) has become available at the Z facility for diagnostic applications. This camera employs five pinholes in a linear array for recording five images at once onto an image plate detector. Each pinhole may be independently filtered to yield five different spectral responses. The pinhole array is fabricated from a 1-cm thick tungsten block and is available with either straight pinholes or conical pinholes. Each pinhole within the array block is 250 μm in diameter. The five pinholes are splayed with respect to each other such that theymore » point to the same location in space, and hence present the same view of the target load at the Z facility. The fielding distance is 66 cm and the nominal image magnification is 0.374. Initial experimental results are shown to illustrate the performance of the camera.« less

  6. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  7. Characterization of Cr poisoning in a solid oxide fuel cell cathode using a high-energy x-ray microbeam.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D. J.; Almer, J.; Cruse, T.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the feasibility of using metallic interconnects made of high temperature ferritic stainless steels, which reduce system cost while providing excellent electric conductivity. Such interconnects, however, contain high levels of chromium, which has been found to be associated with SOFC cathode performance degradation at SOFC operating temperatures; a phenomenon known as Cr poisoning. Here, we demonstrate an accurate measurement of the phase and concentration distributions of Cr species in a degraded SOFC, as well as related properties including deviatoric strain, integrated porosity, and lattice parameter variation, using high energy microbeam X-ray diffraction and radiography. We unambiguously identify (MnCr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the two main contaminant phases and find that their concentrations correlate strongly with the cathode layer composition. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition within the active cathode region reduces porosity and produces compressive residual strains, which hinders the reactant gas percolation and can cause structural breakdown of the SOFC cathode. The information obtained through this study can be used to better understand the Cr-poisoning mechanism and improve SOFC design.

  8. Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Withers, P. J.; Koruza, J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.

    2015-05-07

    The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb{sub 0.98}Ba{sub 0.01}(Zr{sub 0.51}Ti{sub 0.49}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

  9. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  10. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  13. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  14. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  15. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  16. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  19. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray...

  20. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  1. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  2. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  3. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  4. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  5. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey data. I. Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since z ~ 1.2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; R. Perfecto; Song, J.; Desai, S.; Mohr, J.; et al

    2016-01-14

    Here, using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z ~ 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift.

  6. High-energy X-ray imaging of the pulsar wind nebula MSH 1552: constraints on particle acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 1552 in the hard X-ray band (?8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron-emitting electron distribution at ?200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B150958, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50'' of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N {sub H} map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  7. Exploring electronic structure through high-resolution hard x...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solid angle spectroscopy end-station at beamline 6-2 (SSRL). Three multicrystal high energy-resolution x-ray spectrometers (a 40-crystal low-q x-ray Raman spectrometer, a ...

  8. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  9. Absolute calibration of Kodak Biomax-MS film response to x rays in the 1.5- to 8-keV energy range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. L

    2006-10-15

    The absolute response of Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays in the range from 1.5- to 8-keV has been measured using a laboratory electron-beam generated x-ray source. The measurements were taken at specific line energies by using Bragg diffraction to produce monochromatic beams of x rays. Multiple exposures were taken on Biomax MS film up to levels exceeding optical densities of 2 as measured by a microdensitometer. The absolute beam intensity for each exposure was measured with a Si(Li) detector. Additional response measurements were taken with Kodak direct exposure film (DEF) so as to compare the results of this technique to previously published calibrations. The Biomax-MS results have been fitted to a semiempirical mathematical model (Knauer et al., these proceedings). Users of the model can infer absolute fluences from observed exposure levels at either interpolated or extrapolated energies. To summarize the results: Biomax MS has comparable sensitivity to DEF film below 3 keV but has reduced sensitivity above 3 keV ({approx}50%). The lower exposure results from thinner emulsion layers, designed for use with phosphor screens. The ease with which Biomax-MS can be used in place of DEF (same format film, same developing process, and comparable sensitivity) makes it a good replacement.

  10. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  11. X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on UnconventionalSuperconduc...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional Superconductivity Basic Energy ... X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional Superconductivity Creation of ...

  12. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  13. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  14. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  15. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  16. Soft-x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft-x-ray emission, plasma equilibrium, and fluctuation studies on Madison Symmetric Torus C. Xiao Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin and Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada P. Franz Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA Sulla Fusione, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita' di Ricerca di Padova, Italy B. E. Chapman and D. Craig Department of Physics, University of

  17. A high-resolution imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer for high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Magee, E.; Nagel, S. R.; Park, J.; Schneider, M. B.; Stone, G.; Williams, G. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M. E-mail: bitter@pppl.gov; Hill, K. W.; Kerr, S.

    2014-11-15

    Adapting a concept developed for magnetic confinement fusion experiments, an imaging crystal spectrometer has been designed and tested for HED plasmas. The instrument uses a spherically bent quartz [211] crystal with radius of curvature of 490.8 mm. The instrument was tested at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by irradiating titanium slabs with laser intensities of 10{sup 19}–10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. He-like and Li-like Ti lines were recorded, from which the spectrometer performance was evaluated. This spectrometer provides very high spectral resolving power (E/dE > 7000) while acquiring a one-dimensional image of the source.

  18. TAILORING X-RAY BEAM ENERGY SPECTRUM TO ENHANCE IMAGE QUALITY OF NEW RADIOGRAPHY CONTRAST AGENTS BASED ON GD OR OTHER LANTHANIDES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DILMANIAN,F.A.; WEINMANN,H.J.; ZHONG,Z.; BACARIAN,T.; RIGON,L.; BUTTON,T.M.; REN,B.; WU,X.Y.; ZHONG,N.; ATKINS,H.L.

    2001-02-17

    Gadovist, a 1.0-molar Gd contrast agent from Schering AG, Berlin Germany, in use in clinical MPI in Europe, was evaluated as a radiography contrast agent. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Schering AG is developing several such lanthanide-based contrast agents, while BNL evaluates them using different x-my beam energy spectra. These energy spectra include a ''truly'' monochromatic beam (0.2 keV energy bandwidth) from the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), BNL, tuned above the Gd K-edge, and x-ray-tube beams from different kVp settings and beam filtrations. Radiographs of rabbits' kidneys were obtained with Gadovist at the NSLS. Furthermore, a clinical radiography system was used for imaging rabbits' kidneys comparing Gadovist and Conray, an iodinated contrast agent. The study, using 74 kVp and standard Al beam filter for Conray and 66 kVp and an additional 1.5 mm Cu beam filter for Gadovist, produced comparable images for Gadovist and Conray; the injection volumes were the same, while the radiation absorbed dose for Gadovist was slightly smaller. A bent-crystal silicon monochromator operating in the Laue diffraction mode was developed and tested with a conventional x-ray tube beam; it narrows the energy spectrum to about 4 keV around the anode tungsten's Ku line. Preliminary beam-flux results indicate that the method could be implemented in clinical CT if x-ray tubes with {approximately} twice higher output become available.

  19. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  20. Analysis of Flow Cytometry DNA Damage Response Protein Activation Kinetics Following X-rays and High Energy Iron Nuclei Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Universities Space Research Association; Chappell, Lori J.; Whalen, Mary K.; Gurai, Sheena; Ponomarev, Artem; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janice M.

    2010-12-15

    We developed a mathematical method to analyze flow cytometry data to describe the kinetics of {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 phosphorylations ensuing various qualities of low dose radiation in normal human fibroblast cells. Previously reported flow cytometry kinetic results for these DSB repair phospho-proteins revealed that distributions of intensity were highly skewed, severely limiting the detection of differences in the very low dose range. Distributional analysis reveals significant differences between control and low dose samples when distributions are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Radiation quality differences are found in the distribution shapes and when a nonlinear model is used to relate dose and time to the decay of the mean ratio of phosphoprotein intensities of irradiated samples to controls. We analyzed cell cycle phase and radiation quality dependent characteristic repair times and residual phospho-protein levels with these methods. Characteristic repair times for {gamma}H2AX were higher following Fe nuclei as compared to X-rays in G1 cells (4.5 {+-} 0.46 h vs 3.26 {+-} 0.76 h, respectively), and in S/G2 cells (5.51 {+-} 2.94 h vs 2.87 {+-} 0.45 h, respectively). The RBE in G1 cells for Fe nuclei relative to X-rays for {gamma}H2AX was 2.05 {+-} 0.61 and 5.02 {+-} 3.47, at 2 h and 24-h postirradiation, respectively. For pATF2, a saturation effect is observed with reduced expression at high doses, especially for Fe nuclei, with much slower characteristic repair times (>7 h) compared to X-rays. RBEs for pATF2 were 0.66 {+-} 0.13 and 1.66 {+-} 0.46 at 2 h and 24 h, respectively. Significant differences in {gamma}H2AX and pATF2 levels comparing irradiated samples to control were noted even at the lowest dose analyzed (0.05 Gy) using these methods of analysis. These results reveal that mathematical models can be applied to flow cytometry data to uncover important and subtle differences following exposure to various qualities of low dose radiation.

  1. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  2. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  3. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  4. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  5. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  6. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  7. Bright x-ray stainless steel K-shell source development at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, M. J.; Fournier, K. B.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Dewald, E. L.; Moody, J.; Patterson, J. R.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Hohenberger, M.; Regan, S. P.

    2015-06-15

    High x-ray conversion efficiency (XRCE) K-shell sources are being developed for high energy density experiments for use as backlighters and for the testing of materials exposed to high x-ray fluxes and fluences. Recently, sources with high XRCE in the K-shell x-ray energy range of iron and nickel were investigated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The x-ray conversion efficiency in the 5–9 keV spectral range was determined to be 6.8% ± 0.3%. These targets were 4.1 mm diameter, 4 mm tall hollow epoxy tubes having a 50 μm thick wall supporting a tube of 3 to 3.5 μm thick stainless steel. The NIF laser deposited ∼460 kJ of 3ω light into the target in a 140 TW, 3.3 ns square pulse. The absolute x-ray emission of the source was measured by two calibrated Dante x-ray spectrometers. Time resolved images filtered for the Fe K-shell were recorded to follow the heating of the target. Time integrated high-resolution spectra were recorded in the K-shell range.

  8. Installation of soft X-ray array diagnostics and its application to tomography reconstruction using synthetic KSTAR X-ray images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Jang, Juhyeok; Hong, Joohwan; Jang, Siwon; Choe, Wonho; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Kim, Junghee

    2014-11-15

    Four-array system of soft X-ray diagnostics was installed on KSTAR tokamak. Each array has 32 viewing chords of two photo-diode array detectors with spatial resolution of 2 cm. To estimate signals from the soft X-ray radiation power, typical n{sub e}, T{sub e}, and argon impurity line radiation profiles in KSTAR are chosen. The photo-diodes were absolutely calibrated as a function of the incident photon energy in 240 keV range with a portable X-ray tube. Two-dimensional T{sub e} image properties by multi-energy method were simulated and visualized with six combinations of beryllium filter sets within the dynamic range of signal ratio.

  9. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme...

  10. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray spectrometers for high energy density plasma at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, California). In...

  11. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  12. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  13. Resolute Marine Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resolute Marine Energy Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Resolute Marine Energy Inc Address: 3 Post Office Square 3rd floor Place: Massachusetts Country: United States Zip:...

  14. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  15. X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial resolution of 30 nm over a spectral range of 6-12 keV. Modes of Operation Full-Field Transmission Imaging and Nanotomography X-ray transmission imaging uses both the absorption and phase shift of the X-ray beam by the sample as contrast mechanisms. Absorption contrast is used to map the sample

  16. Absolute Time-Resolved X-Ray Laser Gain Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mocek, T.; Sebban, S.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Faivre, G.; Hallou, A.; Rousseau, J.P.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.; Fajardo, M.; Kazamias, S.; Dubau, J.; Aubert, D.; Lacheze-Murel, G. de

    2005-10-21

    We present the first direct measurement of the time evolution of the gain of a soft x-ray laser amplifier. The measurement is based on the injection of a seed pulse, obtained by high-order harmonic generation, into an x-ray laser medium. Strong amplification occurs when the seed pulse is synchronized with the gain period. By precisely varying the delay between the x-ray laser plasma creation and the seed pulse injection, the actual temporal evolution of the soft x-ray amplifier gain is obtained with a subpicosecond resolution.

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes

  18. MAXI INVESTIGATION INTO THE LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY ?-RAY BLAZAR Mrk 421

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, Naoki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Sato, Ryosuke; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hayashida, Masaaki; Shidatsu, Megumi; Kawamuro, Taiki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ueno, Shiro; Matsuoka, Masaru [ISS Science Project Office, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro [MAXI team, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, Hitoshi, E-mail: n-isobe@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physics, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    The archetypical very-high-energy ?-ray blazar Mrk 421 was monitored for more than three years with the Gas Slit Camera on board Monitor of All Sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and its long-term X-ray variability was investigated. The MAXI light curve in the 3-10 keV range was transformed into the periodogram in the frequency range f = 1 10{sup 8}-2 10{sup 6} Hz. The artifacts on the periodogram, resulting from data gaps in the observed light curve, were extensively simulated for variations with a power-law-like power spectrum density (PSD). By comparing the observed and simulated periodograms, the PSD index was evaluated as ? = 1.60 0.25. This index is smaller than that obtained in the higher-frequency range (f ? 1 10{sup 5} Hz), namely, ? = 2.14 0.06 in the 1998 ASCA observation of the object. The MAXI data impose a lower limit on the PSD break at f {sub b} = 5 10{sup 6} Hz, consistent with the break of f {sub b} = 9.5 10{sup 6} Hz suggested from the ASCA data. The low-frequency PSD index of Mrk 421 derived with MAXI falls well within the range of typical values among nearby Seyfert galaxies (? = 1-2). The physical implications from these results are briefly discussed.

  19. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, John P. Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  20. The X-ray PumpProbe instrument at the LinacCoherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; Ramsey, Kelley; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Stefanescu, Daniel; Srinivasan, Venkat; Zhu, Diling; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray PumpProbe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 424 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  1. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue Chaofan; Wang Yong; Guo Zhi; Wu Yanqing; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Min; Chen Jiahua; Xue Song; Tai Renzhong; Peng Zhongqi; Lu Qipeng

    2010-10-15

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  2. The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Cammarata, Marco; Damiani, Daniel; Defever, Jim; Delor, James T.; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Langton, J. Brian; Nelson, Silke; et al

    2015-04-21

    The X-ray Pump–Probe instrument achieves femtosecond time-resolution with hard X-ray methods using a free-electron laser source. It covers a photon energy range of 4–24 keV. A femtosecond optical laser system is available across a broad spectrum of wavelengths for generating transient states of matter. The instrument is designed to emphasize versatility and the scientific goals encompass ultrafast physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the transformation of matter and transfer of energy at the atomic scale.

  3. High-energy magnetic excitations in overdoped La 2 - x Sr x CuO 4 studied by neutron and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakimoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujita, M.; Dellea, G.; Kummer, K.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Debeer-Schmitt, L. M.; Granroth, G. E.

    2015-05-21

    We have performed neutron inelastic scattering and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu-L₃ edge to study high-energy magnetic excitations at energy transfers of more than 100 meV for overdoped La2-xSrxCuO₄ with x=0.25 (Tc=15 K) and x=0.30 (nonsuperconducting) using identical single-crystal samples for the two techniques. From constant-energy slices of neutron-scattering cross sections, we have identified magnetic excitations up to ~250 meV for x=0.25. Although the width in the momentum direction is large, the peak positions along the (π,π) direction agree with the dispersion relation of the spin wave in the nondoped La₂CuO₄ (LCO), which is consistent with themore » previous RIXS results of cuprate superconductors. Using RIXS at the Cu-L₃ edge, we have measured the dispersion relations of the so-called paramagnon mode along both (π,π) and (π,0) directions. Although in both directions the neutron and RIXS data connect with each other and the paramagnon along (π,0) agrees well with the LCO spin-wave dispersion, the paramagnon in the (π,π) direction probed by RIXS appears to be less dispersive and the excitation energy is lower than the spin wave of LCO near (π/2,π/2). Thus, our results indicate consistency between neutron inelastic scattering and RIXS, and elucidate the entire magnetic excitation in the (π,π) direction by the complementary use of two probes. The polarization dependence of the RIXS profiles indicates that appreciable charge excitations exist in the same energy range of magnetic excitations, reflecting the itinerant character of the overdoped sample. A possible anisotropy in the charge excitation intensity might explain the apparent differences in the paramagnon dispersion in the (π,π) direction as detected by the x-ray scattering.« less

  4. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  5. Correlated High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction Photoluminescence and Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Continuous and Discontinuous InxGa1-xN Quantum Wells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ren, Xiaochen; Riley, James R.; Koleske, Daniel; Lauhon, Lincoln J.

    2015-07-14

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is used to characterize the influence of hydrogen dosing duringGaN barrier growth on the indium distribution of InxGa1-xN quantum wells, and correlatedmicro-photoluminescence is used to measure changes in the emission spectrum and efficiency. We found that relative to the control growth, hydrogen dosing leads to a 50% increase in emission intensity arising from discontinuous quantum wells that are narrower, of lower indium content, and with more abrupt interfaces. Additionally, simulations of carrier distributions based on APT composition profiles indicate that the greater carrier confinement leads to an increased radiative recombination rate. Furthermore, APT analysis of quantummore » well profiles enables refinement of x-ray diffractionanalysis for more accurate nondestructive measurements of composition.« less

  6. Measuring the depth profiles of strain/composition in AlGaN-graded layer by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, A. V.; Stanchu, H. V.; Kladko, V. P.; Belyaev, A. E.; Li, Chen; Ware, M. E.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we demonstrate X-ray fitting through kinematical simulations of the intensity profiles of symmetric reflections for epitaxial compositionally graded layers of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy pseudomorphically on [0001]-oriented GaN substrates. These detailed simulations depict obvious differences between changes in thickness, maximum concentration, and concentration profile of the graded layers. Through comparison of these simulations with as-grown samples, we can reliably determine these parameters, most important of which are the profiles of the concentration and strain which determine much of the electrical properties of the film. In addition to learning about these parameters for the characterization of thin film properties, these fitting techniques create opportunities to calibrate growth rates and control composition profiles of AlGaN layers with a single growth rather than multiple growths as has been done traditionally.

  7. In-Orbit Performance of the Hard X-Ray Detector on Borad Suzaku

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Murakami, Toshio; Tashiro, Makoto; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; M.Madejski, Greg; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shin; Tamagawa, Toru; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Kubota, Aya; Isobe, Naoki; Takahashi, Isao; Sato, Goro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Hong, Soojing; /Tokyo U. /Wako, RIKEN /JAXA, Sagamihara /Kanazawa U. /Saitama U. /Hiroshima U. /Aoyama Gakuin U. /Nihon U., Narashino /SLAC

    2007-10-26

    The in-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board the X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are described. Its basic performances, including a wide energy bandpass of 10-600 keV, energy resolutions of {approx}4 keV (FWHM) at 40 keV and {approx}11% at 511 keV, and a high background rejection efficiency, have been confirmed by extensive in-orbit calibrations. The long-term gains of PIN-Si diodes have been stable within 1% for half a year, and those of scintillators have decreased by 5-20%. The residual non-X-ray background of the HXD is the lowest among past non-imaging hard X-ray instruments in energy ranges of 15-70 and 150-500 keV. We provide accurate calibrations of energy responses, angular responses, timing accuracy of the HXD, and relative normalizations to the X-ray CCD cameras using multiple observations of the Crab Nebula.

  8. Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improvement of X-ray Analysis of Nano-scaled Materials by Means of High Resolution X-ray Emission Spectrometry Monday, August 1, 2011 - 2:00pm SSRL Bldg. 137 Conference Room ...

  9. A new spectrometer design for the x-ray spectroscopy of laser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas with high (sub-ns) time resolution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new spectrometer design for the x-ray ...

  10. Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provided by state-of-the-art X-ray optics and fast time resolution limited by the ... PROPERTIES; MAGNETISM; MICROSCOPY; OPTICS; SENSORS; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; SPIN; TIME ...

  11. SU-E-T-537: Comparison of Intra-Operative Soft X-Rays to Low Energy Electron Beams for Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinsky, B; Diak, A; Gros, S; Sethi

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Superficial soft x-ray applicators have recently been designed for use with existing intra-operative radiotherapy systems. These applicators may be used in treating superficial lesions which are conventionally treated with electron beams. The purpose of this abstract is to compare dose distributions of an intra-operative 50kV x-ray unit with low energy electrons for the treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: Dosimetric parameters for 1 and 3-cm diameter Intrabeam superficial x-ray applicators were measured with EBT3 Gafchromic film in a solid water phantom. Depth dose distributions and profiles (d=2, 5, 10 and 15mm) were obtained by prescribing a dose of 400cGy at 5mm depth below the phantom surface. Corresponding dose profiles for 6-MeV electrons were acquired from a Varian Clinac 21EX at 100 SSD. H and D calibration curves were generated for each modality for 0-800cGy. Results: Dose coverage, penumbra, dose uniformity, surface dose, and dose fall-off were examined. Compared to electrons, Intrabeam lateral dose coverage at 5mm depth was 70% larger with a much sharper (1/4) penumbra. Electron isodose levels bulged with depth, whereas Intrabeam isodose levels exhibited a convex cone shape. The Intrabeam dose profiles demonstrated horns in the dose distribution up to a 5mm depth and an exponential dose fall-off. Relative surface dose was higher for the Intrabeam applicators. Treatment times were comparable for both modalities. Conclusions: The very small penumbra of Intrabeam at shallow depths could be useful in treating superficial lesions adjacent to critical structures. The exponential dose fall-off of Intrabeam makes it appealing in the sparing of structures beyond the lesion. However, for lesions past a depth of 5mm, electrons would be desirable as they penetrate farther and provide skin sparing. Intrabeam may be preferable for sites that are difficult to treat with electrons due to mechanical and physical limitations.

  12. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  13. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Liedl, G.L.

    1983-12-02

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 86.5/sup 0/, and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive.

  14. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, Jean-Louis; Liedl, Gerald L.

    1987-07-07

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5.degree. to 86.5.degree., and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive work.

  15. Hard X-ray spatial array diagnostics on Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, D. W.; Chen, Z. Y. Luo, Y. H.; Tong, R. H.; Yan, W.; Jin, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2014-11-15

    A spatially distributed hard X-ray detection array has been developed to diagnose the loss of runaway electron with toroidal and poloidal resolution. The hard X-ray radiation in the energy ranges of 0.31 MeV resulted from runaway electrons can be measured. The detection array consists of 12 CdTe detectors which are arranged surrounding the tokamak. It is found that most runaway electrons which transport to plasma boundary tend to loss on limiters. The application of electrode biasing probe resulted in enhancement of local runaway loss. Resonant magnetic perturbations enhanced the runaway electrons diffusion and showed an asymmetric poloidal loss rate.

  16. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  17. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  18. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  19. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  20. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  1. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, J.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Caughey, T. A.; Brunner, J.

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the radii of curvature of the two crystals of this imaging scheme are matched to eliminate the astigmatism and to satisfy the Bragg condition across both crystal surfaces for a given x-ray energy. In this paper, we consider more general configurations of this imaging scheme, which allow us to vary the magnification for a given pair of crystals and x-ray energy. The stigmatic imaging scheme has been validated for the first time by imaging x-rays generated by a micro-focus x-ray source with source size of 8.4 ?m validated by knife-edge measurements. Results are presented from imaging the tungsten L?1 emission at 8.3976 keV, using a convex Si-422 crystal and a concave Si-533 crystal with 2d-spacings of 2.21707 and 1.65635 and radii of curvature of 500 1 mm and 823 1 mm, respectively, showing a spatial resolution of 54.9 ?m. This imaging scheme is expected to be of interest for the two-dimensional imaging of laser produced plasmas.

  2. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

    2011-12-31

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  3. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; Cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

    2011-03-24

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIBSEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIBSEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  4. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  5. High-energy magnetic excitations in overdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 studied by neutron and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakimoto, S.; Ishii, K.; Kimura, H.; Fujita, M.; Dellea, G.; Kummer, K.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Granroth, Garrett E.

    2015-05-21

    We have performed neutron inelastic scattering and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu-L3 edge to study high-energy magnetic excitations at energy transfers of more than 100 meV for overdoped La2₋xSrxCuO4 with x=0.25 (Tc=15 K) and x=0.30 (nonsuperconducting) using identical single-crystal samples for the two techniques. From constant-energy slices of neutron-scattering cross sections, we have identified magnetic excitations up to ~250 meV for x=0.25. Although the width in the momentum direction is large, the peak positions along the (π,π) direction agree with the dispersion relation of the spin wave in the nondoped La2CuO4 (LCO), which is consistent with themore » previous RIXS results of cuprate superconductors. Using RIXS at the Cu-L3 edge, we have measured the dispersion relations of the so-called paramagnon mode along both (π,π) and (π,0) directions. Although in both directions the neutron and RIXS data connect with each other and the paramagnon along (π,0) agrees well with the LCO spin-wave dispersion, the paramagnon in the (π,π) direction probed by RIXS appears to be less dispersive and the excitation energy is lower than the spin wave of LCO near (π/2,π/2). Thus, our results indicate consistency between neutron inelastic scattering and RIXS, and elucidate the entire magnetic excitation in the (π,π) direction by the complementary use of two probes. The polarization dependence of the RIXS profiles indicates that appreciable charge excitations exist in the same energy range of magnetic excitations, reflecting the itinerant character of the overdoped sample. Lastly, we find a possible anisotropy in the charge excitation intensity might explain the apparent differences in the paramagnon dispersion in the (π,π) direction as detected by the x-ray scattering.« less

  6. Photoionized plasmas induced in neon with extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray pulses produced using low and high energy laser systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fok, T.; Węgrzyński, Ł.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Dudzak, R.; Dostal, J.; Krousky, E.; Skala, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Hrebicek, J.; Medrik, T.

    2015-04-15

    A comparative study of photoionized plasmas created by two soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (SXR/EUV) laser plasma sources with different parameters is presented. The two sources are based on double-stream Xe/He gas-puff targets irradiated with high (500 J/0.3 ns) and low energy (10 J/1 ns) laser pulses. In both cases, the SXR/EUV beam irradiated the gas stream, injected into a vacuum chamber synchronously with the radiation pulse. Irradiation of gases resulted in formation of photoionized plasmas emitting radiation in the SXR/EUV range. The measured Ne plasma radiation spectra are dominated by emission lines corresponding to radiative transitions in singly charged ions. A significant difference concerns origin of the lines: K-shell or L-shell emissions occur in case of the high and low energy irradiating system, respectively. In high energy system, the electron density measurements were also performed by laser interferometry, employing a femtosecond laser system. A maximum electron density for Ne plasma reached the value of 2·10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. For the low energy system, a detection limit was too high for the interferometric measurements, thus only an upper estimation for electron density could be made.

  7. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grush, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  8. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle.more » Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.« less

  9. In Situ X-Ray Probing Reveals Fingerprints of Surface Platinum Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friebel, Daniel

    2011-08-24

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Pt L{sub 3} edge is a useful probe for Pt-O interactions at polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodes. We show that XAS using the high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) mode, applied to a well-defined monolayer Pt/Rh(111) sample where the bulk penetrating hard x-rays probe only surface Pt atoms, provides a unique sensitivity to structure and chemical bonding at the Pt-electrolyte interface. Ab initio multiple-scattering calculations using the FEFF8 code and complementary extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) results indicate that the commonly observed large increase of the white-line at high electrochemical potentials on PEMFC cathodes originates from platinum oxide formation, whereas previously proposed chemisorbed oxygen-containing species merely give rise to subtle spectral changes.

  10. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle. Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.

  11. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  12. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  13. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  14. HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYS FROM J174545.5-285829, THE CANNONBALL: A CANDIDATE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH SgrA EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2013-12-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v {sub proj} ? 500kms{sup 1}) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ?2' north-east from SgrA*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a ? ? 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 10{sup 34} erg s{sup 1}. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the SgrA East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  15. Bent-crystal Laue spectrograph for measuring x-ray spectra (15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failor, B. H.; Wong, S.; Riordan, J. C.; Hudson, L. T.; O'Brien, C. M.; Seltzer, S. M.; Seiler, S.; Pressley, L.; Lojewski, D. Y.

    2006-10-15

    A bent-crystal Laue {l_brace}or Cauchois [J. Phys. Radium 3, 320 (1932)] geometry{r_brace} spectrograph is a good compromise between sensitivity and spectral resolution for measuring x-ray spectra (15x-ray sources because source-size spectral broadening is mitigated. We have designed, built, and tested such a spectrograph for measuring the spectra from electron-beam x-ray sources with diameters as large as 30 cm. The same spectrograph geometry has also been used to diagnose (with higher spectral resolution) smaller sources, such as x-ray tubes for mammography and laser-driven inertial fusion targets. We review our spectrograph design and describe the performance of different components. We have compared the reflectivity and spectral resolution of LiF, and Ge diffracting crystals. We have also measured the differences in sensitivity and spectral resolution using different x-ray to light converters (plastic scintillator, CsI, and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) fiber optically coupled to an intensified charge-coupled device camera. We have also coupled scintillating fibers to photomultiplier tubes to obtain temporal records for discrete energy channels.

  16. Suppressing Thermal Energy Drift In The LLNL Flash X-Ray Accelerator Using Linear Disk Resistor Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitzer, B R; Houck, T L; Luchterhand, O C

    2011-07-19

    This paper addresses thermal drift in sodium thiosulfate liquid resistors and their replacement with linear disk resistors from HVR Advanced Power Components. Sodium thiosulfate resistors in the FXR induction linear accelerator application have a temperature coefficient of {approx}1.8%/C. The FXR Marx banks send an 8kJ pulse through eight 524 cm{sup 3} liquid resistors at a repetition rate of up to 1 every 45 seconds. Every pulse increases the temperature of the solution by {approx}0.4 C which produces a 0.7% change in resistance. The typical cooling rate is {approx}0.4 C per minute which results in {approx}0.1% energy drop per pulse during continuous pulsed operations. A radiographic accelerator is extraordinarily sensitive to energy variations. Changes in beam energy produce movement in beam transport, changes in spot size, and large dose variations. If self-heating were the only problem, we could predict the increase in input voltage required to compensate for the energy loss. However, there are other variables that influence the temperature of the resistors such as focus magnet heating, changes in room temperature, changes in cooling water, where the cell is located, etc. Additionally not all of the resistors have equivalent cooling rates and as many as 32 resistors are driven from a single power source. The FXR accelerator group elected to replace the sodium thiosulfate resistors with HVR Linear Disk Resistors in a stack type configuration. With data limited for these resistors when used in oil and at low resistance values, a full characterization needed to be performed. High currents (up to 15kA), high voltages (up to 400kV), and Fast Rise times (<10ns) made a resistor choice difficult. Other solid resistors have been tried and had problems at the connection points and with the fact that the resistivity changed as they absorbed oil. The selected HVR resistors have the advantage of being manufactured with the oil impregnated in to them so this characteristic

  17. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  18. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  19. In-situ energy dispersive x-ray diffraction study of the growth of CuO nanowires by annealing method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Himanshu; Ganguli, Tapas; Deb, S. K.; Sant, Tushar; Poswal, H. K.; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2013-10-14

    The in-situ growth of CuO nanowires was studied by Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD) to observe the mechanism of growth. The study was carried out for comparison at two temperaturesat 500 C, the optimum temperature of the nanowires growth, and at 300 C just below the temperature range of the growth. The in situ observation revealed the successive oxidation of Cu foil to Cu{sub 2}O layer and finally to CuO layer. Further analysis showed the presence of a compressive stress in CuO layer due to interface at CuO and Cu{sub 2}O layers. The compressive stress was found to increase with the growth of the nanowires at 500 C while it relaxed with the growth of CuO layer at 300 C. The present results do not support the existing model of stress relaxation induced growth of nanowires. Based on the detailed Transmission Electron Microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, and EDXRD results, a microstructure based growth model has been suggested.

  20. Theoretical approach to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering in iron-based superconductors at the energy scale of the superconducting gap

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, Pasquale; van den Brink, Jeroen; Sykora, Steffen

    2016-05-06

    Here, we develop a phenomenological theory to predict the characteristic features of the momentumdependent scattering amplitude in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the energy scale of the superconducting gap in iron-based super-conductors. Taking into account all relevant orbital states as well as their specific content along the Fermi surface we evaluate the charge and spin dynamical structure factors for the compounds LaOFeAs and LiFeAs, based on tight-binding models which are fully consistent with recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. We find a characteristic intensity redistribution between charge and spin dynamical structure factors which discriminates between sign-reversing and sign-preserving quasiparticlemore » excitations. Consequently, our results show that RIXS spectra can distinguish between s± and s++ wave gap functions in the singlet pairing case. In addition, we find that an analogous intensity redistribution at small momenta can reveal the presence of a chiral p-wave triplet pairing.« less

  1. Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique for material identification. A low energy electron gun bombards a thin foil anode to produce a spectrum of x-rays that irradiate a material ...

  2. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  3. High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramics–titanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Schell, N.; Lang, H.; Burkel, E.

    2014-09-15

    A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is α-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable. - Highlights: • High energy XRD studies of dental ceramics–Ti gradient material consolidated by FAST. • Phase composition, crystallinity and lattice parameters are determined. • Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient following weight fraction of Ti. • Lattice mismatch leading to internal stress is calculated over the whole gradient. • Internal stress in α-Ti embedded in the gradient is smaller than its yield strength.

  4. Ultrashort x-ray backlighters and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umstadter, D., University of Michigan

    1997-08-01

    Previously, using ultrashort laser pulses focused onto solid targets, we have experimentally studied a controllable ultrafast broadband radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet for time-resolved dynamical studies in ultrafast science [J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Llu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, C.-Y. Chien, and D. Umstadter, ``Control of Bright Picosecond X-Ray Emission from Intense Sub- Picosecond Laser-Plasma Interactions,`` Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2324 (1995)]. Once armed with a bright ultrafast broadband continuum x-ray source and appropriate detectors, we used the source as a backlighter to study a remotely produced plasma. The application of the source to a problem relevant to high-density matter completes the triad: creating and controlling, efficiently detecting, and applying the source. This work represented the first use of an ultrafast laser- produced x-ray source as a time-resolving probe in an application relevant to atomic, plasma and high-energy-density matter physics. Using the x-ray source as a backlighter, we adopted a pump-probe geometry to investigate the dynamic changes in electronic structure of a thin metallic film as it is perturbed by an ultrashort laser pulse. Because the laser deposits its energy in a skin depth of about 100 {Angstrom} before expansion occurs, up to gigabar pressure shock waves lasting picosecond in duration have been predicted to form in these novel plasmas. This raises the possibility of studying high- energy-density matter relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics in small-scale laboratory experiments. In the past, time-resolved measurements of K-edge shifts in plasmas driven by nanosecond pulses have been used to infer conditions in highly compressed materials. In this study, we used 100-fs laser pulses to impulsively drive shocks into a sample (an untamped 1000 {Angstrom} aluminum film on 2000 {Angstrom} of parylene-n), measuring L-edge shifts.

  5. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  6. Dispersive x-ray synchrotron studies of Pt-C multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Rodricks, B.; Lamelas, F.; Medjahed, D.; Dos Passos, W.; Clarke, R.; Ziegler, E.; Fontaine, A.

    1989-02-01

    We demonstrate the simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution x-ray absorption spectra and scattering data, using a combination of energy-dispersive optics and a two-dimensional CCD detector. Results are presented on the optical constants of Pt and on the reflectivity of a platinum-carbon multilayer at the L/sub III/ absorption edge of Pt. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  7. ON RELATIVISTIC DISK SPECTROSCOPY IN COMPACT OBJECTS WITH X-RAY CCD CAMERAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D'Ai, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bautz, M. W.; Nowak, M. A. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bhattacharyya, S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, College Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Reis, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Freyberg, M. J.; Haberl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Strohmayer, T. E. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tsujimoto, M., E-mail: jonmm@umich.ed [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronomical Sciences, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    X-ray charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are the workhorse detectors of modern X-ray astronomy. Typically covering the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range, CCDs are able to detect photoelectric absorption edges and K shell lines from most abundant metals. New CCDs also offer resolutions of 30-50 (E/{Delta}E), which is sufficient to detect lines in hot plasmas and to resolve many lines shaped by dynamical processes in accretion flows. The spectral capabilities of X-ray CCDs have been particularly important in detecting relativistic emission lines from the inner disks around accreting neutron stars and black holes. One drawback of X-ray CCDs is that spectra can be distorted by photon 'pile-up', wherein two or more photons may be registered as a single event during one frame time. We have conducted a large number of simulations using a statistical model of photon pile-up to assess its impacts on relativistic disk line and continuum spectra from stellar-mass black holes and neutron stars. The simulations cover the range of current X-ray CCD spectrometers and operational modes typically used to observe neutron stars and black holes in X-ray binaries. Our results suggest that severe photon pile-up acts to falsely narrow emission lines, leading to falsely large disk radii and falsely low spin values. In contrast, our simulations suggest that disk continua affected by severe pile-up are measured to have falsely low flux values, leading to falsely small radii and falsely high spin values. The results of these simulations and existing data appear to suggest that relativistic disk spectroscopy is generally robust against pile-up when this effect is modest.

  8. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  9. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  11. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photon Source | Department of Energy Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory 2003_deer_powell.pdf (925.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of

  12. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322 Zhi Liu The synchrotron based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) endstation[1] pioneered at ALS based on differentially pumped electron energy analyzer has been recognized by scientific communities as

  13. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

  14. Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

    2013-07-01

    T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

  15. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  16. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Monochromatic x-ray sampling streak imager for fast-ignitor plasma observation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanabe, Minoru; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Mima, Kunioki

    2008-10-15

    Ultrafast two-dimensional (2D) x-ray imaging is required to investigate the dynamics of fast-heated core plasma in inertial confinement fusion research. A novel x-ray imager, consisting of two toroidally bent Bragg crystals and an ultrafast 2D x-ray imaging camera, has been demonstrated. Sequential and 2D monochromatic x-ray images of laser-imploded core plasma were obtained with a temporal resolution of 20 ps, a spatial resolution of 31 {mu}m, and a spectral resolution of over 200, simultaneously.

  18. Development of Ta-based Superconducting Tunnel Junction X-ray Detectors for Fluorescence XAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O; Hall, J; Cantor, R

    2009-09-23

    We are developing superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) soft X-ray detectors for chemical analysis of dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Our 36-pixel Nb-based STJ spectrometer covers a solid angle {Omega}/4{pi} {approx} 10{sup -3}, offers an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM for energies up to {approx}1 keV, and can be operated at total count rates of {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. For increased quantum efficiency and cleaner response function, we have now started the development of Ta-based STJ detector arrays. Initial devices modeled after our Nb-based STJs have an energy resolution below 10 eV FWHM for X-ray energies below 1 keV, and pulse rise time discrimination can be used to improve their response function for energies up to several keV. We discuss the performance of the Ta-STJs and outline steps towards the next-generation of large STJ detector arrays with higher sensitivity.

  19. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  20. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  1. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  2. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  3. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  4. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray ...

  5. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at ...

  6. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  7. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  8. Characterisation of a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray source produced from a high intensity laser for high areal density object radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtois, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Bazzoli, S.; Bourgade, J. L.; Gazave, J.; Lagrange, J. M.; Landoas, O.; Dain, L. Le; Pichoff, N.; Edwards, R.; Aedy, C.; Mastrosimone, D.; Pien, G.; Stoeckl, C.

    2013-08-15

    Results of an experiment to characterise a MeV Bremsstrahlung x-ray emission created by a short (<10 ps) pulse, high intensity (1.4 × 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser are presented. X-ray emission is characterized using several diagnostics; nuclear activation measurements, a calibrated hard x-ray spectrometer, and dosimeters. Results from the reconstructed x-ray energy spectra are consistent with numerical simulations using the PIC and Monte Carlo codes between 0.3 and 30 MeV. The intense Bremsstrahlung x-ray source is used to radiograph an image quality indicator (IQI) heavily filtered with thick tungsten absorbers. Observations suggest that internal features of the IQI can be resolved up to an external areal density of 85 g/cm{sup 2}. The x-ray source size, inferred by the radiography of a thick resolution grid, is estimated to be approximately 400 μm (full width half maximum of the x-ray source Point Spread Function)

  9. Microionization chamber air-kerma calibration coefficients as a function of photon energy for x-ray spectra in the range of 20-250 kVp relative to {sup 60}Co

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, J. R.; Micka, J. A.; DeWerd, L. A.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of a wide range of microionization chambers for reference dosimetry measurements in low- and medium-energy x-ray beams. Methods: Measurements were performed with six cylindrical microchamber models, as well as one scanning chamber and two Farmer-type chambers for comparison purposes. Air-kerma calibration coefficients were determined at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory for each chamber for a range of low- and medium-energy x-ray beams (20-250 kVp), with effective energies ranging from 11.5 keV to 145 keV, and a {sup 60}Co beam. A low-Z proof-of-concept microchamber was developed and calibrated with and without a high-Z silver epoxy on the collecting electrode. Results: All chambers composed of low-Z materials (Z{<=} 13), including the Farmer-type chambers, the scanning chamber, and the PTW TN31014 and the proof-of-concept microchambers, exhibited air-kerma calibration coefficients with little dependence on the quality of the beam. These chambers typically exhibited variations in calibration coefficients of less than 3% with the beam quality, for medium energy beams. However, variations in air-kerma calibration coefficients of greater than 50% were measured over the range of medium-energy x-ray beams for each of the microchambers containing high-Z collecting electrodes (Z > 13). For these high-Z chambers, which include the Exradin A14SL and A16 chambers, the PTW TN31006 chamber, the IBA CC01 chamber, and the proof-of-concept chamber containing silver, the average variation in air-kerma calibration coefficients between any two calibration beams was nearly 25% over the entire range of beam qualities investigated. Conclusions: Due to the strong energy dependence observed with microchambers containing high-Z components, these chambers may not be suitable dosimeters for kilovoltage x-ray applications, as they do not meet the TG-61 requirements. It is recommended that only microchambers

  10. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  11. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  12. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  13. X-ray chemical analyzer for field applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gamba, Otto O. M.

    1977-01-01

    A self-supporting portable field multichannel X-ray chemical analyzer system comprising a lightweight, flexibly connected, remotely locatable, radioisotope-excited sensing probe utilizing a cryogenically-cooled solid state semi-conductor crystal detector for fast in situ non-destructive, qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in solid, powder, liquid or slurried form, utilizing an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry technique.

  14. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  15. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  16. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  17. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  18. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  19. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  20. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  1. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  2. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sbastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  3. Method and apparatus for molecular imaging using x-rays at resonance wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapline, G.F. Jr.

    Holographic x-ray images are produced representing the molecular structure of a microscopic object, such as a living cell, by directing a beam of coherent x-rays upon the object to produce scattering of the x-rays by the object, producing interference on a recording medium between the scattered x-rays from the object and unscattered coherent x-rays and thereby producing holograms on the recording surface, and establishing the wavelength of the coherent x-rays to correspond with a molecular resonance of a constituent of such object and thereby greatly improving the contrast, sensitivity and resolution of the holograms as representations of molecular structures involving such constituent. For example, the coherent x-rays may be adjusted to the molecular resonant absorption line of nitrogen at about 401.3 eV to produce holographic images featuring molecular structures involving nitrogen.

  4. Method and apparatus for molecular imaging using X-rays at resonance wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapline, Jr., George F.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic X-ray images are produced representing the molecular structure of a microscopic object, such as a living cell, by directing a beam of coherent X-rays upon the object to produce scattering of the X-rays by the object, producing interference on a recording medium between the scattered X-rays from the object and unscattered coherent X-rays and thereby producing holograms on the recording surface, and establishing the wavelength of the coherent X-rays to correspond with a molecular resonance of a constituent of such object and thereby greatly improving the contrast, sensitivity and resolution of the holograms as representations of molecular structures involving such constituent. For example, the coherent X-rays may be adjusted to the molecular resonant absorption line of nitrogen at about 401.3 eV to produce holographic images featuring molecular structures involving nitrogen.

  5. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  6. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light ... wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of ...

  8. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  9. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  10. Gain dynamics in a soft X-ray laser ampli er perturbed by a strong injected X-ray eld

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Shoujun; Oliva, E; Lu, L; Berrill, Mark A; Yin, Liang; Nejdl, J; Luther, Brad; Proux, C; Le, T. T.; Dunn, James; Ros, D; Zeitoun, Philippe; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Seeding soft X-ray plasma ampli ers with high harmonics has been demonstrated to generate high-brightness soft X-ray laser pulses with full spatial and temporal coherence. The interaction between the injected coherent eld and the swept-gain medium has been modelled. However, no exper- iment has been conducted to probe the gain dynamics when perturbed by a strong external seed eld. Here, we report the rst X-ray pump X-ray probe measurement of the nonlinear response of a plasma ampli er perturbed by a strong soft X-ray ultra-short pulse. We injected a sequence of two time-delayed high-harmonic pulses (l518.9 nm) into a collisionally excited nickel-like molybdenum plasma to measure with femto-second resolution the gain depletion induced by the saturated ampli cation of the high-harmonic pump and its subsequent recovery. The measured fast gain recovery in 1.5 1.75 ps con rms the possibility to generate ultra-intense, fully phase-coherent soft X-ray lasers by chirped pulse ampli cation in plasma ampli ers.

  11. Laboratory Studies of the X-Ray Emission Produced by the Interaction of Solar Wind Heavy Ions with Comets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beriersdorfer, P; Chen, H; May, M J; Thorn, D; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kelly, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E; Kahn, S M

    2002-08-09

    The process of X-ray emission following charge exchange between solar wind heavy ions and cometary gases is studied in the laboratory. The emission is recorded with the spare ASTRO-E 6 x 6 microcalorimeter array. The microcalorimeter affords a resolution of better than 10 eV in the range of X-ray energies of interest and thus individual emission lines can be resolved. Our present measurements focus on the most abundant K-shell heavy ions found in the solar wind. In particular, we measure the K-shell emission of bare C, N, O, and Ne, and their hydrogen-like counter parts interacting with such gases as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}. Several results are noted that had not been considered in the early cometary X-ray models.

  12. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Lima, Enju; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Neiman, Aaron M.

    2009-11-06

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 deg. C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  13. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron M.; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; et al

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  18. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  19. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  20. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We report that trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral responsemore » of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. In conclusion, we conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.« less

  1. RYLLA. [X-ray transport code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-06-08

    This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

  2. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  3. New developments in micro-X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy for high-pressure research at 16-BM-D at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Changyong Popov, Dmitry; Ikuta, Daijo; Lin, Chuanlong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Bommannavar, Arunkumar; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    The monochromator and focusing mirrors of the 16-BM-D beamline, which is dedicated to high-pressure research with micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) (6-45 keV) spectroscopy, have been recently upgraded. Monochromatic X-rays are selected by a Si (111) double-crystal monochromator operated in an artificial channel-cut mode and focused to 5 μm × 5 μm (FWHM) by table-top Kirkpatrick-Baez type mirrors located near the sample stage. The typical X-ray flux is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} photons/s at 30 keV. The instrumental resolution, Δq/q{sub max}, reaches to 2 × 10{sup −3} and is tunable through adjustments of the detector distance and X-ray energy. The setup is stable and reproducible, which allows versatile application to various types of experiments including resistive heating and cryogenic cooling as well as ambient temperature compression. Transmission XANES is readily combined with micro-XRD utilizing the fixed-exit feature of the monochromator, which allows combined XRD-XANES measurements at a given sample condition.

  4. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense

  5. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; et al

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by “hot” electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E4–5 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in thismore » regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.« less

  6. Tomographic analysis of the nonthermal x-ray bursts during disruption instability in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savrukhin, P. V.; Ermolaeva, A. I.; Shestakov, E. A.; Khramenkov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    Non-thermal x-ray radiation (E{sub ?} up to 150 keV) is measured in the T-10 tokamaks during disruption instability using two sets of CdTe detectors (10 vertical and 7 horizontal view detectors). Special narrow cupper tubes collimators with lead screening and CdTe detectors integrated with amplifiers inside metallic containers provides enhanced spatial resolution of the system (r ~ 3 cm) and assures protection from the parasitic hard x-ray (E{sub ?} up to 1.5 MeV) and electromagnetic loads during disruption. Spatial localization of the nonthermal x-ray emissivity is reconstructed using tomographic Cormack technique with SVD matrix inversion. Analysis indicated appearance of an intensive non-thermal x-ray bursts during initial stage of the disruptions at high density. The bursts are characterized by repetitive spikes (23 kHz) of the x-ray emissivity from the plasma core area. Analysis indicated that the spikes can be connected with acceleration of the non-thermal electrons in enhanced longitudinal electric fields induced during energy quench at the disruption instability.

  7. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faenov, A. Ya.; Colgan, J.; Hansen, S. B.; Zhidkov, A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Abdallah, J.; Sakaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Ogura, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Kanasaki, M.; Hasegawa, N.; Nishikino, M.; Kando, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Kawachi, T.; Masuda, S.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.; Kondo, K.

    2015-09-02

    We report, for the first time, that the energy of femtosecond optical laser pulses, E, with relativistic intensities I > 1021 W/cm2 is efficiently converted to X-ray radiation, which is emitted by “hot” electron component in collision-less processes and heats the solid density plasma periphery. As shown by direct high-resolution spectroscopic measurements X-ray radiation from plasma periphery exhibits unusual non-linear growth ~E4–5 of its power. The non-linear power growth occurs far earlier than the known regime when the radiation reaction dominates particle motion (RDR). Nevertheless, the radiation is shown to dominate the kinetics of the plasma periphery, changing in this regime (now labeled RDKR) the physical picture of the laser plasma interaction. Although in the experiments reported here we demonstrated by observation of KK hollow ions that X-ray intensities in the keV range exceeds ~1017 W/cm2, there is no theoretical limit of the radiation power. Therefore, such powerful X-ray sources can produce and probe exotic material states with high densities and multiple inner-shell electron excitations even for higher Z elements. As a result, femtosecond laser-produced plasmas may thus provide unique ultra-bright X-ray sources, for future studies of matter in extreme conditions, material science studies, and radiography of biological systems.

  8. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  9. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  10. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  11. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  12. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  13. Spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Wenxiang E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Xi, Yan E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu Wang, Ge E-mail: xiy2@rpi.edu

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Grating interferometry is a state-of-the-art x-ray imaging approach, which can acquire information on x-ray attenuation, phase shift, and small-angle scattering simultaneously. Phase-contrast imaging and dark-field imaging are very sensitive to microstructural variation and offers superior contrast resolution for biological soft tissues. However, a common x-ray tube is a point-like source. As a result, the popular planar grating imaging configuration seriously restricts the flux of photons and decreases the visibility of signals, yielding a limited field of view. The purpose of this study is to extend the planar x-ray grating imaging theory and methods to a spherical grating scheme for a wider range of preclinical and clinical applications. Methods: A spherical grating matches the wave front of a point x-ray source very well, allowing the perpendicular incidence of x-rays on the grating to achieve a higher visibility over a larger field of view than the planer grating counterpart. A theoretical analysis of the Talbot effect for spherical grating imaging is proposed to establish a basic foundation for x-ray spherical gratings interferometry. An efficient method of spherical grating imaging is also presented to extract attenuation, differential phase, and dark-field images in the x-ray spherical grating interferometer. Results: Talbot self-imaging with spherical gratings is analyzed based on the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula, featuring a periodic angular distribution in a polar coordinate system. The Talbot distance is derived to reveal the Talbot self-imaging pattern. Numerical simulation results show the self-imaging phenomenon of a spherical grating interferometer, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction. Conclusions: X-ray Talbot interferometry with spherical gratings has a significant practical promise. Relative to planar grating imaging, spherical grating based x-ray Talbot interferometry has a larger field of view and

  14. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  15. Breakthroughs in photonics 2013: X-ray optics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Soufli, Regina

    2014-04-01

    Here, this review discusses the latest advances in extreme ultraviolet/X-ray optics development, which are motivated by the availability and demands of new X-ray sources and scientific and industrial applications. Among the breakthroughs highlighted are the following: i) fabrication, metrology, and mounting technologies for large-area optical substrates with improved figure, roughness, and focusing properties; ii) multilayer coatings with especially optimized layer properties, achieving improved reflectance, stability, and out-of-band suppression; and iii) nanodiffractive optics with improved efficiency and resolution.

  16. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is 0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  17. X-Ray Diffraction Project Final Report, Fiscal Year 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane V. Morgan

    2006-10-01

    An x-ray diffraction diagnostic system was developed for determining real-time shock-driven lattice parameter shifts in single crystals at the gas gun at TA-IV at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The signal-to-noise ratio and resolution of the system were measured using imaging plates as the detector and by varying the slit width. This report includes tests of the x-ray diffraction system using a phosphor coupled to a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera by a coherent fiber-optic bundle. The system timing delay was measured with a newly installed transistor-transistor logic (TTL) bypass designed to reduce the x-ray delay time. The axial misalignment of the Bragg planes was determined with respect to the optical axis for a set of eight LiF [lithium fluoride] crystals provided by SNL to determine their suitability for gas gun experiments.

  18. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrs, Roscoe E. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  19. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  20. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  1. Fresnel zone plate stacking in the intermediate field for high efficiency focusing in the hard X-ray regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formorehigh resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.less

  2. Dark-field X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Di Bella, C.; Lura, P.; Prade, F.; Herzen, J.; Sarapata, A.; Pfeiffer, F.; Griffa, M. E-mail: michele.griffa@empa.ch; Jerjen, I.

    2014-10-13

    We introduce in this Letter an approach to X-ray imaging of unsaturated water transport in porous materials based upon the intrinsic X-ray scattering produced by the material microstructural heterogeneity at a length scale below the imaging system spatial resolution. The basic principle for image contrast creation consists in a reduction of such scattering by permeation of the porosity by water. The implementation of the approach is based upon X-ray dark-field imaging via Talbot-Lau interferometry. The proof-of-concept is provided by performing laboratory-scale dark-field X-ray radiography of mortar samples during a water capillary uptake experiment. The results suggest that the proposed approach to visualizing unsaturated water transport in porous materials is complementary to neutron and magnetic resonance imaging and alternative to standard X-ray imaging, the latter requiring the use of contrast agents because based upon X-ray attenuation only.

  3. The X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer for the International X-Ray Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, R. L.; Bandler, S. R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Shirron, P.; Smith, S. J.; Whitehouse, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Sato, K.; Gottardi, L.; Hartog, R. den; Herder, J.-W. den; Hoevers, H.; Korte, P. de; Kuur, J. van der

    2009-12-16

    The International X-Ray Observatory (IXO) is under formulation by NASA, ESA and JAXA for deployment in 2022. IXO emerged over the last 18 months as the NASA Constellation-X and ESA/JAXA X-Ray Evolving Universe Spectrometer (XEUS) missions were combined. The driving performance requirements for the X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) are a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV over the central 2'x2' in the 0.3-7.0 keV band, and 10 eV to the edge of the 5'x5' field of view (FOV). The XMS is now based on a microcalorimeter array of Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) thermometers with Au/Bi absorbers and a SQUID MUX readout. One of the concepts studied as part of the mission formulation has a core 40x40 array corresponding to a 2'x2' FOV with 3'' pixels surrounded by an outer, annular 52x52 array of 6'' pixels that extends the field of view to 5.4'x5.4' with better than 10 eV resolution. There are several options for implementing the readout and cooling system of the XMS under study in the US, Europe and Japan. The ADR system will have from two to five stages depending on the performance of the cryocooler. Mechanical coolers with sufficient cooling power at 4K are available now, and {approx}2K coolers are under development. In this paper we give an overview of the XMS instrument, and some of the tradeoffs to be addressed for this observatory instrument.

  4. A DETAILED STUDY OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY PROPERTIES AND INTERSTELLAR GAS TOWARD THE γ-RAY SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7–3946

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K.; Tanaka, T.; Inoue, T.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Yamazaki, R.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, A.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have carried out a spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-ray data in the 0.4-12 keV range toward the shell-type very high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7–3946. The aims of this analysis are to estimate detailed X-rays spectral properties at a high angular resolution up to 2 arcmin and to compare them with the interstellar gas. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal and used to calculate absorbing column density, photon index, and absorption-corrected X-ray flux. The photon index varies significantly from 2.1 to 2.9. It is shown that the X-ray intensity is well correlated with the photon index, especially in the west region, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The X-ray intensity tends to increase with the averaged interstellar gas density while the dispersion is relatively large. The hardest spectra, with photon indexes of less than 2.4, are found outside of the central 10 arcmin of the SNR, from the north to the southeast (∼430 arcmin{sup 2}) and from the southwest to the northwest (∼150 arcmin{sup 2}). The former region shows low interstellar gas density, while the latter shows high interstellar gas density. We present a discussion of possible scenarios that explain the distribution of the photon index and its relationship with the interstellar gas.

  5. Sulfur K{beta} x-ray emission from carbonyl sulfide: Variations with polarization and excitation energy at the S K threshold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyano, K.E.; Arp, U.; Southworth, S.H.; Meehan, T.E.; Walsh, T.R.; Larkins, F.P.

    1998-04-01

    Sulfur K{beta} x-ray-emission spectra from carbonyl sulfide have been measured with resonant excitation at the sulfur K absorption threshold and compared with results of self-consistent field and singles-doubles configuration-interaction calculations. For excitation to the strong 4{pi} absorption resonance, a splitting of the main emission peak is interpreted in terms of influence of the 4{pi} electron on the final valence-hole states. The polarization selectivity of the emission spectrometer was used to distinguish emission polarized parallel versus perpendicular with respect to the polarization of the excitation radiation. The observed polarization dependence is consistent with the molecular symmetries of the calculated intermediate and final states. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, David Peter; Johnson, Erik D.; Guckel, Henry; Klein, Jonathan L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

  7. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

  8. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  9. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  10. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  11. Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoover, Andrew S; Rudy, Cliff R; Tobin, Steve J; Charlton, William S; Stafford, A; Strohmeyer, D; Saavadra, S

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  13. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). ...

  15. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  18. SMB, X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging SSRL has five hard X-ray Spectroscopy beamlines and three Microfocus Imaging beamlines dedicated to Biological and Biomedical research funded by the NIH and DOE-BER. The SMB group supports and develops technical instrumentation and theoretical methods for state-of-the-art tender and hard X-ray spectroscopy and EXAFS studies on metalloproteins, cofactors and metals in medicine. The SMB group has also contributed to the

  19. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light ...

  20. Gamma and X-ray Dosimetric Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taplin, G.V.; Douglas, C.H.

    1954-06-29

    This patent application concerns a highly stable two-phase liquid system for use in a colorimetric dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation.

  1. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Nagarkar, V V; Kudrolli, H; Madsen, K K; Koglin, J E; Christensen, F E; Brejnholt, N F

    2011-11-08

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and ASTRO-H. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices (EMCCDs) are highly suitable detectors for ground-based calibrations. Their chip can be optically coupled to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this device exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD is also able to handle high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization of the performance for all NuSTAR optics. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained during the ground calibration of the NuSTAR telescopes performed at Columbia University during 2010/2011. Finally, we give an outlook on ongoing

  2. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  3. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  4. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  5. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  6. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  7. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  8. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with exquisite chemical, electronic, and bond orientation contrast. The development of diffraction-based methods such as ptychography has, in principle, removed the resolution limit imposed by the characteristics of the x-ray optics. Using soft x-ray ptychography, researchers at the ALS have demonstrated the highest-resolution

  9. The Structure of Interfacial Water on Gold Electrodes Studied by X-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 23, 2014, Research Highlights The Structure of Interfacial Water on Gold Electrodes Studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Schematic representation of X-ray absorption measurements at the biased gold water interface. X-rays arrive from the left and transmit through a thin silicon nitride window plated with gold. Fluorescence provides information far from the interface while it was discovered that electron yield is

  10. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory 2004_deer_powell.pdf (375.63 KB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel

  11. Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interfaces | Department of Energy Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Interfaces Synchrotron X-ray Studies of Super-critical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Interfaces Project obectives: Utilize synchrotron X-ray measurements, to monitor all aspects of atomic to nanoscale structural changes resulting from chemical interactions of scCO2-H2O binary fluids with rocks under environments directly relevant to EGS. chemistry_you_synchrotron_studies.pdf (1.84

  12. Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process and Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_wang.pdf (980 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using

  13. Progress in Development of Kharkov X-Ray Generator Nestor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Androsov, V.; Bulyak, V.; Dovbnya, A.; Drebot, I.; Gladkikh, P.; Grevtsev, V.; Grigorev, Yu.; Gvozd, A.; Ivashchenko, V.; Karnaukhov, I.; Kovalyova, N.; Kozin, V.; Lapshin, V.; Lyashchenko, V.; Markov, V.; Mocheshnikov, N.; Mytsykov, A.; Neklyudov, I.; Peev, F.; Rezaev, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; /Kharkov, KIPT /SLAC, SSRL /Eindhoven, Tech. U. /Lebedev Inst. /Kurdyumova Inst. Metalophysics

    2005-09-14

    The sources of the X-rays based on Compton scattering of intense Nd:YAG laser beam on electron beam circulating in a storage ring with beam energy 43-225 MeV is under construction in NSC KIPT. In the paper the progress in development and construction of Kharkov X-ray generator NESTOR is presented. The current status of the main facility system design and development are described. New scheme and main parameters of injection system are presented. The status of power supply system and control system is described. The facility is going to be in operation in the middle of 2007 and generated X-rays flux is expected to be of about 10{sup 13} phot/s.

  14. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M. G.

    2012-10-15

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  15. RESONANT INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING FROM TRANSITION METAL OXIDES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HILL,J.P.

    1999-08-23

    Recent developments in hard x-ray resonant inelastic x-ray scattering as a probe of strongly correlated systems are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to studies of Nd{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. A charge transfer excitation is observed when the incident photon energy is tuned in the vicinity of the copper K-edge. It is shown that the presence of resonant enhancements is controlled by the polarization dependence of the excitation process and by the overlap between a given intermediate state and the particular excitation being studied. This latter observation has shed light on the non-local effects present in certain intermediate states.

  16. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  17. State Energy Advisory Board Resolutions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resolution documents from STEAB, as posted on the U.S. Department of Energy website. PDF icon Resolution 13-01 PDF icon Resolution 12-01 PDF icon Resolution 12-02 PDF icon ...

  18. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  19. A laboratory 8 keV transmission full-field x-ray microscope with a polycapillary as condenser for bright and dark field imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumbach, S. Wilhein, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Malzer, W.; Stiel, H.

    2015-08-15

    This article introduces a laboratory setup of a transmission full-field x-ray microscope at 8 keV photon energy. The microscope operates in bright and dark field imaging mode with a maximum field of view of 50 μm. Since the illumination geometry determines whether the sample is illuminated homogeneously and moreover, if different imaging methods can be applied, the condenser optic is one of the most significant parts. With a new type of x-ray condenser, a polycapillary optic, we realized bright field imaging and for the first time dark field imaging at 8 keV photon energy in a laboratory setup. A detector limited spatial resolution of 210 nm is measured on x-ray images of Siemens star test patterns.

  20. Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.

    2007-01-24

    X-raysensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. New film becomes available as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a T-grain class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF film. A model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, SEM micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain type film.

  1. Response model for Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. A.; Chandler, K. M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Hammer, D. A.

    2006-10-15

    X-ray-sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. Replacement film must be found as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a 'T-grain' class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF and a model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, scanning electron microscopy micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain-type film.

  2. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  3. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator along with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.

  4. Ultra-stable sub-meV monochromator for hard X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Toellner, T. S.; Collins, J.; Goetze, K.; Hu, M. Y.; Preissner, C.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Yan, L.

    2015-07-17

    A high-resolution silicon monochromator suitable for 21.541 keV synchrotron radiation is presented that produces a bandwidth of 0.27 meV. The operating energy corresponds to a nuclear transition in 151Eu. The first-of-its-kind, fully cryogenic design achieves an energy-alignment stability of 0.017 meV r.m.s. per day, or a 100-fold improvement over other meV-monochromators, and can tolerate higher X-ray power loads than room-temperature designs of comparable resolution. This offers the potential for significantly more accurate measurements of lattice excitation energies using nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy if combined with accurate energy calibration using, for example, high-speed Doppler shifting. The design of the monochromator alongmore » with its performance and impact on transmitted beam properties are presented.« less

  5. Spectral brilliance of parametric X-rays at the FAST facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen, Tanaji; Seiss, Todd

    2015-06-22

    We discuss the generation of parametric X-rays in the new photoinjector at the FAST (Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology) facility in Fermilab. These experiments will be conducted in addition to channeling X-ray radiation experiments. The low emittance electron beam makes this facility a promising source for creating brilliant X-rays. We discuss the theoretical model and present detailed calculations of the intensity spectrum, energy and angular widths and spectral brilliance under different conditions. Furthermore, we report on expected results with parametric X-rays generated while under channeling conditions.

  6. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the...

  7. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  8. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  9. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  10. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  11. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  12. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  13. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution

  14. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  15. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  16. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  17. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIO AND X-RAY MODELING AND DATA ANALYSIS SOFTWARE: REVEALING FLARE COMPLEXITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Gary, Dale E.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2015-02-01

    Many problems in solar physics require analysis of imaging data obtained in multiple wavelength domains with differing spatial resolution in a framework supplied by advanced three-dimensional (3D) physical models. To facilitate this goal, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our IDL-based simulation tools developed earlier for modeling microwave and X-ray emission. The enhanced software architecture allows the user to (1) import photospheric magnetic field maps and perform magnetic field extrapolations to generate 3D magnetic field models; (2) investigate the magnetic topology by interactively creating field lines and associated flux tubes; (3) populate the flux tubes with user-defined nonuniform thermal plasma and anisotropic, nonuniform, nonthermal electron distributions; (4) investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio and X-ray emission calculated from the model; and (5) compare the model-derived images and spectra with observational data. The package integrates shared-object libraries containing fast gyrosynchrotron emission codes, IDL-based soft and hard X-ray codes, and potential and linear force-free field extrapolation routines. The package accepts user-defined radiation and magnetic field extrapolation plug-ins. We use this tool to analyze a relatively simple single-loop flare and use the model to constrain the magnetic 3D structure and spatial distribution of the fast electrons inside this loop. We iteratively compute multi-frequency microwave and multi-energy X-ray images from realistic magnetic flux tubes obtained from pre-flare extrapolations, and compare them with imaging data obtained by SDO, NoRH, and RHESSI. We use this event to illustrate the tool's use for the general interpretation of solar flares to address disparate problems in solar physics.

  19. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjr, Kasper S.; Vank, Gyrgy; van Driel, Tim B.; Adachi, Shin -ichi; Bordage, Amlie; Bressler, Christian; Chabera, Pavel; Christensen, Morten; Dohn, Asmus O.; Galler, Andreas; Gawelda, Wojciech; Gosztola, David; Haldrup, Kristoffer; Harlang, Tobias; Liu, Yizhu; Mller, Klaus B.; Nmeth, Zoltn; Nozawa, Shunsuke; Ppai, Mtys; Sato, Tokushi; Sato, Takahiro; Suarez-Alcantara, Karina; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Uhlig, Jens; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Wrnmark, Kenneth; Yabashi, Makina; Zhang, Jianxin; Sundstrm, Villy; Nielsen, Martin M.

    2015-03-02

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectroscopy with ultrafast X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffuse X-ray scattering at the SACLA facility to track the non-equilibrated electronic and structural dynamics within a bimetallic donoracceptor complex that contains an optically dark centre. Exploiting the 100-fold increase in temporal resolution as compared with storage ring facilities, these measurements constitute the first X-ray-based visualization of a non-equilibrated intramolecular electron transfer process over large interatomic distances. Thus experimental and theoretical results establish that mediation through electronically excited molecular states is a key mechanistic feature. The present study demonstrates the extensive potential of femtosecond X-ray techniques as diagnostics of non-adiabatic electron transfer processes in synthetic and biological systems, and some directions for future studies, are outlined.

  20. A seven-crystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokaras, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Nordlund, D.; Velikov, P.; Wenger, D.; Garachtchenko, A.; George, M.; Borzenets, V.; Johnson, B.; Rabedeau, T.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Bergmann, U.

    2013-05-15

    We present a multicrystal Johann-type hard x-ray spectrometer ({approx}5-18 keV) recently developed, installed, and operated at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline 6-2 equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si(111) and Si(311) - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter. The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range (88 Degree-Sign -74 Degree-Sign ) while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The instrument operates in atmospheric pressure by means of a helium bag and when all the seven crystals are used (100 mm of projected diameter each), has a solid angle of about 0.45% of 4{pi} sr. The typical resolving power is in the order of (E/{Delta}E){approx}10 000. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline 6-2 characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.

  1. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Vankó, György; van Driel, Tim B.; Adachi, Shin -ichi; Bordage, Amélie; Bressler, Christian; Chabera, Pavel; Christensen, Morten; Dohn, Asmus O.; et al

    2015-03-02

    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectroscopy with ultrafast X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffuse X-ray scattering at the SACLA facility to track the non-equilibrated electronic and structural dynamics within a bimetallic donor–acceptor complex that contains an optically dark centre. Exploiting the 100-fold increase in temporal resolution as compared with storage ring facilities, these measurements constitute the first X-ray-based visualization of a non-equilibrated intramolecular electron transfer process over large interatomic distances.more » Thus experimental and theoretical results establish that mediation through electronically excited molecular states is a key mechanistic feature. The present study demonstrates the extensive potential of femtosecond X-ray techniques as diagnostics of non-adiabatic electron transfer processes in synthetic and biological systems, and some directions for future studies, are outlined.« less

  2. The cool component and the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of solar X-ray jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.; Robe, Dominic

    2013-06-01

    We present results from a study of 54 polar X-ray jets that were observed in coronal X-ray movies from the X-ray Telescope on Hinode and had simultaneous coverage in movies of the cooler transition region (T ? 10{sup 5} K) taken in the He II 304 band of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on Solar Dynamics Observatory. These dual observations verify the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of polar X-ray jets previously found primarily from XRT movies alone. In accord with models of blowout jets and standard jets, the AIA 304 movies show a cool (T ? 10{sup 5} K) component in nearly all blowout X-ray jets and in a small minority of standard X-ray jets, obvious lateral expansion in blowout X-ray jets but none in standard X-ray jets, and obvious axial rotation in both blowout X-ray jets and standard X-ray jets. In our sample, the number of turns of axial rotation in the cool-component standard X-ray jets is typical of that in the blowout X-ray jets, suggesting that the closed bipolar magnetic field in the jet base has substantial twist not only in all blowout X-ray jets but also in many standard X-ray jets. We point out that our results for the dichotomy, lateral expansion, and axial rotation of X-ray jets add credence to published speculation that type-II spicules are miniature analogs of X-ray jets, are generated by granule-size emerging bipoles, and thereby carry enough energy to power the corona and solar wind.

  3. Probing convex polygons with X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelsbrunner, H.; Skiena, S.S. )

    1988-10-01

    An X-ray probe through a polygon measures the length of intersection between a line and the polygon. This paper considers the properties of various classes of X-ray probes, and shows how they interact to give finite strategies for completely describing convex n-gons. It is shown that (3n/2)+6 probes are sufficient to verify a specified n-gon, while for determining convex polygons (3n-1)/2 X-ray probes are necessary and 5n+O(1) sufficient, with 3n+O(1) sufficient given that a lower bound on the size of the smallest edge of P is known.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: X-ray vision

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Sandia-developed X-Ray Toolkit, or XTK, is a specialized X-ray visualization tool to help bomb disposal squads make fast, accurate, and precise assessments of potentially dangerous devices such as pipe bombs and IEDs. The image here, captured via the XTK software package using its unique image-stitching capability, shows the inner workings of a mock IED. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS News X-ray vision By Nancy Salem Photography By Randy Montoya Thursday, September 01, 2016 Sandia, UNM

  5. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; et al

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore » RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  6. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr₂IrO₄ using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; Hill, J. P.

    2015-04-28

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr₂IrO₄, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.

  7. Five-element Johann-type x-ray emission spectrometer with a single-photon-counting pixel detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleymenov, Evgeny; Bokhoven, Jeroen A. van; David, Christian; Janousch, Markus; Studer, Marco; Willimann, Markus; Bergamaschi, Anna; Henrich, Beat; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Glatzel, Pieter; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2011-06-15

    A Johann-type spectrometer with five spherically bent crystals and a pixel detector was constructed for a range of hard x-ray photon-in photon-out synchrotron techniques, covering a Bragg-angle range of 60 deg. - 88 deg. The spectrometer provides a sub emission line width energy resolution from sub-eV to a few eV and precise energy calibration, better than 1.5 eV for the full range of Bragg angles. The use of a pixel detector allows fast and easy optimization of the signal-to-background ratio. A concentration detection limit below 0.4 wt% was reached at the Cu K{alpha}{sub 1} line. The spectrometer is designed as a modular mobile device for easy integration in a multi-purpose hard x-ray synchrotron beamline, such as the SuperXAS beamline at the Swiss Light Source.

  8. In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knies, D. L.; Grabowski, K. S.; Dominguez, D. D.; Qadri, S. B.; Hubler, G. K.; Violante, V.; Hu, J. Z.; He, J. H.

    2012-10-15

    Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H{sub 2}O (D{sub 2}O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

  9. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... DailyIndia.com: http:www.dailyindia.comshow48286.phpX-rays-illuminate-Archimedes-writings North Korea Times: http:story.northkoreatimes.comp.xct9ciddd8845aa60952db2id...

  10. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  11. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light ... wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of ...

  12. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  13. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (4). ... We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer ...

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  15. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  16. Design and construction of a Fourier transform soft x-ray interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, John A.

    2000-05-10

    Helium, with its two electrons and one nucleus, is a three-body system. One of the models for investigating correlated electron motion in this system is autoionization, produced via double excitation of the electrons. Predictions about the autoionization spectrum of helium have differed from each other and from preliminary experimental data. However, previous experiments have not been able to distinguish among the theoretical predictions because their energy resolution is not high enough to resolve the narrow linewidths of quasi-forbidden peaks and the resonances that appear in the highest excited states. Consequently, a team of researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have embarked on a project for building a high-resolution Fourier-Transform Soft X-ray (or VUV) interferometer (FTSX) to provide definitive data to answer remaining questions about the autoionization spectrum of helium. The design and construction of this interferometer is described in detail below, including the use of a flexure stage to provide the large path length difference necessary for high resolution measurements, the manufacture of x-ray beamsplitters, a description of the software, and the solution to the problems of stick-slip, vibration, and alignment. Current progress of its development is also described, as well as future goals.

  17. Continuous Flow Cryostat for X-Ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, T.-C.; Linden, Peter J. E. M. van der; Glatzel, Pieter; Lapras, Christophe; Krzyzowski, Michael

    2010-06-23

    A continuous Helium flow cryostat was designed and built by Cryovac GMbH to specifications given by ESRF beamline ID26. The beamline has constructed a high energy resolution X-ray emission spectrometer using multiple spherically bent analyser crystals, together with the sample and detector on a vertical Rowland circle. The double shrouded cryostat has a low profile designed to fit into the spectrometer setup, the lowest detector position allows for a Bragg angle of 85 degrees with a 1 meter diameter Rowland circle. The cryostat has a temperature range of 5 to 300 Kelvin on the sample holder which is cooled by static Helium exchange gas. The cryostat has triple windows for beam entrance, transmission and fluorescence; the latter offers an opening angle of 80 degrees horizontally and 50 degrees vertically. The cryostat can be configured to work in two different operation modes: translation or rotation. The translation mode offers a displacement of 50 mm to accommodate multiple samples on the sample holder. The rotation mode is used for polarisation studies on single crystals.We show recent results obtained on Chromium containing molecular complexes; data collection was done at a temperature of 10 Kelvin to avoid radiation damage.

  18. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  19. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...