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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Evaluation of WRF Model Output for Severe Weather Forecasting from the 2008 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed Spring Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses forecasts of the preconvective and near-storm environments from the convection-allowing models run for the 2008 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) spring experiment. ...

Michael C. Coniglio; Kimberly L. Elmore; John S. Kain; Steven J. Weiss; Ming Xue; Morris L. Weisman

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Air pollution forecasting by coupled atmosphere-fire model WRF and SFIRE with WRF-Chem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric pollution regulations have emerged as a dominant obstacle to prescribed burns. Thus, forecasting the pollution caused by wildland fires has acquired high importance. WRF and SFIRE model wildland fire spread in a two-way interaction with the atmosphere. The surface heat flux from the fire causes strong updrafts, which in turn change the winds and affect the fire spread. Fire emissions, estimated from the burning organic matter, are inserted in every time step into WRF-Chem tracers at the lowest atmospheric layer. The buoyancy caused by the fire then naturally simulates plume dynamics, and the chemical transport in WRF-Chem provides a forecast of the pollution spread. We discuss the choice of wood burning models and compatible chemical transport models in WRF-Chem, and demonstrate the results on case studies.

Kochanski, Adam K; Mandel, Jan; Clements, Craig B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

ARM - Campaign Instrument - wrf-chem  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output (WRF-CHEM) Instrument Categories Surface Meteorology, Derived...

4

Prediction of Landfalling Hurricanes with the Advanced Hurricane WRF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Real-time forecasts of five landfalling Atlantic hurricanes during 2005 using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) (ARW) Model at grid spacings of 12 and 4 km revealed performance generally competitive with, and ...

Christopher Davis; Wei Wang; Shuyi S. Chen; Yongsheng Chen; Kristen Corbosiero; Mark DeMaria; Jimy Dudhia; Greg Holland; Joe Klemp; John Michalakes; Heather Reeves; Richard Rotunno; Chris Snyder; Qingnong Xiao

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Development of the Upgraded Tangent Linear and Adjoint of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a new technique for parallelizations of tangent linear and adjoint codes, which were applied in the redevelopment for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its Advanced Research WRF dynamic core using the ...

Xin Zhang; Xiang-Yu Huang; Ning Pan

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Verification of Convection-Allowing WRF Model Forecasts of the Planetary Boundary Layer Using Sounding Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates forecasts of thermodynamic variables from five convection-allowing configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with the Advanced Research core (WRF-ARW). The forecasts vary only in their planetary ...

Michael C. Coniglio; James Correia Jr.; Patrick T. Marsh; Fanyou Kong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Numerical Prediction of an Antarctic Severe Wind Event with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study initiates the application of the maturing Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to the polar regions in the context of the real-time Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). The behavior of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) ...

Jordan G. Powers

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Using the WRF Model in an Operational Streamflow Forecast System for the Jordan River  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was employed to provide precipitation forecasts during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 winters (wet season) for Israel and the surrounding region where complex terrain dominates. The WRF precipitation ...

Amir Givati; Barry Lynn; Yubao Liu; Alon Rimmer

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

WRF Model Experiments on the Antarctic Atmosphere in Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The standard and polar versions 3.1.1 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, both initialized by the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), were run in Antarctica for July 1998. Four different boundary layerľsurface layerľradiation scheme ...

Esa-Matti Tastula; Timo Vihma

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

WRF-Fire: Coupled WeatherľWildland Fire Modeling with the Weather Research and Forecasting Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wildland fire-behavior module, named WRF-Fire, was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire-behavior model that is two-way coupled with the ...

Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

PNNL-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem Modeling in Mexico | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem Modeling in Mexico Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem Modeling in Mexico Jump to: navigation, search Name PNNL-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem Modeling in Mexico Agency/Company /Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sector Energy Topics Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, - Health, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.pnl.gov/atmospheric Country Mexico UN Region Latin America and the Caribbean References PNNL-Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Chem Modeling in Mexico[1] PNNL Publications on WRF-Chem modeling in Mexico include: Fast JD, M Shrivastava, RA Zaveri, and JC. Barnard. 2010. "Modeling particulates and direct radiative forcing from urban to synoptic scales downwind of Mexico City." Annual European Geosciences Union Assembly,

12

WRF Model Simulation of Two Alberta Flooding Events and the Impact of Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines simulations of two flooding events in Alberta, Canada, during June 2005, made using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). The model was used in a manner readily accessible to nonmeteorologists (e.g., accepting ...

Thomas K. Flesch; Gerhard W. Reuter

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Prediction of convective morphology in near-cloud permitting WRF model simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelĺs ability to forecast convective morphological evolution is examined for 37 convective systems. The simulations used Thompson microphysics with 3-km horizontal grid spacing. Ten convective mode ...

Darren V. Snively; William A. Gallus; Jr.

14

On the Ability of the WRF Model to Reproduce the Surface Wind Direction over Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to reproduce the surface wind direction over complex terrain is examined. A simulation spanning a winter season at a high horizontal resolution of 2 km is compared with wind direction ...

Pedro A. JimÚnez; Jimy Dudhia

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

On the Impact of WRF Model Vertical Grid Resolution on Midwest Summer Rainfall Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model exploratory sensitivity simulations were performed to determine the impact of vertical grid resolution (VGR) on the forecast skill of Midwest summer rainfall. Varying the VGR indicated that a refined VGR, ...

Eric A. Aligo; William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Evaluation of WRF Model Simulations of Tornadic and Nontornadic Outbreaks Occurring in the Spring and Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies, investigating the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to distinguish tornado outbreaks from primarily nontornadic outbreaks when initialized with synoptic-scale data, have suggested that accurate ...

Chad M. Shafer; Andrew E. Mercer; Lance M. Leslie; Michael B. Richman; Charles A. Doswell III

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Examining Interior Grid Nudging Techniques Using Two-Way Nesting in the WRF Model for Regional Climate Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates interior nudging techniques using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for regional climate modeling over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using a two-way nested configuration. NCEPľDepartment of Energy ...

Jared H. Bowden; Tanya L. Otte; Christopher G. Nolte; Martin J. Otte

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Configuration and Evaluation of the WRF Model for the Study of Hawaiian Regional Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model V3.3 has been configured for the Hawaiian Islands as a regional climate model for the region (HRCM). This paper documents the model configuration and presents a preliminary evaluation based on a ...

Chunxi Zhang; Yuqing Wang; Axel Lauer; Kevin Hamilton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Experiences with 0ľ36-h Explicit Convective Forecasts with the WRF-ARW Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Herein, a summary of the authorsĺ experiences with 36-h real-time explicit (4 km) convective forecasts with the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) during the 2003ľ05 spring and summer seasons is presented. These ...

Morris L. Weisman; Christopher Davis; Wei Wang; Kevin W. Manning; Joseph B. Klemp

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Analysis of WRF Model Wind Estimate Sensitivity to Physics Parameterization Choice and Terrain Representation in Andalusia (Southern Spain)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on an evaluation of the relative roles of choice of parameterization scheme and terrain representation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, in the context of a regional wind resource assessment. As a ...

F. J. Santos-Alamillos; D. Pozo-Vßzquez; J. A. Ruiz-Arias; V. Lara-Fanego; J. Tovar-Pescador

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Suitability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model to Predict the June 2005 Fire Weather for Interior Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard indices used in the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) and Fosberg fire-weather indices are calculated from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations and observations in interior Alaska for June 2005. Evaluation ...

Nicole M÷lders

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Aerosol Effects on Intensity of Landfalling Hurricanes as Seen from Simulations with the WRF Model with Spectral Bin Microphysics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of a superhurricane (Katrina, August 2005) was simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF; version 3.1) with explicit (nonparameterized) spectral bin microphysics (SBM). The new computationally efficient ...

A. Khain; B. Lynn; J. Dudhia

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Predictions of Turbulent Flow Parameters in a Dry Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions using different boundary layer schemes and horizontal grid spacings were compared with observational and numerical large-eddy simulation data for conditions corresponding to a dry ...

Jeremy A. Gibbs; Evgeni Fedorovich; Alexander M. J. van Eijk

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

An Immersed Boundary Method Enabling Large-Eddy Simulations of Flow over Complex Terrain in the WRF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a three-dimensional immersed boundary method (IBM) that facilitates the explicit resolution of complex terrain within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two interpolation methodsŚtrilinear and inverse distance ...

Katherine A. Lundquist; Fotini Katopodes Chow; Julie K. Lundquist

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Simulations of organic aerosol concentrations in Mexico City using the WRF-CHEM model during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Organic aerosol concentrations are simulated using the WRF-CHEM model in Mexico City during the period from 24 to 29 March in association with the MILAGRO-2006 campaign. Two approaches are employed to predict the variation ...

Molina, Luisa Tan

26

Research Needs and Directions of Regional Climate Modeling Using WRF and CCSM  

SciTech Connect

Climate varies across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Yet, climate modeling has long been approached using global models that can resolve only the broader scales of atmospheric processes and their interactions with land, ocean, and sea ice. Clearly, large-scale climate determines the environment for mesoscale and microscale processes that govern the weather and local climate, but, likewise, processes that occur at the regional scale may have significant impacts on the large scale circulation. Resolving such scale interactions will lead to much improved understanding of how climate both influences, and is influenced by, human activities. Since October 2003, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has supported an effort through the Opportunity Fund to develop regional climate modeling capability using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php) and the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) (http://www.ccsm.ucar.edu/models), with participations by members of both the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology and Climate and Global Dynamics Divisions. The goal is to develop a next generation community Regional Climate Model (RCM) that can address both downscaling and upscaling issues in climate modeling. Downscaling is the process of deriving regional climate information based on large-scale climate conditions. Both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods have been used to produce regional climate change scenarios; however, their resolution and physical fidelity are considered inadequate. Hence, the global change community has expressed a strong demand for improved regional climate information to explore the implications of adaptation and mitigation and assess climate change impacts (http://www.climatescience.gov/events/workshop2002/). Upscaling encapsulates the aggregate effects of small-scale physical and dynamical processes on the large-scale climate. One form of upscaling is the use of physical parameterizations such as that for deep convection. These are also considered to be inadequate, as much of the uncertainty in model sensitivity to greenhouse gases is now known to be associated with cloud parameterizations. Another form of upscaling is to explicitly include the effects of regional processes on the large-scale environment, both locally and remotely. Since their inception in the late 1980s, RCMs have been used predominantly to address downscaling issues through one-way coupling with global analyses or climate models. As part of the NCAR project, WRF has been adapted for simulating regional climate. Seasonal simulations over the U.S. have shown realistic features including the low-level jet and diurnal cycle of rainfall in the Central U.S. (Leung et al. 2005), and orographic precipitation in the western U.S. (Done et al. 2005). A WRF Regional Climate Modeling Working Group has been established to coordinate RCM research activities. To help define the next steps, a workshop on ôResearch Needs and Directions of Regional Climate Modeling Using WRF and CCSMö was organized to engage the regional and global climate modeling communities to: (1) define research needs for the development of a next generation community RCM based on WRF and CCSM; (2) define upscaling and downscaling research that can be addressed by RCMs; and (3) develop a plan of actions that would meet the research needs. This article summarizes the research issues and recommendations discussed at the workshop. There is no implied order in the research priorities listed below. Workshop agenda and presentations can be found at http://box.mmm.ucar.edu/events/rcm05/.

Leung, Lai R.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Tribbia, J.

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dynamical Properties of Model Output Statistics Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamical properties of forecasts corrected using model output statistics (MOS) schemes are explored, with emphasis on the respective role of model and initial condition uncertainties. Analytical and numerical investigations of low-order ...

S. Vannitsem; C. Nicolis

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

A study on nocturnal surface wind speed over-prediction by the WRF-ARW model in Southeastern Texas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The over-prediction of surface wind speed during nighttime by the WRF-ARW model was investigated for a period of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (May 28 ľ July 3, 2006). In coastal regions of southeastern Texas, the model had significant ...

Fong Ngan; Hyuncheol Kim; Pius Lee; Khalid Al-Wali; Bright Dornblaser

29

Ensemble Model Output Statistics for Wind Vectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bivariate ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) technique for the postprocessing of ensemble forecasts of two-dimensional wind vectors is proposed, where the postprocessed probabilistic forecast takes the form of a bivariate normal probability ...

Nina Schuhen; Thordis L. Thorarinsdottir; Tilmann Gneiting

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Simulation of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the WRF Model at the Southern Great Plains Site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aerosol direct and indirect effects were investigated for three specific cases during the March 2000 Cloud IOP at the SGP site by using a modified WRF model. The WRF model was previously altered to include a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme for the aerosol indirect effect and a modified Goddard shortwave radiation scheme for the aerosol direct effect. The three cases studied include a developing low pressure system, a low precipitation event of mainly cirrus clouds, and a cold frontal passage. Three different aerosol profiles were used with surface concentrations ranging from 210 cm-3 to 12,000 cm-3. In addition, each case and each aerosol profile was run both with and without the aerosol direct effect. Regardless of the case, increasing the aerosol concentration generally increased cloud water and droplet values while decreasing rain water and droplet values. Increased aerosols also decreased the surface shortwave radiative flux for every case; which was greatest when the aerosol direct effect was included. For convective periods during polluted model runs, the aerosol direct effect lowered the surface temperature and reduced convection leading to a lower cloud fraction. During most convective periods, the changes to cloud, rain, and ice water mixing ratios and number concentrations produced a nonlinear precipitation trend. A balance between these values was achieved for moderate aerosol profiles, which produced the highest convective precipitation rates. In non-convective cases, due to the presence of ice particles, aerosol concentration and precipitation amounts were positively correlated. The aerosol threshold between precipitation enhancement and suppression should be further studied for specific cloud types as well as for specific synoptic weather patterns to determine its precise values.

Vogel, Jonathan 1988-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dynamical Downscaling over the Great Lakes Basin of North America Using the WRF Regional Climate Model: The Impact of the Great Lakes System on Regional Greenhouse Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is employed to dynamically downscale global warming projections produced using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). The analyses are focused on the Great Lakes Basin of North America and the ...

Jonathan Gula; W. Richard Peltier

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Evaluations of BDA Scheme Using the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tropical cyclone bogus data assimilation (BDA) scheme is built in the Weather Research and Forecasting three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (WRF 3D-VAR). Experiments were conducted (21 experiments with BDA in parallel with ...

Qingnong Xiao; Liqiang Chen; Xiaoyan Zhang

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Sensitivity of Low-Level Winds Simulated by the WRF Model in Californiaĺs Central Valley to Uncertainties in the Large-Scale Forcing and Soil Initialization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model-simulated low-level winds in the Central Valley (CV) of California to uncertainties in the atmospheric forcing and soil initialization is investigated using scatter diagrams for ...

Sara A. Michelson; Jian-Wen Bao

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Examination of Convection-Allowing Configurations of the WRF Model for the Prediction of Severe Convective Weather: The SPC/NSSL Spring Program 2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Convection-allowing configurations of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model were evaluated during the 2004 Storm Prediction CenterľNational Severe Storms Laboratory Spring Program in a simulated severe weather forecasting environment. The ...

John S. Kain; S. J. Weiss; J. J. Levit; M. E. Baldwin; D. R. Bright

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Some Issues in Uncertainty Quantification and Parameter Tuning: A Case Study of Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Regional Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current tuning process of parameters in global climate models is often performed subjectively, or treated as an optimization procedure to minimize the difference between model fields and observations. The later approach may be generating a set of tunable parameters that approximate the observed climate but via an unrealistic balance of physical processes and/or compensating errors over different regions in the globe. In this study, we run the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional model constrained by the reanalysis data over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) where abundant observational data from various resources are available for calibration of the input parameters and validation of the model results. Our goal is to quantify the uncertainty ranges and identify the optimal values of five key input parameters in a new Kain-Frisch (KF) convective parameterization scheme incorporated in the WRF model. A stochastic sampling algorithm, Multiple Very Fast Simulated Annealing (MVFSA), is employed to efficiently sample the input parameters in KF scheme based on the skill score so that the algorithm progressively moves toward regions of the parameter space that minimize model errors. The results based on the WRF simulations with 25-km grid spacing over the SGP show that the model bias for precipitation can be significantly reduced by using five optimal parameters identified by the MVFSA algorithm. The model performance is very sensitive to downdraft and entrainment related parameters and consumption time of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). Simulated convective precipitation decreases as the ratio of downdraft to updraft flux increases. Larger CAPE consumption time results in less convective but more stratiform precipitation. The simulation using optimal parameters obtained by only constraining precipitation generates positive impact on the other output variables, such as temperature and wind. By using the optimal parameters obtained at 25 km simulation, both the magnitude and spatial pattern of simulated precipitation are improved at 12-km spatial resolution. The optimal parameters identified from the SGP region have also improved the simulation of precipitation when moving model domain to another region with a different climate regime (i.e. North America monsoon region). These results suggest the improvement of precipitation simulation by using the optimal parameters remains when the model domain or spatial resolution is changed.

Yang, Ben; Qian, Yun; Lin, Guang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Zhang, Yaocun

2012-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

36

Impacts of WRF Physics and Measurement Uncertainty on California Wintertime Model Wet Bias  

SciTech Connect

The Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model version 3.0.1 is used to explore California wintertime model wet bias. In this study, two wintertime storms are selected from each of four major types of large-scale conditions; Pineapple Express, El Nino, La Nina, and synoptic cyclones. We test the impacts of several model configurations on precipitation bias through comparison with three sets of gridded surface observations; one from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and two variations from the University of Washington (without and with long-term trend adjustment; UW1 and UW2, respectively). To simplify validation, California is divided into 4 regions (Coast, Central Valley, Mountains, and Southern California). Simulations are driven by North American Regional Reanalysis data to minimize large-scale forcing error. Control simulations are conducted with 12-km grid spacing (low resolution) but additional experiments are performed at 2-km (high) resolution to evaluate the robustness of microphysics and cumulus parameterizations to resolution changes. We find that the choice of validation dataset has a significant impact on the model wet bias, and the forecast skill of model precipitation depends strongly on geographic location and storm type. Simulations with right physics options agree better with UW1 observations. In 12-km resolution simulations, the Lin microphysics and the Kain-Fritsch cumulus scheme have better forecast skill in the coastal region while Goddard, Thompson, and Morrison microphysics, and the Grell-Devenyi cumulus scheme perform better in the rest of California. The effect of planetary boundary layer, soil-layer, and radiation physics on model precipitation is weaker than that of microphysics and cumulus processes for short- to medium-range low-resolution simulations. Comparison of 2-km and 12-km resolution runs suggests a need for improvement of cumulus schemes, and supports the use of microphysics schemes in coarser-grid applications.

Chin, H S; Caldwell, P M; Bader, D C

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

37

Combining climate model output via model correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 9, 2010 ... we fit a statistical model linking the ensemble members explicitly through the .... for the domain (winds, temperature, moisture, etc.) are obtained .... ever, there are different dynamical features to the indi- .... Further, it is possible.

38

WRF-Var implementation for data assimilation experimentation at MIT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this Masters project is to implement the WRF model with 3D variational assimilation (3DVAR) at MIT. A working version of WRF extends the scope of experimentation to mesoscale problems in both real and idealized ...

Williams, John K. (John Kenneth)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ecosystem Feedbacks to Climate Change in California: Development, Testing, and Analysis Using a Coupled Regional Atmosphere and Land Surface Model (WRF3ľCLM3.5)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future ...

Z. M. Subin; W. J. Riley; J. Jin; D. S. Christianson; M. S. Torn; L. M. Kueppers

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

LBA-ECO DECAF Model Output Data Set Published  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DECAF Model Output Data Set Published The ORNL DAAC announces the publication of the model output data product, Deforestation Carbon Flux (DECAF), from the LBA Land Use-Land Cover...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Model-Inspired Predictors for Model Output Statistics (MOS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article addresses the problem of the choice of the predictors for the multiple linear regression in model output statistics. Rather than devising a selection procedure directly aimed at the minimization of the final scores, it is examined ...

Piet Termonia; Alex Deckmyn

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Improved Model Output Statistics Forecasts through Model Consensus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consensus forecasts are computed by averaging model output statistics (MOS) forecasts based on the limited-area fine-mesh (LFM) model and the nested grid model (NGM) for the three-year period 1990ľ92. The test consists of four weather elements (...

Robert L. Vislocky; J. Michael Fritsch

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Performance Assessment of New Land Surface and Planetary Boundary Layer Physics in the WRF-ARW  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The PleimľXiu land surface model, Pleim surface layer scheme, and Asymmetric Convective Model (version 2) are now options in version 3.0 of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Advanced Research WRF (ARW) core. These physics ...

Robert C. Gilliam; Jonathan E. Pleim

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Implementation of an Explicit Charging and Discharge Lightning Scheme within the WRF-ARW Model: Benchmark Simulations of a Continental Squall Line, a Tropical Cyclone, and a Winter Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work describes the recent implementation of explicit lightning physics within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Charging of hydrometeors consists of five distinct noninductive parameterizations, polarization of cloud water, ...

Alexandre O. Fierro; Edward R. Mansell; Donald R. MacGorman; Conrad L. Ziegler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

A WRF Ensemble for Improved Wind Speed Forecasts at Turbine Height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with 10-km horizontal grid spacing was used to explore improvements in wind speed forecasts at a typical wind turbine hub height (80 m). An ensemble consisting of WRF model simulations with ...

Adam J. Deppe; William A. Gallus Jr.; Eugene S. Takle

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Generalized Exponential Markov and Model Output Statistics: A Comparative Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed a comparative verification of Model Output Statistics (MOS) against Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM), a single station forecasting technique which uses only the surface observation and climatology as input. The verification was ...

Thomas J. Perrone; Robert G. Miller

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Community Climate System Model (CCSM) Experiments and Output Data  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The CCSM web makes the source code of various versions of the model freely available and provides access to experiments that have been run and the resulting output data.

48

Ecosystem feedbacks to climate change in California: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future California land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on California's climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate California's climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha California afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.

Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model  

SciTech Connect

This is a conference proceeding that is now being put together as a book. This is chapter 2 of the book: "INTEGRATED SYSTEMS OF MESO-METEOROLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS" published by Springer. The chapter title is "On-line Chemistry within WRF: Description and Evaluation of a State-of-the-Art Multiscale Air Quality and Weather Prediction Model." The original conference was the COST-728/NetFAM workshop on Integrated systems of meso-meteorological and chemical transport models, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, May 21-23, 2007.

Grell, Georg; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Peckham, Steven E.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Salzmann, Marc; Freitas, Saulo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Coupling Aerosol-Cloud-Radiative Processes in the WRF-Chem Model: Investigating the Radiative Impact of Elevated Point Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The local and regional influence of elevated point sources on summertime aerosol forcing and cloud-aerosol interactions in northeastern North America was investigated using the WRF-Chem community model. The direct effects of aerosols on incoming solar radiation were simulated using existing modules to relate aerosol sizes and chemical composition to aerosol optical properties. Indirect effects were simulated by adding a prognostic treatment of cloud droplet number and adding modules that activate aerosol particles to form cloud droplets, simulate aqueous phase chemistry, and tie a two-moment treatment of cloud water (cloud water mass and cloud droplet number) to an existing radiation scheme. Fully interactive feedbacks thus were created within the modified model, with aerosols affecting cloud droplet number and cloud radiative properties, and clouds altering aerosol size and composition via aqueous processes, wet scavenging, and gas-phase-related photolytic processes. Comparisons of a baseline simulation with observations show that the model captured the general temporal cycle of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and produced clouds of comparable thickness to observations at approximately the proper times and places. The model slightly overpredicted SO2 mixing ratios and PM2.5 mass, but reproduced the range of observed SO2 to sulfate aerosol ratios, suggesting that atmospheric oxidation processes leading to aerosol sulfate formation are captured in the model. The baseline simulation was compared to a sensitivity simulation in which all emissions at model levels above the surface layer were set to zero, thus removing stack emissions. Instantaneous, site-specific differences for aerosol and cloud related properties between the two simulations could be quite large, as removing above-surface emission sources influenced when and where clouds formed within the modeling domain. When summed spatially over the finest resolution model domain (the extent of which corresponds to the typical size of a single GCM grid cell) and temporally over a three day analysis period, total rainfall in the sensitivity simulation increased by 31% over that in the baseline simulation. Fewer optically thin clouds, arbitrarily defined as a cloud exhibiting an optical depth less than 1, formed in the sensitivity simulation. Domain-averaged AODs dropped from 0.46 in the baseline simulation to 0.38 in the sensitivity simulation. The overall net effect of additional aerosols attributable to primary particulates and aerosol precursors from point source emissions above the surface was a domain-averaged reduction of 5 W m-2 in mean daytime downwelling shortwave radiation.

Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Easter, Richard C.; Barnard, James C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Fast, Jerome D.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation for WRF: Formulation and Preliminary Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelľbased variational data assimilation system (WRF-Var) has been extended from three- to four-dimensional variational data assimilation (WRF 4D-Var) to meet the increasing demand for improving initial ...

Xiang-Yu Huang; Qingnong Xiao; Dale M. Barker; Xin Zhang; John Michalakes; Wei Huang; Tom Henderson; John Bray; Yongsheng Chen; Zaizhong Ma; Jimy Dudhia; Yongrun Guo; Xiaoyan Zhang; Duk-Jin Won; Hui-Chuan Lin; Ying-Hwa Kuo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of Three Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes in the WRF Model XIAO-MING HU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of air from above the PBL. A sensitivity experiment with the ACM2 scheme confirms this diagnosis. 1 the planetary boundary layer (PBL), is important for air pollution modeling, and PBL parameterization schemes┬şYamada┬şJanjic (MYJ), Yonsei University (YSU), and the asymmetric convective model, version 2 (ACM2)]. Comparison

53

WRF Simulations of the Urban Circulation in the Salt Lake City Area for CO2 Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A recent National Research Council report highlighted the potential utility of atmospheric observations and models for detecting trends in concentrated emissions from localized regions, such as urban areas. The Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah, area was ...

Thomas Nehrkorn; John Henderson; Mark Leidner; Marikate Mountain; Janusz Eluszkiewicz; Kathryn McKain; Steven Wofsy

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

System dynamics model of construction output in Kenya.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study investigates fluctuations of construction output, and growth of the output in Kenya. Fluctuation and growth of construction activity are matters of concern inů (more)

Mbiti, T

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Application of an Adiabatic WRF Adjoint to the Investigation of the May 2004 McMurdo, Antarctica, Severe Wind Event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tangent linear and adjoint of an adiabatic version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with its Advanced Research WRF (ARW) dynamic core have been developed. The source-to-source automatic differentiation tool [i.e., the ...

Qingnong Xiao; Ying-Hwa Kuo; Zaizhong Ma; Wei Huang; Xiang-Yu Huang; Xiaoyan Zhang; Dale M. Barker; John Michalakes; Jimy Dudhia

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Input--output capital coefficients for energy technologies. [Input-output model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Input-output capital coefficients are presented for five electric and seven non-electric energy technologies. They describe the durable goods and structures purchases (at a 110 sector level of detail) that are necessary to expand productive capacity in each of twelve energy source sectors. Coefficients are defined in terms of 1967 dollar purchases per 10/sup 6/ Btu of output from new capacity, and original data sources include Battelle Memorial Institute, the Harvard Economic Research Project, The Mitre Corp., and Bechtel Corp. The twelve energy sectors are coal, crude oil and gas, shale oil, methane from coal, solvent refined coal, refined oil products, pipeline gas, coal combined-cycle electric, fossil electric, LWR electric, HTGR electric, and hydroelectric.

Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Measurement and Modeling of Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability Preprint M. Sengupta To be presented at SOLAR 2011 Raleigh, North Carolina May 17-21, 2011 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-51105 April 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty,

58

Evaluating WRF-Chem multi-scale model in simulating aerosol radiative properties over the tropics ľ A case study over India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We utilized WRF-Chem multi-scale model to simulate the regional distribution of aerosols, optical properties and its effect on radiation over India for a winter month. The model is evaluated using measurements obtained from upper-air soundings, AERONET sun photometers, various satellite instruments, and pyranometers operated by the Indian Meteorological Department. The simulated downward shortwave flux was overestimated when the effect of aerosols on radiation and clouds was neglected. Downward shortwave radiation from a simulation that included aerosol-radiation interaction processes was 5 to 25 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations, while a simulation that included aerosol-cloud interaction processes were another 1 to 20 Wm{sup -2} closer to the observations. For the few observations available, the model usually underestimated particulate concentration. This is likely due to turbulent mixing, transport errors and the lack of secondary organic aerosol treatment in the model. The model efficiently captured the broad regional hotspots such as high aerosol optical depth over Indo-Gangetic basin as well as the northwestern and southern part of India. The regional distribution of aerosol optical depth compares well with AVHRR aerosol optical depth and the TOMS aerosol index. The magnitude and wavelength-dependence of simulated aerosol optical depth was also similar to the AERONET observations across India. Differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglected aerosol-radiation interactions were as high as -25 Wm{sup -2}, while differences in surface shortwave radiation between simulations that included and neglect aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions were as high as -30 Wm{sup -2}. The spatial variations of these differences were also compared with AVHRR observation. This study suggests that the model is able to qualitatively simulate the impact of aerosols on radiation over India; however, additional measurements of particulate mass and composition are needed to fully evaluate whether the aerosol precursor emissions are adequate when simulating radiative forcing in the region.

Seethala, C.; Pandithurai, G.; Fast, Jerome D.; Polade, Suraj D.; Reddy, M. S.; Peckham, Steven E.

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

59

An Advanced simulation Code for Modeling Inductive Output Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Phase I program, CCR completed several major building blocks for a 3D large signal, inductive output tube (IOT) code using modern computer language and programming techniques. These included a 3D, Helmholtz, time-harmonic, field solver with a fully functional graphical user interface (GUI), automeshing and adaptivity. Other building blocks included the improved electrostatic Poisson solver with temporal boundary conditions to provide temporal fields for the time-stepping particle pusher as well as the self electric field caused by time-varying space charge. The magnetostatic field solver was also updated to solve for the self magnetic field caused by time changing current density in the output cavity gap. The goal function to optimize an IOT cavity was also formulated, and the optimization methodologies were investigated.

Thuc Bui; R. Lawrence Ives

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Estimating Potential Evaporation from Vegetated Surfaces for Water Management Impact Assessments Using Climate Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

River basin managers concerned with maintaining water supplies and mitigating flood risk in the face of climate change are taking outputs from climate models and using them in hydrological models for assessment purposes. While precipitation is the ...

Victoria A. Bell; Nicola Gedney; Alison L. Kay; Roderick N. B. Smith; Richard G. Jones; Robert J. Moore

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Upper-Troposphere MM5 and WRF Temperature Error and Vertical Velocity Coupling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityľNational Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) have been employed to predict troposphere temperatures for atmospheric study and ...

Kelly Soich; Bernhard Rappenglueck

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Assessing the Impacts of Different WRF Precipitation Physics in Hurricane Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical weather prediction models play a major role in weather forecasting, especially in cases of extreme events. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), among others, is extensively used for both research and practical applications. ...

Nasrin Nasrollahi; Amir AghaKouchak; Jialun Li; Xiaogang Gao; Kuolin Hsu; Soroosh Sorooshian

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Development and Testing of Polar Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Part I: Greenland Ice Sheet Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A polar-optimized version of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityľNational Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) was developed to fill climate and synoptic needs of the polar science community and to achieve an ...

Keith M. Hines; David H. Bromwich

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Objectively Determined Fair-Weather CBL Depths in the ARW-WRF Model and Their Comparison to CASES-97 Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution 24-h runs of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model are used to test eight objective methods for estimating convective boundary layer (CBL) depth h, using four planetary boundary layer schemes: ...

Margaret A. LeMone; Mukul Tewari; Fei Chen; Jimy Dudhia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Experiments of Hurricane Initialization with Airborne Doppler Radar Data for the Advanced Research Hurricane WRF (AHW) Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initialization of the hurricane vortex in weather prediction models is vital to intensity forecasts out to at least 48 h. Airborne Doppler radar (ADR) data have sufficiently high horizontal and vertical resolution to resolve the hurricane vortex ...

Qingnong Xiao; Xiaoyan Zhang; Christopher Davis; John Tuttle; Greg Holland; Patrick J. Fitzpatrick

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Next-Day Convection-Allowing WRF Model Guidance: A Second Look at 2-km versus 4-km Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 2007 NOAA Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Experiment, the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms (CAPS) at the University of Oklahoma produced convection-allowing forecasts from a single deterministic 2-km model and a 10-...

Craig S. Schwartz; John S. Kain; Steven J. Weiss; Ming Xue; David R. Bright; Fanyou Kong; Kevin W. Thomas; Jason J. Levit; Michael C. Coniglio

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Extended-Range Probability Forecasts Based on Dynamical Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A probability forecast has advantages over a deterministic forecast as the former offers information about the probabilities of various possible future states of the atmosphere. As physics-based numerical models find their success in modern ...

Jianfu Pan; Huug van den Dool

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Examining Two-Way Grid Nesting for Large Eddy Simulation of the PBL Using the WRF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of two-way nesting for large eddy simulation (LES) of PBL turbulence is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model framework. A pair of LES-within-LES experiments are performed where a finer-grid LES covering a ...

C-H. Moeng; Jimy Dudhia; Joe Klemp; Peter Sullivan

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Estimates of Cn2 from Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output and Comparison with Thermosonde Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Area-averaged estimates of Cn2 from high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model output are produced from local estimates of the spatial structure functions of refractive index with corrections for the inherent smoothing and filtering ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman; Francois Vandenberghe; Wei Yu; Yubao Liu; Jason Knievel; George Jumper

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Diagnostic and Forecast Graphics Products at NMC Using High Frequency Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Archived hourly output from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) prediction models has provided the basis for advanced graphic diagnostic and forecast tools. The high-frequency data are available on a regional selected station network. Each ...

David W. Plummer

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Application of Model Output Statistics to Precipitation Prediction in Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Model output Statistics (MOS) technique has been used to produce forecasts of both the probability of precipitation and the rain amount for seven major Australian cities in subtropical and middle latitudes. Single station equations were ...

R. G. Tapp; F. Woodcock; G. A. Mills

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

An Application of Model Output Statistics to the Development of a Local Wind Regime Forecast Procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Model Output Statistics (MOS) approach is used to develop a procedure for forecasting the occurrence of a local wind regime at Rota, Spain known as the levante. Variables derived solely from surface pressure and 500 mb height forecast fields ...

Robert A. Godfrey

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting Using Ensemble Model Output Statistics and Minimum CRPS Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensemble prediction systems typically show positive spread-error correlation, but they are subject to forecast bias and dispersion errors, and are therefore uncalibrated. This work proposes the use of ensemble model output statistics (EMOS), an ...

Tilmann Gneiting; Adrian E. Raftery; Anton H. Westveld III; Tom Goldman

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Model Output Statistics Forecasts: Three Years of Operational Experience in the Netherlands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Netherlands, one to five day Model Output Statistics (MOS) forecasts have been used operationally since November 1983. The weather elements predicted are the probability of precipitation, the conditional probability of frozen precipitation,...

C. Lemcke; S. Kruizinga

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A Single-Station Approach to Model Output Statistics Temperature Forecast Error Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Error characteristics of model output statistics (MOS) temperature forecasts are calculated for over 200 locations around the continental United States. The forecasts are verified on a station-by-station basis for the year 2001. Error measures ...

Andrew A. Taylor; Lance M. Leslie

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Australian Experimental Model Output Statistics Forecasts of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model output statistics (MOS) forecasts of daily temperature maxima and minima are developed for seven Australian cities. The developmental data and method of derivation of the MOS equations are described and the equations briefly compared to ...

F. Woodcock

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Use of Medium-Range Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output to Produce Forecasts of Streamflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines an archive containing over 40 years of 8-day atmospheric forecasts over the contiguous United States from the NCEP reanalysis project to assess the possibilities for using medium-range numerical weather prediction model output ...

Martyn P. Clark; Lauren E. Hay

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Experiments in probability of Precipitation Amount Forecasting Using Model Output Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modifications to current model output statistics procedures for quantitative precipitation forecasting were explored. Probability of precipitation amount equations were developed for warm and cool seasons in a region in the eastern United States. ...

Raymond W. Arritt; William M. Frank

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Mesoscale Forecasts Generated from Operational Numerical Weather-Prediction Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique called Model Output Enhancement (MOE) has been developed for the generation and display of mesoscale weather forecasts. The MOE technique derives mesoscale or high-resolution (order of 1 km) weather forecasts from synoptic-scale ...

John G. W. Kelley; Joseph M. Russo; Toby N. Carlson; J. Ronald Eyton

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Application of a WRF Mesoscale Data Assimilation System to Springtime Severe Weather Events 2007ľ09  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ensemble-based data assimilation system using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) has been used to initialize forecasts of prolific severe weather events from springs 2007 to 2009. These experiments build on previous work that has ...

Dustan M. Wheatley; David J. Stensrud; David C. Dowell; Nusrat Yussouf

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Vortex Relocation Scheme for Tropical Cyclone Initialization in Advanced Research WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a relocation scheme for tropical cyclone (TC) initialization in the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model and demonstrates its application to 70 forecasts of Typhoons Sinlaku (2008), Jangmi (2008)...

Ling-Feng Hsiao; Chi-Sann Liou; Tien-Chiang Yeh; Yong-Run Guo; Der-Song Chen; Kang-Ning Huang; Chuen-Teyr Terng; Jen-Her Chen

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Surface Wind Regionalization over Complex Terrain: Evaluation and Analysis of a High-Resolution WRF Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the daily-mean surface wind variability over an area characterized by complex topography through comparing observations and a 2-km-spatial-resolution simulation performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model ...

Pedro A. JimÚnez; J. Fidel Gonzßlez-Rouco; Elena GarcÝa-Bustamante; Jorge Navarro; Juan P. Montßvez; Jordi VilÓ-Guerau de Arellano; Jimy Dudhia; Antonio Mu˝oz-Roldan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nested Mesoscale Large-Eddy Simulations with WRF: Performance in Real Test Cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper assesses the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) as a tool for multiscale atmospheric simulations. Tests are performed in real and idealized cases with multiple configurations and with resolutions ranging ...

Charles Talbot; Elie Bou-Zeid; Jim Smith

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Speeding Up the Computation of WRF Double Moment 6-Class Microphysics Scheme with GPU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Double Moment 6-class (WDM6) microphysics scheme implements a double moment bulk microphysical parameterization of clouds and precipitation and is applicable in mesoscale and general circulation models. WDM6 ...

J. Mielikainen; B. Huang; H.-L. A. Huang; M. D. Goldberg; A. Mehta

85

Performance of National Weather Service Forecasts Compared to Operational, Consensus, and Weighted Model Output Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model output statistics (MOS) guidance has been the central model postprocessing approach used by the National Weather Service since the 1970s. A recent advancement in the use of MOS is the application of ôconsensusö MOS (CMOS), an average of MOS ...

Jeffrey A. Baars; Clifford F. Mass

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Impact of natural and anthropogenic aerosols on stratocumulus and precipitation in the Southeast Pacific: A regional modeling study using WRF-Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-system resolving simulations with the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model are used to quantify the impacts of regional anthropogenic and oceanic emissions on changes in aerosol properties, cloud macro- and microphysics, and cloud radiative forcing over the Southeast Pacific (SEP) during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) (15 OctľNov 16, 2008). The effects of oceanic aerosols on cloud properties, precipitation, and the shortwave forcing counteract those of anthropogenic aerosols. Despite the relatively small changes in Na concentrations (2-12%) from regional oceanic emissions, their net effect (direct and indirect) on the surface shortwave forcing is opposite and comparable or even larger in magnitude compared to those of regional anthropogenic emissions over the SEP. Two distinct regions are identified in the VOCALS-REx domain. The near-coast polluted region is characterized with strong droplet activation suppression of small particles by sea-salt particles, the more important role of the first than the second indirect effect, low surface precipitation rate, and low aerosol-cloud interaction strength associated with anthropogenic emissions. The relatively clean remote region is characterized with large contributions of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN, number concentration denoted by NCCN) and droplet number concentrations (Nd) from non-local sources (lateral boundaries), a significant amount of surface precipitation, and high aerosol-cloud interactions under a scenario of five-fold increase in anthropogenic emissions. In the clean region, cloud properties have high sensitivity (e.g., 13% increase in cloud-top height and a 9% surface albedo increase) to the moderate increase in CCN concentration (?Nccn = 13 cm-3; 25%) produced by a five-fold increase in regional anthropogenic emissions. The increased anthropogenic aerosols reduce the precipitation amount over the relatively clean remote ocean. The reduction of precipitation (as a cloud water sink) more than doubles the wet scavenging timescale, resulting in an increased aerosol lifetime in the marine boundary layer. Therefore, the aerosol impacts on precipitation are amplified by the positive feedback of precipitation on aerosol. The positive feedback ultimately alters the cloud micro- and macro-properties, leading to strong aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The higher sensitivity of clouds to anthropogenic aerosols over this region is also related to a 16% entrainment rate increase due to anthropogenic aerosols. The simulated aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are stronger at night over the clean marine region, while during the day, solar heating results in more frequent decoupling, thinner clouds, reduced precipitation, and reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic emissions. The simulated high sensitivity to the increased anthropogenic emissions over the clean region suggests that the perturbation of the clean marine environment with anthropogenic aerosols may have a larger effect on climate than that of already polluted marine environments.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Berg, Larry K.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Morrison, H.

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Weather Research and Forecasting Model's Community Variational/Ensemble Data Assimilation System: WRFDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data assimilation is the process by which observations are combined with short-range NWP model output to produce an analysis of the state of the atmosphere at a specified time. Since its inception in the late 1990s, the multiagency Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model effort has had a strong data assimilation component, dedicating two working groups to the subject. This article documents the history of the WRF data assimilation effort, and discusses the challenges associated with balancing academic, research, and operational data assimilation requirements in the context of the WRF effort to date. The WRF Model's Community Variational/Ensemble Data Assimilation System (WRFDA) has evolved over the past 10 years, and has resulted in over 30 refereed publications to date, as well as implementation in a wide range of real-time and operational NWP systems.

Barker, D.; Huang, X. Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Auligne, T.; Zhang, X.; Rugg, S.; Ajjaji, R.; Bourgeois, A.; Bray, J.; Chen, Y. S.; Demirtas, M.; Guo, Y. R.; Henderson, T.; Huang, W.; Lin, H. C.; Michalakes, J.; Rizvi, S.; Zhang, X. Y.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Modeling of the Output and Transfer Characteristics of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We obtain the output and transfer characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors by using the charge-control model for the current, based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the field-dependent relaxation time approximation. Closed expressions ...

Brett W. Scott; Jean-Pierre Leburton

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Using Weather Data and Climate Model Output in Economic Analyses of Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

Economists are increasingly using weather data and climate model output in analyses of the economic impacts of climate change. This article introduces a set of weather data sets and climate models that are frequently used, discusses the most common mistakes economists make in using these products, and identifies ways to avoid these pitfalls. We first provide an introduction to weather data, including a summary of the types of datasets available, and then discuss five common pitfalls that empirical researchers should be aware of when using historical weather data as explanatory variables in econometric applications. We then provide a brief overview of climate models and discuss two common and significant errors often made by economists when climate model output is used to simulate the future impacts of climate change on an economic outcome of interest.

Auffhammer, Maximilian [University of California at Berkeley; Hsiang, Solomon M. [Princeton University; Schlenker, Wolfram [Columbia University; Sobel, Adam H. [Columbia University

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

90

An observation-based investigation of nudging in WRF for downscaling surface climate information to 12-km grid spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous research has demonstrated the ability to use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and contemporary dynamical downscaling methods to refine global climate modeling results to a horizontal grid spacing of 36 km. Environmental ...

O. Russell Bullock Jr.; Kiran Alapaty; Jerold A. Herwehe; Megan S. Mallard; Tanya L. Otte; Robert C. Gilliam; Christopher G. Nolte

91

Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Comparison of Impacts of WRF Dynamic Core, Physics Package, and Initial Conditions on Warm Season Rainfall Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of simulations for 15 events occurring during August 2002 were performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over a domain encompassing most of the central United States to compare the sensitivity of warm season ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; James F. Bresch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Examination of Errors in Near-Surface Temperature and Wind from WRF Numerical Simulations in Regions of Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) in predicting near-surface atmospheric temperature and wind conditions under various terrain and weather regimes is examined. Verification of 2-m ...

Hailing Zhang; Zhaoxia Pu; Xuebo Zhang

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Evaluation of WRF and HadRM Mesoscale Climate Simulations over the U.S. Pacific Northwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work compares the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Hadley Centre Regional Model (HadRM) simulations with the observed daily maximum and minimum temperature (Tmax and Tmin) and precipitation at Historical Climatology Network (HCN) ...

Yongxin Zhang; ValÚrie DuliŔre; Philip W. Mote; Eric P. SalathÚ Jr.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Estimates of Turbulence from Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output with Applications to Turbulence Diagnosis and Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of small-scale turbulence from numerical model output are produced from local estimates of the spatial structure functions of model variables such as the velocity and temperature. The key assumptions used are the existence of a ...

Rod Frehlich; Robert Sharman

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The WRF nested within the CESM: Simulations of a midlatitude...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WRF simulations forced by operational analyses. Citation: He, J., M. Zhang, W. Lin, B. Colle, P. Liu, and A. M. Vogelmann (2013), The WRF nested within the CESM: Simulations...

97

Simulating atmosphere flow for wind energy applications with WRF-LES  

SciTech Connect

Forecasts of available wind energy resources at high spatial resolution enable users to site wind turbines in optimal locations, to forecast available resources for integration into power grids, to schedule maintenance on wind energy facilities, and to define design criteria for next-generation turbines. This array of research needs implies that an appropriate forecasting tool must be able to account for mesoscale processes like frontal passages, surface-atmosphere interactions inducing local-scale circulations, and the microscale effects of atmospheric stability such as breaking Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. This range of scales and processes demands a mesoscale model with large-eddy simulation (LES) capabilities which can also account for varying atmospheric stability. Numerical weather prediction models, such as the Weather and Research Forecasting model (WRF), excel at predicting synoptic and mesoscale phenomena. With grid spacings of less than 1 km (as is often required for wind energy applications), however, the limits of WRF's subfilter scale (SFS) turbulence parameterizations are exposed, and fundamental problems arise, associated with modeling the scales of motion between those which LES can represent and those for which large-scale PBL parameterizations apply. To address these issues, we have implemented significant modifications to the ARW core of the Weather Research and Forecasting model, including the Nonlinear Backscatter model with Anisotropy (NBA) SFS model following Kosovic (1997) and an explicit filtering and reconstruction technique to compute the Resolvable Subfilter-Scale (RSFS) stresses (following Chow et al, 2005).We are also modifying WRF's terrain-following coordinate system by implementing an immersed boundary method (IBM) approach to account for the effects of complex terrain. Companion papers presenting idealized simulations with NBA-RSFS-WRF (Mirocha et al.) and IBM-WRF (K. A. Lundquist et al.) are also presented. Observations of flow through the Altamont Pass (Northern California) wind farm are available for validation of the WRF modeling tool for wind energy applications. In this presentation, we use these data to evaluate simulations using the NBA-RSFS-WRF tool in multiple configurations. We vary nesting capabilities, multiple levels of RSFS reconstruction, SFS turbulence models (the new NBA turbulence model versus existing WRF SFS turbulence models) to illustrate the capabilities of the modeling tool and to prioritize recommendations for operational uses. Nested simulations which capture both significant mesoscale processes as well as local-scale stable boundary layer effects are required to effectively predict available wind resources at turbine height.

Lundquist, J K; Mirocha, J D; Chow, F K; Kosovic, B; Lundquist, K A

2008-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evaluation of WRF-predicted near-hub-height winds and ramp events over a Pacific Northwest site with complex terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One challenge with wind power forecasts is the accurate prediction of rapid changes in wind speed (ramps). To evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelĺs ability to predict such events, model simulations, conducted over an area of ...

Qing Yang; Larry K. Berg; Mikhail Pekour; Jerome D. Fast; Rob K. Newsom; Mark Stoelinga; Catherine Finley

99

Radiative Transfer Simulations Using Mesoscale Cloud Model Outputs: Comparisons with Passive Microwave and Infrared Satellite Observations for Midlatitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Real midlatitude meteorological cases are simulated over western Europe with the cloud mesoscale model MÚso-NH, and the outputs are used to calculate brightness temperatures at microwave frequencies with the Atmospheric Transmission at Microwave (...

Ingo Meirold-Mautner; Catherine Prigent; Eric Defer; Juan R. Pardo; Jean-Pierre Chaboureau; Jean-Pierre Pinty; Mario Mech; Susanne Crewell

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

An Objective Comparison of Model Output Statistics and ôPerfect Progö Systems in Producing Numerical Weather Element Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ôperfect progö (PP) and model output statistics (MOS) approaches were used to develop multiple linear regression equations to forecast probabilities of more than a trace of precipitation over 6-h periods, probabilities of precipitation ...

N. Brunet; R. Verret; N. Yacowar

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

A Comparison between Raw Ensemble Output, (Modified) Bayesian Model Averaging, and Extended Logistic Regression Using ECMWF Ensemble Precipitation Reforecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a 20-yr ECMWF ensemble reforecast dataset of total precipitation and a 20-yr dataset of a dense precipitation observation network in the Netherlands, a comparison is made between the raw ensemble output, Bayesian model averaging (BMA), and ...

Maurice J. Schmeits; Kees J. Kok

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluating Deep Updraft Formulation in NCAR CAM3 with High-Resolution WRF Simulations During ARM TWP-ICE  

SciTech Connect

The updraft formulation used in NCAR CAM3 deep convection parameterization assumes that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft is height-independent and the updraft mass flux increases monotonically with height to updraft top. These assumptions are evaluated against three-dimensional high-resolution simulations from the weather research and forecast (WRF) model during the monsoon period of the DOE ARM Tropical Warm Pool -- International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE). Analyses of the WRF-generated updrafts suggest that the fractional entrainment rate for a single updraft decreases with height and the updraft mass flux increases with height below the top of the conditionally unstable layer but decreases above. It is suggested that the assumed updraft mass flux profile in CAM3 might be unrealistic in many cases because the updraft acceleration is affected by other drag processes in addition to entrainment. Total convective cloud mass flux and detrainment rate over the TWP-ICE domain diagnosed from the CAM3 parameterization driven by WRF meteorological fields are smaller than those derived from WRF simulations. The total entrainment rate of CAM3 is smaller than that of WRF in the lower part of cloud and larger in the upper part of cloud. Compared with WRF simulations, the CAM3-parameterized convection is too active and, as a result, excess moisture and heat may be transported to the upper troposphere by the parameterized convection. Future improvement is envisioned.

Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Evaluation of WRF-Predicted Near-Hub-Height Winds and Ramp Events over a Pacific Northwest Site with Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One challenge with wind-power forecasts is the accurate prediction of rapid changes in wind speed (ramps). To evaluate the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model's ability to predict such events, model simulations, conducted over an area of ...

Qing Yang; Larry K. Berg; Mikhail Pekour; Jerome D. Fast; Rob K. Newsom; Mark Stoelinga; Catherine Finley

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Radar Data Assimilation with WRF 4D-Var. Part I: System Development and Preliminary Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major goal of this two-part study is to assimilate radar data into the high-resolution Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF) for the improvement of short-term quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) using a ...

Hongli Wang; Juanzhen Sun; Xin Zhang; Xiang-Yu Huang; Thomas AulignÚ

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ANN Models for Steam Turbine Power Output Toward Condenser Circulating Water Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aimed the costliness and the complex process of performance test for steam turbine power output toward circulating water flux and in view of the nonŚlinear advantage about neural network, it brings forward predicting the performance using artificial ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, steam turbine power output, performance prediction

Jia Ruixuan; Xu Hong

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Weather Forecasts by the WRF-ARW Model with the GSI Data Assimilation System in the Complex Terrain Areas of Southwest Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper will first describe the forecasting errors encountered from running the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model; ARW) in the complex terrain of ...

J. Xu; S. Rugg; L. Byerle; Z. Liu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Analyzing the Sensitivity of WRFĺs Single-Layer Urban Canopy Model to Parameter Uncertainty Using Advanced Monte Carlo Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-layer physically based urban canopy models (UCM) have gained popularity for modeling urbanľatmosphere interactions, especially the energy transport component. For a UCM to capture the physics of conductive, radiative, and turbulent ...

Zhi-Hua Wang; Elie Bou-Zeid; Siu Kui Au; James A. Smith

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Modeling of passive microwave responses in convective situations using output from mesoscale models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, given the high sensitivity of these frequencies to the particle characteristics, especially in the ice phase. This result gives us strong confidence not only in the radiative transfer model but also column. Using a microphysical parameterization of heat and water exchanges, the sources and sinks

Pardo-Carri├│n, Juan R.

109

Indirect Assimilation of Radar Reflectivity with WRF 3D-Var and Its Impact on Prediction of Four Summertime Convective Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An indirect radar reflectivity assimilation scheme has been developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting model three-dimensional data assimilation system (WRF 3D-Var). This scheme, instead of assimilating radar reflectivity directly, ...

Hongli Wang; Juanzhen Sun; Shuiyong Fan; Xiang-Yu Huang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Assimilation of Radar Radial Velocity Data with the WRF Hybrid Ensembleľ3DVAR System for the Prediction of Hurricane Ike (2008)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An enhanced version of the hybrid ensembleľthree-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system for the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) is applied to the assimilation of radial velocity (Vr) data from two coastal Weather ...

Yongzuo Li; Xuguang Wang; Ming Xue

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Application of a Lightning Data Assimilation Technique in the WRF-ARW Model at Cloud-Resolving Scales for the Tornado Outbreak of 24 May 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the assimilation of total lightning data to help initiate convection at cloud-resolving scales within a numerical weather prediction model. The test case is the 24 May 2011 Oklahoma tornado outbreak, which was characterized by ...

Alexandre O. Fierro; Edward R. Mansell; Conrad L. Ziegler; Donald R. MacGorman

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The Impact of Horizontal Grid Spacing on the Microphysical and Kinematic Structures of Strong Tropical Cyclones Simulated with the WRF-ARW Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting numerical model, the impact of horizontal grid spacing on the microphysical and kinematic structure of a numerically simulated tropical cyclone (TC), and their relationship to storm intensity ...

Alexandre O. Fierro; Robert F. Rogers; Frank D. Marks; David S. Nolan

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part I: Model Description and Idealized 2D Sensitivity Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A silver iodide (AgI) cloud-seeding parameterization has been implemented into the Thompson microphysics scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model to investigate glaciogenic cloud-seeding effects. The sensitivity of the parameterization ...

Lulin Xue; Akihiro Hashimoto; Masataka Murakami; Roy Rasmussen; Sarah A. Tessendorf; Daniel Breed; Shaun Parkinson; Pat Holbrook; Derek Blestrud

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Evaluation of Scalar Advection Schemes in the Advanced Research WRF Model Using Large-Eddy Simulations of AerosolľCloud Interactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW), versions 3.0 and earlier, advection of scalars was performed using the RungeľKutta time-integration scheme with an option of using a positive-definite (PD) flux limiter. Large-...

Hailong Wang; William C. Skamarock; Graham Feingold

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

A Comparative Verification of Localized Aviation Model Output Statistics Program (LAMP) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) Model Forecasts of Ceiling Height and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to support aviation forecasting, the National Weather Serviceĺs Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) has recently redeveloped the Localized Aviation Model Output Statistics (MOS) Program (LAMP) system. LAMP is designed to run ...

David E. Rudack; Judy E. Ghirardelli

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Modeling of electromagnetic power output in a vibration-induced micro-generator with a silicon-based helical micro-spring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops an electromagnetic power output model in a vibration-induced micro-generator with a silicon helical micro-spring to predict the electricity output. The generator consists of a movable ferro-platinum permanent magnet membrane on the ... Keywords: Analytical model, Electromagnetic, Helical micro-spring, Micro-generator, Vibration-induced

W. L. Lu; Y. M. Hwang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Application of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Air Quality Modeling in the San Francisco Bay Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is evaluated by conducting various sensitivity experiments over central California including the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), with the goal of establishing a WRF model configuration to be used by ...

Raphael E. Rogers; Aijun Deng; David R. Stauffer; Brian J. Gaudet; Yiqin Jia; Su-Tzai Soong; Saffet Tanrikulu

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Application of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Air Quality Modeling in the San Francisco Bay Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is evaluated by conducting various sensitivity experiments over central California (CA) including the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), with the goal of establishing a WRF model configuration to be ...

Raphael E. Rogers; Aijun Deng; David R. Stauffer; Brian J. Gaudet; Yiqin Jia; Su-Tzai Soong; Saffet Tanrikulu

119

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 993 0 116 0 876 2004 2,174 0 735 10 1,429 2005 1,923 0 965 435 522 2006 2,051 0 525 1,094 433 2007 1,988 0 386 1,102 501 2008 1,025 0 454 433 138 2009 793 0 545 176 72 2010 1,623 0 1,195 370 58 2011 3,195 0 2,753 351 91 2012 3,189 0 2,788 340 61 2010 January 118 0 83 30 5 February 110 0 79 27 5 March 132 0 94 32 6 April 131 0 93 33 6 May 132 0 92 34 6 June 139 0 104 30 5 July 140 0 102 33 5 August 132 0 95 32 5 September 148 0 113 30 5

120

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 517 0 111 6 399 2003 763 0 80 9 675 2004 1,043 0 237 8 798 2005 783 0 206 8 568 2006 1,259 0 195 9 1,055 2007 1,262 0 162 11 1,090 2008 897 0 119 9 769 2009 1,007 0 126 8 873 2010 1,059 0 98 11 950 2011 1,080 0 112 6 962 2012 1,346 0 113 11 1,222 2010 January 92 0 10 1 81 February 93 0 10 1 82 March 84 0 12 1 71 April 76 0 9 1 66 May 84 0 10 0 75 June 93 0 8 0 86 July 89 0 8 0 80 August 87 0 2 1 84 September 82 0 2 1 79

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 193,120 57,296 105,416 227 30,182 2003 197,827 69,695 92,384 309 35,440 2004 245,389 116,086 90,747 259 38,297 2005 256,441 115,727 111,098 260 29,356 2006 246,687 102,117 98,314 269 45,987 2007 208,198 77,941 81,845 348 48,064 2008 180,034 64,843 79,856 280 35,055 2009 166,449 77,919 52,428 245 35,856 2010 173,078 94,331 41,090 340 37,317 2011 176,349 99,257 40,167 173 36,752 2012 144,266 60,862 24,925 353 58,126 2010 January 14,949 7,995 3,716 38 3,199

122

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 1,005,144 767,803 209,703 1,405 26,232 2003 1,031,778 757,384 247,732 1,816 24,846 2004 1,044,798 772,224 244,044 1,917 26,613 2005 1,065,281 761,349 276,135 1,922 25,875 2006 1,053,783 753,390 273,246 1,886 25,262 2007 1,069,606 764,765 280,377 1,927 22,537 2008 1,064,503 760,326 280,254 2,021 21,902 2009 955,190 695,615 238,012 1,798 19,766 2010 1,001,411 721,431 253,621 1,720 24,638 2011 956,470 689,316 243,168 1,668 22,319 2012 845,066 615,467 208,085 1,450 20,065

123

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 500 0 61 0 439 2004 1,158 0 415 5 738 2005 994 0 519 212 263 2006 1,034 0 267 549 218 2007 985 0 226 532 228 2008 552 0 271 211 70 2009 440 0 313 91 37 2010 847 0 643 174 30 2011 1,635 0 1,422 165 48 2012 1,630 0 1,441 156 32 2010 January 61 0 44 14 3 February 58 0 42 13 3 March 67 0 49 15 3 April 67 0 49 15 3 May 68 0 49 16 3 June 73 0 56 14 3 July 73 0 55 16 2 August 69 0 52 15 3 September 79 0 62 14 3 October 75 0 59 14 2

124

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 17,561 0 2,255 929 14,377 2003 17,720 0 2,080 1,234 14,406 2004 24,275 0 3,809 1,540 18,926 2005 23,833 0 3,918 1,544 18,371 2006 23,227 0 3,834 1,539 17,854 2007 22,810 0 3,795 1,566 17,449 2008 22,168 0 3,689 1,652 16,827 2009 20,507 0 3,935 1,481 15,091 2010 21,727 0 3,808 1,406 16,513 2011 21,532 0 3,628 1,321 16,584 2012 19,333 0 2,790 1,143 15,400 2010 January 1,972 0 371 160 1,440 February 1,820 0 347 139 1,334 March 1,839 0 338 123 1,378 April 2,142 0 284 95 1,764

125

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 29,854 0 10,655 757 18,442 2004 30,228 0 12,055 2,627 15,547 2005 38,010 0 10,275 2,086 25,649 2006 36,966 0 8,561 2,318 26,087 2007 41,757 0 10,294 2,643 28,820 2008 41,851 0 9,674 1,542 30,635 2009 41,810 0 10,355 1,638 29,817 2010 47,153 0 8,436 1,648 37,070 2011 43,483 0 6,460 1,566 35,458 2012 46,863 0 6,914 1,796 38,153 2010 January 4,885 0 1,088 137 3,661 February 4,105 0 943 137 3,025 March 4,398 0 845 136 3,417 April 4,224 0 399 138 3,688

126

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 14,395 0 3,192 179 11,024 2003 21,170 0 2,282 244 18,644 2004 29,342 0 6,768 226 22,347 2005 22,224 0 5,935 228 16,061 2006 38,169 0 5,672 236 32,262 2007 38,033 0 4,710 303 33,019 2008 27,100 0 3,441 243 23,416 2009 29,974 0 3,652 213 26,109 2010 31,303 0 2,855 296 28,152 2011 31,943 0 3,244 153 28,546 2012 38,777 0 3,281 315 35,181 2010 January 2,683 0 285 33 2,365 February 2,770 0 302 29 2,439 March 2,424 0 338 36 2,050 April 2,257 0 255 22 1,980

127

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 64,629 2,456 26,514 5,323 30,337 2004 49,443 2,014 21,294 6,935 19,201 2005 55,862 2,485 17,640 6,763 28,974 2006 54,693 2,611 16,348 6,755 28,980 2007 60,840 2,992 19,155 6,692 32,001 2008 66,139 3,409 22,419 5,227 35,085 2009 66,658 3,679 23,586 5,398 33,994 2010 77,150 3,668 22,884 5,438 45,159 2011 74,255 4,488 22,574 5,382 41,810 2012 77,205 4,191 22,654 5,812 44,548 2010 January 7,109 189 2,166 458 4,295 February 6,441 275 2,151 429 3,586

128

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 7,135,572 2,307,358 3,481,961 75,985 1,270,268 2003 6,498,549 1,809,003 3,450,177 60,662 1,178,707 2004 6,912,661 1,857,247 3,749,945 73,744 1,231,725 2005 7,220,520 2,198,098 3,837,717 69,682 1,115,023 2006 7,612,500 2,546,169 3,847,644 69,401 1,149,286 2007 8,181,986 2,808,500 4,219,827 71,560 1,082,099 2008 7,900,986 2,803,283 4,046,069 67,571 984,062 2009 8,138,385 2,981,285 4,062,633 77,077 1,017,390 2010 8,694,186 3,359,035 4,191,241 87,357 1,056,553

129

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 1,358 0 311 865 182 2004 2,743 0 651 1,628 464 2005 2,719 0 623 1,536 560 2006 2,840 0 725 1,595 520 2007 2,219 0 768 1,136 315 2008 2,328 0 806 1,514 8 2009 2,426 0 823 1,466 137 2010 2,287 0 819 1,316 152 2011 2,044 0 742 1,148 154 2012 1,986 0 522 1,273 190 2010 January 191 0 69 107 14 February 178 0 61 106 11 March 204 0 66 126 12 April 207 0 67 127 13 May 249 0 67 167 15 June 204 0 69 120 14 July 194 0 68 115 11

130

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 137,414 9,168 122,100 3,280 2,865 2004 146,018 11,250 126,584 4,091 4,093 2005 143,822 11,490 124,030 5,232 3,070 2006 162,084 16,617 136,632 7,738 1,096 2007 168,762 17,442 144,490 5,699 1,131 2008 196,802 20,465 170,001 5,668 668 2009 207,585 19,583 181,234 6,106 661 2010 219,954 19,975 193,623 5,905 451 2011 235,990 22,086 183,609 29,820 474 2012 259,564 25,193 204,753 27,012 2,606 2010 January 17,649 1,715 15,406 491 37 February 16,300 1,653 14,198 410 38

131

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 7,353 2,125 3,691 8 1,529 2003 7,067 2,554 3,245 11 1,257 2004 8,721 4,150 3,223 9 1,339 2005 9,113 4,130 3,953 9 1,020 2006 8,622 3,619 3,482 10 1,511 2007 7,299 2,808 2,877 12 1,602 2008 6,314 2,296 2,823 10 1,184 2009 5,828 2,761 1,850 9 1,209 2010 6,053 3,325 1,452 12 1,264 2011 6,092 3,449 1,388 6 1,248 2012 5,021 2,105 869 13 2,034 2010 January 525 283 130 1 110 February 497 258 131 1 106 March 522 308 119 1 94

132

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 13,694 0 3,118 8,858 1,718 2004 19,991 0 4,746 12,295 2,950 2005 20,296 0 4,551 11,991 3,754 2006 21,729 0 5,347 12,654 3,728 2007 16,174 0 5,683 8,350 2,141 2008 18,272 0 6,039 12,174 59 2009 18,785 0 6,229 11,535 1,021 2010 17,502 0 6,031 10,333 1,138 2011 16,766 0 5,807 9,731 1,227 2012 16,310 0 4,180 10,615 1,515 2010 January 1,476 0 518 851 107 February 1,365 0 444 835 86 March 1,572 0 486 992 93 April 1,598 0 495 1,003 100

133

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 12,228 0 286 384 11,558 2003 14,124 0 1,197 512 12,414 2004 20,654 0 1,501 1,203 17,951 2005 20,494 0 1,392 1,004 18,097 2006 14,077 0 1,153 559 12,365 2007 13,462 0 1,303 441 11,718 2008 7,533 0 1,311 461 5,762 2009 8,128 0 1,301 293 6,534 2010 4,866 0 1,086 212 3,567 2011 3,826 0 1,004 168 2,654 2012 3,097 0 992 122 1,984 2010 January 606 0 105 31 470 February 504 0 78 26 401 March 335 0 46 7 281 April 355 0 86 9 260 May 340 0 93 14 232

134

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 885,987 0 267,675 45,359 572,953 2003 762,779 0 250,120 21,238 491,421 2004 1,085,191 0 398,476 40,122 646,593 2005 1,008,404 0 392,842 35,037 580,525 2006 968,574 0 339,047 33,928 595,599 2007 894,272 0 347,181 36,689 510,402 2008 813,794 0 333,197 33,434 447,163 2009 836,863 0 312,553 42,032 482,279 2010 841,521 0 308,246 47,001 486,274 2011 861,006 0 315,411 40,976 504,619 2012 909,087 0 330,354 48,944 529,788 2010 January 74,586 0 27,368 4,148 43,070 February 65,539 0 24,180 3,786 37,573

135

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 2. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 40,020 1,319 2,550 214,137 5,961 12,550 4,732 281,269 2003 38,249 5,551 1,828 200,077 9,282 19,785 3,296 278,068 2004 39,014 5,731 2,486 239,416 18,200 17,347 3,822 326,017 2005 39,652 5,571 2,238 239,324 36,694 18,240 3,884 345,605 2006 38,133 4,812 2,253 207,095 22,567 17,284 4,435 296,579 2007 38,260 5,294 1,862 212,705 20,473 19,166 4,459 302,219 2008 37,220 5,479 1,353 204,167 22,109 17,052 4,854 292,234 2009 38,015 5,341 1,445 190,875 19,830 17,625 5,055 278,187

136

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 76,737 0 1,669 3,276 71,788 2003 85,488 0 6,963 3,176 75,349 2004 124,809 0 8,592 7,219 108,997 2005 125,689 0 8,134 6,145 111,410 2006 87,137 0 6,740 3,481 76,916 2007 82,768 0 7,602 2,754 72,412 2008 45,481 0 7,644 2,786 35,051 2009 48,912 0 7,557 1,802 39,552 2010 29,243 0 6,402 1,297 21,545 2011 22,799 0 5,927 1,039 15,833 2012 18,233 0 5,871 746 11,616 2010 January 3,648 0 614 190 2,843 February 3,027 0 422 157 2,447 March 2,015 0 272 43 1,699

137

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 146,643 88,595 39,320 1,210 17,517 2003 189,260 105,319 62,617 1,394 19,929 2004 185,761 103,793 57,843 1,963 22,162 2005 185,631 98,223 63,546 1,584 22,278 2006 87,898 53,529 18,332 886 15,150 2007 95,895 56,910 24,097 691 14,198 2008 61,379 38,995 14,463 621 7,300 2009 51,690 31,847 11,181 477 8,185 2010 44,968 30,806 9,364 376 4,422 2011 31,152 20,844 6,637 301 3,370 2012 25,702 17,521 5,102 394 2,685 2010 January 6,193 4,381 1,188 48 576

138

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 682,060 0 9,585 727 671,747 2003 746,375 0 10,893 762 734,720 2004 1,016,124 0 14,968 1,493 999,663 2005 997,331 0 19,193 1,028 977,111 2006 1,049,161 0 18,814 1,045 1,029,303 2007 982,486 0 21,435 1,756 959,296 2008 923,889 0 18,075 1,123 904,690 2009 816,285 0 19,587 1,135 795,563 2010 876,041 0 18,357 1,064 856,620 2011 893,314 0 16,577 1,022 875,716 2012 883,158 0 19,251 949 862,958 2010 January 73,418 0 1,677 91 71,651 February 67,994 0 1,689 81 66,224

139

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 66,270 3,930 59,149 1,753 1,438 2004 70,489 5,373 60,929 2,098 2,089 2005 68,897 5,650 59,144 2,571 1,532 2006 77,004 8,287 64,217 3,937 563 2007 80,697 8,620 68,657 2,875 544 2008 94,768 10,242 81,300 2,879 346 2009 100,261 9,748 87,086 3,089 337 2010 106,681 10,029 93,405 3,011 236 2011 114,173 11,146 91,279 11,497 251 2012 125,927 12,721 101,379 10,512 1,315 2010 January 8,502 853 7,379 251 19 February 7,882 830 6,823 209 20

140

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commerical Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commerical Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 18,477 2,600 143 36,265 0 6,902 4,801 69,188 2003 22,780 2,520 196 16,955 0 8,296 6,142 56,889 2004 22,450 4,118 165 21,851 0 8,936 6,350 63,871 2005 22,601 3,518 166 20,227 0 8,647 5,921 61,081 2006 22,186 2,092 172 19,370 0.22 9,359 6,242 59,422 2007 22,595 1,640 221 20,040 0 6,651 3,983 55,131 2008 22,991 1,822 177 20,183 0 8,863 6,054 60,091 2009 20,057 1,095 155 25,902 0 8,450 5,761 61,420 2010 19,216 845 216 29,791 13 7,917 5,333 63,330 2011 17,234 687 111 24,848 14 7,433 5,988 56,314

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 912,218 553,390 243,561 7,229 108,031 2003 1,174,795 658,868 387,341 8,534 120,051 2004 1,156,763 651,712 358,685 11,763 134,603 2005 1,160,733 618,811 395,489 9,614 136,820 2006 546,529 335,130 112,052 5,444 93,903 2007 595,191 355,999 147,579 4,259 87,354 2008 377,848 242,379 87,460 3,743 44,266 2009 315,420 196,346 66,834 2,903 49,336 2010 273,357 188,987 55,444 2,267 26,660 2011 186,753 125,755 39,093 1,840 20,066 2012 153,189 105,179 29,952 2,364 15,695

142

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 860,024 0 263,619 41,435 554,970 2003 721,267 0 225,967 19,973 475,327 2004 1,052,100 0 388,424 39,233 624,443 2005 984,340 0 384,365 34,172 565,803 2006 942,817 0 330,878 33,112 578,828 2007 872,579 0 339,796 35,987 496,796 2008 793,537 0 326,048 32,813 434,676 2009 816,787 0 305,542 41,275 469,970 2010 821,775 0 301,769 46,324 473,683 2011 839,681 0 308,669 39,856 491,155 2012 886,103 0 322,607 47,883 515,613 2010 January 72,867 0 26,791 4,086 41,990

143

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 421,084 0 50,041 23,099 347,944 2003 416,700 0 47,817 28,479 340,405 2004 564,497 0 87,981 34,538 441,978 2005 548,666 0 88,364 34,616 425,685 2006 532,561 0 84,335 34,086 414,140 2007 521,717 0 83,838 34,690 403,189 2008 503,096 0 81,416 36,163 385,517 2009 462,674 0 90,867 32,651 339,156 2010 490,931 0 90,184 30,725 370,022 2011 479,822 0 84,855 28,056 366,911 2012 420,923 0 58,275 23,673 338,975 2010 January 44,514 0 8,627 3,445 32,442 February 40,887 0 8,041 3,024 29,823

144

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, F. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 1,287,114 10,659 139,532 1,196 1,135,727 2003 1,265,669 16,545 150,745 1,199 1,097,180 2004 1,360,258 19,973 145,216 1,661 1,193,408 2005 1,352,582 27,373 157,600 1,235 1,166,373 2006 1,399,235 27,455 154,360 1,314 1,216,106 2007 1,335,511 31,568 154,388 2,040 1,147,516 2008 1,262,675 29,150 148,198 1,410 1,083,917 2009 1,136,729 29,565 150,481 1,408 955,276 2010 1,225,571 40,167 155,429 1,338 1,028,637 2011 1,240,937 35,474 146,684 1,504 1,057,275

145

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 1. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2002 336,848 61,313 11,513 708,738 117,513 571,509 48,263 1,855,697 2003 333,361 68,329 16,934 610,122 110,263 632,366 54,960 1,826,335 2004 351,871 80,824 16,659 654,242 126,157 667,341 45,456 1,942,550 2005 341,806 79,362 13,021 624,008 138,469 664,691 41,400 1,902,757 2006 332,548 54,224 24,009 603,288 126,049 689,549 49,308 1,878,973 2007 326,803 50,882 25,373 554,394 116,313 651,230 46,822 1,771,816 2008 315,244 29,554 18,263 509,330 110,680 610,131 23,729 1,616,931 2009 281,557 32,591 20,308 513,002 99,556 546,974 33,287 1,527,276

146

WRF/Chem-MADRID: Incorporation of an Improved Aerosol Module into WRF/Chem and Its Initial Application to the TexAQS2000 Episode  

SciTech Connect

The Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (MADRID) with three improved gas/particle mass transfer approaches (i.e., bulk equilibrium (EQUI), hybrid (HYBR), and kinetic (KINE)) has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecast/Chemistry Model (WRF/Chem) (referred to as WRF/Chem-MADRID) and evaluated with a 5-day episode from the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS2000). WRF/Chem-MADRID demonstrates an overall good skill in simulating surface/aloft meteorological parameters and chemical concentrations, tropospheric O3 residuals, and aerosol optical depths. The discrepancies can be attributed to inaccuracies in meteorological predictions (e.g., overprediction in mid-day boundary layer height), inaccurate total emissions or their hourly variations (e.g., HCHO, olefins, other inorganic aerosols), and uncertainties in initial and boundary conditions for some species (e.g., other inorganic aerosols and O3) at surface and aloft. Major differences in the results among the three gas/particle mass transfer approaches occur over coastal areas, where EQUI predicts higher PM2.5 than HYBR and KINE due to improperly redistributing condensed nitrate from chloride depletion process to fine PM mode. The net direct, semi-direct, and indirect effects of PM2.5 decreased domain wide shortwave radiation by 11.2-14.4 W m-2 (or 4.1-5.6%), decreased near-surface temperature by 0.06-0.14 ░C (or 0.2-0.4%), led to 125 to 796 cm-3 cloud condensation nuclei at a supersaturation of 0.1%, produced cloud droplet numbers as high as 2064 cm-3, and reduced domain wide mean precipitation by 0.22-0.59 mm day-1.

Zhang, Yang; Pan, Ying; Wang, K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Grell, G. A.

2010-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

147

Data Mining Numerical Model Output for Single-Station Cloud-Ceiling Forecast Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate cloud-ceiling-height forecasts derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data are useful for aviation and other interests where low cloud ceilings have an impact on operations. A demonstration of the usefulness of data-mining ...

Richard L. Bankert; Michael Hadjimichael

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Statistical Recalibration of GCM Forecasts over Southern Africa Using Model Output Statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for producing regional rainfall forecasts for southern Africa is developed that statistically maps or ôrecalibratesö large-scale circulation features produced by the ECHAM3.6 general circulation model (GCM) to observed regional ...

Willem A. Landman; Lisa Goddard

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Probabilistic Forecasts of Precipitation in Terms of Quantiles Using NWP Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At sites with observations it is often possible to improve or enrich NWP model forecasts by means of statistical methods. Such forecasts are almost exclusively deterministic or probabilities of discrete events. In this paper a flexible approach ...

John Bj°rnar Bremnes

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Use of a Radar Simulator on the Output Fields from a Numerical Mesoscale Model to Analyze X-Band Rain Estimators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A full radar simulator, which works with the 3D output fields from a numerical mesoscale model, has been developed. This simulator uses a T-matrix code to calculate synthetic radar measurements, accounts for both backscattering and propagation ...

E-P. Zahiri; M. Gosset; J-P. Lafore; V. Gouget

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 161,803 5,766 132,065 21,953 2,020 2004 161,567 3,705 129,562 25,204 3,096 2005 164,635 4,724 131,080 24,914 3,918 2006 168,716 4,078 135,127 25,618 3,893 2007 162,482 4,557 133,509 21,393 3,022 2008 166,723 4,476 136,080 26,108 59 2009 165,755 3,989 132,877 27,868 1,021 2010 162,436 3,322 130,467 27,509 1,138 2011 152,007 3,433 121,648 25,664 1,262 2012 152,045 3,910 117,598 28,923 1,614 2010 January 13,015 244 10,405 2,260 107

152

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at 1. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants 2002 through 2012 (Thousand Metric Tons) Year Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) 2002 2,423,963 10,881 5,194 2003 2,445,094 10,646 4,532 2004 2,486,982 10,309 4,143 2005 2,543,838 10,340 3,961 2006 2,488,918 9,524 3,799 2007 2,547,032 9,042 3,650 2008 2,484,012 7,830 3,330 2009 2,269,508 5,970 2,395 2010 2,388,596 5,400 2,491 2011 2,287,071 4,845 2,406 2012 2,156,875 3,704 2,148 Notes: The emissions data presented include total emissions from both electricity generation and the production of useful thermal output. See Appendix A, Technical Notes, for a description of the sources and methodology used to develop the emissions estimates.

153

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 22,554 695 18,611 2,952 296 2004 22,330 444 17,959 3,439 488 2005 22,089 560 17,655 3,289 584 2006 22,469 500 18,068 3,356 545 2007 21,796 553 17,885 2,921 437 2008 22,134 509 18,294 3,323 8 2009 22,095 465 17,872 3,622 137 2010 21,725 402 17,621 3,549 152 2011 19,016 388 15,367 3,103 158 2012 18,954 418 14,757 3,577 203 2010 January 1,737 30 1,402 291 14 February 1,562 25 1,276 250 11 March 1,854 36 1,500 306 12

154

An Immersed Boundary Method for the Weather Research and Forecasting Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes an immersed boundary method that facilitates the explicit resolution of complex terrain within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Mesoscale models, such as WRF, are increasingly used for high-resolution ...

Katherine A. Lundquist; Fotini Katopodes Chow; Julie K. Lundquist

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and three aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without (NW) wet deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, especially in the activation parameterization, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions, and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, and may do so with the reliability required for policy analysis.

Saide P. E.; Springston S.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Q.; Howell, S.; Leon, D. C.; Snider, J. R.; Bandy, A. R.; Collett, J. L.; Benedict, K. B.; deáSzoeke, S. P.; Hawkins, L. N.; Allen, G.; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.

2012-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

156

Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W) and without wet (NW) deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD) and liquid water path (LWP). Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, including the reliability required for policy analysis and geo-engineering applications.

Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, Gregory; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.; Yang, Qing; Howell, S. G.; Leon, Dolislager; Snider, Jefferson R.; Bandy, Alan R.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Benedict, K. B.; de Szoeke, S.; Hawkins, Lisa; Allen, Grant; Crawford, I.; Crosier, J.; Springston, S. R.

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis.

Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Impacts of Satellite-Observed Winds and Total Precipitable Water on WRF Short-Range Forecasts over the Indian Region during the 2006 Summer Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assimilation experiments have been performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelĺs three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) scheme to assess the impacts of NASAĺs Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) near-surface winds, ...

V. Rakesh; Randhir Singh; P. K. Pal; P. C. Joshi

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Inclusion of biomass burning in WRF-Chem: Impact of wildfires on weather forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A plume rise algorithm for wildfires was included in WRF-Chem, and applied to look at the impact of intense wildfires during the 2004 Alaska wildfire season on weather forecasts using model resolutions of 10km and 2km. Biomass burning emissions were estimated using a biomass burning emissions model. In addition, a 1-D, time-dependent cloud model was used online in WRF-Chem to estimate injection heights as well as the final emission rates. It was shown that with the inclusion of the intense wildfires of the 2004 fire season in the model simulations, the interaction of the aerosols with the atmospheric radiation led to significant modifications of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture in cloud-free areas. On the other hand, when clouds were present, the high concentrations of fine aerosol (PM2.5) and the resulting large numbers of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) had a strong impact on clouds and microphysics, with decreased precipitation coverage and precipitation amounts during the first 12 hours of the integration, but significantly stronger storms during the afternoon hours.

Grell, G. A.; Freitas, Saulo; Stuefer, Martin; Fast, Jerome D.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

Radar Data Assimilation with WRF 4D-Var. Part II: Comparison with 3D-Var for a Squall Line over the U.S. Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) system described in Part I of this study is compared with its corresponding three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3D-Var) system ...

Juanzhen Sun; Hongli Wang

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Implementation of a Silver Iodide Cloud-Seeding Parameterization in WRF. Part II: 3D Simulations of Actual Seeding Events and Sensitivity Tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four cloud-seeding cases over southern Idaho during the 2010/11 winter season have been simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model using the coupled silver iodide (AgI) cloud-seeding scheme that was described in Part I. The ...

Lulin Xue; Sarah A. Tessendorf; Eric Nelson; Roy Rasmussen; Daniel Breed; Shaun Parkinson; Pat Holbrook; Derek Blestrud

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

An Electricity-focused Economic Input-output Model: Life-cycle Assessment and Policy Implications of Future Electricity Generation Scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricityAn Electricity-focused Economic Input-output Model: Life-cycle Assessment and Policy Implications of Future Electricity Generation Scenarios Joe Marriott Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

163

A Comparison of Simulated Cloud Radar Output from the Multiscale Modeling Framework Global Climate Model with CloudSat Cloud Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last few years a new type of global climate model (GCM) has emerged in which a cloud-resolving model is embedded into each grid cell of a GCM. This new approach is frequently called a multiscale modeling framework (MMF) or superparameterization. In this article we present a comparison of MMF output with radar observations from the NASA CloudSat mission, which uses a near-nadir-pointing millimeter-wavelength radar to probe the vertical structure of clouds and precipitation. We account for radar detection limits by simulating the 94 GHz radar reflectivity that CloudSat would observe from the high-resolution cloud-resolving model output produced by the MMF. Overall, the MMF does a good job of reproducing the broad pattern of tropical convergence zones, subtropical belts, and midlatitude storm tracks, as well as their changes in position with the annual solar cycle. Nonetheless, the comparison also reveals a number of model shortfalls including (1) excessive hydrometeor coverage at all altitudes over many convectively active regions, (2) a lack of low-level hydrometeors over all subtropical oceanic basins, (3) excessive low-level hydrometeor coverage (principally precipitating hydrometeors) in the midlatitude storm tracks of both hemispheres during the summer season (in each hemisphere), and (4) a thin band of low-level hydrometeors in the Southern Hemisphere of the central (and at times eastern and western) Pacific in the MMF, which is not observed by CloudSat. This band resembles a second much weaker ITCZ but is restricted to low levels.

Marchand, Roger T.; Haynes, J. M.; Mace, Gerald G.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Stephens, Graeme L.

2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

164

Simulating the IHOP_2002 Fair-Weather CBL with the WRF-ARWľNoah Modeling System. Part I: Surface Fluxes and CBL Structure and Evolution along the Eastern Track  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fair-weather data from the MayľJune 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) 46-km eastern flight track in southeast Kansas are compared to simulations using the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to ...

Margaret A. LeMone; Fei Chen; Mukul Tewari; Jimy Dudhia; Bart Geerts; Qun Miao; Richard L. Coulter; Robert L. Grossman

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model, we have coupled the Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme with interactive aerosols so that full two-way aerosol-cloud interactions are included in simulations. We have used this new WRF-Chem functionality in a study focused on assessing predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus clouds, and their interactions over the Southeast Pacific using measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals. This study also serves as a detailed analysis of our WRF-Chem simulations contributed to the VOCALS model Assessment (VOCA) project. The WRF-Chem 31-day (October 15-November 16, 2008) simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations assumed by the default in Morrison microphysics scheme with no interactive aerosols. The well-predicted aerosol properties such as number, mass composition, and optical depth lead to significant improvements in many features of the predicted stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness, and cloud macrostructure such as cloud depth and cloud base height. These improvements in addition to the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, in turn, feed back to the prediction of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengths temperature and humidity gradients within capping inversion layer and lowers the MBL depth by 150 m from that of the MET simulation. Mean top-of-the-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity over the remote ocean) and aerosol quantities (e.g., overestimations of supermicron sea salt mass) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the SEP, and require further investigations. Although not perfect, the overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale aerosol-cloud interactions is encouraging and suggests that the inclusion of spatially varying aerosol characteristics is important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the southeastern Pacific.

Yang, Qing; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.; Wang, Hailong; Easter, Richard C.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

166

test output enable Veto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to BIP/FSCC's RESET to (NIM) test output FSCC/COM (NIM) INPUT TRIGGER GLOBAL 0.08┬ş19.5 usec adjustable

Berns, Hans-Gerd

167

Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

Liang Sai [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu Yijian [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

Liang Sai, E-mail: liangsai09@gmail.com [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Tianzhu, E-mail: zhangtz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Robust MPC with output feedback of integrating systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, it is presented a new contribution to the design of a robust MPC with output feedback, input constraints, and uncertain model. Multivariable predictive controllers have been used in industry to reduce the variability of the process output ...

J. M. Perez; D. Odloak; E. L. Lima

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

On the Suitability of GCM Runoff Fields for River Discharge Modeling: A Case Study Using Model Output from HadGEM2 and ECHAM5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The representation of hydrological processes in land surface schemes (LSSs) has recently been improved. In this study, the usability of GCM runoff for river discharge modeling is evaluated by validating the mean, timing, and amplitude of the ...

F. C. Sperna Weiland; L. P. H. van Beek; J. C. J. Kwadijk; M. F. P. Bierkens

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model for Month-Long Pan-Arctic Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was evaluated for month-long simulations over a large pan-Arctic model domain. The evaluation of seven different WRF (version 3.1) configurations for four months (January, April, ...

John J. Cassano; Matthew E. Higgins; Mark W. Seefeldt

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Comparison of CAISO-run Plexos output with LLNL-run Plexos output  

SciTech Connect

In this report we compare the output of the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) 33% RPS Plexos model when run on various computing systems. Specifically, we compare the output resulting from running the model on CAISO's computers (Windows) and LLNL's computers (both Windows and Linux). We conclude that the differences between the three results are negligible in the context of the entire system and likely attributed to minor differences in Plexos version numbers as well as the MIP solver used in each case.

Schmidt, A; Meyers, C; Smith, S

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

173

Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity) and aerosol quantities (e.g., underestimations of accumulation mode aerosol number) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the Southeastern Pacific, and require further investigation. The well-simulated timing and outflow patterns of polluted and clean episodes demonstrate the model's ability to capture daily/synoptic scale variations of aerosol and cloud properties, and suggest that the model is suitable for studying atmospheric processes associated with pollution outflow over the ocean. The overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale clouds and boundary layer properties is encouraging and suggests that reproducing gradients of aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and coupling cloud-aerosol-radiation processes are important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the Southeast Pacific.

Yang Q.; Lee Y.; GustafsonáJr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

174

Implementation and assessment of turbine wake models in the Weather Research and Forecasting model for both mesoscale and large-eddy simulation  

SciTech Connect

Flow dynamics in large wind projects are influenced by the turbines located within. The turbine wakes, regions characterized by lower wind speeds and higher levels of turbulence than the surrounding free stream flow, can extend several rotor diameters downstream, and may meander and widen with increasing distance from the turbine. Turbine wakes can also reduce the power generated by downstream turbines and accelerate fatigue and damage to turbine components. An improved understanding of wake formation and transport within wind parks is essential for maximizing power output and increasing turbine lifespan. Moreover, the influence of wakes from large wind projects on neighboring wind farms, agricultural activities, and local climate are all areas of concern that can likewise be addressed by wake modeling. This work describes the formulation and application of an actuator disk model for studying flow dynamics of both individual turbines and arrays of turbines within wind projects. The actuator disk model is implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which is an open-source atmospheric simulation code applicable to a wide range of scales, from mesoscale to large-eddy simulation. Preliminary results demonstrate the applicability of the actuator disk model within WRF to a moderately high-resolution large-eddy simulation study of a small array of turbines.

Singer, M; Mirocha, J; Lundquist, J; Cleve, J

2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

8.5. Adding New Outputs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... have fixed values in the Output definition will not ... are a few example Output definitions, extracted from ... an example, illustrating the Energy output and ...

2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

Simulating 3-D Radiative Transfer Effects over the Sierra Nevada Mountains using WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A surface solar radiation parameterization based on deviations between 3-D and conventional plane-parallel radiative transfer models has been incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to understand the solar insolation over mountain/snow areas and to investigate the impact of the spatial and temporal distribution and variation of surface solar fluxes on land-surface processes. Using the Sierra-Nevada in the western United States as a testbed, we show that mountain effect could produce up to ?50 to + 50Wm?2 deviations in the surface solar fluxes over the mountain areas, resulting in a temperature increase of up to 1 ░C on the sunny side. Upward surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are modulated accordingly to compensate for the change in surface solar fluxes. Snow water equivalent and surface albedo both show decreases on the sunny side of the mountains, indicating more snowmelt and hence reduced snow albedo associated with more solar insolation due to mountain effect. Soil moisture increases on the sunny side of the mountains due to enhanced snowmelt, while decreases on the shaded side. Substantial differences are found in the morning hours from 8-10 a.m. and in the afternoon around 3-5 p.m., while differences around noon and in the early morning and late afternoon are comparatively smaller. Variation in the surface energy balance can also affect atmospheric processes, such as cloud fields, through the modulation of vertical thermal structure. Negative changes of up to ?40 gm?2 are found in the cloud water path, associated with reductions in the surface insolation over the cloud region. The day-averaged deviations in the surface solar flux are positive over the mountain areas and negative in the valleys, with a range between ?12~12Wm?2. Changes in sensible and latent heat fluxes and surface skin temperature follow the solar insolation pattern. Differences in the domain-averaged diurnal variation over the Sierras show that the mountain area receives more solar insolation during early morning and late afternoon, resulting in enhanced upward sensible heat and latent heat fluxes from the surface and a corresponding increase in surface skin temperature. During the middle of the day, however, the surface insolation and heat fluxes show negative changes, indicating a cooling effect. Hence overall, the diurnal variations of surface temperature and surface fluxes in the Sierra-Nevada are reduced through the interactions of radiative transfer and mountains. The hourly differences of the surface solar insolation in higher elevated regions, however, show smaller magnitude in negative changes during the middle of the day and possibly more solar fluxes received during the whole day.

Gu, Yu; Liou, K. N.; Lee, W- L.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Coded output support vector machine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a coded output support vector machine (COSVM) by introducing the idea of information coding to solve multi-class classification problems for large-scale datasets. The COSVM is built based on the support vector regression (SVR) machine ... Keywords: coded output, multi-class classification, number system, parallel implementation, support vector machine (SVM)

Tao Ye; Xuefeng Zhu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Development of a Coupled GroundwaterľAtmosphere Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complete models of the hydrologic cycle have gained recent attention as research has shown interdependence between the coupled land and energy balance of the subsurface, land surface, and lower atmosphere. PF.WRF is a new model that is a ...

Reed M. Maxwell; Julie K. Lundquist; Jeffrey D. Mirocha; Steven G. Smith; Carol S. Woodward; Andrew F. B. Tompson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Meteorological Model Evaluation for CalNex 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of mesoscale meteorological models is evaluated for the coastal zone and Los Angeles area of Southern California, and for the San Joaquin Valley. Several configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) with ...

Wayne M. Angevine; Lee Eddington; Kevin Durkee; Chris Fairall; Laura Bianco; Jerome Brioude

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

Degrande, CÚline; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

UFO - The Universal FeynRules Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so- called Universal FeynRules Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a Python module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the Mathematica package FeynRules that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

CÚline Degrande; Claude Duhr; Benjamin Fuks; David Grellscheid; Olivier Mattelaer; Thomas Reiter

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

182

Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign  

SciTech Connect

A comparison between observed aerosol optical properties from the MILAGRO field campaign, which took place in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during March 2006, and values simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) model, reveals large differences. To help identify the source of the discrepancies, data from the MILAGRO campaign are used to evaluate the "aerosol chemical to aerosol optical properties" module implemented in the full chemistry version of the WRF-Chem model. The evaluation uses measurements of aerosol size distributions and chemical properties obtained at the MILAGRO T1 site. These observations are fed to the module, which makes predictions of various aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient, Bscat; the absorption coefficient, Babs; and the single-scattering albedo, v0; all as a function of time. This simulation is compared with independent measurements obtained from a photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) at a wavelength of 870 nm. Because of line losses and other factors, only "fine mode" aerosols with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 mm are considered here. Over a 10-day period, the simulations of hour-by-hour variations of Bscat are not satisfactory, but simulations of Babs and v0 are considerably better. When averaged over the 10-day period, the computed and observed optical properties agree within the uncertainty limits of the measurements and simulations. Specifically, the observed and calculated values are, respectively: (1) Bscat, 34.1 ▒ 5.1 Mm-1 versus 30.4 ▒ 4.3 Mm-1; (2) Babs, 9.7 ▒ 1.0 Mm-1 versus 11.7 ▒ 1.5 Mm-1; and (3) v0, 0.78 ▒ 0.04 and 0.74 ▒ 0.03. The discrepancies in values of v0 simulated by the full WRF-Chem model thus cannot be attributed to the "aerosol chemistry to optics" module. The discrepancy is more likely due, in part, to poor characterization of emissions near the T1 site, particularly black carbon emissions.

Barnard, James C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Paredes-Miranda, Guadalupe L.; Arnott, W. P.; Laskin, Alexander

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

183

rifsimp_output.html - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whenever DiffConstraint or UnSolve entries are present in the output, some parts of the algorithm have been disabled by options, and the resulting cases mustá...

184

Development and illustrative outputs of the Community Integrated Assessment System (CIAS), a multi-institutional modular integrated assessment approach for modelling climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and first results of the ''Community Integrated Assessment System'' (CIAS), a unique multi-institutional modular and flexible integrated assessment system for modelling climate change. Key to this development is the ... Keywords: Bespoke Framework Generator, Carbon tax, Climate change, Community Integrated Assessment System, Coupled modelling, Integrated assessment model, SoftIAM, Software engineering

R. Warren; S. de la Nava Santos; N. W. Arnell; M. Bane; T. Barker; C. Barton; R. Ford; H. -M. FŘssel; Robin K. S. Hankin; Rupert Klein; C. Linstead; J. Kohler; T. D. Mitchell; T. J. Osborn; H. Pan; S. C. B. Raper; G. Riley; H. J. SchellnhŘber; S. Winne; D. Anderson

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect

In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?2.5├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░ with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░ x 1├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ám. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬║ by 5├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬║ horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?clean marine├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?2.5├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░ with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░ x 1├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬░. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ám. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬║ by 5├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬║ horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?clean marine├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

187

Regional ClimateľWeather Research and Forecasting Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CWRF is developed as a climate extension of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) by incorporating numerous improvements in the representation of physical processes and integration of external (top, surface, lateral) forcings that are ...

Xin-Zhong Liang; Min Xu; Xing Yuan; Tiejun Ling; Hyun I. Choi; Feng Zhang; Ligang Chen; Shuyan Liu; Shenjian Su; Fengxue Qiao; Yuxiang He; Julian X. L. Wang; Kenneth E. Kunkel; Wei Gao; Everette Joseph; Vernon Morris; Tsann-Wang Yu; Jimy Dudhia; John Michalakes

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Evaluation of Modeled Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layer Turbulence with Ship-Borne Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerically modeled turbulence simulated by the Advanced Research WRF model is evaluated with turbulence measurements from NOAAĺs high resolution Doppler lidar on the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown during the VOCALS-REx field program. A non-...

Takanobu Yamaguchi; W. Alan Brewer; Graham Feingold

189

Local and Mesoscale Impacts of Wind Farms as Parameterized in a Mesoscale NWP Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new wind farm parameterization has been developed for the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The effects of wind turbines are represented by imposing a momentum sink on the mean flow; ...

Anna C. Fitch; Joseph B. Olson; Julie K. Lundquist; Jimy Dudhia; Alok K. Gupta; John Michalakes; Idar Barstad

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

African Easterly Wave Dynamics in a Mesoscale Numerical Model: The Upscale Role of Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To examine the dynamical role of convection in African easterly wave (AEW) life cycles the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to simulate the evolution of a single AEW from September 2004. The model simulations are validated ...

Gareth J. Berry; Chris D. Thorncroft

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The Use and Interpretation of Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output in Identifying Synoptic-Scale Environments Associated with Development of Mesoscale Convective Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experiment is reported in which derived diagnostic parameters computed from Limited-area Fine-Mesh (LFM) model gridpoint data were examined to determine subjectively whether their availability in real time would assist the forecaster in ...

Barry E. Schwartz; Dennis M. Rodgers; J. Todd Hawes

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Heat, Moisture, and Momentum Budgets of Isolated Deep Midlatitude and Tropical Convective Clouds as Diagnosed from Three-Dimensional Model Output. Part I: Control Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project uses a three-dimensional anelastic cloud model with a simple ice phase parameterization to evaluate the feedback between isolated deep convective clouds and their near surroundings. The horizontal Reynolds averaging approach of ...

Robert E. Schlesinger

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Modeling Study of Irrigation Effects on Surface Fluxes and LandľAirľCloud Interactions in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the authors incorporate an operational-like irrigation scheme into the Noah land surface model as part of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). A series of simulations, with and without irrigation, is conducted over the ...

Yun Qian; Maoyi Huang; Ben Yang; Larry K. Berg

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Coupled AtmosphereľWaveľOcean Modeling System: Simulation of the Intensity of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A coupled atmosphereľwaveľocean modeling system (CAWOMS) based on the integration of atmosphereľwave, atmosphereľocean, and waveľcurrent interaction processes is developed. The component models consist of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)...

Bin Liu; Huiqing Liu; Lian Xie; Changlong Guan; Dongliang Zhao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Implementation and validation of a meteorological dispersion model applied on volcanic gas emission for studies of environmental impact.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Lagrangian atmospheric transport model FLEXPART-WRF was implemented to model dispersion of volcanic gas emitted from the three volcanoes PopocatÚpetl in Mexico (lat: 19.02, lon:ů (more)

Landgren, Oskar A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Use of Multiple Verification Methods to Evaluate Forecasts of Convection from Hot- and Cold-Start Convection-Allowing Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses both traditional and newer verification methods to evaluate two 4-km grid-spacing Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) forecasts: a ôcold startö forecast that uses the 12-km North American Mesoscale Model (NAM) analysis and ...

Derek R. Stratman; Michael C. Coniglio; Steven E. Koch; Ming Xue

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Impact of WRF Physics and Grid Resolution on Low-level Wind Prediction: Towards the Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Future Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is used in short-range simulations to explore the sensitivity of model physics and horizontal grid resolution. We choose five events with the clear-sky conditions to study the impact of different planetary boundary layer (PBL), surface and soil-layer physics on low-level wind forecast for two wind farms; one in California (CA) and the other in Texas (TX). Short-range simulations are validated with field measurements. Results indicate that the forecast error of the CA case decreases with increasing grid resolution due to the improved representation of valley winds. Besides, the model physics configuration has a significant impact on the forecast error at this location. In contrast, the forecast error of the TX case exhibits little dependence on grid resolution and is relatively independent of physics configuration. Therefore, the occurrence frequency of lowest root mean square errors (RMSEs) at this location is used to determine an optimal model configuration for subsequent decade-scale regional climate model (RCM) simulations. In this study, we perform two sets of 20-year RCM simulations using the data from the NCAR Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations; one set models the present climate and the other simulates the future climate. These RCM simulations will be used to assess the impact of climate change on future wind energy.

Chin, H S; Glascoe, L; Lundquist, J; Wharton, S

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

198

Modeling Land Surface Processes and Heavy Rainfall in Urban Environments: Sensitivity to Urban Surface Representations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are used in conjunction with observational analyses to investigate land surface processes and heavy rainfall over the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. ...

Dan Li; Elie Bou-Zeid; Mary Lynn Baeck; Stephen Jessup; James A. Smith

199

Model Bias in a Continuously Cycled Assimilation System and Its Influence on Convection-Permitting Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the spring 2011 season, a real-time continuously cycled ensemble data assimilation system using the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) coupled with the Data Assimilation Research Testbed toolkit ...

Glen S. Romine; Craig S. Schwartz; Chris Snyder; Jeff L. Anderson; Morris L. Weisman

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

The Effects of Subgrid Model Mixing and Numerical Filtering in Simulations of Mesoscale Cloud Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the newly developed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, this study investigates the effects of subgrid mixing and numerical filtering in mesoscale cloud simulations by examining the sensitivities to the parameters in turbulence-...

Tetsuya Takemi; Richard Rotunno

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Predicting Cloud-to-Ground and Intracloud Lightning in Weather Forecast Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new prognostic, spatially and temporally dependent variable is introduced to the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). This variable is called the potential electrical energy (Ep). It was used to predict the dynamic contribution of the ...

Barry H. Lynn; Yoav Yair; Colin Price; Guy Kelman; Adam J. Clark

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Dynamical Downscaling of Austral Summer Climate Forecasts over Southern Africa Using a Regional Coupled Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The prediction skill of dynamical downscaling is evaluated for climate forecasts over southern Africa using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. As a case study, forecasts for the DecemberľFebruary (DJF) season of ...

J. V. Ratnam; S. K. Behera; S. B. Ratna; C. J. de W. Rautenbach; C. Lennard; J.-J. Luo; Y. Masumoto; K. Takahashi; T. Yamagata

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Short-Term Ice Accretion Forecasts for Electric Utilities Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model and a Modified Precipitation-Type Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to provide 6ľ12-h forecasts of the necessary input parameters to a separate algorithm that determines the most likely precipitation type at each model grid point. In instances where ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Brian N. Belcher; Pamela L. Spier

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Neural Networks for Postprocessing Model Output: ARPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature forecasts of the Advanced Regional Prediction System are postprocessed by a neural network. Specifically, 31 stations are considered, and for each a neural network is developed. The nine input variables to the neural network are ...

Caren Marzban

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Overload protection circuit for output driver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

Stewart, Roger G. (Neshanic Station, NJ)

1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

206

Resolved turbulence characteristics in large-eddy simulations nested within mesoscale simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One-way concurrent nesting within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is examined for conducting large-eddy simulations (LES) nested within mesoscale simulations. Wind speed, spectra, and resolved turbulent stresses and turbulence ...

Jeff Mirocha; Branko Kosovi?; Gokhan Kirkil

207

Analysis of Idealized Tropical Cyclone Simulations Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model: Sensitivity to Turbulence Parameterization and Grid Spacing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting Advanced Research Model (WRF-ARW) was used to perform idealized tropical cyclone (TC) simulations, with domains of 36-, 12-, and 4-km horizontal grid spacing. Tests were conducted to determine the sensitivity ...

Kevin A. Hill; Gary M. Lackmann

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Optimal Filtering of AC Output Anemometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The output of pulsed and AC output anemometers suffer from discretization noise when such anemometers are sampled at fast rates (>1 Hz). This paper describes the construction of an optimal filter designed to reduce this noise. By comparing the ...

J. C. Barnard; L. L. Wendell; V. R. Morris

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Energy Input Output Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Input Output Calculator Input Output Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Input-Output Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Online calculator User Interface: Website Website: www2.eere.energy.gov/analysis/iocalc/Default.aspx Web Application Link: www2.eere.energy.gov/analysis/iocalc/Default.aspx OpenEI Keyword(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Tools Language: English References: EERE Energy Input-Output Calculator[1] The Energy Input-Output Calculator (IO Calculator) allows users to estimate the economic development impacts from investments in alternate electricity generating technologies. About the Calculator The Energy Input-Output Calculator (IO Calculator) allows users to estimate

210

Evaluated crop evapotranspiration over a region of irrigated orchards with the improved ACASA-WRF model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the uncertain consequences of climate change on agriculture are changes in timing and quantity of precipitation together with predicted higher temperatures and changes in length of growing season. Our understanding of how these uncertainties ...

Matthias Falk; R. D. Pyles; S.L. Ustin; K.T. Paw U; L. Xu; M.L. Whiting; B.L. Sanden; P.H. Brown

211

Prediction of In-Cloud Icing Conditions at Ground Level Using the WRF Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-cloud icing on aircraft and ground structures can be observed every winter in many countries. In extreme cases ice can cause accidents and damage to infrastructure such as power transmission lines, telecommunication towers, wind turbines, ski ...

Bj°rn Egil Kringlebotn Nygaard; Jˇn Egill Kristjßnsson; Lasse Makkonen

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Light output simulation of LYSO single crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We used the Geant4 simulation toolkit to estimate the light collection in a LYSO crystal by using cosmic muons and E=105 MeV electrons. The light output as a function of the crystal length is studied. Significant influence of the crystal wrapping in the reflective paper and optical grease coupling to the photodetectors on the light output is demonstrated.

Usubov, Zafar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below ...

Bing Xie; Jeffrey Chase; David Dillow; Oleg Drokin; Scott Klasky; Sarp Oral; Norbert Podhorszki

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

ASSIMILATION OF DOPPLER RADAR DATA INTO NUMERICAL WEATHER MODELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has made higher resolution real-time model simulations possible, the need to obtain observations to both initialize numerical models and verify their output has become increasingly important. The assimilation of high resolution radar observations therefore provides a vital component in the development and utility of numerical model forecasts for both weather forecasting and contaminant transport, including future opportunities to improve wet deposition computations explicitly.

Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Boosting America's Hydropower Output | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boosting America's Hydropower Output Boosting America's Hydropower Output Boosting America's Hydropower Output October 9, 2012 - 2:10pm Addthis The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. City of Boulder employees celebrate the completion of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Modernization project. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. City of Boulder employees celebrate the completion of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Modernization project. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado. The Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Facility's new, highly-efficient turbine. | Photo courtesy of the city of Boulder, Colorado.

216

PV output smoothing with energy storage.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an algorithm, implemented in Matlab/Simulink, designed to reduce the variability of photovoltaic (PV) power output by using a battery. The purpose of the battery is to add power to the PV output (or subtract) to smooth out the high frequency components of the PV power that that occur during periods with transient cloud shadows on the PV array. The control system is challenged with the task of reducing short-term PV output variability while avoiding overworking the battery both in terms of capacity and ramp capability. The algorithm proposed by Sandia is purposely very simple to facilitate implementation in a real-time controller. The control structure has two additional inputs to which the battery can respond. For example, the battery could respond to PV variability, load variability or area control error (ACE) or a combination of the three.

Ellis, Abraham; Schoenwald, David Alan

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

3. IHS Global Insightĺs Industrial Output and Employment by Industry Models Industrial Output Model Overview ...

218

Predicting the Energy Output of Wind Farms Based on Weather Data: Important Variables and their Correlation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind energy plays an increasing role in the supply of energy world-wide. The energy output of a wind farm is highly dependent on the weather condition present at the wind farm. If the output can be predicted more accurately, energy suppliers can coordinate the collaborative production of different energy sources more efficiently to avoid costly overproductions. With this paper, we take a computer science perspective on energy prediction based on weather data and analyze the important parameters as well as their correlation on the energy output. To deal with the interaction of the different parameters we use symbolic regression based on the genetic programming tool DataModeler. Our studies are carried out on publicly available weather and energy data for a wind farm in Australia. We reveal the correlation of the different variables for the energy output. The model obtained for energy prediction gives a very reliable prediction of the energy output for newly given weather data.

Vladislavleva, Katya; Neumann, Frank; Wagner, Markus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Multiple output timing and trigger generator  

SciTech Connect

In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Preliminary Study of California Wintertime Model Wet Bias  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.0.1 is used in both short-range (days) and long-range (years) simulations to explore the California wintertime model wet bias. California is divided into four regions (the coast, central ...

Hung-Neng S. Chin; Peter M. Caldwell; David C. Bader

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Single-inductor, multiple-output buck converter with parallel source transient recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To address the need for multiple regulated voltage supplies in electronic devices, this thesis presents a modeling and design study of a single-inductor, multiple-output (SIMO) DC-DC buck converter with parallel source ...

King, Charles Jackson, III

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Statistical Downscaling of Precipitation in Korea Using Multimodel Output Variables as Predictors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pattern projection downscaling method is applied to predict summer precipitation at 60 stations over Korea. The predictors are multiple variables from the output of six operational dynamical models. The hindcast datasets span a period of 21 yr ...

Hongwen Kang; Chung-Kyu Park; Saji N. Hameed; Karumuri Ashok

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Characterizing output bottlenecks in a supercomputer  

SciTech Connect

Supercomputer I/O loads are often dominated by writes. HPC (High Performance Computing) file systems are designed to absorb these bursty outputs at high bandwidth through massive parallelism. However, the delivered write bandwidth often falls well below the peak. This paper characterizes the data absorption behavior of a center-wide shared Lustre parallel file system on the Jaguar supercomputer. We use a statistical methodology to address the challenges of accurately measuring a shared machine under production load and to obtain the distribution of bandwidth across samples of compute nodes, storage targets, and time intervals. We observe and quantify limitations from competing traffic, contention on storage servers and I/O routers, concurrency limitations in the client compute node operating systems, and the impact of variance (stragglers) on coupled output such as striping. We then examine the implications of our results for application performance and the design of I/O middleware systems on shared supercomputers.

Xie, Bing [Duke University; Chase, Jeffrey [Duke University; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [Intel Corporation; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Monitoring of Photovoltaic Plant Output and Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems, including variability characteristics, is of increasing interest to utilities as they integrate more solar energy onto the electric grid. This study is part of a multi-year research series to investigate influencing factors that affect PV plant output, variability, and approaches to system management. It explores PV variability both from a grid perspective and through examination of project design aspects that can affect annual power production. ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Error Characteristics of Two Grid Refinement Approaches in Aquaplanet Simulations: MPAS-A and WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares the error characteristics associated with two grid refinement approaches including global variable resolution and nesting for high-resolution regional climate modeling. The global variable-resolution model, Model for Prediction ...

Samson Hagos; Ruby Leung; Sara A. Rauscher; Todd Ringler

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Single Inductor Dual Output Buck Converter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The portable electronics market is rapidly migrating towards more compact devices with multiple functionalities. Form factor, performance, cost and efficiency of these devices constitute the factors of merit of devices like cell phones, MP3 players and PDA's. With advancement in technology and more intelligent processors being used, there is a need for multiple high integrity voltage supplies for empowering the systems in portable electronic devices. Switched mode power supplies (SMPS's) are used to regulate the battery voltage. In an SMPS, maximum area is taken by the passive components such as the inductor and the capacitor. This work demonstrates a single inductor used in a buck converter with two output voltages from an input battery with voltage of value 3V. The main focus areas are low cross regulation between the outputs and supply of completely independent load current levels while maintaining desired values (1.2V,1.5V) within well controlled ripple levels. Dynamic hysteresis control is used for the single inductor dual output buck converter in this work. Results of schematic and post layout simulations performed in CADENCE prove the merits of this control method, such as nil cross regulation and excellent transient response.

Eachempatti, Haritha

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates  

SciTech Connect

A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of the shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.

Murphy, Michael John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Adrian, Ronald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Modeling and Forecasting the Onset and Duration of Severe Radiation Fog under Frost Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case of a severe radiation fog during frost conditions is analyzed as a benchmark for the development of a very high-resolution NWP model. Results by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the High-Resolution Limited-Area Model (...

I. R. van der Velde; G. J. Steeneveld; B. G. J. Wichers Schreur; A. A. M. Holtslag

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Review of BEIS3 Formulation and Consequences Relative to Air Quality Standards: Estimation of Uncertainties in BEIS3 Emission Output s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes estimates of uncertainties for outputs of the Biogenics Emissions Inventory System, Version 3 (BEIS3) model due to uncertainties in model parameters and input variables.

2002-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

230

Prediction of Boiler Output Variables Through the PLS Linear Regression Technique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: In this work, we propose to use the linear regression partial least square method to predict the output variables of the RA1G boiler. This method consists in finding the regression of an output block regarding an input block. These two blocks represent the outputs and inputs of the process. A criteria of cross validation, based on the calculation of the predicted residual sum of squares, is used to select the components of the model in the partial least square regression. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of this method for prediction purposes.

Abdelmalek Kouadri; Mimoun Zelmat; Alhussein Albarbar

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Modeling the Impact of Convective Entrainment on the Tropical Tropopause  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) cloud-resolving model of deep moist convective events reveal net cooling near the tropopause (15ľ18 km above ground), caused by a combination of large-scale ascent and small-scale ...

F. J. Robinson; S. C. Sherwood

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Testing alternative transport pricing strategies: A CGE analysis for Belgium 1 Paper to be presented at the Conference on ôInput-Output and General Equilibrium: Data, Modeling and Policy Analysisö,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of the paper is to compare the effects of two alternative transport pricing rules: average cost and marginal social cost pricing. For both pricing scenarios, two alternative ways of using surpluses or financing deficits of the transport sector are used. The first is to change the marginal labour tax rate, the second way is to vary the level of social transfers. The effects of the scenarios are tested using a computable general equilibrium model for Belgium. The model is also used to analyse whether the changes in the transport accounts caused by a pricing reform are good welfare indicators. 1.

Inge Mayeres; Stef Proost

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Energy conserving automatic light output system  

SciTech Connect

An energy conserving lighting system is provided wherein a plurality of fluorescent lamps are powered by a poorly regulated voltage source power supply which provides a decreasing supply voltage with increasing arc current so as to generally match the volt-ampere characteristics of the lamps. A transistor ballast and control circuit connected in the arc current path controls the arc current, and hence the light output, in accordance with the total ambient light, i.e., the light produced by the lamps together with whatever further light is produced by other sources such as daylight. In another embodiment, a transistor ballast is utilized in combination with an inductive ballast. The transistor ballast provides current control over a wide dynamic range up to a design current maximum at which maximum the transistor is saturated and the inductive ballast takes over the current limiting function. An operational amplifier is preferably connected in the base biassing circuit of the control transistor of the transistor ballast. In an embodiment wherein two sets of lamps with separate inductive ballasts are provided, the arc currents for the two ballasts are scaled or matched to provide the desired light output.

Widmayer, D.F.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

A Multilayer Upper-Boundary Condition for Longwave Radiative Flux to Correct Temperature Biases in a Mesoscale Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An upper-level cold bias in potential temperature tendencies of 10 K day?1, strongest at the top of the model, is observed in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model forecasts. The bias originates from the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ...

Steven M. Cavallo; Jimy Dudhia; Chris Snyder

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

SARAH 3.2: Dirac Gauginos, UFO output, and more  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/OMEGA. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and one-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files have seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac Gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of model implementations have been created.

Florian Staub

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

236

Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Compact waveguide power divider with multiple isolated outputs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The waveguide power divider comprises an input waveguide of rectangular cross-section coupled to multiple reduced height output waveguides of rectangular cross-section. The input is coupled to the output waveguides by axial slots. The length of the slots is selected such that the wave direction of the input waveguide is preserved in the output waveguides. The width of the output guide is equal to the width of the input waveguide so that the input and output guides have the same cutoff wavelength. Waves will then travel with the same phase velocity in the input and output guides. The unused ends of the input and output guides are terminated in matched loads. The load at the end of the input guide absorbs power that is not coupled to the output guides.

Moeller, C.P.

1986-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

238

Evaluation of WRF Forecasts of Tornadic and Nontornadic Outbreaks When Initialized with Synoptic-Scale Input  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Uncertainty exists concerning the links between synoptic-scale processes and tornado outbreaks. With continuously improving computer technology, a large number of high-resolution model simulations can be conducted to study these outbreaks to the ...

Chad M. Shafer; Andrew E. Mercer; Charles A. Doswell III; Michael B. Richman; Lance M. Leslie

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Anthropogenic Moisture Effects on WRF Summertime Surface Temperature and Mixing Ratio Forecast Skill In Southern California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale forecasts for the Los Angeles basin made with the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State UniversityľNational Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) exhibited a moderate to substantial warm temperature bias for extended ...

Rich F. Coleman; James F. Drake; Michael D. McAtee; Leslie O. Belsma

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Impacts of A Priori Databases Using Six WRF Microphysics Schemes on Passive Microwave Rainfall Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Physically-based rainfall retrievals from passive microwave sensors often make use of cloud resolving models (CRMs) to build a-priori databases of potential rain structures. Each CRM, however, has its own cloud microphysics assumptions. Hence, ...

Ju-Hye Kim; Dong-Bin Shin; Christian Kummerow

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 - 3:41pm Addthis Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Today the Department of Energy dedicated the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL), an advanced research facility that will accelerate the advancement of nuclear reactor technology. CASL researchers are using supercomputers to study the performance of light water reactors and to develop highly sophisticated modeling that will help accelerate upgrades at existing U.S. nuclear plants. These upgrades could improve the energy output of our existing reactor fleet by as much as seven reactors' worth at a fraction of the cost of building new reactors, while providing continued improvements in

242

Performance of Double-Output Induction Generator for Wind Energy Conversion Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With growing concerns about environmental pollution and a possible energy shortage, great efforts have been taken by the governments around the world to implement renewable energy programs, based mainly on wind power, solar energy, small hydro-electric ... Keywords: Double-output induction generator (DOIG), steady state model, field-oriented control, dynamic model, PWM converters

B. Chitti Babu; K. B. Mohanty; C. Poongothai

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

An Evaluation of WRF Simulations of Clouds over the Southern Ocean with A-Train Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The representation of the marine boundary layer (BL) clouds remains a formidable challenge for start-of-the-art simulations. A recent study by Bodas-Salcedo et al. (2012) using the UK Met Office Unified Model highlights that the underprediction of ...

Yi Huang; Steven T. Siems; Michael J. Manton; Gregory Thompson

244

Outputs and Outcomes of NIST Laboratory Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and fiberoptic power and energy calibration, EEEL ... models, Enable new markets Increase R&D ... Laboratory ITL: Information Technology Laboratory.

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

The effect of small field output factor measurements on IMRT dosimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate how changes in the measured small field output factors affect the doses in intensity-modulated treatment planning. Methods: IMRT plans were created using Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The plans were optimized to treat a cylindrical target 2 cm in diameter and 2 cm in length. Output factors for 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 cm{sup 2} field sizes were changed by {+-}5%, {+-}10%, and {+-}20% increments from the baseline measurements and entered into the planning system. The treatment units were recommissioned in the treatment planning system after each modification of the output factors and treatment plans were reoptimized. All plans were delivered to a solid water phantom and dose measurements were made using an ionization chamber. The percentage differences between measured and computed doses were calculated. An Elekta Synergy and a Varian 2300CD linear accelerator were separately evaluated. Results: For the Elekta unit, decreasing the output factors resulted in higher measured than computed doses by 0.8% for -5%, 3.6% for -10%, and 8.7% for -20% steps. Increasing the output factors resulted in lower doses by 2.9% for +5%, 5.4% for +10%, and 8.3% for +20% steps. For the Varian unit no changes were observed for either increased or decreased output factors. Conclusions: The measurement accuracy of small field output factors are of importance especially when the treatment plan consists of small segments as in IMRT. The method proposed here could be used to verify the accuracy of the measured small field output factors for certain linear accelerators as well as to test the beam model. The Pinnacle treatment planning system model uses output factors as a function of jaw setting. Consequently, plans using the Elekta unit, which conforms the jaws to the segments, are sensitive to small field measurement accuracy. On the other hand, for the Varian unit, jaws are fixed and segments are modeled as blocked fields hence, the impact of small field output factors on IMRT monitor unit calculation is not evaluable by this method.

Azimi, Rezvan; Alaei, Parham; Higgins, Patrick [Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Influence of Karst Landscape on Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere: A Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) ModelľBased Investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Karst hydrology provides a unique set of surface and subsurface hydrological components that affect soil moisture variability. Over karst topography, surface moisture moves rapidly below ground via sink holes, vertical shafts, and sinking streams, ...

Ronnie Leeper; Rezaul Mahmood; Arturo I. Quintanar

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mechanisms Supporting Long-Lived Episodes of Propagating Nocturnal Convection within a 7-Day WRF Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large-domain explicit convection simulation is used to investigate the life cycle of nocturnal convection for a one-week period of successive zonally propagating heavy precipitation episodes occurring over the central United States. Similar to ...

S. B. Trier; C. A. Davis; D. A. Ahijevych; M. L. Weisman; G. H. Bryan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper seeks to understand what temporal and spatial scales of variability in global horizontal radiation are important to a PV plants and what measurements are needed to be able to characterize them. As solar radiation measuring instruments are point receivers it is important to understand how those measurements translate to energy received over a larger spatial extent. Also of importance is the temporal natural of variability over large spatial areas. In this research we use high temporal and spatial resolution measurements from multiple sensors at a site in Hawaii to create solar radiation fields at various spatial and temporal scales. Five interpolation schemes were considered and the high resolution solar fields were converted to power production for a PV power plant. It was found that the interpolation schemes are robust and create ramp distributions close to what would be computed if the average solar radiation field was used. We also investigated the possibility of using time averaged solar data from 1 sensor to recreate the ramp distribution from the 17 sensors. It was found that the ramping distribution from using appropriately time averaged data from 1 sensor can reasonably match the distribution created using the 17 sensor network.

Sengupta, M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability:...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 2012 Reliability & Markets Peer Review - Full Presentations USVI Energy...

250

Measurement and Modeling of Solar and PV Output Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper seeks to understand what temporal and spatial scales of variability in global horizontal radiation are important to a PV plants and what measurements are needed to be able to characterize them. As solar radiation measuring instruments are point receivers it is important to understand how those measurements translate to energy received over a larger spatial extent. Also of importance is the temporal natural of variability over large spatial areas. In this research we use high temporal and spatial resolution measurements from multiple sensors at a site in Hawaii to create solar radiation fields at various spatial and temporal scales. Five interpolation schemes were considered and the high resolution solar fields were converted to power production for a PV power plant. It was found that the interpolation schemes are robust and create ramp distributions close to what would be computed if the average solar radiation field was used. We also investigated the possibility of using time averaged solar data from 1 sensor to recreate the ramp distribution from the 17 sensors. It was found that the ramping distribution from using appropriately time averaged data from 1 sensor can reasonably match the distribution created using the 17 sensor network.

Sengupta, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

SWAT 2012 Input/Output Documentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a comprehensive model that requires a diversity of information in order to run. Novice users may feel overwhelmed by the variety and number of inputs when they first begin to use the model. This document provides a full description of model inputs. The inputs are organized by topic and emphasis is given to differentiating required inputs from optional inputs. The first chapter focuses on assisting the user in identifying inputs that must be defined for their particular dataset. The remaining chapters list variables by file and discuss methods used to measure or calculate values for the input parameters. SWAT is a public domain model jointly developed by USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Texas A&M AgriLife Research, part of The Texas A&M University System. SWAT is a small watershed to river basin-scale model to simulate the quality and quantity of surface and ground water and predict the environmental impact of land use, land management practices, and climate change. SWAT is widely used in assessing soil erosion prevention and control, non-point source pollution control and regional management in watersheds. Download the SWAT model, or read more information at the SWAT website.

Arnold, J.G.; Kiniry, J.R.; Srinivasan, R.; Williams, J.R.; Haney, E.B.; Neitsch, S.L.

2013-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

252

Using the output file from a Gaussian frequency calculation to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... extract the essential data from a Gaussian output file and compute thermodynamic functions at several temperatures. The basic data are also ...

2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

253

Today in Energy - Seasonal hydroelectric output drives down ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Increased hydroelectric output in the Pacific Northwest drove daily, on-peak prices of electricity below $10 per megawatthour in late April (see chart above) at the ...

254

STARS: Sign tracking and recognition system using input-output HMMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

STARS is a vision based real time gestural interface that allows both communicative and manipulative 3D hand gestures, which vary in motion and appearance, to control target generic personal computer applications. This input-output HMM based framework ... Keywords: Adaptive threshold model, Gesture spotting, HCI, HCRF, Hand gesture recognition, IOHMM

C. Keskin; L. Akarun

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Energy conservation and power consumption analysis in China based on input-output method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To achieve the sustainable development of society, the 11th five-year plan of national economic and social development of China raised the energy-saving target of decreasing 20% energy consumption per unit GDP in 2010 than the end of 2005. Based on the ... Keywords: energy intensity, energy-saving, input-output model, power demand

He Yong-Xiu; Zhang Song-Lei; Tao Wei-Jun; Li Fu-Rong

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

PRISM 2.0: Simulated Solar Energy Output Data for the Lower 48 States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) engaged AWS Truepower (AWST) to provide simulated solar energy output data for the lower 48 states under the PRISM 2.0 Project. AWST obtained and processed historical modeled solar irradiance data over the 14-year period 1997ľ2010. The project team used the data to identify the best solar resource in each of the lower 48 states up to 1% of developable land area; generate solar power output time series for utility-scale sites for several ...

2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

258

Mapping of Indian computer science research output, 1999---2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research output of India in computer science during 1999---2008 is analyzed in this paper on several parameters including total research output, its growth, rank and global publication share, citation impact, share of international collaborative ... Keywords: Computer science, Information technology, Mapping, Research priorities in computer

B. M. Gupta; Avinash Kshitij; Charu Verma

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

SLAC 16-channel differential TTL output module (Engineering Materials)  

SciTech Connect

The drawings listed on the Drawing List provide the data and specifications for constructing a SLAC 16-channel differential TTL output module as used in the SLAC PEP storage ring instrumentation and control system. It is a CAMAC module used as an output interface module from CAMAC signals.

Not Available

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Comparison of the Diurnal Precipitation Cycle in Convection-Resolving and Non-Convection-Resolving Mesoscale Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal cycles of rainfall in 5-km grid-spacing convection-resolving and 22-km grid-spacing non-convection-resolving configurations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are compared to see if significant improvements can be ...

Adam J. Clark; William A. Gallus Jr.; Tsing-Chang Chen

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Countryĺs Nuclear Status  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nationĺs efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a countryĺs or regionĺs economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industryĺs output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given industry.

Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Dual output acoustic wave sensor for molecular identification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of identification and quantification of absorbed chemical species by measuring changes in both the velocity and the attenuation of an acoustic wave traveling through a thin film into which the chemical species is sorbed. The dual output response provides two independent sensor responses from a single sensing device thereby providing twice as much information as a single output sensor. This dual output technique and analysis allows a single sensor to provide both the concentration and the identity of a chemical species or permits the number of sensors required for mixtures to be reduced by a factor of two.

Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

1984-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

264

Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the transducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When such a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

Beene, James R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bemis, Jr., Curtis E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Simulation of the output power of copper bromide lasers by the MARS method  

SciTech Connect

The dependence of the output power of CuBr lasers (operating at wavelengths of 510.6 and 578.2 nm) on ten input physical parameters has been statistically analysed based on a large amount of experimental data accumulated for these lasers. Regression models have been built using the flexible nonparametric method of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) to describe both linear and nonlinear local dependences. These models cover more than 97% initial data with an error comparable with the experimental error; they are applied to estimate and predict the output powers of both existing and future lasers. The advantage of the models constructed for estimating laser parameters over the standard parametric methods of multivariate factor and regression analysis is demonstrated.

Iliev, I P; Voynikova, D S; Gocheva-Ilieva, S G

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Evaluation of the Sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model to Parameterization Schemes for Regional Climates of Europe over the Period 1990ľ95  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is used to downscale interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data for the climate over Europe for the period 1990ľ95 with grid spacing of 0.44░ for 12 combinations of physical parameterizations. Two ...

P. A. Mooney; F. J. Mulligan; R. Fealy

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

50-47676 March 2010 Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets Final Subcontract Report 15 October 2007 - 15 March 2009 3TIER Seattle, Washington National...

268

Collaborative Research: Towards Advanced Understanding and Predictive Capability of Climate Change in the Arctic Using a High-Resolution Regional Arctic Climate Model  

SciTech Connect

The primary research task completed for this project was the development of the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). This involved coupling existing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land models using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model (CCSM) coupler (CPL7). RACM is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) ocean model, the CICE sea ice model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land model. A secondary research task for this project was testing and evaluation of WRF for climate-scale simulations on the large pan-Arctic model domain used in RACM. This involved identification of a preferred set of model physical parameterizations for use in our coupled RACM simulations and documenting any atmospheric biases present in RACM.

Cassano, John [Principal Investigator

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

The world of quantum noise and the fundamental output process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A stationary theory of quantum stochastic processes of second order is outlined. It includes KMS processes in wide sense like the equilibrium finite temperature quantum noise given by the Planck's spectral formula. It is shown that for each stationary noise there exists a natural output process output process which is identical to the noise in the infinite temperature limit, and flipping with the noise if the time is reversed at finite temperature. A canonical Hilbert space representation of the quantum noise and the fundamental output process is established and a decomposition of their spectra is found. A brief explanation of quantum stochastic integration with respect to the input-output processes is given using only correlation functions. This provides a mathematical foundation for linear stationary filtering transformations of quantum stochastic processes. It is proved that the colored quantum stationary noise and its time-reversed version can be obtained in the second order theory by a linear nonadapted filtering of the standard vacuum noise uniquely defined by the canonical creation and annihilation operators on the spectrum of the input-output pair.

V. P. Belavkin; O. Hirota; R. Hudson

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Reliable Gas Turbine Output: Attaining Temperature Independent Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improvements in gas turbine efficiency, coupled with dropping gas prices, has made gas turbines a popular choice of utilities to supply peaking as well as base load power in the form of combined cycle power plants. Today, because of the gas turbine's compactness, low maintenance, and high levels of availability, it is the major option for future power generation. One inherent disadvantage of gas turbines is the degradation of output as the ambient air temperature increases. This reduction in output during times of peak load create a reliability concern as more gas turbines are added to the electric system. A 10% reduction in gas turbine output, when it comprises only 10% of the electric system, does not cause reliability concerns. A 10% reduction in gas turbine output, when it comprises 50% of the electric system, could create reliability and operational problems. This paper explores the potential for maintaining constant, reliable outputs from gas turbines by cooling ambient air temperatures before the air is used in the compressor section of the gas turbine.

Neeley, J. E.; Patton, S.; Holder, F.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Characteristics on Output of Wind Farms with Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the large number of wind turbines and covering too large area in a large wind farm, wake effects among wind turbines and wind speed time delays will have a greater impact of wind farms models. Taking wind farms with doubly fed induction generator(DFIG) ... Keywords: wind farm, modeling, temporal and spatial characteristics, DFIG, output characteristics

Shupo Bu, Xunwen Su

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

OECD Input-Output Tables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OECD Input-Output Tables OECD Input-Output Tables Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Input-Output Tables Agency/Company /Organization: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Market analysis, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.oecd.org/document/3/0,3343,en_2649_34445_38071427_1_1_1_1,00.html Country: Sweden, Finland, Japan, South Korea, Argentina, Australia, China, Israel, United Kingdom, Portugal, Romania, Greece, Poland, Slovakia, Chile, India, Canada, New Zealand, United States, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Austria, Italy, Netherlands, Ireland, France, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Mexico, Slovenia, South Africa, Turkey, Indonesia, Switzerland, Taiwan, Russia

273

Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage Regulatory Test Exercise: Output Report Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Market Analysis Website: cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/7326/carbo Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carbon-capture-transport-and-storage- Policies: Regulations Regulations: Emissions Mitigation Scheme The Scottish Government published this report to identify regulatory gaps or overlaps in the nation's framework for regulating carbon capture and storage (CCS). The report aims to streamline and better manage CCS regulation. It focuses on evaluating the risks, barriers, information gaps,

274

Maximal output purity and capacity for asymmetric unital qudit channels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider generalizations of depolarizing channels to maps in which the identity channel is replaced by a convex combinations of unitary conjugations. We show that one can construct unital channels of this type for which the input which achieves maximal output purity is unique. We give conditions under which multiplicativity of the maximal p-norm and additivity of the minimal output entropy. We also show that the Holevo capacity need not equal log d - the minimal entropy as one might expect for a convex combination of unitary conjugations. Conversely, we give examples for which this condition holds, but the channel has no evident covariance properties.

Nilanjana Datta; Mary Beth Ruskai

2005-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

275

Identification of Wiener systems with binary-valued output observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is concerned with identification of Wiener systems whose outputs are measured by binary-valued sensors. The system consists of a linear FIR (finite impulse response) subsystem of known order, followed by a nonlinear function with a known parametrization ... Keywords: Binary-valued observations, Identification, Joint identifiability, Parameter estimation, Periodic inputs, Sensor thresholds, Wiener systems

Yanlong Zhao; Le Yi Wang; G. George Yin; Ji-Feng Zhang

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The continuity of the output entropy of positive maps  

SciTech Connect

Global and local continuity conditions for the output von Neumann entropy for positive maps between Banach spaces of trace-class operators in separable Hilbert spaces are obtained. Special attention is paid to completely positive maps: infinite dimensional quantum channels and operations. It is shown that as a result of some specific properties of the von Neumann entropy (as a function on the set of density operators) several results on the output entropy of positive maps can be obtained, which cannot be derived from the general properties of entropy type functions. In particular, it is proved that global continuity of the output entropy of a positive map follows from its finiteness. A characterization of positive linear maps preserving continuity of the entropy (in the following sense: continuity of the entropy on an arbitrary subset of input operators implies continuity of the output entropy on this subset) is obtained. A connection between the local continuity properties of two completely positive complementary maps is considered. Bibliography: 21 titles.

Shirokov, Maxim E [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Asymptotically efficient parameter estimation using quantized output observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper studies identification of systems in which only quantized output observations are available. An identification algorithm for system gains is introduced that employs empirical measures from multiple sensor thresholds and optimizes their convex ... Keywords: CramÚr-Rao bound, Efficient estimator, Quantized observation, System identification

Le Yi Wang; G. George Yin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT Grantham Pang, Chi emitting diodes; tricolor display; audio communication. I. Introduction This paper relates to a tricolor broadcasting through the visible light rays transmitted by the display panel or assembly. Keywords: light

Pang, Grantham

279

Choose best option for enhancing combined-cycle output  

SciTech Connect

This article describes several methods available for boosting the output of gas-turbine-based combined-cycle plants during warm-weather operation. The technology comparisons help choose the option that is most appropriate. Amidst the many advantages of gas-turbine (GT) combined cycles (CC), one drawback is that their achievable output decreases significantly as ambient temperature increases. Reason: The lower density of warm air reduces mass flow through the GT. Unfortunately, hot weather typically corresponds to peak power loads in many areas. Thus, the need to meet peak-load and power-sales contract requirements causes many plant developers to compensate for ambient-temperature-related output loss. The three most common methods of increasing output include: (1) injecting water or steam into the GT, (2) precooling GT inlet air, and/or (3) supplementary firing of the heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). All of these options require significant capital outlays and affect other performance parameters. In addition, they may uniquely impact the operation and/or selection of other components, including boiler feedwater and condensate pumps, valves, steam turbine/generators, condensers, cooling towers, and emissions control systems. Although plant-specific issues will have a significant effect on selecting an option, comparing the performance of different systems based on a theoretical reference plant can be helpful. The comparisons here illustrate the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of the major power augmentation technologies now in use.

Boswell, M.; Tawney, R.; Narula, R.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Deadbeat control of a three-phase inverter with an output LC filter  

SciTech Connect

The discrete-time control of a three-phase inverter with an output LC filter is described based on space vectors. The mathematical model of the inverter-filter system is first obtained by using space vectors to represent three-phase quantities. Deadbeat control laws are derived for no-load and resistive-load cases. Then, a deadbeat control law is obtained for the case when the load draws current of any waveshape from the inverter-filter. It is shown that deadbeat control of output voltage can be achieved in two control steps. The manipulated variable, which is the voltage vector demanded from the inverter, is implemented using the space vector modulation technique. Simulation results for various operating conditions are presented.

Kuekrer, O. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., G. Magosa (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Strategies for OPEC`s pricing and output decisions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines OPEC pricing and output strategies, both to provide an understanding of OPECs unwise price doubling in 1979-80 and also to analyze what strategy might serve it best for the future. We focus on the unavoidable uncertainty regarding the underlying parameters that characterize the world oil market (price elasticities, income growth rates), and the sensitivity of discounted OPEC revenue to changes in these parameters, for various pricing strategies. In 1979-80, OPEC chose a high-price strategy, which could have yielded good results (like many other price-paths) if the market`s underlying parameters had been more favorable. But the price elasticities of demand and non-OPEC supply were much higher than anticipated, so that OPEC did very poorly-not only in absolute terms, but also relative to what it could have achieved if it had set its price more cautiously. We search for a robustly optimal strategy for OPEC in the future, which will serve it well relative to other strategies, regardless of the true parameter values underlying the market (within some plausible range). We conclude that OPEC`s interests will be served best by a policy of moderate output growth, at a rate no faster than that of world income growth. This will require that OPEC slow its rate of output growth since 1985, cutting it at least in half. Slowing its output growth will allow OPEC gradually to regain the market share lost after its disastrous 1979-80 price doubling, but without jeopardizing its revenue, as might a policy of more rapid increases in output. This will yield a consistently good result for OPEC, relative to alternative strategies, over a fairly wide range of demand and supply conditions. 53 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Gately, D. [New York Univ., New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors; Analytical I/O and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coalů (more)

Li, Yu, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Optical device with conical input and output prism faces  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

Brunsden, Barry S. (Chicago, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.  

SciTech Connect

We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

OPEC influence grows with world output in next decade  

SciTech Connect

World crude oil and condensate output will rise to 75 million bopd in 2004, concludes a recently released Petroconsultant study, entitled Worldwide Crude Oil 10-Year Forecast. It also projects that OPEC`s role in supplying demand will simultaneously grow to nearly 50% of total output. In reaching these conclusions, this report analyzed and predicted each of 94 significant producing nations for the 1995--2004 period. Output has been projected separately for the onshore and offshore sectors. Each nation, including the new republics of the former Soviet Union and individual emirates of the United Arab Emirates, is discussed within its regional and global framework; and key aspects of each of the seven major regions have been delineated. The study integrated full-cycle resource analysis, economics, infrastructure, politics, history, consumption levels and patterns, energy balances, and other pertinent data to cover both supply and demand pictures. The entire discovery and production history was used to frame exploration and development maturity. Future discovery potential has been estimated from largely geologic parameters.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A Method for Forecasting Cloud Condensation Nuclei Using Predictions of Aerosol Physical and Chemical Properties from WRF/Chem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model investigations of aerosolľcloud interactions across spatial scales are necessary to advance basic understanding of aerosol impacts on climate and the hydrological cycle. Yet these interactions are complex, involving numerous physical and ...

Daniel Ward; William Cotton

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A Study of the Urban Boundary Layer Using Different Urban Parameterizations and High-Resolution Urban Canopy Parameters with WRF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the last two decades, mesoscale models (MMs) with urban canopy parameterizations have been widely used to study urban boundary layer processes. Different studies show that such parameterizations are sensitive to the urban canopy parameters (...

Francisco Salamanca; Alberto Martilli; Mukul Tewari; Fei Chen

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Current mode instrumentation amplifier with rail-to-rail input and output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Current Mode Instrumentation Amplifier with rail-to-rail input and output is presented. It is based on constant gm input stages, and cascode output stages. Although this CMIA structure has a good Input Common Mode Voltage, it suffers from a poor output ... Keywords: analog integrated circuits, current mode instrumentation amplifier, rail-to-rail input and output

Filipe Costa Beber Vieira; Cesar Augusto Prior; Cesar Ramos Rodrigues; Leonardo Perin; Joao Baptista dos Santos Martins

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Brief paper: Speed regulation with measured output feedback in the control of heavy haul trains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach of output regulation with measurement feedback is proposed for the control of heavy haul trains. The objective is to regulate all cars' speeds to a prescribed speed profile. The output regulation problem of nonlinear systems with measurement ... Keywords: ECP braking system, Heavy haul trains, Measured output feedback, Output regulation, Quadratic programming

X. Zhuan; X. Xia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

SciTech Connect

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

293

Method and system for managing an electrical output of a turbogenerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system and method manages an electrical output of a turbogenerator in accordance with multiple modes. In a first mode, a direct current (DC) bus receives power from a turbogenerator output via a rectifier where turbogenerator revolutions per unit time (e.g., revolutions per minute (RPM)) or an electrical output level of a turbogenerator output meet or exceed a minimum threshold. In a second mode, if the turbogenerator revolutions per unit time or electrical output level of a turbogenerator output are less than the minimum threshold, the electric drive motor or a generator mechanically powered by the engine provides electrical energy to the direct current bus.

Stahlhut, Ronnie Dean (Bettendorf, IA); Vuk, Carl Thomas (Denver, IA)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

294

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 -...

295

New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors New Research Center to Increase Safety and Power Output of U.S. Nuclear Reactors May 3, 2011 - 12:00am...

296

A H-infinity Fault Detection and Diagnosis Scheme for Discrete Nonlinear System Using Output Probability Density Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a H-infinity fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) scheme for a class of discrete nonlinear system fault using output probability density estimation is presented. Unlike classical FDD problems, the measured output of the system is viewed as a stochastic process and its square root probability density function (PDF) is modeled with B-spline functions, which leads to a deterministic space-time dynamic model including nonlinearities, uncertainties. A weighting mean value is given as an integral function of the square root PDF along space direction, which leads a function only about time and can be used to construct residual signal. Thus, the classical nonlinear filter approach can be used to detect and diagnose the fault in system. A feasible detection criterion is obtained at first, and a new H-infinity adaptive fault diagnosis algorithm is further investigated to estimate the fault. Simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

Zhang Yumin; Lum, Kai-Yew [Temasek Laboratories, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117508 (Singapore); Wang Qingguo [Depa. Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

297

Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore R. J. BARTHELMIE,*,1 S. C. PRYOR,*,1 S. T. FRANDSEN,1 K. S. HANSEN,# J. G. SCHEPERS,@  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantifying the Impact of Wind Turbine Wakes on Power Output at Offshore Wind Farms R. J. This research is focused on improving the understanding of, and modeling of, wind turbine wakes in order to make, the atmosphere, and neighboring turbines to accurately predict wind farm power output and thus optimize wind farm

Pryor, Sara C.

298

Robust Controller Design for Simultaneous Control of Throttle Pressure and Megawatt Output in a Power Plant Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently proposed (( and (-synthesis controller design methodologies permit the design of high-performance control systems for plants that are difficult to model accurately. The work summarized in this report assesses the benefits of the (( and (-synthesis controllers for the simultaneous control of throttle pressure and megawatt output in a power plant unit, while also serving to clarify the (( and (-synthesis design methods by an example.

1999-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

299

Evolutionary programming versus artificial immune system in evolving neural network for grid-connected photovoltaic system output prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the evolutionary neural networks for the prediction of energy output from a grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system. Two evolutionary neural network (ENN) models have been proposed using evolutionary programming and artificial immune ... Keywords: artificial immune system (AIS) and prediction, artificial neural network (ANN), correlation coefficient (R), evolutionary programming (EP), grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPV), multi-layer feedforward neural network (MLFNN), photovoltaic (PV)

Shahril Irwan Sulaiman; Titik Khawa Abdul Rahman; Ismail Musirin; Sulaiman Shaari

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Simulating the IHOP_2002 Fair-Weather CBL with the WRF-ARWľNoah Modeling System. Part II: Structures from a Few Kilometers to 100 km across  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fair-weather data along the MayľJune 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) eastern track and the nearby Argonne Boundary Layer Experiments (ABLE) facility in southeast Kansas are compared to numerical simulations to gain insight into how the ...

Margaret A. LeMone; Fei Chen; Mukul Tewari; Jimy Dudhia; Bart Geerts; Qun Miao; Richard L. Coulter; Robert L. Grossman

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Robust Characterization of Model Physics Uncertainty for Simulations of Deep Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study explores the functional relationship between model physics parameters and model output variables for the purpose of 1) characterizing the sensitivity of the simulation output to the model formulation and 2) understanding model ...

Derek J. Posselt; Tomislava Vukicevic

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2: August 13, 2: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Fact #482: August 13, 2007 Refinery Output by World Region on AddThis.com... Fact #482: August 13, 2007

303

Fail safe controllable output improved version of the Electromechanical battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fail safe controllable output improved version of the electromechanical battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mechanical means are provided to control the voltages induced in the windings of a generator/motor. In one embodiment, a lever is used to withdraw or insert the entire stator windings from the cavity where the rotating field exists. In another embodiment, voltage control and/or switching off of the output is achievable with a variable-coupling generator/motor. A stator is made up of two concentric layers of windings, with a larger number of turns on the inner layer of windings than the outer layer of windings. The windings are to be connected in series electrically, that is, their voltages add vectorially. The mechanical arrangement is such that one or both of the windings can be rotated with respect to the other winding about their common central axis. Another improved design for the stator assembly of electromechanical batteries provides knife switch contacts that are in electrical contact with the stator windings. The operation of this embodiment depends on the fact that an abnormally large torque will be exerted on the stator structure during any short-circuit condition. 4 figs.

Post, R.F.

1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

305

Updated Eastern Interconnect Wind Power Output and Forecasts for ERGIS: July 2012  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AWS Truepower, LLC (AWST) was retained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to update wind resource, plant output, and wind power forecasts originally produced by the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). The new data set was to incorporate AWST's updated 200-m wind speed map, additional tall towers that were not included in the original study, and new turbine power curves. Additionally, a primary objective of this new study was to employ new data synthesis techniques developed for the PJM Renewable Integration Study (PRIS) to eliminate diurnal discontinuities resulting from the assimilation of observations into mesoscale model runs. The updated data set covers the same geographic area, 10-minute time resolution, and 2004?2006 study period for the same onshore and offshore (Great Lakes and Atlantic coast) sites as the original EWITS data set.

Pennock, K.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Updated Eastern Interconnect Wind Power Output and Forecasts for ERGIS: July 2012  

SciTech Connect

AWS Truepower, LLC (AWST) was retained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to update wind resource, plant output, and wind power forecasts originally produced by the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). The new data set was to incorporate AWST's updated 200-m wind speed map, additional tall towers that were not included in the original study, and new turbine power curves. Additionally, a primary objective of this new study was to employ new data synthesis techniques developed for the PJM Renewable Integration Study (PRIS) to eliminate diurnal discontinuities resulting from the assimilation of observations into mesoscale model runs. The updated data set covers the same geographic area, 10-minute time resolution, and 2004?2006 study period for the same onshore and offshore (Great Lakes and Atlantic coast) sites as the original EWITS data set.

Pennock, K.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Trade Linkages and Output-Multiplier Effects: A Structural VAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper develops a structural VAR model to measure how a shock to one country can affect the GDP of other countries. It uses trade linkages to estimate the multiplier ...

Forbes, Kristin J.

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

308

New results in forecasting of photovoltaic systems output based on solar radiation forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate short term forecasting of photovoltaic (PV) systems output has a great significance for fast development of PV parks in South-East Europe

Laurentiu Fara

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Pattern-Based Evaluation of Coupled Meteorological and Air Quality Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pattern-based model evaluation technique is proposed and demonstrated for air quality models (AQMs) driven by meteorological model (MM) output. The evaluation technique is applied directly to the MM output; however, it is ultimately used ...

Scott Beaver; Saffet Tanrikulu; Ahmet Palazoglu; Angadh Singh; Su-Tzai Soong; Yiqin Jia; Cuong Tran; Bruce Ainslie; Douw G. Steyn

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

SAFIRE user's manual  

SciTech Connect

Analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) electric-power plants have been developed and incorporated into the SAFIRE code. SAFIRE denotes systems analysis for ICF reactor economics. This volume, Volume 2, describes the subroutines, COMMON blocks, file handling, and input and output variables of the code. (WRF)

Glasgow, B.B.; Meier, W.R.

1987-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

311

An interdependency index for the outputs of uncertain systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of mechanical systems with uncertain parameters is gaining increasing interest in the field of system analysis to provide an expedient model for the prediction of the system behavior. Making use of the Transformation Method, the uncertain parameters ... Keywords: Convex hull, Dependency, Fuzzy number, Fuzzy sets, Interdependency, Tight envelope, Transformation method

O. Giannini; M. Hanss

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Brief paper: Output feedback strict passivity of discrete-time nonlinear systems and adaptive control system design with a PFC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a passivity-based adaptive output feedback control for discrete-time nonlinear systems is considered. Output Feedback Strictly Passive (OFSP) conditions in order to design a stable adaptive output control system will be established. Further, ... Keywords: Adaptive control, Discrete nonlinear systems, Output feedback, Parallel feedforward compensator, Strict passivity

Ikuro Mizumoto; Satoshi Ohdaira; Zenta Iwai

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

ARM: ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

ARSCL: multiple outputs from first Clothiaux algorithms on Vaisala or Belfort ceilometers, Micropulse lidar, and MMCR

Richard Coulter; Kevin Widener; Nitin Bharadwaj; Karen Johnson; Timothy Martin

314

Brief paper: Output tracking of continuous bioreactors through recirculation and by-pass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose to regulate the output of an auto-catalytic bioprocess (a biological process associated with a growth of a micro-organism) by means of a recirculation loop and by-pass. We give conditions on the volume of the reactor and the ... Keywords: Continuous bioreactor, Nonlinear control design, Output regulation, Recirculation loop

JÚr˘me Harmand; Alain Rapaport; FrÚdÚric Mazenc

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimating Solar PV Output Using Modern Space/Time Geostatistics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation describes a project that uses mapping techniques to predict solar output at subhourly resolution at any spatial point, develop a methodology that is applicable to natural resources in general, and demonstrate capability of geostatistical techniques to predict the output of a potential solar plant.

Lee, S. J.; George, R.; Bush, B.

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Brief paper: A multi-regulator sliding mode control strategy for output-constrained systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a multi-regulator control scheme for single-input systems, where the setpoint of a regulated output must be changed under the constraint that a set of minimum-phase outputs remain within prescribed bounds. The strategy is based on ... Keywords: Aircraft engines, Control with constraints, Hybrid systems, Selector systems, Sliding modes

Hanz Richter

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Method for leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery as a function of speed  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a method of leveling the power output of an electromechanical battery during its discharge, while at the same time maximizing its power output into a given load. The method employs the concept of series resonance, employing a capacitor the parameters of which are chosen optimally to achieve the desired near-flatness of power output over any chosen charged-discharged speed ratio. Capacitors are inserted in series with each phase of the windings to introduce capacitative reactances that act to compensate the inductive reactance of these windings. This compensating effect both increases the power that can be drawn from the generator before inductive voltage drops in the windings become dominant and acts to flatten the power output over a chosen speed range. The values of the capacitors are chosen so as to optimally flatten the output of the generator over the chosen speed range.

Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

A method for reducing harmonics in output voltages of a double-connected inverter  

SciTech Connect

A new method for reducing harmonics involved in output voltages of the double-connected inverter is proposed. By adding four auxiliary switching devices and an interphase transformer with secondary winding to the conventional 12-step inverter, output voltages of the proposed circuit can be almost the same waveforms as a conventional 36-step inverter. In this paper, circuit performances and output voltage waveforms are discussed, and the optimum parameters are derived. Then, effects on harmonic reductions can be clarified by theoretical and experimental results, and ratings of system components are investigated.

Masukawa, Shigeo; Iida, Shoji (Tokyo Denki Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Optimization of the optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the optimum condition for maximum optical output in a C-to-C pulsed gas laser (N{sub 2} laser) showed that this condition does not happen when the two capacitances are equal (C{sub 1} = C{sub 2}) as this happens in the ``Doubling circuit`` case, but when the peaking capacitance obtains a critical value. This behavior is attributed to the electric pumping pulse formed by the temporary loading of the peaking capacitor. This electric pumping pulse increases as the peaking capacitor increases. However, for low values of the peaking capacitor the optical output follows the rise of the electric pumping pulse. On the other hand, for higher values of the peaking capacitor than a critical one, a part of the electric energy arrives at the laser channel after the laser output, while the exploitable electric energy decreases causing reduction of the optical output.

Persephonis, P.; Giannetas, V.; Parthenios, J.; Ioannou, A.; Georgiades, C. [Univ. of Patras, Patra (Greece). Dept. of Physics

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Examining the Variability of Wind Power Output in the Regulation Time Frame: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work examines the distribution of changes in wind power for different time scales in the regulation time frame as well as the correlation of changes in power output for individual wind turbines in a wind plant.

Hodge, B. M.; Shedd, S.; Florita, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Reduced-basis output bound methods for parametrized partial differential equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An efficient and reliable method for the prediction of outputs of interest of partial differential equations with affine parameter dependence is presented. To achieve efficiency we employ the reduced-basis method: a weighted ...

Rovas, Dimitrios V. (Dimitrios Vasileios), 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

EIA Energy Efficiency-Table 4e. Gross Output by Selected Industries...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

e Page Last Modified: May 2010 Table 4e. Gross Output1by Selected Industries, 1998, 2002, and 2006 (Billion 2000 Dollars 2) MECS Survey Years NAICS Subsector and Industry 1998 2002...

323

Exploring the Structure of Regional Climate Scenarios by Combining Synoptic and Dynamic Guidance and GCM Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of regional climate scenarios is constructed for two study regions in North America using a combination of GCM output and synopticľdynamical reasoning. The approach begins by describing the structure and components of a climate scenario and ...

James S. Risbey; Peter J. Lamb; Ron L. Miller; Michael C. Morgan; Gerard H. Roe

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Shape control of conditional output probability density functions for linear stochastic systems with random parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a controller design for shaping conditional output probability density functions (pdf) for non-Gaussian dynamic stochastic systems whose coefficients are random and represented by their known pdfs. The moment-generating ...

Aiping Wang; Yongji Wang; Hong Wang

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Optimising maximum power output and minimum entropy generation of Atkinson cycle using mutable smart bees algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is optimising maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multi-objective constraint thermodynamic problem by a new improved artificial bee colony algorithm which utilises 'mutable ...

Mofid Gorji; Ahmad Mozaffari; Sina Mohammadrezaei Noudeh

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Trillion Btu)

327

Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

is well on its way to topping 8 million barrels per day by 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects daily oil output will average 7.3...

328

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies Marissa Hummon 3 rd International Solar Power Integration Workshop October 20-22, 2013 London, UK NREL...

329

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Downscaling Solar Power Output to 4-Seconds for Use in Integration Studies Preprint M. Hummon, A. Weekley, K. Searight, and K. Clark To be presented at the 3rd International...

330

Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Trillion ...

331

On Time-Invariant Purified-Output-Based Discrete Time Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oct 14, 2005 ... On Time-Invariant Purified-Output-Based Discrete Time Control. Aharon Ben-Tal (abental ***at*** ie.technion.ac.il) Stephen Boyd (boyd ***at***á...

332

Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of miniphantom on in-air output ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of miniphantoms on in-air output ratio measurements, i.e., to determine correction factors for in-air output ratio. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate in-air output ratio measurements by using miniphantoms made of various materials (PMMA, graphite, copper, brass, and lead) and with different longitudinal thicknesses or depths (2-30 g/cm{sup 2}) in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV, respectively, and with collimator settings ranging from 3x3 to 40x40 cm{sup 2}. EGSnrc and BEAMnrc (2007) software packages were used. Photon energy spectra corresponding to the collimator settings were obtained from BEAMnrc code simulations on a linear accelerator and were used to quantify the components of in-air output ratio correction factors, i.e., attenuation, mass energy absorption, and phantom scatter correction factors. In-air output ratio correction factors as functions of miniphantom material, miniphantom longitudinal thickness, and collimator setting were calculated and compared to a previous experimental study. Results: The in-air output ratio correction factors increase with collimator opening and miniphantom longitudinal thickness for all the materials and for both energies. At small longitudinal thicknesses, the in-air output ratio correction factors for PMMA and graphite are close to 1. The maximum magnitudes of the in-air output ratio correction factors occur at the largest collimator setting (40x40 cm{sup 2}) and the largest miniphantom longitudinal thickness (30 g/cm{sup 2}): 1.008{+-}0.001 for 6 MV and 1.012{+-}0.001 for 15 MV, respectively. The MC simulations of the in-air output ratio correction factor confirm the previous experimental study. Conclusions: The study has verified that a correction factor for in-air output ratio can be obtained as a product of attenuation correction factor, mass energy absorption correction factor, and phantom scatter correction factor. The correction factors obtained in the present study can be used in studies involving in-air output ratio measurements using miniphantoms.

Li Jun; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Bringing Task and Data Parallelism to Analysis of Climate Model Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a grid. Tools such as GLEAN [4] or DIY [5] provide facilities for data staging and movement in an HPC

334

Dissemination of Climate Model Output to the Public and Commercial Sector  

SciTech Connect

Climate is defined by the Glossary of Meteorology as the mean of atmospheric variables over a period of time ranging from as short as a few months to multiple years and longer. Although the term climate is often used to refer to long-term weather statistics, the broader definition of climate is the time evolution of a system consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Physical, chemical, and biological processes are involved in interactions among the components of the climate system. Vegetation, soil moisture, and glaciers are part of the climate system in addition to the usually considered temperature and precipitation (Pielke, 2008). Climate change refers to any systematic change in the long-term statistics of climate elements (such as temperature, pressure, or winds) sustained over several decades or longer. Climate change can be initiated by external forces, such as cyclical variations in the Earth's solar orbit that are thought to have caused glacial and interglacial periods within the last 2 million years (Milankovitch, 1941). However, a linear response to astronomical forcing does not explain many other observed glacial and interglacial cycles (Petit et al., 1999). It is now understood that climate is influenced by the interaction of solar radiation with atmospheric greenhouse gasses (e.g., carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.), aerosols (airborne particles), and Earth's surface. A significant aspect of climate are the interannual cycles, such as the El Nino La Nina cycle which profoundly affects the weather in North America but is outside the scope of weather forecasts. Some of the most significant advances in understanding climate change have evolved from the recognition of the influence of ocean circulations upon the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007). Human activity can affect the climate system through increasing concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases, air pollution, increasing concentrations of aerosol, and land alteration. A particular concern is that atmospheric levels of CO{sub 2} may be rising faster than at any time in Earth's history, except possibly following rare events like impacts from large extraterrestrial objects (AMS, 2007). Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have increased since the mid-1700s through fossil fuel burning and changes in land use, with more than 80% of this increase occurring since 1900. The increased levels of CO{sub 2} will remain in the atmosphere for hundreds to thousands of years. The complexity of the climate system makes it difficult to predict specific aspects of human-induced climate change, such as exactly how and where changes will occur, and their magnitude. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) was established by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations in 1988. The IPCC was tasked with assessing the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information needed to understand the risk of human-induced climate change, its observed and projected impacts, and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC concluded in its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) that warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and that most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increased in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations (IPCC, 2007).

Robert Stockwell, PhD

2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

335

Modelling Dynamic Constraints in Electricity Markets and the Costs of Uncertain Wind Output  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III that we sub- sume supply technologies in different groups. To be more precise, we distinguish 16 supply technology groups (nuclear, three lignite, four hard coal, two combined cycle gas turbine, three open cycle gas turbine, two oil... shifts between periods. Finally, higher variable costs, incurred if power stations are operated below their optimal rating, are allocated to the locally lowest de- mand. For inflexible power stations like nuclear, combined cycle gas turbines or coal...

Musgens, Felix; Neuhoff, Karsten

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

336

The ERICA IOP 5 Storm. Part II: Sensitivity Tests and Further Diagnosis Based on Model Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper continues the study of the ERICA IOP 5 storm begun in a companion paper. The latter documented the storm development, utilizing both conventional and special observations, and presented the results of a successful simulation of the ...

Richard J. Reed; Georg A. Grell; Ying-Hwa Kuo

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Active-Site Inhibitors of mTOR Target Rapamycin-Resistant Outputs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Active-Site Inhibitors of mTOR Target Rapamycin-Resistant Outputs of mTORC1 and mTORC2 Morris E. (2009) Active-site inhibitors of mTOR target rapamycin-resistant outputs of mTORC1 and mTORC2. PLoS Biol and activated by growth factor stimulation via the canonical phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)!Akt!mTOR pathway

Halazonetis, Thanos

338

Recommended methods for evaluating the benefits of ECUT Program outputs. [Energy Conversion and Utilization  

SciTech Connect

This study was conducted to define and develop techniques that could be used to assess the complete spectrum of positive effects resulting from the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program activities. These techniques could then be applied to measure the benefits from past ECUT outputs. In addition, the impact of future ECUT outputs could be assessed as part of an ongoing monitoring process, after sufficient time has elapsed to allow their impacts to develop.

Levine, L.O.; Winter, C.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A Compact Propagation Delay Model for Deep-Submicron CMOS Gates including Crosstalk  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a compact, fully physical, analytical model for the propagation delay and the output transition time of deep-submicron CMOS gates. The model accounts for crosstalk effects, short-circuit currents, the input-output coupling capacitance and ...

J. L. Rossellˇ; J. Segura

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Evaluation of the potential to upgrade the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 to higher output energies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted output energy of the Sandia Atomic Iodine Laser SAIL-1 is given for various numbers of preamplifier stages and for various small signal gains in each stage. Additional possibilities for further increasing the output energy are given.

Riley, M.E.; Palmer, R.E.

1977-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optimization of the LCLS X-ray FEL output performance in the presence of strong undulator wakefields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimization of the LCLS X-ray FEL output performance in the presence of strong undulator wakefields

Reiche, S; Emma, P; Fawley, W M; Huang, Z; Nuhn, H D; Stupakov, G V

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Existing Capacity by Producer Type, 2012 (Megawatts) 4. Existing Capacity by Producer Type, 2012 (Megawatts) Producer Type Number of Generators Generator Nameplate Capacity Net Summer Capacity Net Winter Capacity Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities 9,624 680,592 621,785 644,358 Independent Power Producers, Non-Combined Heat and Power Plants 6,148 412,045 374,964 389,349 Independent Power Producers, Combined Heat and Power Plants 609 39,916 35,266 38,023 Total 16,381 1,132,554 1,032,015 1,071,729 Commercial and Industrial Sectors Commercial Sector 962 3,610 3,223 3,349 Industrial Sector 1,680 31,832 27,795 29,381 Total 2,642 35,442 31,018 32,730 All Sectors Total 19,023 1,167,995 1,063,033 1,104,459 Notes: In 2011, EIA corrected the NAICS codes of several plants which resulted in a net capacity shift from the electric utility sector to the commercial sector.

343

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2012 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 100-199 -- -- -- -- 200-299 -- -- 1.00 1.00 300-399 2.00 -- 4.00 6.00 400-599 14.00 -- 11.00 25.00 600+ -- -- -- -- Grand Total 16.00 -- 16.00 32.00 Sustained Automatic Outage Hours High-Side Voltage (kV) Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 100-199 -- -- -- -- 200-299 -- -- 27.58 27.58 300-399 153.25 -- 15.87 169.12 400-599 3,070.88 -- 258.37 3,329.25 600+ -- -- -- -- Grand Total 3,224.13 -- 301.82 3,525.95 Outage Hours per Outage Incident Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S.

344

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Coal Consumption at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" 6. Coal Consumption at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic",20,52,24,73,83,-12.4 " Pennsylvania",20,52,24,73,83,-12.4 "East North Central",112,197,127,309,331,-6.8 " Illinois",34,45,29,79,66,18.9 " Indiana","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Michigan","w","w","w","w","w","w"

345

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2012" Number of Employees at Underground and Surface Mines by State and Mine Production Range, 2012" ,"Mine Production Range (thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State, Region1","Above 1,000","Above 500","Above 200","Above 100","Above 50","Above 10","Above 0","Zero2","Total Number" "and Mine Type",,"to 1,000","to 500","to 200","to 100","to 50","to 10",,"of Employees" "Alabama",3415,97,655,317,160,224,54,105,5041 " Underground",2981,"-","-","-",36,88,"-",81,3190 " Surface",434,97,655,317,124,136,54,24,1851

346

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011" 8. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011" "(dollars per short ton)" ,2012,,,2011,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",107.73,104.51,106.57,100.17,108.71,102.69,7.6,-3.9,3.8 "Alaska","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w","w" "Arizona","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w","w" "Arkansas","w","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w"

347

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2012" Underground Coal Production by State and Mining Method, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Continuous2","Conventional and","Longwall4","Total" ,,"Other3" "Alabama",139,20,12410,12570 "Arkansas",96,"-","-",96 "Colorado",757,"-",22889,23646 "Illinois",18969,"-",23868,42837 "Indiana",15565,"-","-",15565 "Kentucky Total",56179,2018,"-",58198 " Kentucky (East)",22090,2010,"-",24100 " Kentucky (West)",34089,9,"-",34098 "Maryland",797,"-","-",797 "Montana","-","-",5708,5708

348

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012" Coal Mining Productivity by State, Mine Type, and Union Status, 2012" "(short tons produced per employee hour)" ,"Union",,"Nonunion" "Coal-Producing State and Region1","Underground","Surface","Underground","Surface" "Alabama",1.69,"-",0.66,1.8 "Alaska","-",5.98,"-","-" "Arizona","-",7.38,"-","-" "Arkansas","-","-",0.59,"-" "Colorado",4.9,6.09,6.02,4.45 "Illinois",2.09,"-",5.34,4.7 "Indiana","-","-",3.23,5.41 "Kentucky Total",3.02,2.45,2.36,3.06 " Kentucky (East)","-",2.45,1.64,2.65

349

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Sales Price of U.S. Coal by State and Disposition, 2012" Average Sales Price of U.S. Coal by State and Disposition, 2012" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market1","Captive2","Total3" "Alabama",85.06,"-",106.57 "Alaska","w","-","w" "Arizona","w","-","w" "Arkansas","w","-","w" "Colorado",38.51,43.19,37.54 "Illinois",49.04,54.71,53.08 "Indiana",49.16,54.5,52.01 "Kentucky Total",61.85,73.08,63.12 " Kentucky (East)",75.8,73.08,75.62 " Kentucky (West)",48.6,"-",48.67 "Louisiana","w","-","w"

350

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Emissions from Energy Consumption at 5. Emissions from Energy Consumption at Conventional Power Plants and Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants, by State, 2011 and 2012 (Thousand Metric Tons) Census Division and State Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 34,766 37,698 33 58 39 37 Connecticut 8,987 8,196 7 1 12 6 Maine 3,722 4,351 8 12 7 8 Massachusetts 14,346 16,404 15 22 14 14 New Hampshire 4,295 5,127 2 23 4 5 Rhode Island 3,403 3,595 0.03 0.07 2 3 Vermont 12 24 0.05 0.09 1 1 Middle Atlantic 161,786 171,603 275 370 187 203 New Jersey 16,120 16,917 4 5 14 13 New York 35,669 37,256 31 52 40 43 Pennsylvania 109,997 117,430 240 313 133 147

351

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2012 and 2011" Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Mines by State, 2012 and 2011" "(million short tons)" ,2012,,2011 "Coal-Producing","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Percent Change" "State","Reserves","Percentage","Reserves","Percentage","Recoverable Coal" ,,,,,"Reserves" "Alabama",265,53.63,306,55.39,-13.2 "Alaska","w","w","w","w","w" "Arizona","w","w","w","w","w" "Arkansas","w","w","w","w","w"

352

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: 7. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2003 - December 2012 (Cents per Kilowatthour) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2003 8.72 8.03 5.11 7.54 7.44 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 9.13 2008 11.26 10.36 6.83 10.74 9.74 2009 11.51 10.17 6.81 10.65 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.57 9.83 2011 11.72 10.23 6.82 10.46 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 9.84 2010 January 10.49 9.55 6.50 10.17 9.28 February 10.89 9.89 6.55 10.48 9.47 March 11.11 9.95 6.53 10.28 9.48 April 11.71 9.95 6.55 10.52 9.53 May 11.91 10.15 6.64 10.52 9.72

353

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, 2002 - 2012 1. Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, 2002 - 2012 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Period Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroluem Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) End of Year Stocks 2002 141,714 43,935 1,711 116,952 29,601 328 24,761 14,334 1,383 2003 121,567 45,752 1,484 97,831 28,062 378 23,736 17,691 1,105 2004 106,669 46,750 937 84,917 29,144 627 21,751 17,607 309 2005 101,137 47,414 530 77,457 29,532 374 23,680 17,882 156 2006 140,964 48,216 674 110,277 29,799 456 30,688 18,416 217

354

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by High-Voltage Size and NERC Region, 2012 Sustained Automatic Outage Counts Voltage Region Type Operating (kV) FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. AC 200-299 142 49 14 141 242 49 -- 484 1,121 AC 300-399 -- 88 107 95 46 56 80 165 637 AC 400-599 9 3 -- 22 86 -- -- 125 245 AC 600+ -- -- 6 9 -- -- -- -- 15 AC Total 151 140 127 267 374 105 80 774 2,018 DC 100-199 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- DC 200-299 -- 18 -- -- -- -- -- 5 23 DC 300-399 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- DC 400-499 -- 5 -- -- -- -- -- -- 5 DC 500-599 -- -- -- 5 -- -- -- 17 22 DC 600+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

355

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012" Sales Price of Coal by State and Underground Mining Method, 2012" "(dollars per short ton)" "Coal-Producing State","Continuous1","Conventional and","Longwall3","Total" ,,"Other2" "Alabama","w","-","w",107.73 "Arkansas","w","-","-","w" "Colorado","w","-",37.18,"w" "Illinois",48.08,"-",59.51,54.18 "Indiana",52.94,"-","-",52.94 "Kentucky Total","w","w","-",62.24 " Kentucky (East)","w","w","-",79.23 " Kentucky (West)",50.18,"-","-",50.18

356

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Steam Coal Exports by Customs District" Steam Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",4951041,5566950,6554494,10517991,11407664,-7.8 " Baltimore, MD",1275530,831976,1715016,2107506,2852092,-26.1 " Boston, MA",7,"-",12,7,24,-70.8 " Buffalo, NY",1180,1516,2826,2696,5257,-48.7 " New York City, NY",3088,2664,2168,5752,6106,-5.8 " Norfolk, VA",3578715,4697769,4760354,8276484,8443756,-2 " Ogdensburg, NY",36894,3610,3090,40504,6838,492.3 " Philadelphia, PA",55513,29255,34241,84768,56733,49.4

357

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2012" and Number of Mines by State, County, and Mine Type, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production","Number of Mines","Production" "State and County" "Alabama",8,12570,38,6752,46,19321 " Bibb","-","-",2,119,2,119 " Blount","-","-",2,236,2,236 " Fayette",1,2249,"-","-",1,2249 " Franklin","-","-",2,137,2,137 " Jackson","-","-",3,152,3,152 " Jefferson",3,3589,9,1106,12,4695

358

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Average Tested Heat Rates by Prime Mover and Energy Source, 2007 - 2012 2. Average Tested Heat Rates by Prime Mover and Energy Source, 2007 - 2012 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Prime Mover Coal Petroluem Natural Gas Nuclear 2007 Steam Generator 10,158 10,398 10,440 10,489 Gas Turbine -- 13,217 11,632 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,447 10,175 -- Combined Cycle W 10,970 7,577 -- 2008 Steam Generator 10,138 10,356 10,377 10,452 Gas Turbine -- 13,311 11,576 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,427 9,975 -- Combined Cycle W 10,985 7,642 -- 2009 Steam Generator 10,150 10,349 10,427 10,459 Gas Turbine -- 13,326 11,560 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,428 9,958 -- Combined Cycle W 10,715 7,605 -- 2010 Steam Generator 10,142 10,249 10,416 10,452 Gas Turbine -- 13,386 11,590 -- Internal Combustion -- 10,429 9,917 --

359

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commerical Sector, 2002 - 2012 (continued) 0. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commerical Sector, 2002 - 2012 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2002 0 0 -- -- -- -- 18,671 18,256 3.44 3.52 24.7 3.03 2003 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 18,169 17,827 4.96 5.06 30.5 4.02 2004 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 16,176 15,804 5.93 6.07 21.9 4.58 2005 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 17,600 17,142 8.38 8.60 25.2 6.25 2006 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 21,369 20,819 8.33 8.55 30.7 6.42

360

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3.A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Independent Power Producers, 2002 - 2012 3.A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Independent Power Producers, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2002 395,943 22,241 8,368 378,044 1,763 272,684 18,189 44,466 -1,309 8,612 1,149,001 2003 452,433 35,818 7,949 380,337 2,404 304,904 21,890 46,060 -1,003 8,088 1,258,879 2004 443,547 33,574 7,410 427,510 3,194 312,846 19,518 48,636 -962 7,856 1,303,129 2005 507,199 37,096 9,664 445,625 3,767 345,690 21,486 51,708 -1,174 6,285 1,427,346 2006 498,316 10,396 8,409 452,329 4,223 361,877 24,390 59,345 -1,277 6,412 1,424,421

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Consumption of Coal for Electricity Generation by State by Sector, 9. Consumption of Coal for Electricity Generation by State by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 1,787 2,998 -40% 520 898 1,257 2,087 0 0 10 12 Connecticut 297 317 -6.5% 0 0 297 317 0 0 0 0 Maine 11 14 -18% 0 0 6 7 0 0 5 6 Massachusetts 959 1,769 -46% 0 0 954 1,763 0 0 5 6 New Hampshire 520 898 -42% 520 898 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 44,000 53,658 -18% 6 16 43,734 53,052 4 1 256 589

362

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers 4. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector 2002 through 2012 (Cents per kilowatthour) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Other Total Total Electric Industry 2002 8.44 7.89 4.88 N/A 6.75 7.20 2003 8.72 8.03 5.11 7.54 N/A 7.44 2004 8.95 8.17 5.25 7.18 N/A 7.61 2005 9.45 8.67 5.73 8.57 N/A 8.14 2006 10.40 9.46 6.16 9.54 N/A 8.90 2007 10.65 9.65 6.39 9.70 N/A 9.13 2008 11.26 10.36 6.83 10.74 N/A 9.74 2009 11.51 10.17 6.81 10.65 N/A 9.82 2010 11.54 10.19 6.77 10.57 N/A 9.83 2011 11.72 10.23 6.82 10.46 N/A 9.90 2012 11.88 10.09 6.67 10.21 N/A 9.84 Full-Service Providers 2002 8.40 7.77 4.78 N/A 6.65 7.13 2003 8.68 7.89 5.01 6.82 N/A 7.38

363

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports" Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",65.1,63.67,73.81,64.48,78.9,-18.3 " Canada*",59.34,55.22,63.02,57.57,73.63,-21.8 " Dominican Republic",78.47,74.41,73.89,75.4,76.61,-1.6 " Honduras","-",54.58,54.43,54.58,54.43,0.3 " Jamaica",480,54.43,"-",54.72,55.42,-1.3 " Mexico",69.42,73.33,82.64,70.83,86.44,-18.1 " Other**",80.33,389.3,70.37,82.45,76.1,8.3

364

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2012" Coal Production by Coalbed Thickness and Mine Type, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal Thickness (inches)","Underground","Surface","Total" "Under 7","-",17,17 "7 - Under 13","-",2108,2108 "13 - Under 19",429,6688,7117 "19 - Under 25",111,14107,14217 "25 - Under 31",4147,12913,17060 "31 - Under 37",15128,19022,34150 "37 - Under 43",23868,17285,41153 "43 - Under 49",26035,15597,41632 "49 - Under 55",18909,22544,41453 "55 - Under 61",36946,11285,48231 "61 - Under 67",43146,15074,58220 "67 - Under 73",40983,8783,49766 "73 - Under 79",32914,10193,43107 "79 - Under 85",27011,3554,30565

365

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors 3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Factor (Pounds of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Bituminous Coal BIT Source: 1 205.30000 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO Source: 1 161.38600 Geothermal GEO Estimate from EIA, Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting 16.59983 Jet Fuel JF Source: 1 156.25800 Kerosene KER Source: 1 159.53500 Lignite Coal LIG Source: 1 215.40000 Municipal Solid Waste MSW Source: 1 (including footnote 2 within source) 91.90000 Natural Gas NG Source: 1 117.08000 Petroleum Coke PC Source: 1 225.13000 Propane Gas PG Sources: 1 139.17800 Residual Fuel Oil RFO Source: 1 173.90600 Synthetic Coal SC Assumed to have the emissions similar to Bituminous Coal. 205.30000

366

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Imports by Customs District" Coal Imports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",469878,331008,156004,800886,350124,128.7 " Baltimore, MD","-","-",106118,"-",154318,"-" " Boston, MA",373985,154438,"-",528423,51185,"NM" " Buffalo, NY",44,"-","-",44,"-","-" " New York City, NY",1373,1402,487,2775,507,447.3 " Norfolk, VA","-",68891,"-",68891,35856,92.1 " Ogdensburg, NY","-",1,12,1,12,-91.7

367

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Exports" U.S. Coke Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",162796,79217,201795,242013,340944,-29 " Canada*",73859,17837,112348,91696,161596,-43.3 " Mexico",88535,60517,86721,149052,176163,-15.4 " Other**",402,863,2726,1265,3185,-60.3 "South America Total",223,217,591,440,1158,-62 " Other**",223,217,591,440,1158,-62 "Europe Total",48972,59197,"-",108169,6,"NM" " Other**",347,11743,"-",12090,"-","-"

368

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. U.S. Coal Stocks, 2007 - 2013" 7. U.S. Coal Stocks, 2007 - 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Coal Consumers" "Last Day of Quarter","Electric","Coke","Other","Commercial","Total","Coal Producers","Total" ,"Power","Plants","Industrial2","and",,"and" ,"Sector1",,,"Institutional Users",,"Distributors" 2007 " March 31",141389,2444,5756,"-",149588,34007,183595 " June 30",154812,2364,5672,"-",162849,32484,195333 " September 30",142666,1972,5811,"-",150448,30090,180538 " December 31",151221,1936,5624,"-",158781,33977,192758

369

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Unit of Measure Equivalents 5. Unit of Measure Equivalents Unit Equivalent Kilowatt (kW) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watts Megawatt (MW) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watts Gigawatt (GW) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watts Terawatt (TW) 1,000,000,000,000 (One Trillion) Watts Gigawatt 1,000,000 (One Million) Kilowatts Thousand Gigawatts 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Kilowatts Kilowatthours (kWh) 1,000 (One Thousand) Watthours Megawatthours (MWh) 1,000,000 (One Million) Watthours Gigawatthours (GWh) 1,000,000,000 (One Billion) Watthours Terawatthours (TWh) 1,000,000,000,000 (One Trillion) Watthours Gigawatthours 1,000,000 (One Million) Kilowatthours Thousand Gigawatthours 1,000,000,000(One Billion Kilowatthours U.S. Dollar 1,000 (One Thousand) Mills U.S. Cent 10 (Ten) Mills Barrel of Oil 42 Gallons

370

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 (continued) 6. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2002 75,711 2,677 0.63 17.68 4.98 126.0 1,680,518 1,634,734 3.68 3.78 72.3 1.53 2003 89,618 3,165 0.74 20.94 5.51 124.0 1,486,088 1,439,513 5.59 5.77 81.6 1.74 2004 107,985 3,817 0.89 25.15 5.10 92.0 1,542,746 1,499,933 6.15 6.33 82.9 1.87 2005 102,450 3,632 1.29 36.31 5.16 87.9 1,835,221 1,780,721 8.32 8.57 83.4 2.38

371

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: 2 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, by State, 2012 and 2011 Census Division and State Coal (Thousand Tons) Petroleum Liquids (Thousand Barrels) Petroleum Coke (Thousand Tons) December 2012 December 2011 Percentage Change December 2012 December 2011 Percentage Change December 2012 December 2011 Percentage Change New England 1,030 1,389 -26% 2,483 2,680 -7.3% 0 0 -- Connecticut W W W 1,300 954 36% 0 0 -- Maine 0 0 -- W W W 0 0 -- Massachusetts W 675 W 837 990 -15% 0 0 -- New Hampshire W W W W W W 0 0 -- Rhode Island 0 0 -- W W W 0 0 -- Vermont 0 0 -- 51 49 3.0% 0 0 -- Middle Atlantic 7,553 7,800 -3.2% 5,496 6,591 -17% W W W New Jersey 926 871 6.3% 1,084 1,113 -2.6% 0 0 --

372

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Coal Receipts at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" 0. Coal Receipts at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic",25,54,32,79,90,-12 " Pennsylvania",25,54,32,79,90,-12 "East North Central",115,183,117,298,301,-0.9 " Illinois",31,42,28,73,67,8.1 " Indiana","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Michigan","w","w","w","w","w","w"

373

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Receipts at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" Coal Receipts at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "New England","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Maine","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Massachusetts","w","w","w","w","w","w" "Middle Atlantic",627,587,637,1214,1254,-3.1 " New York",214,178,194,392,377,4

374

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2012" Major U.S. Coal Mines, 2012" "Rank","Mine Name / Company","Mine Type","State","Production (short tons)" 1,"North Antelope Rochelle Mine / Peabody Powder River Mining Ll","Surface","Wyoming",107639188 2,"Black Thunder / Thunder Basin Coal Company Llc","Surface","Wyoming",93082919 3,"Cordero Mine / Cordero Mining Llc","Surface","Wyoming",39204736 4,"Antelope Coal Mine / Antelope Coal Llc","Surface","Wyoming",34316314 5,"Belle Ayr Mine / Alpha Coal West, Inc.","Surface","Wyoming",24227846 6,"Eagle Butte Mine / Alpha Coal West, Inc.","Surface","Wyoming",22466733

375

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 835,481 553,390 241,892 3,953 36,243 2003 1,089,307 658,868 380,378 5,358 44,702 2004 1,031,954 651,712 350,093 4,544 25,606 2005 1,035,045 618,811 387,355 3,469 25,410 2006 459,392 335,130 105,312 1,963 16,987 2007 512,423 355,999 139,977 1,505 14,942 2008 332,367 242,379 79,816 957 9,215 2009 266,508 196,346 59,277 1,101 9,784 2010 244,114 188,987 49,042 970 5,115 2011 163,954 125,755 33,166 801 4,233 2012 134,956 105,179 24,081 1,618 4,078 2010 January 33,737 26,715 6,282 100 639

376

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Total Capacity of Distributed and Dispersed Generators by Technology Type, 9. Total Capacity of Distributed and Dispersed Generators by Technology Type, 2005 through 2012 Capacity (MW) Year Internal Combustion Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Hydro Wind Photovoltaic Storage Other Wind and Other Total Number of Generators Distributed Generators 2005 4,025.0 1,917.0 1,830.0 999.0 -- -- -- -- 995.0 9,766.0 17,371 2006 3,646.0 1,298.0 2,582.0 806.0 -- -- -- -- 1,081.0 9,411.0 5,044 2007 4,624.0 1,990.0 3,596.0 1,051.0 -- -- -- -- 1,441.0 12,702.0 7,103 2008 5,112.0 1,949.0 3,060.0 1,154.0 -- -- -- -- 1,588.0 12,863.0 9,591 2009 4,339.0 4,147.0 4,621.0 1,166.0 -- -- -- -- 1,729.0 16,002.0 13,006 2010 886.8 186.0 109.9 97.4 98.9 236.3 -- 372.7 -- 1,988.0 15,630

377

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 605,054 10,659 129,947 469 463,980 2003 519,294 16,545 139,852 437 362,460 2004 344,134 19,973 130,248 168 193,745 2005 355,250 27,373 138,407 207 189,263 2006 350,074 27,455 135,546 269 186,803 2007 353,025 31,568 132,953 284 188,220 2008 338,786 29,150 130,122 287 179,227 2009 320,444 29,565 130,894 274 159,712 2010 349,530 40,167 137,072 274 172,016 2011 347,623 35,474 130,108 482 181,559 2012 390,342 32,723 138,217 478 218,924 2010 January 29,578 3,731 11,954 23 13,870

378

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2007 - 2013" U.S. Coal Exports and Imports, 2007 - 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,"January - March",,"April - June",,"July - September",,"October - December",,"Total" "Year","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports","Exports","Imports" 2007,11139,8786,14702,8405,16198,10559,17124,8597,59163,36347 2008,15802,7640,23069,8982,20321,8485,22329,9101,81519,34208 2009,13335,6325,12951,5426,15159,5441,17653,5447,59097,22639 2010,17807,4803,21965,5058,21074,4680,20870,4811,81716,19353 2011,26617,3381,26987,3419,25976,3588,27679,2700,107259,13088 2012,28642,2022,37534,2329,31563,2415,28006,2394,125746,9159

379

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Consumption of Petroleum Coke for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 1. Consumption of Petroleum Coke for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 56 121 -54% 0 0 0 94 0 0 56 27

380

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors 2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Cyclone Boiler Fluidized Bed Boiler Opposed Firing Boiler Spreader Stoker Boiler Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Dry-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Agricultural Byproducts AB Source: 1 Lbs per ton 1.20 1.20 1.20 N/A 1.20 Blast Furnace Gas BFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); EIA estimates Lbs per MMCF 15.40 15.40 15.40 N/A 15.40 Bituminous Coal BIT Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 33.00 5.00 12.00 31.00 11.00 Black Liquor BLQ Source: 1 Lbs per ton ** 1.50 1.50 1.50 N/A 1.50

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2.1. Number of Ultimate Customers Served by Sector, by Provider, 2.1. Number of Ultimate Customers Served by Sector, by Provider, 2002 through 2012 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Other Total Total Electric Industry 2002 116,622,037 15,333,700 601,744 N/A 1,066,554 133,624,035 2003 117,280,481 16,549,519 713,221 1,127 N/A 134,544,348 2004 118,763,768 16,606,783 747,600 1,025 N/A 136,119,176 2005 120,760,839 16,871,940 733,862 518 N/A 138,367,159 2006 122,471,071 17,172,499 759,604 791 N/A 140,403,965 2007 123,949,916 17,377,219 793,767 750 N/A 142,121,652 2008 124,937,469 17,562,726 774,713 727 N/A 143,275,635 2009 125,177,175 17,561,661 757,519 705 N/A 143,497,060 2010 125,717,935 17,674,338 747,746 239 N/A 144,140,258 2011 126,143,072 17,638,062 727,920 92 N/A 144,509,146

382

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports" Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",240.59,241.38,218.4,240.85,225.8,6.7 " Canada*",147.49,330.47,243.04,183.08,286.56,-36.1 " Mexico",316.57,211.63,189.12,273.97,171.71,59.6 " Other**",612.42,485.63,134.48,525.92,135.04,289.5 "South America Total",140.65,156.15,322.7,148.29,250.36,-40.8 " Other**",140.65,156.15,322.7,148.29,250.36,-40.8 "Europe Total",259.26,255.24,"-",257.06,427.83,-39.9

383

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Demand-Side Management Program Annual Effects by Program 2. Demand-Side Management Program Annual Effects by Program Category, by Sector, 2002 through 2012 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2002 15,284 24,803 10,242 -- 50,328 2003 12,914 24,758 10,031 551 48,254 2004 17,185 24,290 11,137 50 52,663 2005 18,894 28,073 11,986 47 59,000 2006 21,150 28,720 13,155 50 63,076 2007 22,772 30,359 14,038 108 67,278 2008 25,396 34,634 14,766 75 74,871 2009 27,395 34,831 14,610 76 76,912 2010 32,150 37,416 17,259 89 86,914 2011 46,790 50,732 23,061 76 120,659 2012 54,516 58,894 25,023 92 138,525 Energy Efficiency - Actual Peak Load Reduction (MW) 2002 5,300 5,389 2,768 -- 13,457 2003 5,909 4,911 2,671 94 13,585

384

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Total (All Sectors), 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2002 1,933,130 78,701 15,867 691,006 11,463 780,064 264,329 79,109 -8,743 13,527 3,858,452 2003 1,973,737 102,734 16,672 649,908 15,600 763,733 275,806 79,487 -8,535 14,045 3,883,185 2004 1,978,301 100,391 20,754 710,100 15,252 788,528 268,417 83,067 -8,488 14,232 3,970,555 2005 2,012,873 99,840 22,385 760,960 13,464 781,986 270,321 87,329 -6,558 12,821 4,055,423 2006 1,990,511 44,460 19,706 816,441 14,177 787,219 289,246 96,525 -6,558 12,974 4,064,702

385

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, 8. Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State, 2012 and 2011 (Million Kilowatthours) Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Census Division and State Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 47,208 47,481 44,864 45,018 27,818 27,927 566 569 120,456 120,995 Connecticut 12,758 12,919 12,976 13,087 3,566 3,668 193 185 29,492 29,859 Maine 4,481 4,382 4,053 4,018 3,027 3,016 0 0 11,561 11,415 Massachusetts 20,313 20,473 17,723 17,767 16,927 16,974 350 357 55,313 55,570 New Hampshire 4,439 4,454 4,478 4,478 1,953 1,936 0 0 10,870 10,869 Rhode Island 3,121 3,129 3,640 3,660 923 916 24 27 7,708 7,732

386

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

C. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Fossil Fuels and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) C. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Fossil Fuels and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Other Natural Gas Coal Petroleum Coke Petroleum Liquids Other Gases Total Fossil Fuels Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 12,190.5 11,593.8 1,090.0 1,058.9 876.4 830.1 2,546.1 2,755.5 0.0 0.0 7,916.1 7,915.3 0.0 0.0 24,619.1 24,153.6 Connecticut 2,513.4 2,447.7 458.1 432.7 61.0 44.7 389.1 564.4 0.0 0.0 3,186.1 3,185.0 0.0 0.0 6,607.7 6,674.5 Maine 1,250.0 1,250.0 306.0 302.2 119.0 93.0 85.0 85.0 0.0 0.0 1,004.9 1,007.2 0.0 0.0 2,764.9 2,737.4

387

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" 0. U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" "(thousand short tons)" "NAICS Code","June 30 2013","March 31 2013","June 30 2012","Percent Change" ,,,,"(June 30)" ,,,,"2013 versus 2012" "311 Food Manufacturing",875,926,1015,-13.9 "312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg.",26,17,19,35.8 "313 Textile Mills",22,22,25,-13.9 "315 Apparel Manufacturing","w","w","w","w" "321 Wood Product Manufacturing","w","w","w","w" "322 Paper Manufacturing",570,583,743,-23.3 "324 Petroleum and Coal Products*",127,113,156,-18.7

388

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012" Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing U.S. Mines by Mine Production Range and Mine Type, 2012" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground",,"Surface",,"Total" "Mine Production Range","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery","Recoverable Coal","Average Recovery" "(thousand short tons)","Reserves","Percentage","Reserves","Percentage","Reserves","Percentage" "Over 1,000",4874,57.96,11153,91.28,16028,81.15 "Over 500 to 1,000",531,47.14,226,81.9,757,57.49 "Over 200 to 500",604,52.72,333,69.16,938,58.57

389

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: 4. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Commercial Sector by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Middle Atlantic 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

390

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Average Cost of Petroleum Liquids Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 8. Average Cost of Petroleum Liquids Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Dollars per MMBtu) Census Division and State Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 18.64 W W 21.43 21.12 18.47 W Connecticut W 21.91 W 23.87 NM W 21.93 Maine W W W -- NM W W Massachusetts 17.17 19.76 -13% 17.45 NM 17.16 19.66 New Hampshire 23.23 W W 23.23 19.90 -- W Rhode Island -- W W -- NM -- W Vermont 24.11 NM NM 24.11 NM -- -- Middle Atlantic W 20.15 W 21.01 19.21 W 20.66 New Jersey 19.77 18.36 7.7% -- NM 19.77 20.28 New York W 19.66 W 21.01 20.00 W 19.36 Pennsylvania 21.84 22.19 -1.6% -- NM 21.84 22.19

391

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Productive Capacity of Coal Mines by State, 2012 and 2011" Productive Capacity of Coal Mines by State, 2012 and 2011" "(thousand short tons)" ,2012,,,2011,,,"Percent Change" "Coal-Producing","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total","Underground","Surface","Total" "State" "Alabama",14594,7967,22561,16102,8911,25013,-9.4,-10.6,-9.8 "Alaska","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w","w" "Arizona","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w","w" "Arkansas","w","-","w","w","-","w","w","-","w"

392

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2007 - 2013" Quantity and Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports by Origin, 2007 - 2013" "(thousand short tons and dollars per short ton)" "Year and Quarter","Australia","Canada","Colombia","Indonesia","China","Venezuela","Other","Total" ,,,,,,,"Countries" 2007,66,1967,26864,3663,50,3425,311,36347 2008,149,2027,26262,3374,45,2312,39,34208 2009,152,1288,17787,2084,9,1297,21,22639 2010,380,1767,14584,1904,53,582,83,19353 2011,62,1680,9500,856,22,779,188,13088 2012 " January - March","-",260,1594,59,7,80,22,2022 " April - June","-",281,1728,49,21,170,80,2329 " July - September","-",297,1762,266,39,"-",51,2415

393

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Sales Price of Coal by State, County, and Number of Mines, 2012" Average Sales Price of Coal by State, County, and Number of Mines, 2012" "Coal-Producing State and County","Number of Mines","Sales","Average Sales Price" ,,"(thousand short tons)","(dollars per short ton)" "Alabama",39,19021,106.57 " Bibb",1,"w","w" " Blount",2,"w","w" " Fayette",1,"w","w" " Franklin",1,"w","w" " Jackson",2,"w","w" " Jefferson",11,4298,146.04 " Marion",1,"w","w" " Tuscaloosa",7,8599,111.55 " Walker",11,2370,81.88

394

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Coal Stocks at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" 2. Coal Stocks at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" "(thousand short tons)" "Census Division","June 30 2013","March 31 2013","June 30 2012","Percent Change" "and State",,,,"(June 30)" ,,,,"2013 versus 2012" "Middle Atlantic",62,58,56,10.9 " Pennsylvania",62,58,56,10.9 "East North Central",168,171,197,-14.7 " Illinois","w","w","w","w" " Indiana",75,76,75,0.5 " Michigan","w","w","w","w" " Ohio",25,15,19,27 " Wisconsin",5,5,3,59.1 "West North Central",66,75,97,-32.2

395

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Summary Statistics for Coal Refining Plants, 2012 - 2013" 3. Summary Statistics for Coal Refining Plants, 2012 - 2013" "(thousand short tons)" "Year and","Coal Receipts","Average Price of Coal Receipts","Coal Used","Coal Stocks1" "Quarter",,"(dollars per short ton)" 2012 " January - March",2151,27.47,1756,771 " April - June",3844,25.42,3688,825 " July - September",5399,24.32,5286,812 " October - December",4919,24.55,4680,787 " Total",16313,25.06,15410 2013 " January - March",5067,24.6,4989,793 " April - June",4015,25.24,3754,756 " Total",9082,24.88,8744 "1 Reported as of the last day of the quarter." "Note: Average price is based on the cost, insurance, and freight (c.i.f. value). Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding."

396

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Proposed Transmission Capacity Additions by High-Voltage Size, 2013 - 2019 B. Proposed Transmission Capacity Additions by High-Voltage Size, 2013 - 2019 (Circuit Miles of Transmission) Voltage Circuit Miles Type Operating (kV) Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2015 Year 2016 Year 2017 Year 2018 Year 2019 All Years AC 100-199 954 1,222 992 1,047 392 382 176 5,165 AC 200-299 1,003 792 1,398 319 539 427 118 4,596 AC 300-399 4,779 839 1,532 1,527 502 1,650 349 11,178 AC 400-599 399 708 669 643 660 1,151 334 4,564 AC 600+ -- -- 14 -- -- 69 -- 83 AC Total 7,134 3,562 4,606 3,536 2,092 3,679 978 25,586 DC 100-199 2 11 5 -- -- 7 -- 25 DC 200-299 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- DC 300-399 -- -- -- -- 333 -- -- 333 DC 400-599 -- -- 10 -- -- -- -- 10 DC 600+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

397

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Cost of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 9. Average Cost of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Dollars per MMBtu) Census Division and State Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Connecticut -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Maine -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Massachusetts -- -- -- -- -- -- -- New Hampshire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Rhode Island -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Middle Atlantic -- W W -- -- -- W New Jersey -- -- -- -- -- -- -- New York -- W W -- -- -- W Pennsylvania -- -- -- -- -- -- -- East North Central W W W 4.10 4.01 W W

398

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: 5. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Industrial Sector by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 19 0.66 6.9 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 19 0.66 6.9 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

399

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Existing Net Summer Capacity of Other Renewable Sources by Producer Type, 2002 through 2012 (Megawatts) B. Existing Net Summer Capacity of Other Renewable Sources by Producer Type, 2002 through 2012 (Megawatts) Year Wind Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Geothermal Other Biomass Total (Other Renewable Sources) Total (All Sectors) 2002 4,417 397 5,844 2,252 3,800 16,710 2003 5,995 397 5,871 2,133 3,758 18,153 2004 6,456 398 6,182 2,152 3,529 18,717 2005 8,706 411 6,193 2,285 3,609 21,205 2006 11,329 411 6,372 2,274 3,727 24,113 2007 16,515 502 6,704 2,214 4,134 30,069 2008 24,651 536 6,864 2,229 4,186 38,466 2009 34,296 619 6,939 2,382 4,317 48,552 2010 39,135 866 7,037 2,405 4,369 53,811 2011 45,676 1,524 7,077 2,409 4,536 61,221 2012 59,075 3,170 7,508 2,592 4,811 77,155

400

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2012" Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2012" "(million short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery","Recoverable","Average Recovery" "State","Coal Reserves","Percentage","Coal Reserves","Percentage","Coal Reserves","Percentage","Coal Reserves","Percentage" ,"at Producing",,"at Producing",,"at Producing",,"at Producing"

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401

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2012 A. U.S. Transmission Circuit Outages by Type and NERC region, 2012 Outage Type FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 151.00 163.00 127.00 272.00 374.00 105.00 80.00 796.00 2,068.00 Non-Automatic Outages (Operational) 77.00 44.00 97.00 230.00 192.00 27.00 45.00 337.00 1,049.00 Non-Automatic Outages (Planned) 2,650.00 453.00 512.00 2,050.00 2,450.00 369.00 472.00 2,744.00 11,700.00 Circuit Outage Hours Automatic Outages (Sustained) 2,852.28 1,312.97 14,244.87 19,857.23 7,123.70 1,509.51 682.60 24,238.64 71,821.80 Non-Automatic Outages (Operational) 186.87 27.08 67.68 186.08 426.59 3.32 13.96 67.59 979.17 Non-Automatic Outages (Planned) 872.65 710.33 1,222.36 1,095.46 503.01 357.44 105.06 1,105.43 5,971.74

402

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, A. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 21,196 695 18,300 2,087 115 2004 19,587 444 17,308 1,811 24 2005 19,370 560 17,033 1,753 25 2006 19,629 500 17,343 1,761 25 2007 19,576 553 17,116 1,785 122 2008 19,805 509 17,487 1,809 0 2009 19,669 465 17,048 2,155 0 2010 19,437 402 16,802 2,233 0 2011 16,972 388 14,625 1,955 4 2012 16,968 418 14,235 2,304 12 2010 January 1,546 30 1,332 184 0 February 1,384 25 1,215 144 0 March 1,650 36 1,434 180 0 April 1,655 33 1,426 196 0

403

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Consumption of Landfill Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 3. Consumption of Landfill Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 9,595 9,945 -3.5% 0 0 9,074 9,945 520 0 0 0 Connecticut 595 624 -4.6% 0 0 595 624 0 0 0 0 Maine 518 524 -1.0% 0 0 518 524 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 3,603 3,623 -0.6% 0 0 3,603 3,623 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 1,790 1,485 21% 0 0 1,270 1,485 520 0 0 0 Rhode Island 2,409 3,037 -21% 0 0 2,409 3,037 0 0 0 0

404

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Price of Coal Delivered to End Use Sector by Census Division and State, 2012 and 2011" 4. Average Price of Coal Delivered to End Use Sector by Census Division and State, 2012 and 2011" "(dollars per short ton)" ,2012,,,,2011,,,,"Annual Percent Change" "Census Division","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial","Electric","Other","Coke","Commercial" "and State","Power1","Industrial",,"and","Power1","Industrial",,"and","Power1","Industrial",,"and" ,,,,"Institutional",,,,"Institutional",,,,"Institutional" "New England",88.32,165.17,"-","-",87.62,"w","-","-",0.8,"w","-","-"

405

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2007 - 2013" U.S. Coal Consumption by End-Use Sector, 2007 - 2013" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,"Other Industrial",,,"Commercial and Institutional" "Year and","Electric","Coke","CHP2","Non-","Total","CHP4","Non-","Total","Total" "Quarter","Power","Plants",,"CHP3",,,"CHP5" ,"Sector1" 2007 " January - March",257516,5576,5834,8743,14578,547,510,1058,278727 " April - June",246591,5736,5552,8521,14074,426,279,705,267106 " July - September",283556,5678,5546,8180,13725,458,247,705,303665 " October - December",257478,5726,5605,8634,14238,495,563,1058,278500

406

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" 9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Receipts at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "NAICS Code","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "311 Food Manufacturing",51.17,49.59,50.96,50.35,50.94,-1.2 "312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg.",111.56,115.95,113.47,113.49,117.55,-3.5 "313 Textile Mills",115.95,118.96,127.41,117.4,128.07,-8.3 "315 Apparel Manufacturing","w","w","w","w","w","w" "321 Wood Product Manufacturing","w","w","w","w","w","w"

407

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, A. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 136,421 9,168 121,984 3,280 1,989 2004 143,844 11,250 125,848 4,081 2,665 2005 141,899 11,490 123,064 4,797 2,548 2006 160,033 16,617 136,108 6,644 664 2007 166,774 17,442 144,104 4,598 630 2008 195,777 20,465 169,547 5,235 530 2009 206,792 19,583 180,689 5,931 589 2010 218,331 19,975 192,428 5,535 393 2011 232,795 22,086 180,856 29,469 384 2012 256,376 25,193 201,965 26,672 2,545 2010 January 17,531 1,715 15,323 461 32 February 16,189 1,653 14,120 384 33

408

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 . Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Receipts (Thousand Barrels) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Receipts (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per MMBtu) 2002 884,287 0.94 1.25 25.52 120,851 1.64 3.34 20.77 5,607,737 3.56 1.86 2003 986,026 0.97 1.28 26.00 185,567 1.53 4.33 26.78 5,500,704 5.39 2.28 2004 1,002,032 0.97 1.36 27.42 186,655 1.66 4.29 26.56 5,734,054 5.96 2.48 2005 1,021,437 0.98 1.54 31.20 194,733 1.61 6.44 39.65 6,181,717 8.21 3.25

409

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commercial Sector, 2002 - 2012 9. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commercial Sector, 2002 - 2012 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2002 9,580 399 2.10 50.44 2.59 28.4 503 91 5.38 29.73 0.02 7.5 2003 8,835 372 1.99 47.24 2.43 20.5 248 43 7.00 40.82 0.04 3.1 2004 10,682 451 2.08 49.32 2.48 23.5 3,066 527 6.19 35.96 0.20 26.9 2005 11,081 464 2.57 61.21 2.43 24.2 1,684 289 8.28 48.22 0.17 18.3 2006 12,207 518 2.63 61.95 2.51 27.5 798 137 13.50 78.70 0.17 15.5

410

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coke and Breeze Production at Coke Plants" Coke and Breeze Production at Coke Plants" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East North Central",2303,2314,2365,4617,4754,-2.9 "South Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East South Central","w","w","w","w","w","w" "U.S. Total",4152,4098,4104,8249,8233,0.2 "Coke Total",3954,3841,3863,7795,7721,1

411

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Sales for Resale, 2. Electric Power Industry - Electricity Sales for Resale, 2002 through 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Year Electric Utilities Energy-Only Providers Independent Power Producers Combined Heat and Power U.S. Total 2002 1,838,901 5,757,283 943,531 28,963 8,568,678 2003 1,824,030 3,906,220 1,156,796 33,909 6,920,954 2004 1,923,440 3,756,175 1,053,364 25,996 6,758,975 2005 1,925,710 2,867,048 1,252,796 26,105 6,071,659 2006 1,698,389 2,446,104 1,321,342 27,638 5,493,473 2007 1,603,179 2,476,740 1,368,310 31,165 5,479,394 2008 1,576,976 2,718,661 1,355,017 30,079 5,680,733 2009 1,495,636 2,240,399 1,295,857 33,139 5,065,031 2010 1,541,554 2,946,452 1,404,137 37,068 5,929,211 2011 1,529,434 2,206,981 1,372,306 34,400 5,143,121

412

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel, 2. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2012 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Petroleum as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Petroleum-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Natural Gas Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Natural Gas Electric Utilities 26,732 7,640 28.6 7,224 Independent Power Producers, Non-Combined Heat and Power Plants 18,644 7,867 42.2 6,628 Independent Power Producers, Combined Heat and Power Plants 317 -- -- -- Electric Power Sector Subtotal 45,693 15,507 33.9 13,852 Commercial Sector 443 21 4.8 21

413

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, A. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 6,836 2,125 3,580 2 1,130 2003 6,303 2,554 3,166 2 582 2004 7,677 4,150 2,985 1 541 2005 8,330 4,130 3,746 1 452 2006 7,363 3,619 3,286 1 456 2007 6,036 2,808 2,715 2 512 2008 5,417 2,296 2,704 1 416 2009 4,821 2,761 1,724 1 335 2010 4,994 3,325 1,354 2 313 2011 5,012 3,449 1,277 1 286 2012 3,675 2,105 756 1 812 2010 January 433 283 121 0.17 29 February 404 258 120 0.15 25 March 438 308 108 0.19 23 April 382 253 107 0.12 22 May 415 261 129 0 25

414

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: 5. Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers: Total by End-Use Sector, 2003 - December 2012 (Million Kilowatthours) Period Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Annual Totals 2003 1,275,824 1,198,728 1,012,373 6,810 3,493,734 2004 1,291,982 1,230,425 1,017,850 7,224 3,547,479 2005 1,359,227 1,275,079 1,019,156 7,506 3,660,969 2006 1,351,520 1,299,744 1,011,298 7,358 3,669,919 2007 1,392,241 1,336,315 1,027,832 8,173 3,764,561 2008 1,379,981 1,335,981 1,009,300 7,700 3,732,962 2009 1,364,474 1,307,168 917,442 7,781 3,596,865 2010 1,445,708 1,330,199 970,873 7,712 3,754,493 2011 1,422,801 1,328,057 991,316 7,672 3,749,846 2012 1,374,515 1,327,101 985,714 7,320 3,694,650 2010

415

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division" 3. Coal Carbonized at Coke Plants by Census Division" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East North Central",3051,2997,3092,6048,6156,-1.8 "South Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East South Central","w","w","w","w","w","w" "U.S. Total",5471,5280,5296,10751,10579,1.6 "w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure."

416

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Consumption of Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 4. Consumption of Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 4,041 4,122 -2.0% 0 0 3,838 3,922 203 200 0 0 Connecticut 1,415 1,442 -1.9% 0 0 1,415 1,442 0 0 0 0 Maine 440 445 -1.3% 0 0 237 246 203 200 0 0 Massachusetts 2,017 2,063 -2.2% 0 0 2,017 2,063 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 169 172 -2.0% 0 0 169 172 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

417

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, A. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Summer Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 37,951 55,164 430,396 101,251 54,296 53,267 -- -- 28,825 -- -- 154,459 38,298 55,833 117,032 696,376 2003 40,387 53,936 422,253 98,487 53,566 53,617 -- -- 28,775 -- -- 148,380 39,428 59,282 120,894 696,752 2004 42,243 51,580 419,349 95,300 52,049 50,499 -- -- 29,094 -- -- 153,024 39,383 58,531 121,205 692,908

418

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Sources Annual Totals 2002 0 N/A N/A 29,643 N/A N/A N/A 0 3,825 N/A 2003 0 0 0 27,988 96 36 583 0 4,222 32,926 2004 0 0 0 28,367 120 30 647 0 3,248 32,413 2005 0 0 0 28,271 113 34 585 0 3,195 32,199 2006 0 0 0 28,400 29 35 509 0 2,899 31,872 2007 0 0 0 28,287 27 40 565 0 1,590 30,509 2008 0 0 0 26,641 21 0 800 0 1,676 29,138 2009 0 0 0 25,292 22 0 718 0 1,868 27,901 2010 0 2 0 25,706 15 0 853 0 1,668 28,244

419

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Net Generation from Other Energy Sources 6. Net Generation from Other Energy Sources by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 2,153 2,019 6.7% 0 0 1,944 1,888 88 84 121 46 Connecticut 756 705 7.3% 0 0 756 704 0 0 0 1 Maine 424 390 8.7% 0 0 245 261 88 84 92 45 Massachusetts 906 860 5.5% 0 0 877 860 0 0 29 0 New Hampshire 66 64 2.6% 0 0 66 64 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 2,497 2,441 2.3% 0 0 1,924 1,975 465 344 107 122

420

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Steam Coal Exports" U.S. Steam Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",1619502,1246181,2153814,2865683,3065683,-6.5 " Canada*",797861,599752,841061,1397613,1280803,9.1 " Dominican Republic",51698,160672,124720,212370,312741,-32.1 " Honduras","-",41664,34161,41664,68124,-38.8 " Jamaica",25,36311,"-",36336,33585,8.2 " Mexico",717687,407422,1116653,1125109,1331754,-15.5 " Other**",52231,360,37219,52591,38676,36

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 . Receipts and Quality of Coal Delivered for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight 2002 423,128 1.47 10.1 391,785 0.36 6.2 65,555 0.93 13.3 2003 467,286 1.50 10.0 432,513 0.38 6.4 79,869 1.03 14.4 2004 470,619 1.52 10.4 445,603 0.36 6.0 78,268 1.05 14.2 2005 480,179 1.56 10.5 456,856 0.36 6.2 77,677 1.02 14.0 2006 489,550 1.59 10.5 504,947 0.35 6.1 75,742 0.95 14.4 2007 467,817 1.62 10.3 505,155 0.34 6.0 71,930 0.90 14.0

422

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumption at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" Coal Consumption at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "New England","w","w",20,"w","w","w" " Maine","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Massachusetts","w","w","w","w","w","w" "Middle Atlantic",583,589,651,1171,1237,-5.3 " New York",155,181,206,337,374,-10.1

423

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 65,770 3,930 59,089 1,753 998 2004 69,331 5,373 60,514 2,093 1,351 2005 67,902 5,650 58,624 2,360 1,269 2006 75,970 8,287 63,950 3,388 345 2007 79,712 8,620 68,432 2,344 316 2008 94,215 10,242 81,029 2,668 276 2009 99,821 9,748 86,773 2,999 301 2010 105,835 10,029 92,763 2,837 205 2011 112,538 11,146 89,857 11,332 203 2012 124,297 12,721 99,938 10,356 1,282 2010 January 8,441 853 7,335 236 17 February 7,824 830 6,781 197 17 March 9,056 1,013 7,796 226 21

424

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 6,249,585 2,307,358 3,214,286 30,626 697,315 2003 5,735,770 1,809,003 3,200,057 39,424 687,286 2004 5,827,470 1,857,247 3,351,469 33,623 585,132 2005 6,212,116 2,198,098 3,444,875 34,645 534,498 2006 6,643,926 2,546,169 3,508,597 35,473 553,687 2007 7,287,714 2,808,500 3,872,646 34,872 571,697 2008 7,087,191 2,803,283 3,712,872 34,138 536,899 2009 7,301,522 2,981,285 3,750,080 35,046 535,111 2010 7,852,665 3,359,035 3,882,995 40,356 570,279 2011 8,052,309 3,511,732 3,906,484 48,509 585,584

425

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Price of Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division" 4. Average Price of Coal Receipts at Coke Plants by Census Division" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East North Central",157.29,176.84,199.7,166.21,198.26,-16.2 "South Atlantic","w","w","w","w","w","w" "East South Central","w","w","w","w","w","w" "U.S. Total",157.26,171.51,191.48,163.85,190.51,-14

426

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Demand-Side Management Program Direct and Indirect Costs, 5. Demand-Side Management Program Direct and Indirect Costs, 2002 through 2012 (Thousand Dollars) Year Energy Efficiency Load Management Direct Cost Indirect Cost Total Cost 2002 1,032,911 410,323 1,443,234 206,169 1,649,403 2003 807,403 352,137 1,159,540 137,670 1,340,686 2004 910,816 510,281 1,421,097 132,295 1,560,578 2005 1,180,576 622,287 1,802,863 127,925 1,939,115 2006 1,270,602 663,980 1,934,582 128,886 2,072,962 2007 1,677,969 700,362 2,378,331 160,326 2,604,711 2008 2,137,452 836,359 2,973,811 181,843 3,186,742 2009 2,221,480 944,261 3,165,741 394,193 3,607,076 2010 2,906,906 1,048,356 3,955,262 275,158 4,230,420 2011 4,002,672 1,213,102 5,215,774 328,622 5,544,396 2012 4,397,635 1,270,391 5,668,026 332,440 6,000,466

427

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Sources Annual Totals 2002 213 N/A N/A 709 N/A N/A N/A 1,402 242,302 N/A 2003 354 2 0 882 394 326 214 1,249 249,622 253,043 2004 405 6 0 1,209 460 198 166 1,248 245,546 249,238 2005 1,046 16 0 1,829 503 250 175 1,126 245,553 250,499 2006 2,351 15 0.18 1,937 705 228 190 1,162 261,864 268,452 2007 4,361 10 1 2,226 751 240 226 1,139 226,734 235,687 2008 6,899 16 1 1,888 844 211 252 1,197 229,645 240,953

428

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, A. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 134,415 88,595 39,035 826 5,959 2003 175,136 105,319 61,420 882 7,514 2004 165,107 103,793 56,342 760 4,212 2005 165,137 98,223 62,154 580 4,180 2006 73,821 53,529 17,179 327 2,786 2007 82,433 56,910 22,793 250 2,480 2008 53,846 38,995 13,152 160 1,538 2009 43,562 31,847 9,880 184 1,652 2010 40,103 30,806 8,278 164 855 2011 27,326 20,844 5,633 133 716 2012 22,604 17,521 4,110 272 702 2010 January 5,587 4,381 1,083 17 106 February 2,156 1,599 454 15 88

429

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Power Plant Operating Expenses for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2002 through 2012 (Mills per Kilowatthour) 4. Average Power Plant Operating Expenses for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2002 through 2012 (Mills per Kilowatthour) Operation Maintenance Year Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale Nuclear Fossil Steam Hydro-electric Gas Turbine and Small Scale 2002 9.00 2.59 3.71 3.26 5.04 2.67 2.62 2.38 2003 9.12 2.74 3.47 3.50 5.23 2.72 2.32 2.26 2004 8.97 3.13 3.83 4.27 5.38 2.96 2.76 2.14 2005 8.26 3.21 3.95 3.69 5.27 2.98 2.73 1.89 2006 9.03 3.57 3.76 3.51 5.69 3.19 2.70 2.16 2007 9.54 3.63 5.44 3.26 5.79 3.37 3.87 2.42 2008 9.89 3.72 5.78 3.77 6.20 3.59 3.89 2.72 2009 10.00 4.23 4.88 3.05 6.34 3.96 3.50 2.58 2010 10.50 4.04 5.33 2.79 6.80 3.99 3.81 2.73

430

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Price of U.S. Coal Imports" Price of U.S. Coal Imports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Origin",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",147.86,138.39,191.01,144.86,197.96,-26.8 " Canada",147.86,138.39,191,144.86,197.95,-26.8 " Mexico","-","-",286.23,"-",286.23,"-" "South America Total",75.29,80.74,86.52,77.2,87.17,-11.4 " Argentina","-","-",504.7,"-",504.7,"-" " Colombia",74.87,80.74,83.03,76.96,85.25,-9.7 " Peru",87.09,"-","-",87.09,"-","-"

431

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators: From Natural Gas to Petroleum Liquids, 4. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators: From Natural Gas to Petroleum Liquids, by Year of Initial Commercial Operation, 2012 (Megawatts, Percent) Year of Initial Commercial Operation Number of Generators Net Summer Capacity Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Pre-1970 318 11,735 7,535 1970-1974 376 18,210 11,033 1975-1979 105 11,031 7,283 1980-1984 46 945 211 1985-1989 107 3,155 413 1990-1994 208 11,738 1,453 1995-1999 134 9,680 2,099 2000-2004 392 39,841 5,098 2005-2009 116 14,791 2,066 2010-2012 78 8,479 320 Total 1,880 129,604 37,510 Notes: Petroleum includes distillate fuel oil (all diesel and No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils), residual fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils and bunker C fuel oil), jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke (converted to liquid petroleum, see Technical Notes for conversion methodology), waste oil, and beginning in 2011, synthetic gas and propane. Prior to 2011, synthetic gas and propane were included in Other Gases.

432

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" 5. U.S. Coal Consumption at Manufacturing Plants by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Code" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "NAICS Code","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "311 Food Manufacturing",2256,2561,1864,4817,4343,10.9 "312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Mfg.",38,50,48,88,95,-7.7 "313 Textile Mills",31,29,21,60,59,2.2 "315 Apparel Manufacturing","w","w","w","w","w","w" "321 Wood Product Manufacturing","w","w","w","w","w","w"

433

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 148,110 5,766 128,947 13,095 302 2004 141,577 3,705 124,815 12,909 146 2005 144,339 4,724 126,529 12,923 164 2006 146,987 4,078 129,779 12,964 165 2007 146,308 4,557 127,826 13,043 881 2008 148,452 4,476 130,041 13,934 0 2009 146,971 3,989 126,649 16,333 0 2010 144,934 3,322 124,437 17,176 0 2011 135,241 3,433 115,841 15,933 34 2012 135,735 3,910 113,418 18,307 100 2010 January 11,540 244 9,886 1,410 0 February 10,313 190 9,030 1,094 0

434

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Average Quality of Fossil Fuel Receipts for the Electric Power Industry, 3. Average Quality of Fossil Fuel Receipts for the Electric Power Industry, 2002 through 2012 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Period Average Btu per Pound Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Gallon Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Cubic Foot 2002 10,168 0.94 8.7 147,903 1.64 0.2 1,025 2003 10,137 0.97 9.0 147,086 1.53 0.1 1,030 2004 10,074 0.97 9.0 147,286 1.66 0.2 1,027 2005 10,107 0.98 9.0 146,481 1.61 0.2 1,028 2006 10,063 0.97 9.0 143,883 2.31 0.2 1,027 2007 10,028 0.96 8.8 144,546 2.10 0.1 1,027 2008 9,947 0.97 9.0 142,205 2.21 0.3 1,027 2009 9,902 1.01 8.9 141,321 2.14 0.2 1,025 2010 9,842 1.16 8.8 140,598 2.14 0.2 1,022

435

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Pumped Storage) Power 5. Net Generation from Hydroelectric (Pumped Storage) Power by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England -305 -435 -29.9% 0 0 -305 -435 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 3 6 -51.5% 0 0 3 6 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts -308 -440 -30.1% 0 0 -308 -440 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic -1,022 -1,124 -9.0% -579 -630 -443 -494 0 0 0 0

436

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports" Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",78.29,77.25,102.62,77.88,105.14,-25.9 " Canada*",81.61,80.7,110.67,81.3,112.16,-27.5 " Dominican Republic",78.54,75.09,73.89,75.77,76.61,-1.1 " Honduras","-",54.58,54.43,54.58,54.43,0.3 " Jamaica",480,54.43,"-",54.72,55.42,-1.3 " Mexico",73.45,75.81,94.36,74.35,100.95,-26.3 " Other**",80.33,389.3,70.37,82.45,76.1,8.3

437

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins B. Summer Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2012 Actual, 2013-2017 Projected Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Summer Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region MAPP MISO PJM SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Actual 2012 44,338 58,319 469,273 4,967 96,769 156,319 158,041 53,177 66,548 130,465 768,943 Projected 2013 42,532 59,969 447,171 5,022 91,644 144,378 152,949 53,177 65,901 129,278 744,851 Projected 2014 43,142 60,654 448,912 5,161 92,331 144,497 152,843 54,080 67,592 128,200 748,499 Projected 2015 43,812 61,428 457,865 5,270 93,017 147,568 157,287 54,722 69,679 129,553 762,336

438

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2002 21,525 3,196 1,207 79,013 9,493 0 3,825 30,489 0 3,832 152,580 2003 19,817 3,726 1,559 78,705 12,953 0 4,222 28,704 0 4,843 154,530 2004 19,773 4,128 1,839 78,959 11,684 0 3,248 29,164 0 5,129 153,925 2005 19,466 3,804 1,564 72,882 9,687 0 3,195 29,003 0 5,137 144,739 2006 19,464 2,567 1,656 77,669 9,923 0 2,899 28,972 0 5,103 148,254 2007 16,694 2,355 1,889 77,580 9,411 0 1,590 28,919 0 4,690 143,128

439

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Existing Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and Producer Type, 2002 through 2012 (Megawatts) A. Existing Net Summer Capacity by Energy Source and Producer Type, 2002 through 2012 (Megawatts) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewable Sources Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total Total (All Sectors) 2002 315,350 59,651 312,512 2,008 98,657 79,356 16,710 20,371 686 905,301 2003 313,019 60,730 355,442 1,994 99,209 78,694 18,153 20,522 684 948,446 2004 313,020 59,119 371,011 2,296 99,628 77,641 18,717 20,764 746 962,942 2005 313,380 58,548 383,061 2,063 99,988 77,541 21,205 21,347 887 978,020 2006 312,956 58,097 388,294 2,256 100,334 77,821 24,113 21,461 882 986,215 2007 312,738 56,068 392,876 2,313 100,266 77,885 30,069 21,886 788 994,888

440

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Average Cost of Natural Gas Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 0. Average Cost of Natural Gas Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Dollars per MMBtu) Census Division and State Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 3.69 4.94 -25% 4.73 5.70 3.68 4.93 Connecticut 3.88 4.97 -22% 6.45 NM 3.87 4.96 Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts 3.55 4.88 -27% 4.47 5.75 3.53 4.87 New Hampshire W W W 5.54 6.01 W W Rhode Island 3.86 5.01 -23% -- -- 3.86 5.01 Vermont 4.06 5.22 -22% 4.06 5.22 -- -- Middle Atlantic 3.52 5.14 -32% 3.86 5.32 3.46 5.11 New Jersey 3.52 5.11 -31% -- -- 3.52 5.11 New York 3.85 5.45 -29% 3.86 5.32 3.84 5.50

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wrf model output" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, . Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources, 2002 through 2012 (Btu per Kilowatthour) Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear 2002 10,314 10,641 9,533 10,442 2003 10,297 10,610 9,207 10,422 2004 10,331 10,571 8,647 10,428 2005 10,373 10,631 8,551 10,436 2006 10,351 10,809 8,471 10,435 2007 10,375 10,794 8,403 10,489 2008 10,378 11,015 8,305 10,452 2009 10,414 10,923 8,159 10,459 2010 10,415 10,984 8,185 10,452 2011 10,444 10,829 8,152 10,464 2012 10,498 10,991 8,039 10,479 Coal includes anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coal. Waste coal and synthetic coal are included starting in 2002. Petroleum includes distillate fuel oil (all diesel and No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oils), residual fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils and bunker C fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil.

442

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Net Generation from Natural Gas 0. Net Generation from Natural Gas by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 62,490 63,236 -1.2% 345 357 58,757 59,763 901 700 2,488 2,416 Connecticut 16,537 15,188 8.9% 6 NM 15,801 14,715 397 211 333 227 Maine 6,044 6,877 -12.1% 0 0 4,057 4,850 26 0.26 1,960 2,026 Massachusetts 24,672 25,940 -4.9% 278 240 23,812 25,120 416 443 166 136 New Hampshire 7,050 6,658 5.9% 58 80 6,947 6,552 16 0 29 26 Rhode Island 8,185 8,571 -4.5% 0 0 8,140 8,525 45 46 0 0

443

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Average Quality of Coal Received at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" 4. Average Quality of Coal Received at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State1",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic" " Btu",12906,12815,11709,12844,12440,3.2 " Sulfur",1.03,0.92,0.99,0.96,0.97,-1 " Ash",8.94,8.62,10,8.72,9.11,-4.3 "Pennsylvania" " Btu",12906,12815,11709,12844,12440,3.2 " Sulfur",1.03,0.92,0.99,0.96,0.97,-1 " Ash",8.94,8.62,10,8.72,9.11,-4.3 "East North Central" " Btu",11928,12228,11682,12112,11933,1.5

444

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012" Major U.S. Coal Producers, 2012" "Rank","Controlling Company Name","Production (thousand short tons)","Percent of Total Production" 1,"Peabody Energy Corp",192563,18.9 2,"Arch Coal Inc",136992,13.5 3,"Alpha Natural Resources LLC",104306,10.3 4,"Cloud Peak Energy",90721,8.9 5,"CONSOL Energy Inc",55752,5.5 6,"Alliance Resource Operating Partners LP",35406,3.5 7,"Energy Future Holdings Corp",31032,3.1 8,"Murray Energy Corp",29216,2.9 9,"NACCO Industries Inc",28207,2.8 10,"Patriot Coal Corp",23946,2.4 11,"Peter Kiewit Sons Inc",22725,2.2 12,"Westmoreland Coal Co",22215,2.2 13,"BHP Billiton Ltd",12580,1.2

445

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Receipts of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 5. Receipts of Petroleum Coke Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 106 79 35% 0 0 0 23 0 0 106 56 New Jersey 0 NM NM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 NM

446

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Net Generation 6. Net Generation by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 120,887 123,338 -2.0% 3,278 4,408 111,191 112,613 1,178 949 5,240 5,368 Connecticut 36,118 33,745 7.0% 37 93 35,347 33,208 397 211 337 233 Maine 14,429 15,974 -9.7% 0.17 1 10,186 10,890 208 176 4,035 4,907 Massachusetts 36,198 38,055 -4.9% 591 610 34,321 36,783 469 490 817 172 New Hampshire 19,264 20,066 -4.0% 2,017 2,994 17,170 17,020 49 20 29 31

447

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) B. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Renewable Energy Sources and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Conventional Hydroelectric Biomass Sources Geothermal Total Renewable Sources Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 784.1 422.8 49.2 13.9 0.0 0.0 1,956.9 1,946.9 1,367.5 1,421.6 0.0 0.0 4,157.7 3,805.2 Connecticut 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 122.2 121.7 172.5 178.2 0.0 0.0 294.7 299.9 Maine 427.6 322.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 742.3 742.3 534.6 576.0 0.0 0.0 1,704.5 1,640.8 Massachusetts 63.8 29.6 41.2 11.7 0.0 0.0 261.1 262.7 395.4 406.9 0.0 0.0 761.5 710.9

448

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Independent Power Producers by State, 2012 3. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Independent Power Producers by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 732 0.87 10.5 41 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 41 0.09 2.0 0 -- -- Maine 32 0.80 7.0 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 700 0.88 10.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

449

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Average Cost of Coal Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 7. Average Cost of Coal Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Dollars per MMBtu) Census Division and State Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 3.59 3.68 -2.4% 4.07 3.55 3.34 3.74 Connecticut W W W -- -- W W Maine W W W -- -- W W Massachusetts W W W -- -- W W New Hampshire 4.07 3.55 15% 4.07 3.55 -- -- Rhode Island -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vermont -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Middle Atlantic 2.50 2.68 -6.7% -- 2.92 2.50 2.63 New Jersey 4.05 4.18 -3.1% -- -- 4.05 4.18 New York 3.12 3.27 -4.6% -- 3.88 3.12 3.27 Pennsylvania 2.43 2.55 -4.7% -- 2.91 2.43 2.45

450

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

. Count of Electric Power Industry Power Plants, by Sector, by Predominant Energy Sources within Plant, 2002 through 2012 . Count of Electric Power Industry Power Plants, by Sector, by Predominant Energy Sources within Plant, 2002 through 2012 Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Other Gases Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Other Renewables Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Sources Total (All Sectors) 2002 633 1,147 1,649 40 66 1,426 682 38 28 2003 629 1,166 1,693 40 66 1,425 741 38 27 2004 625 1,143 1,670 46 66 1,425 749 39 28 2005 619 1,133 1,664 44 66 1,422 781 39 29 2006 616 1,148 1,659 46 66 1,421 843 39 29 2007 606 1,163 1,659 46 66 1,424 929 39 25 2008 598 1,170 1,655 43 66 1,423 1,076 39 29 2009 593 1,168 1,652 43 66 1,427 1,219 39 28 2010 580 1,169 1,657 48 66 1,432 1,355 39 32

451

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 (continued) 2. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2002 3,846 138 0.76 21.20 5.91 9.1 852,547 828,439 3.36 3.46 66.8 2.88 2003 16,383 594 1.04 28.74 5.73 47.3 823,681 798,996 5.32 5.48 69.9 4.20 2004 14,876 540 0.98 27.01 5.59 40.4 839,886 814,843 6.04 6.22 68.4 4.76 2005 16,620 594 1.21 33.75 5.44 58.2 828,882 805,132 8.00 8.24 74.3 6.18

452

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Existing Transmission Capacity by High-Voltage Size, 2012 A. Existing Transmission Capacity by High-Voltage Size, 2012 Voltage Circuit Miles Type Operating (kV) FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. AC 100-199 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- AC 200-299 6,018 7,813 1,538 6,933 21,757 2,948 -- 38,410 85,416 AC 300-399 -- 7,362 5,850 13,429 3,650 5,303 9,529 10,913 56,036 AC 400-599 1,201 543 -- 2,618 8,876 94 -- 12,794 26,125 AC 600-799 -- -- 190 2,226 -- -- -- -- 2,416 AC Multi-Circuit Structure 200-299 1,198 686 36 2,008 4,156 9 -- -- 8,092 AC Multi-Circuit Structure 300-399 -- 372 274 3,706 313 153 2,747 -- 7,564 AC Multi-Circuit Structure 400-599 -- -- -- 90 857 -- -- -- 947 AC Multi-Circuit Structure 600-799 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

453

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Energy for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, A. Net Energy for Load by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Energy (Thousands of Megawatthours) Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 211,116 286,199 2,301,321 567,897 273,907 279,264 -- -- 150,058 -- -- 835,319 194,876 280,269 666,696 3,745,601 2003 219,021 288,791 2,255,233 545,109 276,600 267,068 -- -- 153,918 -- -- 826,964 185,574 283,868 664,754 3,711,667 2004 220,335 292,725 2,313,180 553,236 283,646 274,760 -- -- 152,975 -- -- 856,734 191,829 289,146 682,053 3,797,439 2005 226,544 303,607 2,385,461 -- -- -- -- -- 216,633 -- 1,005,226 962,054 201,548 299,225 685,624 3,900,461

454

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Exports" U.S. Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",3122664,2010882,3565711,5133546,5327583,-3.6 " Canada*",1773644,943061,2101534,2716705,3176066,-14.5 " Dominican Republic",51792,211736,124720,263528,312741,-15.7 " Honduras","-",41664,34161,41664,68124,-38.8 " Jamaica",25,36311,"-",36336,33585,8.2 " Mexico",1244972,777750,1268077,2022722,1698391,19.1 " Other**",52231,360,37219,52591,38676,36

455

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by Cause Code and by NERC Region, 2012 B. U.S. Transformer Sustained Automatic Outage Counts and Hours by Cause Code and by NERC Region, 2012 Transformer Outage Counts Sustained Outage Causes FRCC MRO NPCC RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Weather, excluding lightning -- -- -- -- 1.00 -- -- -- 1.00 Lightning -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Environmental -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Contamination 1.00 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1.00 Foreign Interference -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Fire -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Vandalism, Terrorism, or Malicious Acts -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Failed AC Substation Equipment 3.00 1.00 -- 1.00 5.00 -- -- 4.00 14.00 Failed AC/DC Terminal Equipment -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Failed Protection System Equipment -- 1.00 -- -- 3.00 -- -- -- 4.00

456

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) A. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2012 and 2011 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Renewable Sources Fossil Fuels Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Storage Nuclear All Other Sources All Sources Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 4,157.7 3,805.2 24,619.1 24,153.6 1,753.4 1,709.4 3.0 3.0 4,630.3 4,653.7 48.0 26.0 35,211.5 34,350.9 Connecticut 294.7 299.9 6,607.7 6,674.5 29.4 29.4 0.0 0.0 2,102.5 2,102.5 26.0 26.0 9,060.3 9,132.3 Maine 1,704.5 1,640.8 2,764.9 2,737.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.0 0.0 4,491.4 4,378.2 Massachusetts 761.5 710.9 11,155.2 10,637.8 1,724.0 1,680.0 3.0 3.0 677.3 684.7 0.0 0.0 14,321.0 13,716.4

457

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by State" by State" "(thousand short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Coal-Producing Region","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Alabama",4649,4410,5171,9059,10150,-10.8 "Alaska",442,300,542,742,1091,-32 "Arizona",2184,1825,2002,4009,4169,-3.8 "Arkansas",2,4,11,6,33,-83.1 "Colorado",5297,5781,6885,11079,13914,-20.4 "Illinois",13474,13996,12487,27470,24419,12.5 "Indiana",9516,9422,9147,18938,18794,0.8 "Kansas",5,5,5,9,8,23.7 "Kentucky Total",20683,20594,22803,41276,49276,-16.2 " Eastern (Kentucky)",10392,10144,12444,20536,27516,-25.4

458

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Net Generation from Solar 0. Net Generation from Solar by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 35 7 427.1% 9 4 25 2 1 1 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 30 5 521.6% 9 4 20 0.14 1 1 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 5 2 179.0% 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 389 98 295.3% 41 19 303 65 37 8 8 5

459

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, A. Winter Net Internal Demand, Capacity Resources, and Capacity Margins by North American Electric Reliability Assessment Area, 2002 - 2012, Actual Net Internal Demand (Megawatts) -- Winter Eastern Interconnection ERCOT Western Interconnection All Interconnections Period FRCC NPCC Balance of Eastern Region ECAR MAAC MAIN MAPP MISO MRO PJM RFC SERC SPP TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. 2002 / 2003 42,001 45,980 360,748 84,844 46,159 39,974 -- -- 23,090 -- -- 137,541 29,140 44,719 94,554 588,002 2003 / 2004 36,229 47,850 357,026 86,332 45,625 39,955 -- -- 24,042 -- -- 133,244 27,828 41,988 100,337 583,430 2004 / 2005 41,449 47,859 371,011 91,800 45,565 40,618 -- -- 24,446 -- -- 139,486 29,096 44,010 101,002 605,331

460

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2012" Coal Consumers in the Manufacturing and Coke Sectors, 2012" "Company Name","Plant Location" "Top Ten Manufacturers" "American Crystal Sugar Co","MN, ND" "Archer Daniels Midland","IA, IL, MN, ND, NE" "Carmeuse Lime Stone Inc","AL, IL, IN, KY, MI, OH, PA, TN, VA, WI" "Cemex Inc","AL, CA, CO, FL, GA, KY, OH, TN, TX" "Dakota Gasification Company","ND" "Eastman Chemical Company","TN" "Georgia-Pacific LLC","AL, GA, OK, VA, WI" "Holcim (US) Inc","AL, CO, MD, MO, MT, OK, SC, TX, UT" "NewPage Corporation","MD, MI, WI" "U S Steel Corporation","AL, IN, MI, MN"

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461

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Commerical Sector, 2002 - 2012 B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Commerical Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Sources Annual Totals 2002 0 N/A N/A 13 N/A N/A N/A 0 13 N/A 2003 0 0 0 13 152 717 420 0 72 1,374 2004 0 0 0 13 172 945 444 0 105 1,680 2005 0 0 0 16 218 953 486 0 86 1,759 2006 0 0 0 21 173 956 470 0 93 1,713 2007 0 0 0 15 203 962 434 0 77 1,691 2008 0 0.08 0 21 234 911 389 0 60 1,615 2009 0.21 0.04 0 20 318 1,045 386 0 71 1,839 2010 16 5 0 21 256 1,031 386 0 80 1,794 2011 51 84 0 26 952 971 393 0 26 2,502

462

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4. Net Generation from Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric 4. Net Generation from Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 8,557 8,015 6.8% 664 574 5,652 5,352 136 104 2,105 1,985 Connecticut 667 660 1.0% 0 0 667 660 0 0 0 0 Maine 4,099 4,495 -8.8% 0 0 2,468 2,421 92 89 1,539 1,985 Massachusetts 1,843 1,207 52.8% 68 48 1,198 1,145 11 13 566 0 New Hampshire 1,381 1,091 26.6% 347 291 1,003 800 31 0 0 0.35 Rhode Island 102 130 -21.8% 0 0 102 130 0 0 0 0

463

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Average Quality of Coal Received at Manufacturing and Coke Plants by Census Division and State" 3. Average Quality of Coal Received at Manufacturing and Coke Plants by Census Division and State" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State1",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "New England" " Btu",13323,13196,13391,13253,13339,-0.6 " Sulfur",0.84,0.89,0.72,0.87,0.72,20.3 " Ash",5.95,5.81,5.93,5.87,6.09,-3.6 "Maine" " Btu","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Sulfur","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Ash","w","w","w","w","w","w"

464

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9. Net Generation from Petroleum Coke 9. Net Generation from Petroleum Coke by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Thousand Megawatthours) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Connecticut 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Maine 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Massachusetts 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 New Hampshire 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rhode Island 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Vermont 0 0 -- 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Middle Atlantic 76 344 -78.0% 0 0 0 263 0 0 76 81 New Jersey 40 58 -30.6% 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 58

465

SAS Output  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

B. U.S. Transformer Outages by Type and NERC region, 2012 Outage Type Eastern Interconnection TRE WECC Contiguous U.S. Circuit Outage Counts Automatic Outages (Sustained) 16.00 --...

466

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

components because of independent rounding." "Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Form 7000-2, 'Quarterly Mine Employment and Coal Production...

467

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

28,723 30,920 ......Production 17,714 18,143 19,559 20,752 23,921 25,799 ......Transmission 524 579 637 665 679 748 ......Distribution 1,589 1,681 1,787 1,860 1,895 2,037...

468

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

by Sector, 2002 through 2011 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Energy Efficiency - Energy Savings (Thousand MWh) 2002 1,205 1,720 700 -- 3,625 2003 855...

469

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Recoverable Coal Reserves at Producing Mines, Estimated Recoverable Reserves, and Demonstrated Reserve by Mining Method, 2012" "(million short tons)" ,"Underground - Minable...

470

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Productivity by State and Mine Type, 2012 and 2011" ,"Number of Mining Operations2",,,"Number of Employees3",,,"Average Production per Employee Hour" ,,,"(short tons)4"...

471

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Kingdom","-",115,10,115,10,"NM" "Asia Total",337715,127022,70962,464737,136534,240.4 " China",19536,8692,20964,28228,27697,1.9 " India","-",849,611,849,611,39 "...

472

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Quantity and Net Summer Capacity of Operable Environmental Equipment, 2001 - 2011 Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems Electrostatic Precipitators Baghouses Select Catalytic and...

473

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent"...

474

SAS Output  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Cooling Ponds Dry Cooling Systems Hybrid Wet and Dry Cooling Systems Other Cooling System Types Energy Source Quantity Associated Net Summer Capacity (MW) Quantity Associated Net...

475

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Revenue and Expense Statistics for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2002 through 2012 (Million Dollars) 3. Revenue and Expense Statistics for Major U.S. Investor-Owned Electric Utilities, 2002 through 2012 (Million Dollars) Description 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Utility Operating Revenues 219,609 230,151 238,759 265,652 275,501 270,964 ......Electric Utility 200,360 206,268 213,012 234,909 246,736 240,864 ......Other Utility 19,250 23,883 25,747 30,743 28,765 30,100 Utility Operating Expenses 189,062 201,057 206,960 236,786 245,589 241,198 ......Electric Utility 171,604 179,044 183,121 207,830 218,445 213,076 ............Operation 116,660 125,436 131,560 150,645 158,893 153,885 ..................Production 90,715 98,305 103,871 120,586 127,494 121,700 ........................Cost of Fuel 24,149 26,871 28,544 36,106 37,945 39,548

476

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Coke Imports" U.S. Coke Imports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Origin",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",10284,2293,159462,12577,183712,-93.2 " Canada",3009,2293,159462,5302,183712,-97.1 " Panama",7275,"-","-",7275,"-","-" "South America Total",25267,13030,88424,38297,106612,-64.1 " Brazil","-","-",78595,"-",78595,"-" " Colombia",25267,13030,9829,38297,28017,36.7 "Europe Total",6044,40281,165027,46325,485791,-90.5

477

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Production and Coalbed Thickness by Major Coalbeds and Mine Type, 2012" Coal Production and Coalbed Thickness by Major Coalbeds and Mine Type, 2012" ,"Production (thousand short tons)",,,"Thickness (inches)" "Coalbed ID Number1","Underground","Surface","Total","Average2","Low","High" "Coalbed Name" "1699 Wyodak","-",351188,351188,778,160,913 "0036 Pittsburgh",52476,3871,56348,74,18,138 "0489 No. 9",42193,12181,54374,61,24,74 "0484 Herrin (Illinois No. 6)",48526,1910,50436,71,46,89 "0212 Pittsburgh",27355,76,27431,75,27,98 "1701 Smith","-",23847,23847,822,745,912 "1696 Anderson-Dietz 1-Dietz 2","-",18992,18992,932,660,960

478

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, 0. Average Retail Price of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by End-Use Sector, by State, 2012 and 2011 (Cents per Kilowatthour) Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation All Sectors Census Division and State Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 15.71 15.89 13.68 14.31 11.83 12.55 6.68 7.85 14.02 14.49 Connecticut 17.34 18.11 14.65 15.57 12.67 13.24 9.69 10.25 15.54 16.35 Maine 14.66 15.38 11.53 12.29 7.98 8.88 -- -- 11.81 12.58 Massachusetts 14.91 14.67 13.84 14.33 12.57 13.38 4.91 6.14 13.79 14.11 New Hampshire 16.07 16.52 13.36 14.04 11.83 12.27 -- -- 14.19 14.74 Rhode Island 14.40 14.33 11.87 12.37 10.68 11.27 8.28 14.11 12.74 13.04

479

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Revenue from Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers 3. Revenue from Retail Sales of Electricity to Ultimate Customers by Sector, by Provider, 2002 through 2012 (Million Dollars) Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Other Total Total Electric Industry 2002 106,834 87,117 48,336 N/A 7,124 249,411 2003 111,249 96,263 51,741 514 N/A 259,767 2004 115,577 100,546 53,477 519 N/A 270,119 2005 128,393 110,522 58,445 643 N/A 298,003 2006 140,582 122,914 62,308 702 N/A 326,506 2007 148,295 128,903 65,712 792 N/A 343,703 2008 155,433 138,469 68,920 827 N/A 363,650 2009 157,008 132,940 62,504 828 N/A 353,280 2010 166,782 135,559 65,750 815 N/A 368,906 2011 166,714 135,926 67,606 803 N/A 371,049 2012 163,280 133,898 65,761 747 N/A 363,687

480

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Continent and Country","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "of Destination",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "North America Total",1503162,764701,1411897,2267863,2261900,0.3 " Canada*",975783,343309,1260473,1319092,1895263,-30.4 " Dominican Republic",94,51064,"-",51158,"-","-" " Mexico",527285,370328,151424,897613,366637,144.8 "South America Total",2091488,2561772,2389018,4653260,4543747,2.4 " Argentina",104745,155806,203569,260551,253841,2.6 " Brazil",1921144,2352098,2185449,4273242,4022618,6.2

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481

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Average Price of Coal Receipts at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" 1. Average Price of Coal Receipts at Commercial and Institutional Users by Census Division and State" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Middle Atlantic",139.64,145,158.61,143.29,158.91,-9.8 " Pennsylvania",139.64,145,158.61,143.29,158.91,-9.8 "East North Central",87.62,97.3,87.11,93.56,95.13,-1.7 " Illinois",59.27,60.3,62.17,59.86,66.69,-10.2 " Indiana","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Michigan","w","w","w","w","w","w"

482

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Average Price of Coal Receipts at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" Average Price of Coal Receipts at Other Industrial Plants by Census Division and State" "(dollars per short ton)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Census Division","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" "and State",2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "New England","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Maine","w","w","w","w","w","w" " Massachusetts","w","w","w","w","w","w" "Middle Atlantic",87.05,93.03,93.73,89.93,95.68,-6 " New York",102.14,105.8,117.15,103.8,117.61,-11.7

483

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division" 8. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division" "(thousand short tons)" "Census Division","June 30 2013","March 31 2013","June 30 2012","Percent Change" ,,,,"(June 30)" ,,,,"2013 versus 2012" "Middle Atlantic","w","w","w","w" "East North Central",1313,1177,1326,-1 "South Atlantic","w","w","w","w" "East South Central","w","w","w","w" "U.S. Total",2500,2207,2295,8.9 "w = Data withheld to avoid disclosure." "Note: Total may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding."

484

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2002 - 2012 7 Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2002 - 2012 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2002 3,710,847 182,482 1.37 27.96 1.15 87.0 186,271 30,043 4.19 25.98 0.61 76.4 2003 4,365,996 223,984 1.34 26.20 1.15 90.4 347,546 56,138 5.41 33.50 0.58 89.7 2004 4,410,775 227,700 1.41 27.27 1.13 93.3 337,011 54,152 5.35 33.31 0.61 93.6 2005 4,459,333 229,071 1.56 30.39 1.10 83.0 381,871 61,753 8.30 51.34 0.54 97.2

485

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District" Metallurgical Coal Exports by Customs District" "(short tons)" ,,,,"Year to Date" "Customs District","April - June","January - March","April - June",2013,2012,"Percent" ,2013,2013,2012,,,"Change" "Eastern Total",11716074,14136513,15167377,25852587,27578514,-6.3 " Baltimore, MD",2736470,4225450,5123600,6961920,9037970,-23 " Boston, MA","-","-","-","-",28873,"-" " Buffalo, NY",247714,121347,524040,369061,725698,-49.1 " Norfolk, VA",8730257,9784866,9519119,18515123,17784479,4.1 " Ogdensburg, NY",1633,4850,618,6483,1494,333.9 "Southern Total",3551564,3824484,4264938,7376048,8976503,-17.8

486

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: 3 Stocks of Coal, Petroleum Liquids, and Petroleum Coke: Electric Power Sector, by Census Divison, 2012 and 2011 Electric Power Sector Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Census Division December 2012 December 2011 Percentage Change December 2012 December 2011 December 2012 December 2011 Coal (Thousand Tons) New England 1,030 1,389 -25.9% W W W W Middle Atlantic 7,553 7,800 -3.2% W W W W East North Central 36,139 37,262 -3.0% 27,069 27,316 9,070 9,946 West North Central 30,554 28,544 7.0% 30,554 28,544 0 0 South Atlantic 38,859 36,920 5.3% 35,527 33,163 3,331 3,757 East South Central 19,657 17,185 14.4% 19,657 17,185 0 0 West South Central 28,807 22,910 25.7% 17,047 15,125 11,760 7,785

487

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 19,996,890 15,517,857 4,215,043 9,168 254,821 2003 20,366,879 15,391,188 4,745,545 13,080 217,066 2004 20,375,751 15,610,335 4,606,584 8,251 150,581 2005 20,801,716 15,397,688 5,250,824 8,314 144,889 2006 20,527,410 15,211,077 5,166,001 7,526 142,807 2007 20,841,871 15,436,110 5,287,202 7,833 110,727 2008 20,548,610 15,189,050 5,242,194 8,070 109,296 2009 18,240,611 13,744,178 4,390,596 7,007 98,829 2010 19,196,315 14,333,496 4,709,686 6,815 146,318 2011 18,074,298 13,551,416 4,399,144 7,263 116,475

488

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 A. Net Generation by Energy Source: Electric Utilities, 2002 - 2012 (Thousand Megawatthours) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Nuclear Hydroelectric Conventional Renewable Sources Excluding Hydroelectric Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Total Annual Totals 2002 1,514,670 52,838 6,286 229,639 206 507,380 242,302 3,089 -7,434 480 2,549,457 2003 1,500,281 62,774 7,156 186,967 243 458,829 249,622 3,421 -7,532 519 2,462,281 2004 1,513,641 62,196 11,498 199,662 374 475,682 245,546 3,692 -7,526 467 2,505,231 2005 1,484,855 58,572 11,150 238,204 10 436,296 245,553 4,945 -5,383 643 2,474,846 2006 1,471,421 31,269 9,634 282,088 30 425,341 261,864 6,588 -5,281 700 2,483,656

489

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

10.6. Advanced Metering Count by Technology Type, 10.6. Advanced Metering Count by Technology Type, 2007 through 2012 Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Automated Meter Reading (AMR) 2007 25,785,782 2,322,329 44,015 109 28,152,235 2008 36,425,943 3,529,985 77,122 13 40,033,063 2009 41,462,111 4,239,531 107,033 11 45,808,686 2010 43,913,225 4,611,877 159,315 626 48,685,043 2011 41,451,888 4,341,105 172,692 77 45,965,762 2012 43,455,437 4,691,018 185,862 125 48,330,822 Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) 2007 2,202,222 262,159 9,106 2 2,473,489 2008 4,190,244 444,003 12,757 12 4,647,016 2009 8,712,297 876,419 22,675 10 9,611,401 2010 18,369,908 1,904,983 59,567 67 20,334,525 2011 33,453,548 3,682,159 154,659 7 37,290,373

490

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Net Metering Customers and Capacity by Technology Type, by End Use Sector, 0. Net Metering Customers and Capacity by Technology Type, by End Use Sector, 2003 through 2012 Capacity (MW) Customers Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Total Historical Data 2003 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 5,870 775 168 -- 6,813 2004 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,114 1,494 215 3 15,826 2005 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 19,244 1,565 337 -- 21,146 2006 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30,689 2,553 376 -- 33,618 2007 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 44,450 3,513 391 -- 48,354 2008 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 64,400 5,305 304 -- 70,009 2009 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 88,205 7,365 919 -- 96,489 Photovoltaic 2010 697.890 517.861 243.051 -- 1,458.802 137,618 11,897 1,225 -- 150,740

491

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Summary Statistics for the United States, 2002 - 2012 2. Summary Statistics for the United States, 2002 - 2012 (From Table 2.1.) Number of Ultimate Customers Year Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Other Total 2002 116,622,037 15,333,700 601,744 N/A 1,066,554 133,624,035 2003 117,280,481 16,549,519 713,221 1,127 N/A 134,544,348 2004 118,763,768 16,606,783 747,600 1,025 N/A 136,119,176 2005 120,760,839 16,871,940 733,862 518 N/A 138,367,159 2006 122,471,071 17,172,499 759,604 791 N/A 140,403,965 2007 123,949,916 17,377,219 793,767 750 N/A 142,121,652 2008 124,937,469 17,562,726 774,713 727 N/A 143,275,635 2009 125,177,175 17,561,661 757,519 705 N/A 143,497,060 2010 125,717,935 17,674,338 747,746 239 N/A 144,140,258 2011 126,143,072 17,638,062 727,920 92 N/A 144,509,146

492

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Disposition by State, 2012" Coal Disposition by State, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" "Coal-Producing State","Open Market Sales1","Captive Sales / Transactions2","Exports3","Total" "Alabama",8688,"-",10333,19021 "Alaska","w","-",968,"w" "Arizona","w","-","-","w" "Arkansas","w","-","-","w" "Colorado",20836,4552,3468,28856 "Illinois",29252,5113,12341,46705 "Indiana",17127,18404,375,35906 "Kentucky Total",76602,6884,5668,89154 " Kentucky (East)",37324,6884,3588,47796 " Kentucky (West)",39277,"-",2081,41358

493

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, A. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2002 6,126,062 2,259,684 3,148,595 32,545 685,239 2003 5,616,135 1,763,764 3,145,485 38,480 668,407 2004 5,674,580 1,809,443 3,265,896 32,839 566,401 2005 6,036,370 2,134,859 3,349,921 33,785 517,805 2006 6,461,615 2,478,396 3,412,826 34,623 535,770 2007 7,089,342 2,736,418 3,765,194 34,087 553,643 2008 6,895,843 2,730,134 3,612,197 33,403 520,109 2009 7,121,069 2,911,279 3,655,712 34,279 519,799 2010 7,680,185 3,290,993 3,794,423 39,462 555,307 2011 7,883,865 3,446,087 3,819,107 47,170 571,501

494

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Consumption of Nautral Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2. Consumption of Nautral Gas for Electricity Generation by State, by Sector, 2012 and 2011 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 460,887 461,590 -0.2% 3,652 4,218 428,781 432,350 8,630 6,287 19,824 18,735 Connecticut 120,380 110,546 8.9% 69 730 113,620 105,965 3,952 2,061 2,739 1,790 Maine 44,424 49,352 -10% 0 0 28,456 33,555 307 12 15,662 15,785 Massachusetts 184,330 190,063 -3.0% 2,792 2,393 176,497 182,865 3,749 3,761 1,293 1,045 New Hampshire 50,678 46,927 8.0% 754 1,046 49,655 45,765 139 0 131 115

495

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

D. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, D. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation, by Sector, 2002 - 2012 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2003 34,775 2,456 15,859 4,566 11,894 2004 19,215 2,014 9,240 4,308 3,654 2005 17,852 2,485 7,365 4,677 3,325 2006 17,727 2,611 7,788 4,436 2,893 2007 19,083 2,992 8,861 4,049 3,181 2008 24,288 3,409 12,745 3,684 4,450 2009 24,847 3,679 13,231 3,760 4,177 2010 29,996 3,668 14,449 3,790 8,090 2011 30,771 4,488 16,115 3,816 6,352 2012 30,342 4,191 15,740 4,016 6,395 2010 January 2,223 189 1,078 321 635 February 2,336 275 1,208 291 561 March 2,287 311 1,079 302 594

496

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. U.S. Coal Summary Statistics, 2007 - 2013" 1. U.S. Coal Summary Statistics, 2007 - 2013" "(thousand short tons)" "Year and","Production1","Imports","Waste Coal","Producer and","Consumption","Exports","Consumer","Losses and" "Quarter",,,"Supplied","Distributor",,,"Stocks2","Unaccounted" ,,,,"Stocks2",,,,"For3" 2007 " January - March",286041,8786,3264,34007,278727,11139,149588 " April - June",285687,8405,3387,32484,267106,14702,162849 " July - September",286035,10559,3697,30090,303665,16198,150448 " October - December",288872,8597,3727,33977,278500,17124,158781 " Total",1146635,36347,14076,,1127998,59163,,4085

497

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 1. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2002 - 2012 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2002 294,234 13,659 1.45 31.29 1.56 52.1 29,137 4,638 3.55 22.33 1.24 26.5 2003 322,547 15,076 1.45 31.01 1.37 60.7 27,538 4,624 4.85 28.86 1.25 23.2 2004 326,495 15,324 1.63 34.79 1.43 57.6 25,491 4,107 4.98 30.93 1.38 18.5 2005 339,968 16,011 1.94 41.17 1.42 61.9 36,383 5,876 6.64 41.13 1.36 26.4

498

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Electric Utilties by State, 2012 2. Receipts and Quality of Coal by Rank Delivered for Electricity Generation: Electric Utilties by State, 2012 Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Census Division and State Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight New England 353 2.20 7.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Connecticut 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Maine 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Massachusetts 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- New Hampshire 353 2.20 7.7 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Rhode Island 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- -- Vermont 0 -- -- 0 -- -- 0 -- --

499

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Productive Capacity and Capacity Utilization of Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2012" Productive Capacity and Capacity Utilization of Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2012" "(thousand short tons)" ,"Continuous1",,"Conventional and Other2",,"Longwall3",,"Total" "Coal-Producing","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity","Productive","Capacity" "State","Capacity","Utilization","Capacity","Utilization","Capacity","Utilization","Capacity","Utilization" ,,"Percent",,"Percent",,"Percent",,"Percent" "Alabama","w","w","-","-","w","w",14594,85.99

500

SAS Output  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Receipts of Natural Gas Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 6. Receipts of Natural Gas Delivered for Electricity Generation by State, 2012 and 2011 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Census Division and State All Sectors Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Year 2012 Year 2011 Percentage Change Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 Year 2012 Year 2011 New England 440,421 484,260 -9.1% 3,652 4,226 419,062 434,504 3,636 13,156 14,072 32,373 Connecticut 112,084 116,563 -3.8% 71 738 112,012 107,121 0 3,210 0 5,494 Maine 42,374 56,230 -25% 0 0 28,302 33,578 0 NM 14,072 22,639 Massachusetts 175,314 198,295 -12% 2,789 2,393 168,890 184,156 3,636 7,872 0 3,875 New Hampshire 50,408 47,137 6.9% 754 1,046 49,655 45,725 0 0 0 NM