Sample records for wound kill trap

  1. Whisper of a Kill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weilling, L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ...lijLoU p3eltiH# / o; go.-;. >-/ ;J" f/i I by Lois Welling Cover by Suzan Lovett P.O. Box 592 Goleta,CA 93116 AGE STATEMENT REQUIRED Whisper of a Kill isavailable from Manacles Press for$18.00plus postage. SASE forcurrent rates..., who seemed to know what I'm trying to say even when I don't. A fan writer's fantasy: A Suzan Lovett cover. Thank you, Suzan, for making it a breathtaking reality. AAA Lois, we can only say that we're glad we didn't know you five years ago...

  2. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wisted, Eric E. (Apple Valley, MN); Lundquist, Susan H. (White Bear Township, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite.

  3. Spiral wound extraction cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wisted, E.E.; Lundquist, S.H.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge device for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises a hollow core, a sheet composite comprising a particulate-loaded porous membrane and optionally at least one reinforcing spacer sheet, the particulate being capable of binding the analyte, the sheet composite being formed into a spiral configuration about the core, wherein the sheet composite is wound around itself and wherein the windings of sheet composite are of sufficient tightness so that adjacent layers are essentially free of spaces therebetween, two end caps which are disposed over the core and the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite, and means for securing the end caps to the core, the end caps also being secured to the lateral ends of the spirally wound sheet composite. A method for removing an analyte from a fluid comprises the steps of providing a spirally wound element of the invention and passing the fluid containing the analyte through the element essentially normal to a surface of the sheet composite so as to bind the analyte to the particulate of the particulate-loaded porous membrane, the method optionally including the step of eluting the bound analyte from the sheet composite. 4 figs.

  4. Beetle Kill Wall at NREL

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    When it comes to designing an interior decorative feature for one of the most energy efficient office buildings in the world, very few would consider bringing in a beetle to do the job. But thats what happened at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Research Support Facility (RSF) located on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) campus.In June, the RSF will become home to more than 800 workers from DOE and NREL and building visitors will be greeted with a soaring, two-story high wall entirely covered with wood harvested from the bark beetle infestation that has killed millions of pine trees in the Western U.S. But, the use of beetle kill wood is just one example of the resources being leveraged to make the RSF a model for sustainability and one more step toward NRELs goal to be a net zero energy campus.

  5. The killing consensus : homicide detectives, police that kill and organized crime in São Paulo, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willis, Graham Arthur Neill, 1979-

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policing is widely understood, empirically and theoretically, as a core function of the state. Much of the knowledge presumes that police are the only body that may kill and arbitrate killing, routinely and without retaliation ...

  6. Interaction of trapped ions with trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, Andrew T. (Andrew Todd)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I present results from two Paul-trap based ion traps carried out in the Vuleti? laboratory: the Atom-Ion trap for collision studies between cold atoms and cold ions, and the Cavity-Array trap for studying ...

  7. Effect of acemannan on wound healing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parnell, Laura Shifflett

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth Factor (PDGF) Tumor Necrosis Factor n (TNFIx) . Interleukin-6 (IL-6) 1 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 . . 10 . . 15 . . 17 . . 17 . . 19 21 21 . . 23 23 25 CHAPTER Transforming Growth Factor P (TGFP) Interferon y (IFNT) . . . Page 25 27... treated by injections . . 81 7. First experimental crush wounds treated with moisture . . 83 8. Second experimental crush wounds treated with moisture . . 84 9. Crush wounds treated by injections 10. Ischemic ulcers treated with moisture . . 92...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Careers: Special Programs: Wounded...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wounded Warrior Career Development Program (WWCP) provides unique limited-term employment supporting national security missions, while helping participants acquire career...

  9. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  10. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  11. Optimization of chemical compositions in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel produced by ultra-fast continuous annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Futao, E-mail: dongft@sina.com [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Du, Linxiu; Liu, Xianghua [The State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xue, Fei [College of Electrical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of Mn,S and B contents on microstructural characteristics, mechanical properties and hydrogen trapping ability of low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel was investigated. The materials were produced and processed in a laboratory and the ultra-fast continuous annealing processing was performed using a continuous annealing simulator. It was found that increasing Mn,S contents in steel can improve its hydrogen trapping ability which is attributed by refined ferrite grains, more dispersed cementite and added MnS inclusions. Nevertheless, it deteriorates mechanical properties of steel sheet. Addition of trace boron results in both good mechanical properties and significantly improved hydrogen trapping ability. The boron combined with nitrogen segregating at grain boundaries, cementite and MnS inclusions, provides higher amount of attractive hydrogen trapping sites and raises the activation energy for hydrogen desorption from them. - Highlights: • We study microstructures and properties in low-carbon Al-killed enamel steel. • Hydrogen diffusion coefficients are measured to reflect fish-scale resistance. • Manganese improves hydrogen trapping ability but decrease deep-drawing ability. • Boron improves both hydrogen trapping ability and deep-drawing ability. • Both excellent mechanical properties and fish-scale resistance can be matched.

  12. Steam Trap Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    problemA of water hammer and high back pressure. ? Exorbitantly hi~h percentage of cold trapA. ? External steam leaks within the steam trap stations, bypasA valves and/or strainer blowdown valvefl open, blowin~ steam. ! I ? Dirt nssociated... Trapping 2 Trap Installed Backwards 1 Misapplication of Technology 1 Strainer Blowdown Connections Capped 285 (*b) Test Tee Connections Capped 11 Trap Inlet Connected to Steam Line Strainer Blowdown Connection 3 Water Logged Coils (Vacuum Present) 7...

  13. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data... that live steam loss is the heaviest contributor to the annual operating cost of any steam trap and that maintenance frequency and repair cost are also more important than a trap's first cost. INTRODUCTION Steam traps used on distribution line drip...

  14. Approximate Killing Fields as an Eigenvalue Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Beetle

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximate Killing vector fields are expected to help define physically meaningful spins for non-symmetric black holes in general relativity. However, it is not obvious how such fields should be defined geometrically. This paper relates a definition suggested recently by Cook and Whiting to an older proposal by Matzner, which seems to have been overlooked in the recent literature. It also describes how to calculate approximate Killing fields based on these proposals using an efficient scheme that could be of immediate practical use in numerical relativity.

  15. Killing in Okaraygua: An Inspector Irronogaray Mystery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Stuart

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    /dp/B0096TUC9K/ref=sr_1_9?ie=UTF8&qid=1347294990&sr=8-9&keywords=Stuart+Levine Description: Killing in Okaraygua is an historical novel as well as a murder mystery that takes place in an imaginary Latin American nation in the 1980s. The characters found...

  16. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single [superscript 88]Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the ...

  17. Agricultural Cooperatives' Self-Inflicted Wounds.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, William E.; Knutson, Ronald D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tooe Z TA245.7 8873 NO.1537 s vi' 8-1537 ~xas Agricultural Extension Service VJtk HU'f1Urt; PIYJ/ltk -----.-- Agricultural Cooperatives' 8elf-1 nfl icted Wounds LIBRARY JUl 1986 1 exas A iversity Texas Agricultural Extension Service.... Zerle L. Carpenter, Director The Texas A&M University System. College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' SELF-INFLICTED WOUNDS William E. Black and Ronald D. Knutson * Agricultural cooperatives...

  18. HP Steam Trap Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEAM MONITORING HP Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption... Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real-time monitoring for high-pressure critical traps (>15 PSIG) ? Average total system cost $25K - $50K ? Web-Based or Modbus/BMS Integration Basic Installation Wireless Signal Transmitter Receiver Repeater...

  19. Geometrical classification of Killing tensors on bidimensional flat manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chanu; L. Degiovanni; R. G. McLenaghan

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Valence two Killing tensors in the Euclidean and Minkowski planes are classified under the action of the group which preserves the type of the corresponding Killing web. The classification is based on an analysis of the system of determining partial differential equations for the group invariants and is entirely algebraic. The approach allows to classify both characteristic and non characteristic Killing tensors.

  20. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon X. Wang; Yufei Ge; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Eric Dauler; Karl Berggren; Isaac L. Chuang

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  1. Geometry of Killing spinors in neutral signature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Klemm; Masato Nozawa

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We classify the supersymmetric solutions of minimal $N=2$ gauged supergravity in four dimensions with neutral signature. They are distinguished according to the sign of the cosmological constant and whether the vector field constructed as a bilinear of the Killing spinor is null or non-null. In neutral signature the bilinear vector field can be spacelike, which is a new feature not arising in Lorentzian signature. In the $\\Lambdatorsion. We find that a generalized monopole equation determines the twist of the bilinear Killing field, which is reminiscent of an Einstein-Weyl structure. If, moreover, the electromagnetic field strength is self-dual, one gets the Kleinian signature analogue of the Przanowski-Tod class of metrics, namely a pseudo-hermitian spacetime determined by solutions of the continuous Toda equation, conformal to a scalar-flat pseudo-K\\"ahler manifold, and admitting in addition a charged conformal Killing spinor. In the $\\Lambda0$ non-null case, the manifold is a fibration over a Lorentzian Gauduchon-Tod base space. Finally, in the $\\Lambda>0$ null class, the metric is contained in the Kundt family, and it turns out that the holonomy is reduced to ${\\rm Sim}(1)\\times{\\rm Sim}(1)$. There appear no self-dual solutions in the null class for either sign of the cosmological constant.

  2. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  3. Killingly, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInteriasIowa:Washington: EnergyFacilityKilauea SummitKillingly,

  4. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  5. Electric Current Wound Healing David Cukjati

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubljana, University of

    , Slovenia The authors review the existing physical modalities for treatment of chronic wounds and show the advantages of electric current and electromagnetic field stimulation. Direct currents, low frequency pulsed disruption is activation of the coagulation cascade and the production of blood clot. After several minutes

  6. Surface trap for ytterbium ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jonathan A. (Jonathan Alan)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted an experiment to load a shallow planar ion trap from a cold atom source of Ytterbium using photoionization. The surface trap consisted of a three-rod radio frequency Paul trap fabricated using standard printed ...

  7. Cytotoxic Cells Kill Intracellular Bacteria through Granulysin-Mediated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchhausen, Tomas

    , cytotoxic granules also contain granulysin, an antimicrobial peptide. Here, we show that granulysin delivers (ROS) that rapidly kill bacteria. ROS scavengers and bac- terial antioxidant protein overexpression

  8. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  9. Steam Trap Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Equipment Collecting leg, same size as equip ment connection but not less than Install a Yarway Process Trap below be drained. Install a Provide vacuum strainer with a blow down valve. Use and Yarway Aldrain valves full ported stop valves, (gate... and Corrosion Problems Like any critical control device the steam trap should be protected from dirt and scale if optimum operation and adequate service life are to be attained. Strainers should be equipped with blowdown valves to provide an effective...

  10. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  11. Integrated Detection of Pathogens and Host Biomarkers for Wounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaing, C

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing incidence and complications arising from combat wounds has necessitated a reassessment of methods for effective treatment. Infection, excessive inflammation, and incidence of drug-resistant organisms all contribute toward negative outcomes for afflicted individuals. The organisms and host processes involved in wound progression, however, are incompletely understood. We therefore set out, using our unique technical resources, to construct a profile of combat wounds which did or did not successfully resolve. We employed the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array and identified a number of nosocomial pathogens present in wound samples. Some of these identities corresponded with bacterial isolates previously cultured, while others were not obtained via standard microbiology. Further, we optimized proteomics protocols for the identification of host biomarkers indicative of various stages in wound progression. In combination with our pathogen data, our biomarker discovery efforts will provide a profile corresponding to wound complications, and will assist significantly in treatment of these complex cases.

  12. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  13. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  14. Optothermal Molecule Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duhr, S; Duhr, Stefan; Braun, Dieter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophoresis moves molecules along temperature gradients, typically from hot to cold. We superpose fluid flow with thermophoretic molecule flow under well defined microfluidic conditions, imaged by fluorescence microscopy. DNA is trapped and accumulated 16-fold in regions where both flows move in opposite directions. Strong 800-fold accumulation is expected, however with slow trapping kinetics. The experiment is equally described by a three-dimensional and one-dimensional analytical model. As an application, we show how a radially converging temperature field confines short DNA into a 10 um small spot.

  15. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Alexander, Michael L. (Richland, WA); Follansbee, James C. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity.

  16. Asymmetric ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Follansbee, J.C.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap having two end cap electrodes disposed asymmetrically about a center of a ring electrode is disclosed. The inner surface of the end cap electrodes are conformed to an asymmetric pair of equipotential lines of the harmonic formed by the application of voltages to the electrodes. The asymmetry of the end cap electrodes allows ejection of charged species through the closer of the two electrodes which in turn allows for simultaneously detecting anions and cations expelled from the ion trap through the use of two detectors charged with opposite polarity. 4 figs.

  17. Town of Kill Devil Hills- Wind Energy Systems Ordinance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In October 2007, the town of Kill Devil Hills adopted an ordinance to regulate the use of wind-energy systems. The ordinance directs any individual or organization wishing to install a wind-energy...

  18. Why Are Bad Products So Hard to Kill?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simester, Duncan

    It is puzzling that firms often continue to invest in product development projects when they should know that demand will be low. We argue that bad products are hard to kill because firms face an inherent conflict when ...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  20. arXiv:1101.0686v1[physics.atom-ph]4Jan2011 Characteristics of integrated magneto-optical traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on an isolated pyramid, with hand-wound coils generating the trapping magnetic field. This was later replaced, and because they are micro-fabricated it is easy to form several pyramid MOTs on the same chip. In this paper hydroxide to form concave pyramidal hollows. The sides of the pyramids range in length L from 4.2 mm down

  1. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  2. Acceleration of wound healing in young and aged rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bryan Douglas

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1. The effect of ACM on wound healing in young rats. . Page 15 2. The effect of ACM on wound healing in old, ad-lib rats . . . . . . . 17 3. The effect of ACM on wound healing in old, caloric-restricted rats . . . 4. The effect of old and young... group (AL) had been fed a laboratory diet ad libitum during their lifetime. The other group (CR) had been maintained on a calorie-restricted diet at a level of 60% of the food intake of the ad libitum-fed group. This decrease in caloric intake resulted...

  3. Perturbative stability of the approximate Killing field eigenvalue problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Beetle; Shawn Wilder

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An approximate Killing field may be defined on a compact, Riemannian geometry by solving an eigenvalue problem for a certain elliptic operator. This paper studies the effect of small perturbations in the Riemannian metric on the resulting vector field. It shows that small metric perturbations, as measured using a Sobolev-type supremum norm on the space of Riemannian geometries on a fixed manifold, yield small perturbations in the approximate Killing field, as measured using a Hilbert-type square integral norm. It also discusses applications to the problem of computing the spin of a generic black hole in general relativity.

  4. abdominal wound dehiscence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mark A. 23 DOI 10.1007s12630-009-9259-7 CORRESPONDENCE Temperature and surgical wound heat loss during orthopedic surgery: computer simulations and measurements CiteSeer...

  5. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  6. Just War and Robots' Killings Thomas W. Simpson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    1 Just War and Robots' Killings Thomas W. Simpson Associate Professor of Philosophy and Public systems--`killer robots'--be used in war? There is a growing campaign in favour of an international of right assumed by Just War theory. This is necessary because the most important arguments against killer

  7. Who Killed Parliamentary Government By Dr. Gary Levy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    for this presentation was inspired by the 2006 documentary film "Who Killed the Electric Car" It looked at the development, production and subsequent dismantling of a perfectly good electric car invented in the 1990s. Of course the electric car is making a comeback and perhaps Parliament will as well. The presentation

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Nafcillin enhances innate immune-mediated killing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizet, Victor

    to daptomycin was used to treat refractory methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia against MRSA were examined in vitro and in vivo. Exposures to -lactam antimicrobials in general, neutrophils, and platelets. This finding correlated with enhanced killing of MRSA by whole blood, neutrophils

  9. Evolution Operators for Linearly Polarized Two-Killing Cosmological Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Fernando Barbero G.; Daniel Gómez Vergel; Eduardo J. S. Villaseñor

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a general procedure to obtain non perturbative evolution operators in closed form for quantized linearly polarized two Killing vector reductions of general relativity with a cosmological interpretation. We study the representation of these operators in Fock spaces and discuss in detail the conditions leading to unitary evolutions.

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Behaviour of brown bears killing wild ungulates in the Cantabrian Mountains documentation regarding bear predation on wild ungulates in Southern Europe. We describe search, detection wild boar by a female bear with cubs surprised by a sudden encounter. They did not eat the boar after

  11. Cryogenic Ion Trapping Systems with Surface-Electrode Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. B. Antohi; D. Schuster; G. M. Akselrod; J. Labaziewicz; Y. Ge; Z. Lin; W. S. Bakr; I. L. Chuang

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present two simple cryogenic RF ion trap systems in which cryogenic temperatures and ultra high vacuum pressures can be reached in as little as 12 hours. The ion traps are operated either in a liquid helium bath cryostat or in a low vibration closed cycle cryostat. The fast turn around time and availability of buffer gas cooling made the systems ideal for testing surface-electrode ion traps. The vibration amplitude of the closed cycled cryostat was found to be below 106 nm. We evaluated the systems by loading surface-electrode ion traps with $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions using laser ablation, which is compatible with the cryogenic environment. Using Doppler cooling we observed small ion crystals in which optically resolved ions have a trapped lifetime over 2500 minutes.

  12. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Niedermayr; Kirill Lakhmanskiy; Muir Kumph; Stefan Partel; Johannes Edlinger; Michael Brownnutt; Rainer Blatt

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  13. Radiation trapping in coherent media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Matsko; I. Novikova; M. O. Scully; G. R. Welch

    2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the effective decay rate of Zeeman coherence, generated in a Rb87 vapor by linearly polarized laser light, increases significantly with the atomic density. We explain this phenomenon as the result of radiation trapping. Our study shows that radiation trapping must be taken into account to fully understand many electromagnetically induced transparency experiments with optically thick media.

  14. Theory and application of planar ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, Christopher Elliott

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we investigate a new geometry of Paul trap with electrodes in a plane. These planar ion traps are compatible with modern silicon microfabrication, and can be scaled up to large arrays with multiple trapping ...

  15. Optimal traps in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Downing; A. R. Pearce; R. J. Churchill; M. E. Portnoi

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We transform the two-dimensional Dirac-Weyl equation, which governs the charge carriers in graphene, into a non-linear first-order differential equation for scattering phase shift, using the so-called variable phase method. This allows us to utilize the Levinson Theorem to find zero-energy bound states created electrostatically in realistic structures. These confined states are formed at critical potential strengths, which leads to us posit the use of `optimal traps' to combat the chiral tunneling found in graphene, which could be explored experimentally with an artificial network of point charges held above the graphene layer. We also discuss scattering on these states and find the zero angular momentum states create a dominant peak in scattering cross-section as energy tends towards the Dirac point energy, suggesting a dominant contribution to resistivity.

  16. POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996 (Received October 2005) ABSTRACT Beetle-killed loblolly pine chips were steam. Keywords: Beetle-killed pine, steam explosion, polypropylene composite, compatibilizer, flexural prop

  17. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  18. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  19. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Managing the Steam Trap Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    item? .However, some converts to the gospel of enlighten ed steam trap management expect to achieve the following benefits: A 95% trap performance level which is a better than 30% improvement over the industry norm. Plus, we have found a well... trained. This may six surveys per year with a guaf'8nteed performance level involve two days of training per man including of better than 9596. This program usually has the best cash classroom and field instruction plus periodic flow, and faster...

  1. Micromechanical Modeling of Filament Wound Cement-Based Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Micromechanical Modeling of Filament Wound Cement-Based Composites B. Mobasher, M.ASCE1 Abstract: A theoretical model to predict the response of laminated cement-based composites is developed. The micromechanical model simulates the mechanical response of a multilayer cement-based composite laminate under

  2. Gauge Theories on de Sitter space and Killing Vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin Banerjee

    2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a general method for studying a manifestly covariant formulation of $p$-form gauge theories on the de Sitter space. This is done by stereographically projecting the corresponding theories, defined on flat Minkowski space, onto the surface of a de Sitter hyperboloid. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors allowing for a very transparent analysis and compact presentation of results. As applications, the axial anomaly is computed and the electric-magnetic duality is exhibited. Finally, the zero curvature limit is shown to yield consistent results.

  3. Kill-a-Watt Contest at UCF | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report:40PM to 2:05PM PDT PacificFutureKick-OffKill-a-Watt

  4. Closure of logging wounds after 10 years. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H.C.; Miller, G.W.; Schuler, T.M.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closure of logging wounds on 96 sample trees was evaluated after 2, 5, and 10 years for Appalachian hardwood trees in north-central West Virginia. For yellow-poplar, northern red oak, black cherry, and white oak, many small wounds, 1 to 50 square inches in size, closed between 5 and 10 years after logging. For larger wounds, 50 to 200 square inches, it appears that many of these wounds may not close for at least 15 or perhaps 20 years after logging. Recommendations are provided to minimize logging wounds on residual trees in partially cut stands.

  5. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. F. Rossetti; G. D. de Moraes Neto; J. Carlos Egues; M. H. Y. Moussa

    2015-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba $\\alpha_{x}$, $\\alpha_{y}$ and Dresselhaus $\\beta_{x}$, $\\beta_{y}$ couplings afforded by our setup also enables us to obtain an "unusual" Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. Finally, we accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  6. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangan, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM); Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  7. Surface-electrode point Paul trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tony Hyun; Herskind, Peter F.; Chuang, Isaac L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kim, Taehyun; Kim, Jungsang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model as well as experimental results for a surface electrode radiofrequency Paul trap that has a circular electrode geometry well suited for trapping single ions and two-dimensional planar ion crystals. The trap design is compatible with microfabrication and offers a simple method by which the height of the trapped ions above the surface may be changed in situ. We demonstrate trapping of single {sup 88}Sr{sup +} ions over an ion height range of 200-1000 {mu}m for several hours under Doppler laser cooling and use these to characterize the trap, finding good agreement with our model.

  8. Optical Trapping by Radiometric Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William L. Clarke

    1998-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Micron sized, neutral, non-dielectric particles immersed in a viscous fluid can be trapped in the focal plane of a Gaussian beam. A particle can absorb energy from such a beam with a large radial intensity gradient, resulting in substantial temperature gradients and a radiometric torque which causes it to spin rapidly about an axis perpendicular to the flux of radiant energy. The particles are also observed to orbit around the optical axis. Here we investigate the fundamental physics of this system, the Radiometric Particle Trap, and discuss its force laws using gas-kinetic theory.

  9. Fiber optic integration in planar ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Elizabeth Marie

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic ion traps are are excellent tools in atomic physics for studying single ions. Accurate measurement of the ion's electronic state in these ion traps is required by both atomic clocks and quantum computation. Quantum ...

  10. Green functions and Euclidean fields near the bifurcate Killing horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Haba

    2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We approximate a Euclidean version of a D+1 dimensional manifold with a bifurcate Killing horizon by a product of a two-dimensional Rindler space and a D-1 dimensional manifold M. We obtain approximate formulas for the Green functions. We study the behaviour of Green functions near the horizon and their dimensional reduction. We show that if M is compact then the massless minimally coupled quantum field contains a zero mode which is a conformal invariant free field on R^2. Then, the Green function near the horizon can be approximated by the Green function of the two-dimensional quantum field theory. The correction term is exponentially small away from the horizon. If the volume of a geodesic ball is growing to infinity with its radius then the Green function cannot be approximated by a two-dimensional one.

  11. instructions HisTrap FF crude,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    · p1 instructions HisTrap FF crude, 1 ml and 5 ml i 11-0012-38 Edition AA HisTrapTM FF crude, such as degradation and oxidation of sensitive target proteins, and is therefore of great importance. HisTrap FF crude properties HisTrap FF crude 1-ml and 5-ml columns are prepacked with the affinity medium Ni Sepharose 6 Fast

  12. Development of directional capabilities to an ultradeep water dynamic kill simulator and simulations runs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Hector Ulysses

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Unfortunately with greater challenges there are greater risks of losing control and blowing out a well. A dynamic kill simulator was developed in late 2004 to model initial conditions of a blowout in ultradeep water and to calculate the minimum kill rate...

  13. SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF THE BRANCHING RANDOM WALK KILLED BELOW A LINEAR BOUNDARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF THE BRANCHING RANDOM WALK KILLED BELOW A LINEAR BOUNDARY JEAN B´ERARD, JEAN on the asymptotic behavior of the survival probability of the branching random walk killed below a linear boundary- Derrida theory of stochastic fronts are discussed. 1. Introduction Consider a real-valued branching random

  14. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) modulates wound healing through regulation of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Isabel; Diez-Marques, Maria L.; Rodriguez-Puyol, Manuel [Department of Physiology, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain) [Department of Physiology, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Red de Investigacion Renal Cooperativa (RedinRen) (Spain) [RedinRen; Spain; Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigacion Nefrologica (Spain); Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada [Nephrology Unit, IDIBELL, Hospital de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain) [Nephrology Unit, IDIBELL, Hospital de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Red de Investigacion Renal Cooperativa (RedinRen) (Spain)] [RedinRen; Spain; Garcia del Moral, Raimundo [Department of Pathology, University of Granada (Spain) [Department of Pathology, University of Granada (Spain); Red de Investigacion Renal Cooperativa (RedinRen) (Spain)] [RedinRen; Spain; Dedhar, Shoukat [Department of Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Research Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada)] [Department of Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Research Center, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Ruiz-Torres, Maria P., E-mail: mpiedad.ruiz@uah.es [Department of Physiology, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Red de Investigacion Renal Cooperativa (RedinRen) (Spain) [RedinRen; Spain; Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigacion Nefrologica (Spain); Rodriguez-Puyol, Diego [Nephrology Unit, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain) [Nephrology Unit, Hospital Universitario Principe de Asturias, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Red de Investigacion Renal Cooperativa (RedinRen) (Spain) [RedinRen; Spain; Instituto Reina Sofia de Investigacion Nefrologica (Spain)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an intracellular effector of cell-matrix interactions and regulates many cellular processes, including growth, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. The present work analyzes the role of ILK in wound healing in adult animals using a conditional knock-out of the ILK gene generated with the tamoxifen-inducible Cre-lox system (CRE-LOX mice). Results show that ILK deficiency leads to retarded wound closure in skin. Intracellular mechanisms involved in this process were analyzed in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) isolated from CRE-LOX mice and revealed that wounding promotes rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ILK. Knockdown of ILK resulted in a retarded wound closure due to a decrease in cellular proliferation and loss of HGF protein expression during the healing process, in vitro and in vivo. Alterations in cell proliferation and wound closure in ILK-deficient MEF or mice could be rescued by exogenous administration of human HGF. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the activation of PI3K and ILK after skin wounding are critical for HGF-dependent tissue repair and wound healing. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ILK deletion results in decreased HGF expression and delayed scratch wound repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI3K/ILK/AKT pathway signals through HGF to regulate wound healing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ILK-dependent increase in HGF expression is responsible for wound healing in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ILK-KO mice are used to confirm the requirement for ILK function in wound healing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human HGF treatment restores delayed wound closure in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Microscale ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Witten, William B. (Lancing, TN); Kornienko, Oleg (Lansdale, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap for mass spectrometric chemical analysis of ions is delineated. The ion trap includes a central electrode having an aperture; a pair of insulators, each having an aperture; a pair of end cap electrodes, each having an aperture; a first electronic signal source coupled to the central electrode; a second electronic signal source coupled to the end cap electrodes. The central electrode, insulators, and end cap electrodes are united in a sandwich construction where their respective apertures are coaxially aligned and symmetric about an axis to form a partially enclosed cavity having an effective radius r.sub.0 and an effective length 2z.sub.0, wherein r.sub.0 and/or z.sub.0 are less than 1.0 mm, and a ratio z.sub.0 /r.sub.0 is greater than 0.83.

  16. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  17. Cooling Techniques for Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel M. Segal; Christof Wunderlich

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This book chapter gives an introduction to, and an overview of, methods for cooling trapped ions. The main addressees are researchers entering the field. It is not intended as a comprehensive survey and historical account of the extensive literature on this topic. We present the physical ideas behind several cooling schemes, outline their mathematical description, and point to relevant literature useful for a more in-depth study of this topic.

  18. Eigenvalues of Killing Tensors and Separable Webs on Riemannian and Pseudo-Riemannian Manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudia Chanu; Giovanni Rastelli

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a $n$-dimensional Riemannian manifold of arbitrary signature, we illustrate an algebraic method for constructing the coordinate webs separating the geodesic Hamilton-Jacobi equation by means of the eigenvalues of $m \\leq n$ Killing two-tensors. Moreover, from the analysis of the eigenvalues, information about the possible symmetries of the web foliations arises. Three cases are examined: the orthogonal separation, the general separation, including non-orthogonal and isotropic coordinates, and the conformal separation, where Killing tensors are replaced by conformal Killing tensors. The method is illustrated by several examples and an application to the L-systems is provided.

  19. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy3 PierreElectron Trapping by

  20. Electron Trapping by Molecular Vibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseC Supports - Energy3 PierreElectron Trapping

  1. State-insensitive bichromatic optical trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bindiya Arora; M. S. Safronova; Charles W. Clark

    2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a scheme for state-insensitive trapping of neutral atoms by using light with two independent wavelengths. In particular, we describe the use of trapping and control lasers to minimize the variance of the potential experienced by a trapped Rb atom in ground and excited states. We present calculated values of wavelength pairs for which the 5s and 5p_{3/2} levels have the same ac Stark shifts in the presence of two laser fields.

  2. Report on the healing of a large wound in a Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Individual animals are identified by the unique shapes of their dorsal fins (Caldwell and Caldwell 1972~uries from shark bites (Corkeron et al. 1987a) and that these wounds heal rapidly (Corkeron et al. 1987b. This paper reports on the occurrence and healing of a large wound, probably caused by a shark bite

  3. An ordinary differential equation model for full thickness wounds and the effects of diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    An ordinary differential equation model for full thickness wounds and the effects of diabetes L and diabetic healing. The model can be used to estimate the contributions of growth and contraction to dermal healing. Increasing dermal growth is suggested as a treatment for enhancing healing of diabetic wounds

  4. The effect of Stromal cell Derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) and collagen-GAG (Glycosaminoglycan) scaffold on skin wound healing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Aparajita

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wound healing is an intricate biological process requiring the appropriate balance of matrix and growth factors. Apart from causing physical deformity, adult wound healing results in the formation of scar tissue, which can ...

  5. Cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalewski, Markus; Vivie-Riedle, Regina de [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet, D-81377 Munich (Germany); Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Pinkse, Pepijn W. H. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of cavity sideband cooling of trapped molecules is theoretically investigated for the case in which the infrared transition between two rovibrational states is used as a cycling transition. The molecules are assumed to be trapped either by a radiofrequency or optical trapping potential, depending on whether they are charged or neutral, and confined inside a high-finesse optical resonator that enhances radiative emission into the cavity mode. Using realistic experimental parameters and COS as a representative molecular example, we show that in this setup, cooling to the trap ground state is feasible.

  6. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Citation: Conlon BP, ES Nakayasu, LE Fleck, MD LaFleur, VM Isabella, K Coleman, SN Leonard, RD Smith, JN Adkins, and K Lewis.2013."Activated ClpP kills persisters and...

  7. Ultrapdeep water blowouts: COMASim dynamic kill simulator validation and best practices recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noynaert, Samuel F.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistically..................................................................... 7 1.4 Blowout Control Measures............................................................. 13 1.5 Kill Method Selection...................................................................................... 3 1.3 Crew evacuation after blowout ........................................................................... 3 1.4 The well is abandoned and out of control ........................................................... 3 1.5 Derrick...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - 5.3 Item 01 Top Kill Operation Status...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5.3 Item 01 Top Kill Operation Status 09 June 1400.pptx More Documents & Publications Microsoft PowerPoint - Enterprise Top Hat Phases - 07-04-2010.pptx Microsoft PowerPoint -...

  9. On the construction of Hartle-Hawking-Israel states across a static bifurcate Killing horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko Sanders

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a linear scalar quantum field propagating in a space-time with a static bifurcate Killing horizon and a wedge reflection. We prove the existence of a Hadamard state which is pure, quasi-free, invariant under the Killing flow and which restricts to a double KMS state at the inverse Hawking temperature on the union of the exterior wedge regions. The existence of such a state was first conjectured by Hartle and Hawking (1976) and Israel (1976) for stationary black hole space times. Our result complements a uniqueness result of Kay and Wald (1991), who considered a general bifurcate Killing horizon and proved that a certain (large) subalgebra of the free field algebra admits at most one Hadamard state which is invariant under the Killing flow. In the presence of a wedge reflection this state reduces to a pure, quasi-free KMS state on the smaller subalgebra associated to one of the exterior wedge regions. Our result establishes the existence of such a state on the full algebra in the static case. Our proof follows the arguments of Sewell (1982) and Jacobson (1994), exploiting a Wick rotation in the Killing time coordinate to construct a corresponding Euclidean theory. Because the Killing time coordinate is ill-defined on the bifurcation surface we systematically replace it by a Gaussian normal coordinate. A crucial part of our proof is to establish that the Euclidean ground state satisfies the necessary analogs of analyticity and reflection positivity with respect to this coordinate.

  10. Laser cooling of trapped ions Jurgen Eschner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blatt, Rainer

    of the art is reported, and several new cooling techniques are outlined. The principles of ion trapping by elucidating several milestone experiments. In addition, a number of special cooling techniques pertainingLaser cooling of trapped ions Ju¨rgen Eschner Institut fu¨ r Experimentalphysik, Universita

  11. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers­beam optical traps use­ ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  12. Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Holographic optical trapping David G. Grier Yael Roichman Department of Physics and Center for Soft Matter Research, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 Holographic optical tweezers-beam optical traps use- ful for capturing, moving and transforming mesoscopic objects. Through a combination

  13. Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. B. Andresen; W. Bertsche; P. D. Bowe; C. C. Bray; E. Butler; C. L. Cesar; S. Chapman; M. Charlton; J. Fajans; M. C. Fujiwara; R. Funakoshi; D. R. Gill; J. S. Hangst; W. N. Hardy; R. S. Hayano; M. E. Hayden; R. Hydomako; M. J. Jenkins; L. V. Jorgensen; L. Kurchaninov; R. Lambo; N. Madsen; P. Nolan; K. Olchanski; A. Olin; A. Povilus; P. Pusa; F. Robicheaux; E. Sarid; S. Seif El Nasr; D. M. Silveira; J. W. Storey; R. I. Thompson; D. P. van der Werf; J. S. Wurtele; Y. Yamazaki

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of the radial profile of trapped antiproton clouds is critical to trapping antihydrogen. We report the first detailed measurements of the radial manipulation of antiproton clouds, including areal density compressions by factors as large as ten, by manipulating spatially overlapped electron plasmas. We show detailed measurements of the near-axis antiproton radial profile and its relation to that of the electron plasma.

  14. Uniformly wound superconducting coil and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mookerjee, S.; Weijun, S.; Yager, B.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A coil of superconducting wire for a superconducting magnet is described having a relatively dense and uniformly spaced winding to enhance the homogeneity and strength of the magnetic field surrounding the coil and a method of winding the same wherein the mandrel used to wind said coil comprises removable spacers and retainers forming a plurality of outwardly opening slots, each of said slots extending generally about the periphery of the mandrel and being sized to receive and outwardly align and retain successive turns of the superconducting wire within each slot as the wire is wound around and laterally across the mandrel to form a plurality of wire ribbons of a predetermined thickness laterally across the mandrel. 8 figures.

  15. Uniformly wound superconducting coil and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mookerjee, Sumit (Cedar Hill, TX); Weijun, Shen (Beijun, CN); Yager, Billy (Waxahachie, TX)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coil of superconducting wire for a superconducting magnet having a relaely dense and uniformly spaced winding to enhance the homogeneity and strength of the magnetic field surrounding the coil and a method of winding the same wherein the mandrel used to wind said coil comprises removable spacers and retainers forming a plurality of outwardly opening slots, each of said slots extending generally about the periphery of the mandrel and being sized to receive and outwardly align and retain successive turns of the superconducting wire within each slot as the wire is wound around and laterally across the mandrel to form a plurality of wire ribbons of a predetermined thickness laterally across the mandrel.

  16. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  17. Ion Trap in a Semiconductor Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stick; W. K. Hensinger; S. Olmschenk; M. J. Madsen; K. Schwab; C. Monroe

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated atoms has led to many advances in physics, from laser cooling and Bose-Einstein condensation of cold gases to the precise quantum control of individual atomic ion. Work on miniaturizing electromagnetic traps to the micrometer scale promises even higher levels of control and reliability. Compared with 'chip traps' for confining neutral atoms, ion traps with similar dimensions and power dissipation offer much higher confinement forces and allow unparalleled control at the single-atom level. Moreover, ion microtraps are of great interest in the development of miniature mass spectrometer arrays, compact atomic clocks, and most notably, large scale quantum information processors. Here we report the operation of a micrometer-scale ion trap, fabricated on a monolithic chip using semiconductor micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. We confine, laser cool, and measure heating of a single 111Cd+ ion in an integrated radiofrequency trap etched from a doped gallium arsenide (GaAs) heterostructure.

  18. When a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation of black sea bass (Centropristis striata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    When a trap is not a trap: converging entry and exit rates and their effect on trap saturation entries and exits of black sea bass (Centropristis striata) from chevron traps (n ¼ 26) to quantify catch at50 min, when the entry ratedeclined and the exit rate increased to a point where their confidence

  19. Wound Complications in Preoperatively Irradiated Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Lewis A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Esther, Robert J. [Department of Orthopedics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Orthopedics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Erfanian, Kamil [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Green, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kim, Hong Jin; Sweeting, Raeshell [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tepper, Joel E., E-mail: tepper@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether the involvement of plastic surgery and the use of vascularized tissue flaps reduces the frequency of major wound complications after radiation therapy for soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) of the extremities. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study evaluated patients with STS of the extremities who underwent radiation therapy before surgery. Major complications were defined as secondary operations with anesthesia, seroma/hematoma aspirations, readmission for wound complications, or persistent deep packing. Results: Between 1996 and 2010, 73 patients with extremity STS were preoperatively irradiated. Major wound complications occurred in 32% and secondary operations in 16% of patients. Plastic surgery closed 63% of the wounds, and vascularized tissue flaps were used in 22% of closures. When plastic surgery performed closure the frequency of secondary operations trended lower (11% vs 26%; P=.093), but the frequency of major wound complications was not different (28% vs 38%; P=.43). The use of a vascularized tissue flap seemed to have no effect on the frequency of complications. The occurrence of a major wound complication did not affect disease recurrence or survival. For all patients, 3-year local control was 94%, and overall survival was 72%. Conclusions: The rates of wound complications and secondary operations in this study were very similar to previously published results. We were not able to demonstrate a significant relationship between the involvement of plastic surgery and the rate of wound complications, although there was a trend toward reduced secondary operations when plastic surgery was involved in the initial operation. Wound complications were manageable and did not compromise outcomes.

  20. Microfabricated Renewable Beads-Trapping/Releasing Flow Cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microfabricated Renewable Beads-TrappingReleasing Flow Cell for Rapid Antigen-Antibody Reaction in Chemiluminescent Immunoassay Microfabricated Renewable Beads-TrappingReleasing...

  1. NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement #10049 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) NOx Adsorber (Lean NOx Trap) Fundamentals (Agreement 10049 - PNNL Project 47120) Presentation from the U.S....

  2. H2-Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sam Crane August 28, 2003 H 2 -Assisted NOx Traps: Test Cell Results Vehicle Installations 2 Project Objectives * Determine Advantages of H 2 Assisted NO x Trap Regeneration *...

  3. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  4. Vibrational Cooling in A Cold Ion Trap: Vibrationally Resolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vibrational Cooling in A Cold Ion Trap: Vibrationally Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cold C60- Anions. Vibrational Cooling in A Cold Ion Trap: Vibrationally Resolved...

  5. atom trap trace: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors Physics Websites Summary: An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring...

  6. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design and Optimization 2005 Diesel Engine...

  7. Parameter exploration of optically trapped liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. R. Burnham; P. J. Reece; D. McGloin

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When studying the motion of optically trapped particles on the $\\mu s$ time scale, in low viscous media such as air, inertia cannot be neglected. Resolution of unusual and interesting behaviour not seen in colloidal trapping experiments is possible. In attempt to explain the phenomena we use power spectral methods to perform a parameter study of the Brownian motion of optically trapped liquid aerosol droplets concentrated around the critically damped regime. We present evidence that the system is suitably described by a simple harmonic oscillator model which must include a description of Fax\\'{e}n's correction, but not necessarily frequency dependent hydrodynamic corrections to Stokes' law. We also provide results describing how the system behaves under several variables and discuss the difficulty in decoupling the parameters responsible for the observed behaviour. We show that due to the relatively low dynamic viscosity and high trap stiffness it is easy to transfer between over- and under-damped motion by experimentally altering either trap stiffness or damping. Our results suggest stable aerosol trapping may be achieved in under-damped conditions, but the onset of deleterious optical forces at high trapping powers prevents the probing of the upper stability limits due to Brownian motion.

  8. Laser trapping of {sup 21}Na atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zheng-Tian

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes an experiment in which about four thousand radioactive {sup 21}Na (t{sub l/2} = 22 sec) atoms were trapped in a magneto-optical trap with laser beams. Trapped {sup 21}Na atoms can be used as a beta source in a precision measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of the decay of {sup 21}Na {yields} {sup 21}Ne + {Beta}{sup +} + v{sub e}, which is a promising way to search for an anomalous right-handed current coupling in charged weak interactions. Although the number o trapped atoms that we have achieved is still about two orders of magnitude lower than what is needed to conduct a measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter at 1% of precision level, the result of this experiment proved the feasibility of trapping short-lived radioactive atoms. In this experiment, {sup 21}Na atoms were produced by bombarding {sup 24}Mg with protons of 25 MeV at the 88 in. Cyclotron of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A few recently developed techniques of laser manipulation of neutral atoms were applied in this experiment. The {sup 21}Na atoms emerging from a heated oven were first transversely cooled. As a result, the on-axis atomic beam intensity was increased by a factor of 16. The atoms in the beam were then slowed down from thermal speed by applying Zeeman-tuned slowing technique, and subsequently loaded into a magneto-optical trap at the end of the slowing path. The last two chapters of this thesis present two studies on the magneto-optical trap of sodium atoms. In particular, the mechanisms of magneto-optical traps at various laser frequencies and the collisional loss mechanisms of these traps were examined.

  9. Trapping efficiency depending on particulate size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Czerwinski, J.; Scheidegger, P.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing concern about the risk potential of Diesel particulates. This prompted two Swiss R and D projects focused on the capabilities of different soot trap concepts for filtering finest particulates. Eight different filter media, some in numerous variants, were tested on four different Diesel engines. All traps attained their gravimetric target. However, there are noticeable performance differences for finest particulates at or smaller than 50 nm. Fiber deep filters seem to be noticeably better than other filter types. If the carcinogens are mainly the finest particulates, then this criterion may become important in future trap evaluation.

  10. An Atom Trap Relying on Optical Pumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Bouyer; P. Lemonde; M. Ben Dahan; A. Michaud; C. Salomon; J. Dalibard

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated a new radiation pressure trap which relies on optical pumping and does not require any magnetic field. It employs six circularly polarized divergent beams and works on the red of a $J_{g} \\longrightarrow J_{e} = J_{g} + 1$ atomic transition with $J_{g} \\geq 1/2$. We have demonstrated this trap with cesium atoms from a vapour cell using the 852 nm $J_{g} = 4 \\longrightarrow J_{e} = 5$ resonance transition. The trap contained up to $3 \\cdot 10^{7}$ atoms in a cloud of $1/\\sqrt{e}$ radius of 330 $\\mu$m.

  11. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  12. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culiat, Cymbeline T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  13. Mechanisms of Cutaneous Wound Healing are Mediated via Peripheral Neuropeptide Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rook, Jerri Michelle

    2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    knee surgery (Kalso et al., 1997). Researchers have also investigated the use of topically applied opioid compounds for pain associated with open wounds and burns. Patients receiving exogenous opioid-infused gel treatments reported lower pain...

  14. Transcriptional analysis of the healing response of wounded nerves treated with collagen and silicone tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Matthew Q

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the transcriptional differences between nerve wounds treated with silicone tubes and those treated with collagen nerve regeneration templates. The primary motivation for the study is to test the hypothesis ...

  15. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank Schlawin; Manuel Gessner; Shaul Mukamel; Andreas Buchleitner

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity which require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in [M. Gessner et al. New J. Phys. 16 092001 (2014)], we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems and discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods in combination with distinct features of ultra-cold matter systems allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and can therefore reliably probe systems where, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  16. A quantum information processor with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Philipp

    Quantum computers hold the promise to solve certain problems exponentially faster than their classical counterparts. Trapped atomic ions are among the physical systems in which building such a computing device seems viable. ...

  17. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  18. Use of Bullet Traps and Steel Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    design criteria and deployment specifications of bullet traps on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) live-fire ranges. Deviation from these design and deployment criteria must be...

  19. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    , it's important to select and install the correct type and size steam trap for each application. This means a corruninnent must be made to training those who select, install, test and maintain steam traps on a. daily Scott A. French Application... generated. This paper will review each of these topics and then explore some of the new services, products, practices and technology available to help you maintain or improve the efficiency of your steam system. COSTLY STEAM LEAKS ENERGY RESOURCES...

  20. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal from Arthur Kill Project Area, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruendell, B.D.; Barrows, E.S.; Borde, A.B. [Battelle Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the bioassay reevaluation of Arthur Kill Federal Project was to reperform toxicity testing on proposed dredged material following current ammonia reduction protocols. Arthur Kill was one of four waterways sampled and evaluated for dredging and disposal in April 1993. Sediment samples were recollected from the Arthur Kill Project areas in August 1995. Tests and analyses were conducted according to the manual developed by the USACE and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal (Testing Manual), commonly referred to as the {open_quotes}Green Book,{close_quotes} and the regional manual developed by the USACE-NYD and EPA Region II, Guidance for Performing Tests on Dredged Material to be Disposed of in Ocean Waters. The reevaluation of proposed dredged material from the Arthur Kill project areas consisted of benthic acute toxicity tests. Thirty-three individual sediment core samples were collected from the Arthur Kill project area. Three composite sediments, representing each reach of the area proposed for dredging, was used in benthic acute toxicity testing. Benthic acute toxicity tests were performed with the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and the mysid Mysidopsis bahia. The amphipod and mysid benthic toxicity test procedures followed EPA guidance for reduction of total ammonia concentrations in test systems prior to test initiation. Statistically significant acute toxicity was found in all Arthur Kill composites in the static renewal tests with A. abdita, but not in the static tests with M. bahia. Statistically significant acute toxicity and a greater than 20% increase in mortality over the reference sediment was found in the static renewal tests with A. abdita. M. bahia did not show statistically significant acute toxicity or a greater than 10% increase in mortality over reference sediment in static tests. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. RICE UNIVERSITY A New Optical Trap System for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Killian, Thomas C.

    profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.1.3 Alignment of the loading trap beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.1.4 Power locking system for loading trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.2 Loading trap depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1.1 Description of trap optical design and beam profiles . . . . . . 22 3.1.2 Power locking

  2. Constraining corotation from shocks in tightly-wound spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gittins; C. Clarke

    2003-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new method for estimating the corotation radius in tightly wound spiral galaxies, through analysis of the radial variation of the offset between arms traced by the potential (P-arms) and those traced by dust (D-arms). We have verified the predictions of semi-analytical theory through hydrodynamical simulations and have examined the uniqueness of the galactic parameters that can be deduced by this method. We find that if the range of angular offsets measured at different radii in a galaxy is greater than around pi/4, it is possible to locate the radius of corotation to within ~ 25%. We argue that the relative location of the P- and D-arms provides more robust constraints on the galactic parameters than can be inferred from regions of enhanced star formation (SF-arms), since interpretation of the latter involves uncertainties due to reddening and the assumed star formation law. We thus stress the importance of K-band studies of spiral galaxies.

  3. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, James N. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  4. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) Organizer: Ferdinand Hahn PH/DT Detector Seminar webpage  

  5. Chapter 44. Cooling and Trapping Neutral Atoms Cooling and Trapping Neutral Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transition. This year, we made progress in developing novel detection and cooling techniques. 1. SpinChapter 44. Cooling and Trapping Neutral Atoms 44-1 Cooling and Trapping Neutral Atoms RLE Groups in optical lattices. Additional cooling methods will be needed to reach this very interesting temperature

  6. Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

  7. The stability of Killing-Cauchy horizons in colliding plane wave space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. B. Griffiths

    2005-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is confirmed rigorously that the Killing-Cauchy horizons, which sometimes occur in space-times representing the collision and subsequent interaction of plane gravitational waves in a Minkowski background, are unstable with respect to bounded perturbations of the initial waves, at least for the case in which the initial waves have constant aligned polarizations.

  8. KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    KILLING OF TARGET CELLS DUE TO RADON PROGENY IN THE HUMAN LUNG B. M. F. Lau1 , D. Nikezic1,2 and K to inhaled radon progeny in the human lung. The present work uses the microdosimetric approach and determines/alleviate this discrepancy, including those based on different lung morpho- metry models(4) , different ethnic groups(5

  9. Ball-grid array architecture for microfabricated ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas D. Guise; Spencer D. Fallek; Kelly E. Stevens; K. R. Brown; Curtis Volin; Alexa W. Harter; Jason M. Amini; Robert E. Higashi; Son Thai Lu; Helen M. Chanhvongsak; Thi A. Nguyen; Matthew S. Marcus; Thomas R. Ohnstein; Daniel W. Youngner

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art microfabricated ion traps for quantum information research are approaching nearly one hundred control electrodes. We report here on the development and testing of a new architecture for microfabricated ion traps, built around ball-grid array (BGA) connections, that is suitable for increasingly complex trap designs. In the BGA trap, through-substrate vias bring electrical signals from the back side of the trap die to the surface trap structure on the top side. Gold-ball bump bonds connect the back side of the trap die to an interposer for signal routing from the carrier. Trench capacitors fabricated into the trap die replace area-intensive surface or edge capacitors. Wirebonds in the BGA architecture are moved to the interposer. These last two features allow the trap die to be reduced to only the area required to produce trapping fields. The smaller trap dimensions allow tight focusing of an addressing laser beam for fast single-qubit rotations. Performance of the BGA trap as characterized with $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions is comparable to previous surface-electrode traps in terms of ion heating rate, mode frequency stability, and storage lifetime. We demonstrate two-qubit entanglement operations with $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions in a second BGA trap.

  10. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  11. Signal enhancement using a switchable magnetic trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for analyzing a sample including providing a microchannel flow channel; associating the sample with magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads; moving the sample with said magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in the microchannel flow channel; holding the sample with the magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic polystyrene-coated beads in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel; and analyzing the sample obtaining an enhanced analysis signal. An apparatus for analysis of a sample includes magnetic particles connected to the sample, a microchip, a flow channel in the microchip, a source of carrier fluid connected to the flow channel for moving the sample in the flow channel, an electromagnet trap connected to the flow line for selectively magnetically trapping the sample and the magnetic particles, and an analyzer for analyzing the sample.

  12. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Walther; Frank Ziesel; Thomas Ruster; Sam T. Dawkins; Konstantin Ott; Max Hettrich; Kilian Singer; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Ulrich Poschinger

    2012-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  13. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  14. Parametric Resonance of Optically Trapped Aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Di Leonardo; G. Ruocco; J. Leach; M. J. Padgett; A. J. Wright; J. M. Girkin; D. R. Burnham; D. McGloin

    2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brownian dynamics of an optically trapped water droplet are investigated across the transition from over to under-damped oscillations. The spectrum of position fluctuations evolves from a Lorentzian shape typical of over-damped systems (beads in liquid solvents), to a damped harmonic oscillator spectrum showing a resonance peak. In this later under-damped regime, we excite parametric resonance by periodically modulating the trapping power at twice the resonant frequency. The power spectra of position fluctuations are in excellent agreement with the obtained analytical solutions of a parametrically modulated Langevin equation.

  15. Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouba, C.

    Maintenance Mechanic), Rick Ragsdale (Fluor), Joyce Finkle (PC), Denis P Humphreys (Fluoroproducts), Jack Hemmert, Charlie Brown 10/20/2010 2 Steam trap failures are nothing new Steam trap programs are nothing new WHAT makes this program have such a huge... impact and How is it sustainable HOW we went about finding a solution What do you have learn from this 10/20/2010 3 Six Sigma Methodology was KEY to success Savings: $1MM annualized in only 6 months! 10/20/2010 4Define: Project CTQ?s Customer...

  16. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.

    1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself. 4 figs.

  17. Thermal electric vapor trap arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for trapping vapor within a section of a tube is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a conventional, readily providable thermal electric device having a hot side and a cold side and means for powering the device to accomplish this. The cold side of this device is positioned sufficiently close to a predetermined section of the tube and is made sufficiently cold so that any condensable vapor passing through the predetermined tube section is condensed and trapped, preferably within the predetermined tube section itself.

  18. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro, E-mail: okada-k@sophia.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0021 (Japan); Tanuma, Hajime [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar{sup q+} (q = 5?7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar{sup q+} (q = 5?7) under a constant number density of H{sub 2} and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar{sup q+}(q = 5, 6)-H{sub 2} collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  19. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  20. Carbon dioxide dissolution in structural and stratigraphic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesse, M. A.

    The geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in structural and stratigraphic traps is a viable option to reduce anthropogenic emissions. While dissolution of the CO[subscript 2] stored in these traps ...

  1. Ideal Multipole Ion Traps from Planar Ring Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Clark

    2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present designs for multipole ion traps based on a set of planar, annular, concentric electrodes which require only rf potentials to confine ions. We illustrate the desirable properties of the traps by considering a few simple cases of confined ions. We predict that mm-scale surface traps may have trap depths as high as tens of electron volts, or micromotion amplitudes in a 2-D ion crystal as low as tens of nanometers, when parameters of a magnitude common in the field are chosen. Several example traps are studied, and the scaling of those properties with voltage, frequency, and trap scale, for small numbers of ions, is derived. In addition, ions with very high charge-to-mass ratios may be confined in the trap, and species of very different charge-to-mass ratios may be simultaneously confined. Applications of these traps include quantum information science, frequency metrology, and cold ion-atom collisions.

  2. In-Vacuum Active Electronics for Microfabricated Ion Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas D. Guise; Spencer D. Fallek; Harley Hayden; C-S Pai; Curtis Volin; K. R. Brown; J. True Merrill; Alexa W. Harter; Jason M. Amini; Lisa M. Lust; Kelly Muldoon; Doug Carlson; Jerry Budach

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of microfabricated ion traps for the quantum information community has allowed research groups to build traps that incorporate an unprecedented number of trapping zones. However, as device complexity has grown, the number of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) channels needed to control these devices has grown as well, with some of the largest trap assemblies now requiring nearly one hundred DAC channels. Providing electrical connections for these channels into a vacuum chamber can be bulky and difficult to scale beyond the current numbers of trap electrodes. This paper reports on the development and testing of an in-vacuum DAC system that uses only 9 vacuum feedthrough connections to control a 78-electrode microfabricated ion trap. The system is characterized by trapping single and multiple $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. The measured axial mode stability, ion heating rates, and transport fidelities for a trapped ion are comparable to systems with external(air-side) commercial DACs.

  3. Towards a cryogenic planar ion trap for Sr-88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakr, Waseem (Waseem S.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes experiments with ion traps constructed with electrodes in a single two-dimensional plane, and ion traps operated in a cryogenic environment at 77K and 4K temperatures. These two technologies address ...

  4. Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will deal with steam trap surveys and preventive maintenance programs and the energy savings that may be realized from such efforts. Trap survey organization, flexibility, simplicity, and mechanics will be reviewed, including the economic...

  5. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics. Abstract: Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way...

  6. Feedback cooling of a single trapped ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel Bushev; Daniel Rotter; Alex Wilson; Francois Dubin; Christoph Becher; Juergen Eschner; Rainer Blatt; Viktor Steixner; Peter Rabl; Peter Zoller

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a real-time measurement of the motion of a single ion in a Paul trap, we demonstrate its electro-mechanical cooling below the Doppler limit by homodyne feedback control (cold damping). The feedback cooling results are well described by a model based on a quantum mechanical Master Equation.

  7. Simulating a quantum magnet with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    systems we need a quantum leap in computer simulations. We cannot translate quantum behaviour arising from dynamics, we need a `quantum leap' in simulation efficiency. As proposed in ref. 1, a universal quantumLETTERS Simulating a quantum magnet with trapped ions A. FRIEDENAUER*, H. SCHMITZ*, J. T. GLUECKERT

  8. Quantum Stochastic Heating of a Trapped Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Horvath; R. Fisher; M. J. Collett; H. J. Carmichael

    2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The resonant heating of a harmonically trapped ion by a standing-wave light field is described as a quantum stochastic process combining a coherent Schroedinger evolution with Bohr-Einstein quantum jumps. Quantum and semi-quantum treatments are compared.

  9. Dynamical Localization in the Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. El Ghafar; P. Torma; V. Savichev; E. Mayr; A. Zeiler; W. P. Schleich

    1996-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that quantum localization occurs in the center-of-mass motion of an ion stored in a Paul trap and interacting with a standing laser field. The present experimental state of the art makes the observation of this phenomenon feasible.

  10. Trapping Light With Mirrors David Milovich Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milovich, David

    Trapping Light With Mirrors David Milovich Jr. February 20, 2004 Abstract. We show that, given finitely many line-segment mirrors in the plane, that do not touch, and an arbitrary point source of light emitted light beams escape. This result is shown to imply that, for a given point source of light

  11. Acceleration of trapped particles and beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Er'el Granot; Boris Malomed

    2011-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of a quantum particle bound by an accelerating delta-functional potential is investigated. Three cases are considered, using the reference frame moving along with the {\\delta}-function, in which the acceleration is converted into the additional linear potential. (i) A stationary regime, which corresponds to a resonance state, with a minimum degree of delocalization, supported by the accelerating potential trap. (ii) A pulling scenario: an initially bound particle follows the accelerating delta-functional trap, within a finite time. (iii) The pushing scenario: the particle, which was initially localized to the right of the repulsive delta-function, is shoved to the right by the accelerating potential. For the two latter scenarios, the life time of the trapped particle, and the largest velocity to which it can be accelerated while staying trapped, are found. Analytical approximations are developed for the cases of small and large accelerations in the pulling regime, and also for a small acceleration in the stationary situation, and in the regime of pushing. The same regimes may be realized by Airy-like planar optical beams guided by a narrow bending potential channel or crest. Physical estimates are given for an atom steered by a stylus of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), and for the optical beam guided by a bending stripe.

  12. A system for trapping barium ions in a microfabricated surface trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R. D., E-mail: rdgraham@uw.edu; Sakrejda, T.; Wright, J.; Zhou, Z.; Blinov, B. B., E-mail: blinov@uw.edu [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Box 351560, Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States); Chen, S.-P. [University of Washington, Department of Electrical Engineering, 185 Stevens Way, Paul Allen Center - Room AE100R, Campus Box 352500, Seattle, WA 98195-2500 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing of microfabricated surface ion traps. Our system is modular in design and is based on an in-vacuum printed circuit board with integrated filters. We have used this system to successfully trap and cool barium ions and have achieved ion ‘dark' lifetimes of 31.6 s ± 3.4 s with controlled shuttling of ions. We provide a detailed description of the ion trap system including the in-vacuum materials used, control electronics and neutral atom source. We discuss the challenges presented in achieving a system which can work reliably over two years of operations in which the trap under test was changed at least 10 times.

  13. Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders Robert-Paul Berretty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    devices such as wiper blades, grooves and traps. Most of these devices are filters Research is supported

  14. Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conlon, Brian P.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Fleck, Laura E.; LaFleur, Michael D.; Isabella, Vincent M.; Coleman, K.; Leonard, Steve N.; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Lewis, Kim

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The current antibiotic crisis stems from two distinct phenomena-drug resistance, and drug tolerance. Resistance mechanisms such as drug efflux or modification prevent antibiotics from binding to their targets 1, allowing pathogens to grow. Antibiotic tolerance is the property of persister cells, phenotypic variants of regular bacteria 2. Antibiotics kill by corrupting targets, but these are inactive in dormant persisters, leading to tolerance. Persisters were first identified by Joseph Bigger in 1944, when he discovered a surviving sub-population of Staphylococcus following treatment with penicillin3. Persisters are largely responsible for recalcitrance of chronic diseases such as tuberculosis, and various infections associated with biofilms - endocarditis, osteomyelitis, infections of catheters and indwelling devices, and deep-seated infections of soft tissues 4. There are a number of redundant pathways involved in persister formation5,6 precluding development of drugs inhibiting their formation. The acyldepsipeptide antibiotic (ADEP 4) has been shown to activate the ClpP protease resulting in death of growing cells 7. Here we show that ADEP4 activated ClpP becomes a fairly non-specific protease and kills persister cells by degradation of over 400 intracellular targets. clpP mutants are resistant to ADEP4 7, but we find that they display increased susceptibility to killing by a range of conventional antibiotics. Combining ADEP4 with rifampicin leads to eradication of persisters, stationary and biofilm populations of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and in a deep-seated murine infection. Target corruption/activation provides an approach to killing persisters and eradicating chronic infections.

  15. Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, M.G.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fall rates of prescribed fire-killed ponderosa pine were evaluated relative to tree and fire damage characteristics. High crown scorch and short survival time after fire injury were factors leading to a high probability of early tree fall. The role of chemical defense mechanisms is discussed. Results apply to prescribed-fire injured, second-growth ponderosa pine less than 16 inches diameter at breast height.

  16. Corruption kills On the anniversary of Haiti's devastating quake, Nicholas Ambraseys and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilham, Roger

    Corruption kills On the anniversary of Haiti's devastating quake, Nicholas Ambraseys and Roger from last year's Haiti earthquake compared with the absence of any fatalities in New Zea- land.162 L.AbAssi/MiNUsTAH/GeTTyiMAGes Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 2010. 1 3 J A n u A r y 2 0 1 1 | V O L 4 6 9

  17. Wormholes admitting conformal Killing vectors and supported by generalized Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter K. F. Kuhfittig

    2015-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    When Morris and Thorne first proposed that traversable wormholes may be actual physical objects, they concentrated on the geometry by specifying the shape and redshift functions. This mathematical approach necessarily raises questins regarding the determination of the required stress-energy tensor. This paper discusses a natural way to obtain a complete wormhole solution by assuming that the wormhole (1) is supported by generalized Chaplygin gas and (2) admits conformal Killing vectors.

  18. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in G.B. Andresen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    . The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The de- vice comprises OF EACH PAPER CP1037, Cold Antimatter Plasmas and Application to Fundamental Physics, edited by Y. Kanai captured and cooled antiprotons in the catching trap. The catching trap includes a "rotating wall" electric

  19. An optical trap for relativistic plasmaa... Ping Zhang,b)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald

    An optical trap for relativistic plasmaa... Ping Zhang,b) Ned Saleh, Shouyuan Chen, Zhengming Sheng November 2002; accepted 14 February 2003 The first optical trap capable of confining relativistic electrons that the optical trap acted to heat electrons, increasing their temperature by two orders of magnitude

  20. Enhancing entanglement trapping by weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying-Jie Zhang; Wei Han; Heng Fan; Yun-Jie Xia

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to enhance trapping of entanglement of two qubits in the environment of a photonic band gap material. Our entanglement trapping promotion scheme makes use of combined weak measurements and quantum measurement reversals. The optimal promotion of entanglement trapping can be acquired with a reasonable finite success probability by adjusting measurement strengths.

  1. Light trapping in photonic crystals Ken Xingze Wang,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Light trapping in photonic crystals Ken Xingze Wang,ab Zongfu Yu,bc Victor Liu,bd Aaswath Raman,b Yi Cuief and Shanhui Fan*b We consider light trapping in photonic crystals in the weak material-integrated absorption enhancement by light trapping is proportional to the photonic density of states. The tight bound

  2. Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    Commons as insurance: safety nets or poverty traps? Philippe Delacote Economics Department, EUI. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential poverty-trap implications of this use. If the capacity, the introduction of an insurance scheme could be an exit to the poverty trap and relax pressure on the resource

  3. Lysosomal Trafficking, Antigen Presentation, and Microbial Killing Are Controlled by the Arf-like GTPase Arl8b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Salil

    Antigen presentation and microbial killing are critical arms of host defense that depend upon cargo trafficking into lysosomes. Yet, the molecular regulators of traffic into lysosomes are only partly understood. Here, using ...

  4. Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmerling, Paul James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

  5. Characterization of wound monitoring systems used to quantify and locate plutonium contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimmerling, Paul James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When an accident involving the possibility of a plutonium contaminated wound occurs, the contamination is often quantified using sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and high purity germanium (HPGe) detection systems. The NaI(Tl) system is used to quantify...

  6. Energy Efficient Steam Trapping of Trace Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to insure low back pressure. Caution: Make certain the trap you select can handle the system back pressure. Each trap has specific limitations in this regard. 8. A Y-Strainer is considered mandatory for use on any Tracer Trap to reduce the potential... for plugging based on the small orifice sizes being employed. (Refer to Fig. 3). 9. Freeze-proofing each trap should be in accord with each manufacturer's recommendations. 10. When multiple traps are installed to discharge into a common manifold, check...

  7. Trapped surfaces in vacuum arising dynamically from mild incoming radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinliang An; Jonathan Luk

    2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the "minimal requirement" on the incoming radiation that guarantees a trapped surface to form in vacuum. First, we extend the region of existence in Christodoulou's theorem on the formation of trapped surfaces and consequently show that the lower bound required to form a trapped surface can be relaxed. Second, we demonstrate that trapped surfaces form dynamically from a class of initial data which are large merely in a scaling-critical norm. This result is motivated in part by the scaling in Christodoulou's formation of trapped surfaces theorem for the Einstein-scalar field system in spherical symmetry.

  8. An ion trap built with photonic crystal fibre technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Lindenfelser; B. Keitch; D. Kienzler; D. Bykov; P. Uebel; M. A. Schmidt; P. St. J. Russell; J. P. Home

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated using techniques transferred from the manufacture of photonic-crystal fibres. This provides a relatively straightforward route for realizing traps with an electrode structure on the 100 micron scale with high optical access. We demonstrate the basic functionality of the trap by cooling a single ion to the quantum ground state, allowing us to measure a heating rate from the ground state of 787(24) quanta/s. Variation of the fabrication procedure used here may provide access to traps in this geometry with trap scales between 100 um and 10 um.

  9. An ion trap built with photonic crystal fibre technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindenfelser, F; Kienzler, D; Bykov, D; Uebel, P; Schmidt, M A; Russell, P St J; Home, J P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated using techniques transferred from the manufacture of photonic-crystal fibres. This provides a relatively straightforward route for realizing traps with an electrode structure on the 100 micron scale with high optical access. We demonstrate the basic functionality of the trap by cooling a single ion to the quantum ground state, allowing us to measure a heating rate from the ground state of 787(24) quanta/s. Variation of the fabrication procedure used here may provide access to traps in this geometry with trap scales between 100 um and 10 um.

  10. Construction and Operational Experience with a Superconducting Octupole Used to Trap Antihydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanderer P.; Escallier, J.; Marone, A.; Parker, B.

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting octupole magnet has seen extensive service as part of the ALPHA experiment at CERN. ALPHA has trapped antihydrogen, a crucial step towards performing precision measurements of anti-atoms. The octupole was made at the Direct Wind facility by the Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnet was wound with a six-around-one NbTi cable about 1 mm in diameter. It is about 300 mm long, with a radius of 25 mm and a peak field at the conductor of 4.04 T. Specific features of the magnet, including a minimal amount of material in the coil and coil ends with low multipole content, were advantageous to its use in ALPHA. The magnet was operated for six months a year for five years. During this time it underwent about 900 thermal cycles (between 4K and 100K). A novel operational feature is that during the course of data-taking the magnet was repeatedly shut off from its 950 A operating current. The magnet quenches during the shutoff, with a decay constant of 9 ms. Over the course of the five years, the magnet was deliberately quenched many thousands of times. It still performs well.

  11. Transport of hydrogen in metals with occupancy dependent trap energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, K., E-mail: klaus.schmid@ipp.mpg.de; Toussaint, U. von; Schwarz-Selinger, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, D-85748 Garching b. München (Germany)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Common diffusion trapping models for modeling hydrogen transport in metals are limited to traps with single de-trapping energies and a saturation occupancy of one. While they are successful in predicting typical mono isotopic ion implantation and thermal degassing experiments, they fail at describing recent experiments on isotope exchange at low temperatures. This paper presents a new modified diffusion trapping model with fill level dependent de-trapping energies that can also explain these new isotope exchange experiments. Density function theory (DFT) calculations predict that even mono vacancies can store between 6 and 12?H atoms with de-trapping energies that depend on the fill level of the mono vacancy. The new fill level dependent diffusion trapping model allows to test these DFT results by bridging the gap in length and time scale between DFT calculations and experiment.

  12. Effect of trapping in degenerate quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, H. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Tsintsadze, N. [Department of Physics, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair, GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work we consider the effect of trapping as a microscopic process in a plasma consisting of quantum electrons and nondegenerate ions. The formation of solitary structures is investigated in two cases: first when the electrons are fully degenerate and second when small temperature effects are taken into account. It is seen that not only rarefactive but coupled rarefactive and compressive solitons are obtained under different temperature conditions.

  13. Thermodynamics of Interacting Fermions in Atomic Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Qijin; Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the entropy in a trapped, resonantly interacting Fermi gas as a function of temperature for a wide range of magnetic fields between the BCS and Bose-Einstein condensation end points. This provides a basis for the important technique of adiabatic sweep thermometry and serves to characterize quantitatively the evolution and nature of the excitations of the gas. The results are then used to calibrate the temperature in several ground breaking experiments on {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K.

  14. Reduce Steam Trap Failures at Chambers Works 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kouba, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    automatically within SAP ? Survey performed and work orders created ? Surveyor/Team Leader coordinates repair work ? Use backlog of work to justify number of mechanics ? Prioritize work for mechanics ? Repair Mechanics work across the site ? SAP Work Order... history updated for individual traps ? Surveyor updates excel spreadsheet with repair history ? Monthly reports sent to area and site management 10/20/2010 11Piloted Solution Key Learnings ? SAP Cumbersome and slows repair process ? Use SAP...

  15. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    of the proper piping arrangements to all your basic equipment showing the traps, strainers, air vents, vacuum breakers, etc. These diagrams need to apply only to your plant, not to the hundreds of possibilities found in an all-purpose publication. See Fig... and rust ("dirt") E Size L Mechanical failure usually is... OJ Recommended design factor 2-3 Loud, popping condensate discharge No Renewable wlo piping disassembly No Requires strainer No Tbennal efficiency (low steam loss) Fair Condensate Wscharge...

  16. The relative efficiency of the Malaise trap and animal-baited traps for collecting biting flies in Southwest Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easton, Emmett Richard

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to laboratory animals. A trap model was desired that would require little or no handling of the trapped animal. Disney (1966) placed a metal sheet around a cubical rat cage and liberally applied castor oil to the metal sheet so that phlebotomine sand flies... could be caught and trapped in the castor oil. Since this sand fly moves in a hopping fashion the trap would seem to be more efficient for this fly than for mosquitoes. Bellamy and Res~ca (1952) employed a 110-lb. lard can as a portable baited trap...

  17. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)] [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey) [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  18. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Thin-film flow in helically-wound rectangular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Yvonne

    several decades since the work of Holland-Batt (1975, 1989), is the separation of minerals or coal from crushed ore in static spiral separators. These consist of a helically-wound channel, down which a slurry

  19. Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fixed at one end with the valve plug on the other. The bellows are fillediwith the valve plug on the other. The bellows are filled with a liquid whose boiling temperature/pressure relationship parallels that of water only a few degrees be~ow it... resistance to the flow based on valve plug position. This promotes smooth control and additionally by allowing the pressure drop to occur in steps reduces wear on the critical seating surfaces. This trap provides excellent proportional control without...

  20. Gas turbine engines with particle traps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ); Sumner, D. Warren (Phoenix, AZ); Sheoran, Yogendra (Scottsdale, AZ); Judd, Z. Daniel (Phoenix, AZ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine (10) incorporates a particle trap (46) that forms an entrapment region (73) in a plenum (24) which extends from within the combustor (18) to the inlet (32) of a radial-inflow turbine (52, 54). The engine (10) is thereby adapted to entrap particles that originate downstream from the compressor (14) and are otherwise propelled by combustion gas (22) into the turbine (52, 54). Carbonaceous particles that are dislodged from the inner wall (50) of the combustor (18) are incinerated within the entrapment region (73) during operation of the engine (10).

  1. Cooling trapped atoms in optical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Giovanna Morigi

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an equation for the cooling dynamics of the quantum motion of an atom trapped by an external potential inside an optical resonator. This equation has broad validity and allows us to identify novel regimes where the motion can be efficiently cooled to the potential ground state. Our result shows that the motion is critically affected by quantum correlations induced by the mechanical coupling with the resonator, which may lead to selective suppression of certain transitions for the appropriate parameters regimes, thereby increasing the cooling efficiency.

  2. Parallel ion strings in linear multipole traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu Marciante; Caroline Champenois; J. Pedregosa-Gutierrez; Annette Calisti; Martina Knoop

    2011-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional radio-frequency (rf) potentials applied to linear multipole traps create extra field nodes in the radial plane which allow one to confine single ions, or strings of ions, in totally rf field-free regions. The number of nodes depends on the order of the applied multipole potentials and their relative distance can be easily tuned by the amplitude variation of the applied voltages. Simulations using molecular dynamics show that strings of ions can be laser cooled down to the Doppler limit in all directions of space. Once cooled, organized systems can be moved with very limited heating, even if the cooling process is turned off.

  3. Isotopic abundance in atom trap trace analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Zheng-Tian; Hu, Shiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Mueller, Peter

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for detecting ratios and amounts of isotopes of noble gases. The method and system is constructed to be able to measure noble gas isotopes in water and ice, which helps reveal the geological age of the samples and understand their movements. The method and system uses a combination of a cooled discharge source, a beam collimator, a beam slower and magneto-optic trap with a laser to apply resonance frequency energy to the noble gas to be quenched and detected.

  4. Measurements of PM Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies |Measurements of PM Traps

  5. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trap location, service, manufacturer, model, steam pressures, pipe size, type of connect ion, associated valves, strainer, and insulation. The condition in which each trap was found in the plant was reported and summarized as in Table 1. Other... leaks and any unsafe situations were also noted. Of the 5,000 surveyed traps, approximately 20% had failed open or were in another failure mode where live steam was leaking, 5% were found plugged, and 10% were found not losing steam but needing...

  6. Broadband laser cooling of trapped atoms with ultrafast pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Blinov; R. N. Kohn Jr.; M. J. Madsen; P. Maunz; D. L. Moehring; C. Monroe

    2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate broadband laser cooling of atomic ions in an rf trap using ultrafast pulses from a modelocked laser. The temperature of a single ion is measured by observing the size of a time-averaged image of the ion in the known harmonic trap potential. While the lowest observed temperature was only about 1 K, this method efficiently cools very hot atoms and can sufficiently localize trapped atoms to produce near diffraction-limited atomic images.

  7. Inertial measurement with trapped particles: A microdynamical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, E. Rehmi; Popescu, George A.; Gershenfeld, Neil [Center for Bits and Atoms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an inertial measurement device based on an electrodynamically trapped proof mass. Mechanical constraints are replaced by guiding fields, permitting the trap stiffness to be tuned dynamically. Optical readout of the proof mass motion provides a measurement of acceleration and rotation, resulting in an integrated six degree of freedom inertial measurement device. We demonstrate such a device - constructed without microfabrication - with sensitivity comparable to that of commercial microelectromechanical systems technology and show how trapping parameters may be adjusted to increase dynamic range.

  8. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  9. A self-inflicted wound: the Confederacy's guerrilla campaign in Arkansas, 1862-1865

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, Robert Russell

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    University Press, 1994), 109, 111, 124-25, 132. 6. William L. Shea, "1862: A Continual Thunder, " in Mark E. Christ, ed. , Ru ed and Sublime The Civil 'n Arkansas (Fayetteville, Ark. : University of 25 Arkansas Press, 1995), 39, 58; Daniel E. Sutherland...A SELF-INFLICTED WOUND: THE CONFEDERACY'S GUERRILLA CAMPAIGN IN ARKANSAS, 1862-1865 A Thesis by ROBERT RUSSELL MACKEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  10. Ratchet Cellular Automata for Colloids in Dynamic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; C. Reichhardt

    2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically investigate the transport of kinks in a ratchet cellular automata geometry for colloids interacting with dynamical traps. We find that thermal effects can enhance the transport efficiency in agreement with recent experiments. At high temperatures we observe the creation and annihilation of thermally induced kinks that degrade the signal transmission. We consider both the deterministic and stochastic cases and show how the trap geometry can be adjusted to switch between these two cases. The operation of the dynamical trap geometry can be achieved with the adjustment of fewer parameters than ratchet cellular automata constructed using static traps.

  11. Location Of Hole And Electron Traps On Nanocrystalline Anatase...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extending into the red which results from electron traps on under-coordinated titanium atoms, which are prevalent on (001) facets. The results of this study suggest how...

  12. adult trapping program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types...

  13. ap-8 trapped proton: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types...

  14. acid phosphatase trap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Industrial...EVALUATING STEAM TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types...

  15. Requirements-Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap Design...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Requirements Driven Diesel Catalyzed Particulate Trap (DCPT) Design and Optimization Tom Harris, Donna McConnell and Danan Dou Delphi Catalyst Tulsa, Oklahoma 2 Euro 45 Light Duty...

  16. Wavebreaking and Particle Trapping in Collisionless Plasmas: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadwick, Bradley A [University of Nebraska-Lincoln

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The final report describing accomplishments in understanding phase-space processes involved in particle trapping and in developing advance numerical models of laser-plasma interactions.

  17. A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Analyze Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiscale modeling approach to analyze filament-wound composite pressure vessels is developed in this article. The approach, which extends the Nguyen et al. model [J. Comp. Mater. 43 (2009) 217] developed for discontinuous fiber composites to continuous fiber ones, spans three modeling scales. The microscale considers the unidirectional elastic fibers embedded in an elastic-plastic matrix obeying the Ramberg-Osgood relation and J2 deformation theory of plasticity. The mesoscale behavior representing the composite lamina is obtained through an incremental Mori-Tanaka type model and the Eshelby equivalent inclusion method [Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A241 (1957) 376]. The implementation of the micro-meso constitutive relations in the ABAQUS® finite element package (via user subroutines) allows the analysis of a filament-wound composite pressure vessel (macroscale) to be performed. Failure of the composite lamina is predicted by a criterion that accounts for the strengths of the fibers and of the matrix as well as of their interface. The developed approach is demonstrated in the analysis of a filament-wound pressure vessel to study the effect of the lamina thickness on the burst pressure. The predictions are favorably compared to the numerical and experimental results by Lifshitz and Dayan [Comp. Struct. 32 (1995) 313].

  18. Covariants,joint invariants and the problem of equivalence in the invariant theory of Killing tensors defined in pseudo-Riemannian spaces of constant curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roman G. Smirnov; Jin Yue

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invariant theory of Killing tensors (ITKT) is extended by introducing the new concepts of covariants and joint invariants of (product) vector spaces of Killing tensors defined in pseudo-Riemannian spaces of constant curvature. The covariants are employed to solve the problem of classification of the orthogonal coordinate webs generated by non-trivial Killing tensors of valence two defined in the Euclidean and Minkowski planes. Illustrative examples are provided.

  19. Spacetime near isolated and dynamical trapping horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivan Booth

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the near-horizon spacetime for isolated and dynamical trapping horizons (equivalently marginally outer trapped tubes). The metric is expanded relative to an ingoing Gaussian null coordinate and the terms of that expansion are explicitly calculated to second order. For the spacelike case, knowledge of the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the (dynamical) horizon is sufficient to determine the near-horizon spacetime, while for the null case (an isolated horizon) more information is needed. In both cases spacetime is allowed to be of arbitrary dimension and the formalism accomodates both general relativity as well as more general field equations. The formalism is demonstrated for two applications. First, spacetime is considered near an isolated horizon and the construction is both checked against the Kerr-Newman solution and compared to the well-known near-horizon limit for stationary extremal black hole spacetimes. Second, spacetime is examined in the vicinity of a slowly evolving horizon and it is demonstrated that there is always an event horizon candidate in this region. The geometry and other properties of this null surface match those of the slowly evolving horizon to leading order and in this approximation the candidate evolves in a locally determined way. This generalizes known results for Vaidya as well as certain spacetimes known from studies of the fluid-gravity correspondence.

  20. Energy trapping from Hagedorn densities of states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor Behan; Klaus Larjo; Nima Lashkari; Brian Swingle; Mark Van Raamsdonk

    2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note, we construct simple stochastic toy models for holographic gauge theories in which distributions of energy on a collection of sites evolve by a master equation with some specified transition rates. We build in only energy conservation, locality, and the standard thermodynamic requirement that all states with a given energy are equally likely in equilibrium. In these models, we investigate the qualitative behavior of the dynamics of the energy distributions for different choices of the density of states for the individual sites. For typical field theory densities of states (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E^{\\alphaenergy spread out relatively quickly. For large N gauge theories with gravitational duals, the density of states for a finite volume of field theory degrees of freedom typically includes a Hagedorn regime (\\log(\\rho(E)) ~ E). We find that this gives rise to a trapping of energy in subsets of degrees of freedom for parametrically long time scales before the energy leaks away. We speculate that this Hagedorn trapping may be part of a holographic explanation for long-lived gravitational bound states (black holes) in gravitational theories.

  1. ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Treating Panel Traps With a Fluoropolymer Enhances Their Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Treating Panel Traps With a Fluoropolymer Enhances Their Efficiency to improve trap capture and retention, researchers have treated intercept traps with Rain-X, a polysiloxane that are deployed to capture cerambycid beetles, using untreated traps as controls. Fluon-treated traps captured

  2. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a PenningMalmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning­Malmberg trap of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole into the trap wall when the trap also employs a magnetic multipole. The multipole's function is to confine H

  3. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    -generation solar cells. The ultimate success of photovoltaic (PV) cell technology requires great advancementsFundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping

  4. Broadband laser cooling of trapped atoms with ultrafast pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blinov, Boris

    Broadband laser cooling of trapped atoms with ultrafast pulses B. B. Blinov,* R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J ions in an rf trap using ultrafast pulses from a mode-locked laser. The temperature of a single ion On the other hand, an ultrafast laser whose pulse is a few picoseconds long will naturally have a bandwidth

  5. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  6. A Microscale Gas Trapping Investigation Markus Buchgraber, Anthony R. Kovscek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    A Microscale Gas Trapping Investigation Markus Buchgraber, Anthony R. Kovscek Department of Energy unit Residual Trapping Sgi Sg,max krg krg Sgt(Soi) Sgt,max Gas Saturation Gas relative Land Model * * ** 1 )( gi gi gigt CS S SS + = Sgf Sg Sgt,max kd rg Sg Gas Saturation

  7. Surface-electrode ion trap with integrated light source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    An atomic ion is trapped at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber in a cryogenic (8 K) surface-electrode ion trap. The fiber serves as an integrated source of laser light, which drives the quadrupolequbit transition of ...

  8. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  9. Novel Dipole Trapped Spheromak Configuration M. R. Brown,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    Novel Dipole Trapped Spheromak Configuration M. R. Brown,1, * C. D. Cothran,1 J. Fung,1 M. J. Schaffer,2 and E. Belova3 We report the observation and characterization of a spheromak formed in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) and trapped in a simple dipole magnetic field. The spheromak is studied

  10. Simulations of plasma confinement in an antihydrogen trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomberoff, K.; Fajans, J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The three-dimensional particle-in-cell (3-D PIC) simulation code WARP is used to study positron confinement in antihydrogen traps. The magnetic geometry is close to that of a UC Berkeley experiment conducted, with electrons, as part of the ALPHA collaboration (W. Bertsche et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 796, 301 (2005)). In order to trap antihydrogen atoms, multipole magnetic fields are added to a conventional Malmberg-Penning trap. These multipole fields must be strong enough to confine the antihydrogen, leading to multipole field strengths at the trap wall comparable to those of the axial magnetic field. Numerical simulations reported here confirm recent experimental measurements of reduced particle confinement when a quadrupole field is added to a Malmberg-Penning trap. It is shown that, for parameters relevant to various antihydrogen experiments, the use of an octupole field significantly reducesthe positron losses seen with a quadrupole field. A unique method for obtaining a 3-D equilibrium of the positrons in the trap with a collisionless PIC code was developed especially for the study of the antihydrogen trap; however, it is of practical use for other traps as well.

  11. On the integrability of Einstein-Maxwell-(A)dS gravity in presence of Killing vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietmar Klemm; Masato Nozawa; Marco Rabbiosi

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We study some symmetry and integrability properties of four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity with nonvanishing cosmological constant in the presence of Killing vectors. First of all, we consider stationary spacetimes, which lead, after a timelike Kaluza-Klein reduction followed by a dualization of the two vector fields, to a three-dimensional nonlinear sigma model coupled to gravity, whose target space is a noncompact version of $\\mathbb{C}\\text{P}^2$ with SU(2,1) isometry group. It is shown that the potential for the scalars, that arises from the cosmological constant in four dimensions, breaks three of the eight SU(2,1) symmetries, corresponding to the generalized Ehlers and the two Harrison transformations. This leaves a semidirect product of a one-dimensional Heisenberg group and a translation group $\\mathbb{R}^2$ as residual symmetry. We show that, under the additional assumptions that the three-dimensional manifold is conformal to a product space $\\mathbb{R}\\times\\Sigma$, and all fields depend only on the coordinate along $\\mathbb{R}$, the equations of motion are integrable. This generalizes the results of Leigh et al. in arXiv:1403.6511 to the case where also electromagnetic fields are present. In the second part of the paper we consider the purely gravitational spacetime admitting a second Killing vector that commutes with the timelike one. We write down the resulting two-dimensional action and discuss its symmetries. If the fields depend only on one of the two coordinates, the equations of motion are again integrable, and the solution turns out to be one constructed by Krasinski many years ago.

  12. Change in Hamiltonian General Relativity from the Lack of a Time-like Killing Vector Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Brian Pitts

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In General Relativity in Hamiltonian form, change has seemed to be missing, defined only asymptotically, or otherwise obscured at best, because the Hamiltonian is a sum of first-class constraints and a boundary term and thus supposedly generates gauge transformations. Attention to the gauge generator G of Rosenfeld, Anderson, Bergmann, Castellani et al., a specially tuned sum of first-class constraints, facilitates seeing that a solitary first-class constraint in fact generates not a gauge transformation, but a bad physical change in electromagnetism (changing E) or GR. The change spoils the Lagrangian constraints in terms of the physically relevant velocities rather than auxiliary canonical momenta. While Maudlin has defended change in GR much as G. E. Moore resisted skepticism, there remains a need to exhibit the technical flaws in the argument. Insistence on Hamiltonian-Lagrangian equivalence, a theme emphasized by Mukunda, Castellani, Sugano, Pons, Salisbury, Shepley and Sundermeyer among others, holds the key. Taking objective change to be ineliminable time dependence, there is change in vacuum GR just in case there is no time-like vector field satisfying Killing's equation. Throwing away the spatial dependence of GR for convenience, one finds that the time evolution from Hamilton's equations is real change just when there is no time-like Killing vector. Hence change is real and local even in the Hamiltonian formalism. The considerations here resolve the Earman-Maudlin standoff: the Hamiltonian formalism is helpful, and, suitably reformed, it does not have absurd consequences for change. Hence the classical problem of time is resolved, apart from the issue of observables, for which the solution is outlined. The quantum problem of time, however, is not automatically resolved due to issues of quantum constraint imposition.

  13. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniilidis, N.

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with a trapping height of approximately 240 ?m. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates ...

  14. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Xiaomin [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Yongzhang, E-mail: yluo@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [National Engineering Laboratory for Anti-tumor Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Protein Therapeutics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  15. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  16. Simplified motional heating rate measurements of trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Epstein, R J; Leibfried, D; Wesenberg, J H; Bollinger, J J; Amini, J M; Blakestad, R B; Britton, J; Home, J P; Itano, W M; Jost, J D; Knill, E; Langer, C; Ozeri, R; Shiga, N; Wineland, D J

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured motional heating rates of trapped atomic ions, a factor that can influence multi-ion quantum logic gate fidelities. Two simplified techniques were developed for this purpose: one relies on Raman sideband detection implemented with a single laser source, while the second is even simpler and is based on time-resolved fluorescence detection during Doppler recooling. We applied these methods to determine heating rates in a microfrabricated surface-electrode trap made of gold on fused quartz, which traps ions 40 microns above its surface. Heating rates obtained from the two techniques were found to be in reasonable agreement. In addition, the trap gives rise to a heating rate of 300 plus or minus 30 per second for a motional frequency of 5.25 MHz, substantially below the trend observed in other traps.

  17. Can aerosols be trapped in open flows?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael D. Vilela; Adilson E. Motter

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of aerosols in open flows is relevant in a variety of physical contexts. Previous results are consistent with the assumption that such finite-size particles always escape in open chaotic advection. Here we show that a different behavior is possible. We analyze the dynamics of aerosols both in the absence and presence of gravitational effects, and both when the dynamics of the fluid particles is hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic. Permanent trapping of aerosols much heavier than the advecting fluid is shown to occur in all these cases. This phenomenon is determined by the occurrence of multiple vortices in the flow and is predicted to happen for realistic particle-fluid density ratios.

  18. Contaminant trap for gas-insulated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adcock, James L. (Knoxville, TN); Pace, Marshall O. (Knoxville, TN); Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A contaminant trap for a gas-insulated electrical conductor is provided. A resinous dielectric body such as Kel-F wax, grease or other sticky polymeric or oligomeric compound is disposed on the inside wall of the outer housing for the conductor. The resinous body is sufficiently sticky at ambient temperatures to immobilize contaminant particles in the insulating gas on the exposed surfaces thereof. An electric resistance heating element is disposed in the resinous body to selectively raise the temperature of the resinous body to a molten state so that the contaminant particles collected on the surface of the body sink into the body so that the surface of the resinous body is renewed to a particle-less condition and, when cooled, returns to a sticky collecting surface.

  19. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  20. Debris trap in a turbine cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a turbine having a rotor and a plurality of stages, each stage comprising a row of buckets mounted on the rotor for rotation therewith; and wherein the buckets of at least one of the stages are cooled by steam, the improvement comprising at least one axially extending cooling steam supply conduit communicating with an at least partially annular steam supply manifold; one or more axially extending cooling steam feed tubes connected to the manifold at a location radially outwardly of the cooling steam supply conduit, the feed tubes arranged to supply cooling steam to the buckets of at least one of the plurality of stages; the manifold extending radially beyond the feed tubes to thereby create a debris trap region for collecting debris under centrifugal loading caused by rotation of the rotor.

  1. Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance Documents and General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    CIR1525 Fish Slaughter, Killing, and Euthanasia: A Review of Major Published U.S. Guidance of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer-Chancy, Interim Dean Introduction Fish are important. However, non-native fish illegally released into the environment pose a nuisance. In each case, death

  2. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  3. Nanoscale interfacial structure for Novel Opto-electronic and Ion-trapping Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulin-Avila, Erick

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEM pictures of Aluminum alloy trap A,B. ) trap details C. )including Graphene, Aluminum alloys, Copper, Gold andwe use an specific aluminum alloy, which annealed increases

  4. Progress towards high precision measurements on ultracold metastable hydrogen and trapping deuterium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberger, Julia K., 1974-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) not achieve deuterium trapping through helium-surface cooling. It is proposed that buffer gas loading can be used to cryogenically cool and trap deuterium.

  5. Properties of Trapped Electron Bunches in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Neil; /SLAC

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-based accelerators use the propagation of a drive bunch through plasma to create large electric fields. Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments, carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), successfully doubled the energy for some of the 42 GeV drive bunch electrons in less than a meter; this feat would have required 3 km in the SLAC linac. This dissertation covers one phenomenon associated with the PWFA, electron trapping. Recently it was shown that PWFAs, operated in the nonlinear bubble regime, can trap electrons that are released by ionization inside the plasma wake and accelerate them to high energies. These trapped electrons occupy and can degrade the accelerating portion of the plasma wake, so it is important to understand their origins and how to remove them. Here, the onset of electron trapping is connected to the drive bunch properties. Additionally, the trapped electron bunches are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t}, below the level of 0.2 {micro}m/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that the emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the non-linear 'bubble' regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few {micro}m and multi-kA peak currents. These properties make the trapped electrons a possible particle source for next generation light sources. This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter is an overview of the PWFA, which includes a review of the accelerating and focusing fields and a survey of the remaining issues for a plasma-based particle collider. Then, the second chapter examines the physics of electron trapping in the PWFA. The third chapter uses theory and simulations to analyze the properties of the trapped electron bunches. Chapters four and five present the experimental diagnostics and measurements for the trapped electrons. Next, the sixth chapter introduces suggestions for future trapped electron experiments. Then, Chapter seven contains the conclusions. In addition, there is an appendix chapter that covers a topic which is extraneous to electron trapping, but relevant to the PWFA. This chapter explores the feasibility of one idea for the production of a hollow channel plasma, which if produced could solve some of the remaining issues for a plasma-based collider.

  6. Stability and dynamics of ion rings in linear multipole traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Cartarius; Cecilia Cormick; Giovanna Morigi

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapped singly-charged ions can crystallize as a result of laser cooling. The emerging structure depends on the number of particles and on the geometry of the trapping potential. In linear multipole radiofrequency traps, the geometry of the radial potential can lead to the formation of single-ring structures. We analyse the conditions and stability of single rings as a function of the number of poles. For larger numbers of ions the rings form tubes in which the arrangement of the ions corresponds to a triangular lattice folded onto a cylinder. The stability of these tubular structures is numerically studied for different lattice constants and their normal mode spectrum is determined.

  7. Commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tandecki; J. Zhang; R. Collister; S. Aubin; J. A. Behr; E. Gomez; G. Gwinner; L. A. Orozco; M. R. Pearson

    2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the successful commissioning of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. Large laser-cooled samples of francium are produced from a francium ion beam delivered by the ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. The ion beam is neutralized on an yttrium foil, which is subsequently heated to transfer the atoms into the magneto-optical trapping region. We have successfully trapped $^{207}$Fr, $^{209}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr, with a maximum of $2.5 \\times 10^5$ $^{209}$Fr atoms. The neutral cold atoms will be used in studies of the weak interaction through measurements of atomic parity non-conservation.

  8. Trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grondahl, Clayton M. (Clifton Park, NY); Germain, Malcolm R. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved trap seal for open circuit liquid cooled turbines is disclosed. The trap seal of the present invention includes an annular recess formed in the supply conduit of cooling channels formed in the airfoil of the turbine buckets. A cylindrical insert is located in the annular recesses and has a plurality of axial grooves formed along the outer periphery thereof and a central recess formed in one end thereof. The axial grooves and central recess formed in the cylindrical insert cooperate with the annular recess to define a plurality of S-shaped trap seals which permit the passage of liquid coolant but prohibit passage of gaseous coolant.

  9. Quantum information processing with trapped electrons and superconducting electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikos Daniilidis; Dylan J Gorman; Lin Tian; Hartmut Häffner

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a parametric frequency conversion scheme for trapped charged particles which enables a coherent interface between atomic and solid-state quantum systems. The scheme uses geometric non-linearities of the potential of a coupling electrode near a trapped particle. Our scheme does not rely on actively driven solid-state devices, and is hence largely immune to noise in such devices. We present a toolbox which can be used to build electron-based quantum information processing platforms, as well as quantum interfaces between trapped electrons and superconducting electronics.

  10. Design and modeling of cylindrical and falt-wound lithium-ion cells for the PNGV application.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, 10-Ah cylindrical and flat-wound cells were designed and studied for use in batteries for the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). A low-cost current collection system was devised that results in a low resistance. Heat rejection from flat cells is much better than that from cylindrical cells and is an important safety factor. Very compact, powerful batteries of about 1.5 kW/L can be designed with wound lithium-ion cells.

  11. On the integrability of Einstein-Maxwell-(A)dS gravity in presence of Killing vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klemm, Dietmar; Rabbiosi, Marco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study some symmetry and integrability properties of four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell gravity with nonvanishing cosmological constant in the presence of Killing vectors. First of all, we consider stationary spacetimes, which lead, after a timelike Kaluza-Klein reduction followed by a dualization of the two vector fields, to a three-dimensional nonlinear sigma model coupled to gravity, whose target space is a noncompact version of $\\mathbb{C}\\text{P}^2$ with SU(2,1) isometry group. It is shown that the potential for the scalars, that arises from the cosmological constant in four dimensions, breaks three of the eight SU(2,1) symmetries, corresponding to the generalized Ehlers and the two Harrison transformations. This leaves a semidirect product of a one-dimensional Heisenberg group and a translation group $\\mathbb{R}^2$ as residual symmetry. We show that, under the additional assumptions that the three-dimensional manifold is conformal to a product space $\\mathbb{R}\\times\\Sigma$, and all fields depend only ...

  12. Characterization of landfill gas composition at the Fresh Kills municipal solid-waste landfill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eklund, B.; Anderson, E.P.; Walker, B.L.; Burrows, D.B. [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)] [Radian International, LLC, Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common disposal method in the US for municipal solid waste (MSW) is burial in landfills. Until recently, air emissions from these landfills were not regulated. Under the New Source Performance Standards and Emission Guidelines for MSW landfills, MSW operators are required to determine the nonmethane organic gas generation rate of their landfill through modeling and/or measurements. This paper summarizes speciated nonmethane organic compound (NMOC) measurement data collected during an intensive, short-term field program. Over 250 separate landfill gas samples were collected from emission sources at the Fresh Kills landfill in New York City and analyzed for approximately 150 different analytes. The average total NMOC value for the landfill was 438 ppmv (as hexane) versus the regulatory default value of 4,000 ppmv (as hexane). Over 70 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected and quantified in the landfill gas samples. The typical gas composition for this landfill was determined as well as estimates of the spatial, temporal, and measurement variability in the gas composition. The data for NMOC show that the gas composition within the landfill is equivalent to the composition of the gas exiting the landfill through passive vents and through the soil cover.

  13. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); He, Huabin [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)] [Department of Orthopedics, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China); Wang, Jinghe, E-mail: Xiaofeili2000@163.com [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)] [Department of Infectious Diseases, Yiwu Central Hospita, 519 Nan men Street, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejing 322000 (China)

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  14. ablation ion trap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    geometry that generates a two dimensional lattice of point Paul traps. C. E. Pearson; D. R. Leibrandt; W. S. Bakr; W. J. Mallard; K. R. Brown; I. L. Chuang 2005-11-02 15...

  15. advanced ion trap: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    geometry that generates a two dimensional lattice of point Paul traps. C. E. Pearson; D. R. Leibrandt; W. S. Bakr; W. J. Mallard; K. R. Brown; I. L. Chuang 2005-11-02 17 Cold...

  16. acoustic waves trapped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in a magnetoplasma with a pair of trapped ions CERN Preprints Summary: The nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with a pair of...

  17. Cold trapped positrons and progress to cold antihydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada, John Karl, 1970-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new physical mechanism for positron accumulation is explained and demonstrated. Strongly magnetized Rydberg positronium is formed and then ionized, allowing us to trap equal numbers of either positrons or electrons over ...

  18. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  19. The Release of Trapped Gases from Amorphous Solid Water Films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Top-Down" Crystallization-Induced Crack Propagation Probed The Release of Trapped Gases from Amorphous Solid Water Films: I. Top-Down" Crystallization-Induced Crack Propagation...

  20. Coherent control of a qubit is trap-free

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Pechen; Nikolay Il'in

    2014-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a strong interest in optimal manipulating of quantum systems by external controls. Traps are controls which are optimal only locally but not globally. If they exist, they can be serious obstacles to the search of globally optimal controls in numerical and laboratory experiments, and for this reason the analysis of traps attracts considerable attention. In this paper we prove that for a wide range of control problems for two-level quantum systems all locally optimal controls are also globally optimal. Hence we conclude that two-level systems in general are trap-free. In particular, manipulating qubits---two-level quantum systems forming a basic building block for quantum computation---is free of traps for fundamental problems such as the state preparation and gate generation.

  1. Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and Differences Between H2, CO and C3H6 Reductants Lean NOx Trap Regeneration Selectivity Towards N2O -- Similarities and...

  2. Time-optimal controls for frictionless cooling in harmonic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    OFFPRINT Time-optimal controls for frictionless cooling in harmonic traps K. H. Hoffmann, P payment Details on preparing, submitting and tracking the progress of your manuscript from submission

  3. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Sajeev [University of Toronto

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide designs of thin-film solar cells utilizing optimized photonic-crystal light-trapping and numerical simulations of their solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies.

  4. Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping the "Greenhouse Effect"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Wednesday, January 30, 2013 Infrared Trapping ­ the "Greenhouse Effect" Goals ­ to look is the same as a 1.8 degree F change. #12;Last time - Greenhouse effect demo Selective absorption. Greenhouse

  5. Novel trapping techniques for shaping Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Micah (Micah Scott)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of radio frequency radiation and magnetic field gradients was used to trap atoms in dressed states. In a magnetic field with a quadrupole minimum. RF fields resonant with the (I F. m)) 11. -1) -- 1, 0) ...

  6. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  7. Electron source for a mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Daniel D. (Livermore, CA); Keville, Robert F. (Valley Springs, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion trap which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10.sup.9 and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10.sup.4 ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products.

  8. Quantum gates, sensors, and systems with trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shannon Xuanyue

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum information science promises a host of new and useful applications in communication, simulation, and computational algorithms. Trapped atomic ions are one of the leading physical systems with potential to implement ...

  9. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere´de´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid

  10. Light trapping limits in plasmonic solar cells: an analytical investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We analytically investigate the light trapping performance in plasmonic solar cells with Si/metallic structures. We consider absorption enhancements for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at planar Si/metal interfaces and ...

  11. Low temperature cold trapping of uranium hexafluoride containing hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, W.E.; Barber, E.J.; Jones, C.G.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a freezer-sublimer system operating at low desublimation pressures to replace 10-in. nuclearly safe cold traps for low assay (<5% U-235) uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) would significantly simplify operations and is economically attractive provided the nuclear safety of the system can be assured. A major requirement of such assurance is the availability of conditions guaranteeing that the nuclear safety design criterion, which requires that the H/U atomic ratio in the condensate in the freezer-sublimer always be less than 0.33 for assays up to 5%, will never be violated. A general vapor pressure equation giving the vapor pressure of HF-UF{sub 6} solutions as a function of temperature and mole fraction UF{sub 6} has been developed. The precision of the data at the 95% confidence level is {plus minus}0.1 torr at temperatures between {minus}100{degree}F and {minus}121{degree}F. The calculated vapor pressure of pure HF is 4.6 torr at {minus}100{degree}F and 3.1 torr at {minus}108{degree}F. Theoretical considerations suggest that the true value will be slightly lower. In experimental studies of the cold trapping operation at {minus}108{degree}F and at a trap pressure of 2.2 torr, only 7.3% of the HF entering the trap was retained in the trap. At a trap pressure of 4.6 torr, over 80% of the HF entering the trap was retained. The data obtained in this study confirms that the physical chemistry of the HF-UF{sub 6} system previously developed accurately describes the behavior of the system and that so long as the pressure in the trap is maintained below the vapor pressure of pure HF at the trap temperatures, there is no way that sufficient HF can be trapped to give an H/U ratio of 0.33 regardless of the HF/UF{sub 6} ratio in the feed to the trap. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Master equation approach to protein folding and kinetic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek Cieplak; Malte Henkel; Jan Karbowski; Jayanth R. Banavar

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The master equation for 12-monomer lattice heteropolymers is solved numerically and the time evolution of the occupancy of the native state is determined. At low temperatures, the median folding time follows the Arrhenius law and is governed by the longest relaxation time. For good folders, significant kinetic traps appear in the folding funnel whereas for bad folders, the traps also occur in non-native energy valleys.

  13. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  14. What To Do With Cold Traps and Why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.; Walter, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Individual CDL often consist of up to a full-size tee on a distribution line, inlet strainer, isolation valves, steam trap, check valve, mud leg, blowdown valve, bypass line, tagging, and pipe insulation. The initial cost for designing and installing... or resource to periodically blow down strainers / drip pockets? 14. Is there a ?one size fits all? approach towards steam trap selection; using the same model for all drip and tracer applications? 15. Does the site remove strainer screens from steam...

  15. Optical Trapping and Control of a Nanowire by a Nanoaperture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aporvari, Mehdi Shafiei; Volpe, Giovanni

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that a single sub-wavelength nanoaperture in a metallic thin film can be used to achieve dynamic optical trapping and control of a single dielectric nanowire. A nanoaperture can trap a nanowire, control its orientation when illuminated by a linearly-polarized incident field, and also rotate the nanowire when illuminated by a circularly-polarized incident field. Compared to other designs, this approach has the advantages of a low-power driving field entailing low heating and photodamage.

  16. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  17. Fast optimal frictionless atom cooling in harmonic traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi Chen; A. Ruschhaupt; S. Schmidt; A. del Campo; D. Guery-Odelin; J. G. Muga

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is proposed to cool down atoms in a harmonic trap without phase-space compression as in a perfectly slow adiabatic expansion, i.e., keeping the populations of the instantaneous initial and final levels invariant, but in a much shorter time. This may require that the harmonic trap becomes an expulsive parabolic potential in some time interval. The cooling times achieved are also shorter than previous minimal times using optimal-control bang-bang methods and real frequencies.

  18. Thermal Trap for DNA Replication Christof B. Mast and Dieter Braun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kersting, Roland

    and simultaneously accumulates the replicated molecules in an efficient thermophoretic trap. The non- equilibrium

  19. Trapping of Single Nano-objects in Dynamic Temperature Fields Marco Braun and Frank Cichos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is considered. The present study complements the dynamic thermophoretic trapping with a theoretical basis

  20. Global sound modes in mirror traps with anisotropic pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodin, D. I.; Zaytsev, K. V.; Beklemishev, A. D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global oscillations of inhomogeneous plasma with frequencies close to the bounce frequency of ions in mirror traps have been studied. It has been shown that, in some cases, the sound can be reflected from the axial plasma inhomogeneity. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model with Chew-Goldberger-Low approximation has been utilized to determine conditions of existence of the standing waves in the mirror-confined plasma. Linearized wave equation for the longitudinal plasma oscillations in thin anisotropic inhomogeneous plasma with finite ? has been derived. The wave equation has been treated numerically. The oscillations are studied for the case of the trap with partially filled loss-cone and the trap with sloshing ions. It has been shown that in cells of the multiple-mirror trap standing waves can exist. The frequency of the wave is of the order of the mean bounce-frequency of ions. In the trap with sloshing ions, the mode supported by the pressure of fast ions could exist. The results of oscillations observation in the experiment on the Gas Dynamic Trap have been presented.

  1. Fuel traps: mapping stability via water association.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan L.; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Alam, Todd M; Leung, Kevin; Varma, Sameer; Sabo, Dubravko; Martin, Marcus Gary; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology required for attaining a hydrogen-based economy. Fundamental research can reveal the underlying principles controlling hydrogen uptake and release by storage materials, and also aid in characterizing and designing novel storage materials. New ideas for hydrogen storage materials come from exploiting the properties of hydrophobic hydration, which refers to water s ability to stabilize, by its mode of association, specific structures under specific conditions. Although hydrogen was always considered too small to support the formation of solid clathrate hydrate structures, exciting new experiments show that water traps hydrogen molecules at conditions of low temperatures and moderate pressures. Hydrogen release is accomplished by simple warming. While these experiments lend credibility to the idea that water could form an environmentally attractive alternative storage compound for hydrogen fuel, which would advance our nation s goals of attaining a hydrogen-based economy, much work is yet required to understand and realize the full potential of clathrate hydrates for hydrogen storage. Here we undertake theoretical studies of hydrogen in water to establish a firm foundation for predictive work on clathrate hydrate H{sub 2} storage capabilities. Using molecular simulation and statistical mechanical theories based in part on quantum mechanical descriptions of molecular interactions, we characterize the interactions between hydrogen and liquid water in terms of structural and thermodynamic properties. In the process we validate classical force field models of hydrogen in water and discover new features of hydrophobic hydration that impact problems in both energy technology and biology. Finally, we predict hydrogen occupancy in the small and large cages of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, a property unresolved by previous experimental and theoretical work.

  2. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  3. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  4. Berry's phase for a noncyclic rotation of light in a helically wound optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morinaga, Atsuo; Monma, Akinori; Honda, Kazuhito; Kitano, Masao [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda-shi, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyou-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated Berry's phase for noncyclic evolution using the rotation of a polarization azimuth of linearly polarized light in a partially wound optical fiber over the surface of a cylinder. Using a rotation gauge around the rotation axis, the observed rotation of the polarization azimuth corresponds to the area of a spherical rectangle over the surface enclosed by the contour C of actual evolution, a large circle on the equator, and a longitudinal line connecting them, whereas the rotation of the polar gauge encloses a spherical triangle connecting the zenith of the sphere. The observed values were converted to Berry's phase by transformation from the rotation gauge to the geodesic gauge. Consequently, we could confirm that Berry's phase for a noncyclic evolution is given by the geodesic rule proposed by Samuel and Bhandari.

  5. Separability of the massive Dirac's equation in 5-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole geometry and its relation to a rank-three Killing-Yano tensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang-Qing Wu

    2008-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dirac equation for the electron around a five-dimensional rotating black hole with two different angular momenta is separated into purely radial and purely angular equations. The general solution is expressed as a superposition of solutions derived from these two decoupled ordinary differential equations. By separating variables for the massive Klein-Gordon equation in the same space-time background, I derive a simple and elegant form for the Stackel-Killing tensor, which can be easily written as the square of a rank-three Killing-Yano tensor. I have also explicitly constructed a symmetry operator that commutes with the scalar Laplacian by using the Stackel-Killing tensor, and the one with the Dirac operator by the Killing-Yano tensor admitted by the five-dimensional Myers-Perry metric, respectively.

  6. Bose-Einstein Condensation in an electro-pneumatically transformed quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunil Kumar; Sumit Sarkar; Gunjan Verma; Chetan Vishwakarma; Md. Noaman; Umakant Rapol

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a novel approach for preparing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of $^{87}$Rb atoms using electro-pneumatically driven transfer of atoms into a Quadrupole-Ioffe magnetic trap (QUIC Trap). More than 5$\\times$$10^{8}$ atoms from a Magneto-optical trap are loaded into a spherical quadrupole trap and then these atoms are transferred into an Ioffe trap by moving the Ioffe coil towards the center of the quadrupole coil, thereby, changing the distance between quadrupole trap center and the Ioffe coil. The transfer efficiency is more than 80 \\%. This approach is different from a conventional approach of loading the atoms into a QUIC trap wherein the spherical quadrupole trap is transformed into a QUIC trap by changing the currents in the quadrupole and the Ioffe coils. The phase space density is then increased by forced rf evaporative cooling to achieve the Bose-Einstein condensation having more than $10^{5}$ atoms.

  7. Penetration Deep into Tissues of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated in Floating-Electrode Dielectric Barrier Discharge (FE-DBD): in Vitro Agarose Gel Model Mimicking an Open Wound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobrynin, Danil; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this manuscript we present an in vitro model based on agarose gel that can be used to simulate a dirty, oily, bloody, and morphologically complex surface of, for example, an open wound. We show this models effectiveness in simulating depth of penetration of reactive species generated in plasma deep into tissue of a rat and confirm the penetration depths with agarose gel model. We envision that in the future such a model could be used to study plasma discharges (and other modalities) and minimize the use of live animals: plasma can be optimized on the agarose gel wound model and then finally verified using an actual wound.

  8. Recent progress in tailoring trap-based positron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natisin, M. R.; Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M. [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego La Jolla CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress is described to implement two approaches to specially tailor trap-based positron beams. Experiments and simulations are presented to understand the limits on the energy spread and pulse duration of positron beams extracted from a Penning-Malmberg (PM) trap after the particles have been buffer-gas cooled (or heated) in the range of temperatures 1000 {>=} T {>=} 300 K. These simulations are also used to predict beam performance for cryogenically cooled positrons. Experiments and simulations are also presented to understand the properties of beams formed when plasmas are tailored in a PM trap in a 5 tesla magnetic field, then non-adiabatically extracted from the field using a specially designed high-permeability grid to create a new class of electrostatically guided beams.

  9. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; ,

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  10. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maggiore, M., E-mail: mario.maggiore@lnl.infn.it; Cavenago, M.; Comunian, M.; Chirulotto, F.; Galatà, A.; De Lazzari, M.; Porcellato, A. M.; Roncolato, C.; Stark, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)] [INFN-LNL, viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Caruso, A.; Longhitano, A. [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy)] [INFN-LNS, via S. Sofia 54, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cavaliere, F.; Maero, G.; Paroli, B.; Pozzoli, R.; Romé, M. [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN Sezione di Milano and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  11. Scalable Digital Hardware for a Trapped Ion Quantum Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mount, Emily; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for trapping and cooling the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  12. Ion trapping in the emitter sheath in thermionic converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundgren, L.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ion trapping in the emitter sheath in ignited thermionic converters is studied. The ion trapping prevents the emitter-sheath barrier from being higher than approximately 0.1 eV, when the current decreases in the converter. This gives a condition for the constriction of the arc. I-V curves are calculated for an ignited thermionic converter with a hydrodynamic plasma theory that takes into account the effect of Coulomb scattering and volume recombination, but assumes that the electron temperature is constant in the plasma.

  13. Electron Trapping in Shear Alfven Waves that Power the Aurora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watt, Clare E. J.; Rankin, Robert [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from 1D Vlasov drift-kinetic plasma simulations reveal how and where auroral electrons are accelerated along Earth's geomagnetic field. In the warm plasma sheet, electrons become trapped in shear Alfven waves, preventing immediate wave damping. As waves move to regions with larger v{sub Te}/v{sub A}, their parallel electric field decreases, and the trapped electrons escape their influence. The resulting electron distribution functions compare favorably with in situ observations, demonstrating for the first time a self-consistent link between Alfven waves and electrons that form aurora.

  14. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: c.r.p.courtney@bath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35?MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-?m-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  15. Interface-trap charge-pump temperature sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharifi, Reza

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and connections. If the source is kept at a constant voltage to allow the area underneath the gate to move between inversion and accumulation the following relations must hold: VGP & VFB+ VW Voa ? Vs & Vr (2) Where VFs is flat band voltage, Vr is Threshold... occupied energy level in conduction band corresponds to free electron energy. These two bands are separated by bandgap where traps energy levels are located. The density of traps in the bandgap is a process dependent quality. vo vw Source vs N (well...

  16. Fidelity decay in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Manfredi; P. -A. Hervieux

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum coherence of a Bose-Einstein condensate is studied using the concept of quantum fidelity (Loschmidt echo). The condensate is confined in an elongated anharmonic trap and subjected to a small random potential such as that created by a laser speckle. Numerical experiments show that the quantum fidelity stays constant until a critical time, after which it drops abruptly over a single trap oscillation period. The critical time depends logarithmically on the number of condensed atoms and on the perturbation amplitude. This behavior may be observable by measuring the interference fringes of two condensates evolving in slightly different potentials.

  17. Recurrent Shocks, Poverty Traps and the Degradation of the Social Capital Base of Pastoralism: A Case Study from Southern Ethiopia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhanu, Wassie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009 Recurrent Shocks, Poverty Traps and the Degradation of2009) Recurrent Shocks, Poverty Traps and the Degradation ofMay J, 2006. Exploring Poverty Traps and Social Exclusion in

  18. Loading a planar RF Paul Trap from a cold Yb? source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Brendan John

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we demonstrate a functioning planar radio frequency, three-rod Paul Trap, loaded with Yb+ ions that have been photoionized from a source of neutral atoms, which were cooled in a magneto-optical trap. Planar ...

  19. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  20. Comparison of traps and baits for censusing small mammals in Neotropical lowlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodman, Neal; Timm, Robert M.; Slade, Norman A.; Doonan, Terry J.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Snap-traps, live-traps, and baits affect the ability to capture small mammals, but few previous studies have involved sampling communities of small mammals in tropical environments. We tested differences in captures of small marsupials and rodents...

  1. Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demsy and Sajeev John

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demésy and Sajeev://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Solar energy trapping with modulated silicon nanowire photonic crystals Guillaume Demesya

  2. Design of superconducting transmission line integrated surface-electrode ion-traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, David Thomas

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We fabricated superconducting surface electrode ion traps with integrated microwave coplanar waveguides using direct-write optical lithography and a niobium on sapphire process. We then tested these traps in a closed cycle ...

  3. Trapping capacity of fault zones, downdip Yegua Formation, Texas Gulf Coast basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hintz, Jena Christine

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The homogenization of sediment from shearing forms traps in both the hanging wall and footwall due to capillary pressure differences. The sheared zone associated with large faults can form traps. Sheared zones associated ...

  4. EFFECT OF PORE SIZE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pore size on pumping efficiency and zinc vapor trapping efficiency. A simple pumping efficiency test was conducted for all five pore diameters where it was observed that evacuation times were adversely affected by reducing the pore size below 5 {micro}m. Common test conditions for the zinc trapping efficiency experiments were used. These conditions resulted in some variability, to ascribe different efficiencies to the filter media. However, the data suggest that there is no significant difference in trapping efficiency for filter media with pores from 0.2 to 20 {micro}m with a thickness of 0.065-inch. Consequently, the 20 {micro}m pore filter media that is currently used at SRS is a suitable filter material for to utilize for future extractions. There is evidence that smaller pore filter will adversely affect the pumping times for the TEF and little evidence to suggest that a smaller pore diameters have significant impact on the trapping efficiency.

  5. Coronal Trapping of Energetic Flare Particles: Yohkoh/HXT Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalf, Thomas R.

    the energization of the solar corona. The most common interpretation for the production of the observed HXR fluxes Alexander Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Department H1­12, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St in a search for spectral evidence of the coronal trapping of energetic particles during solar flares. Two

  6. Classical thermodynamics of particles in harmonic traps Martin Ligarea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ligare, Martin

    , and the heat capacities. I also consider cyclic thermodynamic processes in a harmonically confined gas. © 2010 of state for a gas of N noninteract- ing particles in a rigid volume V is derived in almost every text and pressure vary with position within such traps, and the volume of the gas is not well defined

  7. Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pychewicz, F. S.

    on the part of several vendors to design trap internals to our specifications; namely, a thermostatic bellows with a restricted orifice (5/64") and an internal strainer screen. Another criteria was a fail closed design. The vendors primarily feared use...

  8. Progress in year 1995 1. Optically plugged magnetic quadrupole trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in year 1995 1. Optically plugged magnetic quadrupole trap In 1995, we have demonstrated samples of ultracold atoms at unprecedented densities (>1014 cm-3) and to evaporatively cool atoms to Bose Dressed-StateEnergyMagneticField Atoms During evaporative cooling, the cloud shrunk and finally split up

  9. The TITAN in-trap decay spectroscopy facility at TRIUMF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. G. Leach; A. Grossheim; A. Lennarz; T. Brunner; J. R. Crespo López-Urrutia; A. T. Gallant; M. Good; R. Klawitter; A. A. Kwiatkowski; T. Ma; T. D. Macdonald; S. Seeraji; M. C. Simon; C. Andreoiu; J. Dilling; D. Frekers

    2014-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This article presents an upgraded in-trap decay spectroscopy apparatus which has been developed and constructed for use with TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). This device consists of an open-access electron-beam ion-trap (EBIT), which is surrounded radially by seven low-energy planar Si(Li) detectors. The environment of the EBIT allows for the detection of low-energy photons by providing backing-free storage of the radioactive ions, while guiding charged decay particles away from the trap centre via the strong (up to 6 T) magnetic field. In addition to excellent ion confinement and storage, the EBIT also provides a venue for performing decay spectroscopy on highly-charged radioactive ions. Recent technical advancements have been able to provide a significant increase in sensitivity for low-energy photon detection, towards the goal of measuring weak electron-capture branching ratios of the intermediate nuclei in the two-neutrino double beta ($2\

  10. Light Trapping in Solar Cells Using Resonant Nanostructures P. Spinelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Rooij, Robert

    and by improving their photovoltaic conversion efficiency. For Si solar cells, both challenges can be achievedLight Trapping in Solar Cells Using Resonant Nanostructures P. Spinelli #12;Summary Photovoltaics of energy for our society. In order for this to happen, photovoltaics needs to be economically competitive

  11. Radiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field of study deals with the transport of near resonant light in such media. Using cold atoms, one can at the end of the 20th century that studies of light transport in optically thick clouds of cold atomsRadiation trapping in a cold atomic gas Guillaume Labeyrie,1 Robin Kaiser,1, and Dominique Delande

  12. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  13. Towards electron-electron entanglement in Penning traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Lamata; D. Porras; J. I. Cirac; J. Goldman; G. Gabrielse

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Entanglement of isolated elementary particles other than photons has not yet been achieved. We show how building blocks demonstrated with one trapped electron might be used to make a model system and method for entangling two electrons. Applications are then considered, including two-qubit gates and more precise quantum metrology protocols.

  14. Theory and Simulation of Neoclassical Transport Processes, with Local Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Theory and Simulation of Neoclassical Transport Processes, with Local Trapping Daniel H. E. Dubin of a plasma with static electric and/or magnetic fields are of central importance in plasma theory and experiment. For exam- ple, in the theory of neoclassical transport, a magnetically confined plasma interacts

  15. On the Design of Traps for Feeding 3D Parts on Vibratory Tracks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    a sequence of mechanical devices such as wiper blades, grooves and traps. Most of these devices are filters

  16. Minimal Trap Design Pankaj K. Agarwal, Anne D. Collinsy, and John L. Harerz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.

    ].) Along this track is placed a sequence of obstacles (ramps, wiper blades, traps, etc.) designed to allow

  17. Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders # RobertPaul Berretty +# Ken Goldberg Mark H. Overmars +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    devices such as wiper blades, grooves and traps. Most of these devices are filters # Research is supported

  18. Trapping and hysteresis in two-phase flow in porous media: A pore-network study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    of hydrocarbon, and carbon sequestration problems where trap- ping of CO2 leads to safe underground storage. [4

  19. Characteristics of Pt-K/MgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. Characteristics of Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts. Abstract: We report the various characteristics of Pt-KMgAl2O4 lean NOx trap (LNT)...

  20. Note and Record A note on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe traps for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pretoria, University of

    Note and Record A note on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe traps for sampling vegetation of traditional traps, and many are furtive (Myers et al., 2007; Pittman et al., 2008). PVC pipe traps, which and Hyperolius (see Channing, 2001; du Preez & Carruthers, 2009), may be attracted to artificial refugia of PVC

  1. A Double Ion Trap for Large Coulomb Crystals Caroline Champenois, Jofre Pedregosa-Gutierrez, Mathieu Marciante,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : 37.10.Ty; 52.25.Kn;52.27.Jt MULTIPOLE TRAPS Thirty years after Wolfgang Paul's introduction of the 3D, the multipole trap is combined in line with a quadrupole trap, using a shuttling protocol between both parts

  2. DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE Submitted by Pamela K ENTITLED THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART RE OF DISSERTATION THE EFFECT OF TRAPPING DEFECTS ON CIGS SOLAR-CELL PERFORMANCE The relationship between basic solar-cell

  3. Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Louis Deslauriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    ABSTRACT Cooling and Heating of the Quantum Motion of Trapped Cd+ Ions by Louis Deslauriers Chair information processor has seen tremendous progress in many fields of physics. In the last decade, trapped ions for entanglement generation limiting the fidelity of quantum logic gates. Effective ground state cooling of trapped

  4. Future works The Ion trap -Laser cooling technique has the ad-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensinger, Winfried

    Future works The Ion trap - Laser cooling technique has the ad- vantages to easily manipulate apparatus for trace isotope analysis. Guidance of the ion beams to the trap Laser cooling of ions with this apparatus Realization of trapping ions from ICP-MS Optimization of the experimental system for detecting

  5. Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells and Shanhui Fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    trapping results in a thinner active region in a solar cell, which lowers the pro- duction cost by reducingAngular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells Zongfu Yua and Shanhui 2010; accepted 5 December 2010; published online 4 January 2011 Light trapping for solar cells can

  6. Light traps are one of a number of different gears used to sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    438 Light traps are one of a number of different gears used to sample pelagic larval and juvenile fishes. In contrast to conventional towed nets, light traps primarily collect larger size classes and Cowen, 1996; Wilson, 2001). The relative ease with which multiple synoptic light trap samples can

  7. Academy of Natural Sciences An Effective Trapping and Marking Method for Aquatic Beetles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, Ron

    suffer from one or more deficiencies. Glass bottles are heavy, awkwardto store and subject to vandalismin, Hydradephaga,marking, trapping] The first discussion of bottle traps used to studyaquaticbeetlesin North trapand a varietyof othersam- pling devices used in his studies in California ponds. His bottle trap

  8. FLUCTUATION IN TRAP-NET CATCHES IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FLUCTUATION IN TRAP-NET CATCHES IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER if; Marine Biological LabofdiuryKay, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert M. Day, Director FLUCTUATION IN TRAP NET CATCHES IN THE UPPER Gear used 3 Methods 5 Statistical considerations 5 Season trends in catch of trap nets 6 Black crappie

  9. Efficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    of poverty trap is synonymous to getting loan from the formal sector. The MFI discipline the borrower to saveEfficient Dynamic Contracts: Enabling A Poor borrower To Get Out of Poverty Trap Dyotona Dasgupta, New Delhi 110016, India Keywords: Dynamic Contracts, Progressive Lending, Collateral, Poverty Trap

  10. With Exhaustible Resources, Can A Developing Country Escape From The Poverty Trap?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    With Exhaustible Resources, Can A Developing Country Escape From The Poverty Trap? Cuong Le Van is convex-concave, so that the economy may be locked into a poverty trap. We show that the extent to which the country will escape from the poverty trap depends, besides the interactions between its technology and its

  11. The Impact of Simple Institutions in Experimental Economies with Poverty Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Julia R.

    The Impact of Simple Institutions in Experimental Economies with Poverty Traps C. Mónica Capra a threshold. The threshold externality generates two equilibria--a suboptimal "poverty trap" and an optimal typically sink into the poverty trap and the optimal equilibrium is never reached. However, the ability

  12. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first, the inverse of the trapping rate, is obtained for a variety of configurations involving digitized spheres

  13. Laser Stabilization for Quantum Computing with Trapped Barium ions Corey Adams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blinov, Boris

    system used to trap and cool Ba+ ions used for quantum computation research. The lasers, at 650 and 985 perform ex- periments, including trapping ions themselves. A trap works using both a laser cooling system in the cooling system is important to its success. A proposed method to stabilize lasers is to use an external

  14. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  15. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Daniilidis; S. Narayanan; S. A. Möller; R. Clark; T. E. Lee; P. J. Leek; A. Wallraff; St. Schulz; F. Schmidt-Kaler; H. Häffner

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.

  16. Real-time calibration of a feedback trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, Mom?ilo; Jun, Yonggun; Bechhoefer, John, E-mail: johnb@sfu.ca [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Feedback traps use closed-loop control to trap or manipulate small particles and molecules in solution. They have been applied to the measurement of physical and chemical properties of particles and to explore fundamental questions in the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of small systems. These applications have been hampered by drifts in the electric forces used to manipulate the particles. Although the drifts are small for measurements on the order of seconds, they dominate on time scales of minutes or slower. Here, we show that a recursive maximum likelihood (RML) algorithm can allow real-time measurement and control of electric and stochastic forces over time scales of hours. Simulations show that the RML algorithm recovers known parameters accurately. Experimental estimates of diffusion coefficients are also consistent with expected physical properties.

  17. Scattering of short laser pulses from trapped fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wong; Ozgur Mustecaplioglu; L. You; M. Lewenstein

    2000-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the scattering of intense short laser pulses off trapped cold fermionic atoms. We discuss the sensitivity of the scattered light to the quantum statistics of the atoms. The temperature dependence of the scattered light spectrum is calculated. Comparisons are made with a system of classical atoms who obey Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. We find the total scattering increases as the fermions become cooler but eventually tails off at very low temperatures (far below the Fermi temperature). At these low temperatures the fermionic degeneracy plays an important role in the scattering as it inhibits spontaneous emission into occupied energy levels below the Fermi surface. We demonstrate temperature dependent qualitative changes in the differential and total spectrum can be utilized to probe quantum degeneracy of trapped Fermi gas when the total number of atoms are sufficiently large $(\\geq 10^6)$. At smaller number of atoms, incoherent scattering dominates and it displays weak temperature dependence.

  18. GRANIT project: a trap for gravitational quantum states of UCN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pignol, G; Rebreyend, D; Vezzu, F; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Petukhov, A K; Börner, H G; Soldner, T; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Kreuz, M; Forest, D; Ganau, P; Mackowski, J M; Michel, C; Montorio, J L; Morgado, N; Pinard, L; Remillieux, A; Gagarski, A M; Petrov, G A; Kusmina, A M; Strelkov, A V; Abele, H; Baeßler, S; Voronin, A Yu

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies of gravitationally bound states of ultracold neutrons showed the quantization of energy levels, and confirmed quantum mechanical predictions for the average size of the two lowest energy states wave functions. Improvements in position-like measurements can increase the accuracy by an order of magnitude only. We therefore develop another approach, consisting in accurate measurements of the energy levels. The GRANIT experiment is devoted to the study of resonant transitions between quantum states induced by an oscillating perturbation. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, the accuracy of measurement of the energy levels is limited by the time available to perform the transitions. Thus, trapping quantum states will be necessary, and each source of losses has to be controlled in order to maximize the lifetime of the states. We discuss the general principles of transitions between quantum states, and consider the main systematical losses of neutrons in a trap.

  19. GRANIT project: a trap for gravitational quantum states of UCN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Pignol; K. V. Protasov; D. Rebreyend; F. Vezzu; V. V. Nesvizhevsky; A. K. Petukhov; H. G. Börner; T. Soldner; P. Schmidt-Wellenburg; M. Kreuz; D. Forest; P. Ganau; J. M. Mackowski; C. Michel; J. L. Montorio; N. Morgado; L. Pinard; A. Remillieux; A. M. Gagarski; G. A. Petrov; A. M. Kusmina; A. V. Strelkov; H. Abele; S. Baeßler; A. Yu. Voronin

    2007-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies of gravitationally bound states of ultracold neutrons showed the quantization of energy levels, and confirmed quantum mechanical predictions for the average size of the two lowest energy states wave functions. Improvements in position-like measurements can increase the accuracy by an order of magnitude only. We therefore develop another approach, consisting in accurate measurements of the energy levels. The GRANIT experiment is devoted to the study of resonant transitions between quantum states induced by an oscillating perturbation. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty relations, the accuracy of measurement of the energy levels is limited by the time available to perform the transitions. Thus, trapping quantum states will be necessary, and each source of losses has to be controlled in order to maximize the lifetime of the states. We discuss the general principles of transitions between quantum states, and consider the main systematical losses of neutrons in a trap.

  20. Dipole Excitation With A Paul Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacAskill, J. A.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Chutjian, A. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Group, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary results are presented for the use of an auxiliary radiofrequency (rf) excitation voltage in combination with a high purity, high voltage rf generator to perform dipole excitation within a high precision Paul ion trap. These results show the effects of the excitation frequency over a continuous frequency range on the resultant mass spectra from the Paul trap with particular emphasis on ion ejection times, ion signal intensity, and peak shapes. Ion ejection times are found to decrease continuously with variations in dipole frequency about several resonant values and show remarkable symmetries. Signal intensities vary in a complex fashion with numerous resonant features and are driven to zero at specific frequency values. Observed intensity variations depict dipole excitations that target ions of all masses as well as individual masses. Substantial increases in mass resolution are obtained with resolving powers for nitrogen increasing from 114 to 325.

  1. Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vedran Dunjko; Nicolai Friis; Hans J. Briegel

    2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization. In particular, classical random walks were substituted by Szegedy-type quantum walks, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose how such classical and quantum agents can be implemented in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are `upgraded' to their quantum counterparts by nested coherent controlization, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.

  2. Jaynes-Cummings Models with trapped electrons on liquid Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao Zhang; H. Y. Jia; L. F. Wei

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jaynes-Cummings model is a typical model in quantum optics and has been realized with various physical systems (e.g, cavity QED, trapped ions, and circuit QED etc..) of two-level atoms interacting with quantized bosonic fields. Here, we propose a new implementation of this model by using a single classical laser beam to drive an electron floating on liquid Helium. Two lowest levels of the {\\it vertical} motion of the electron acts as a two-level "atom", and the quantized vibration of the electron along one of the {\\it parallel} directions, e.g., $x$-direction, serves the bosonic mode. These two degrees of freedom of the trapped electron can be coupled together by using a classical laser field. If the frequencies of the applied laser fields are properly set, the desirable Jaynes-Cummings models could be effectively realized.

  3. Precise determination of micromotion for trapped-ion optical clocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, J; Burgermeister, T; Mehlstäubler, T E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As relative systematic frequency uncertainties in trapped-ion spectroscopy are approaching the low 10^{-18} range, motional frequency shifts account for a considerable fraction of the uncertainty budget. Micromotion, a driven motion fundamentally connected to the principle of the Paul trap, is a particular concern in these systems. In this article, we experimentally investigate at this level three common methods for minimizing and determining the micromotion amplitude. We develop a generalized model for a quantitative application of the photon-correlation technique, which is applicable in the commonly encountered regime where the transition linewidth is comparable to the rf drive frequency. We show that a fractional frequency uncertainty due to the 2nd-order Doppler shift below 1 x 10^{-20} can be achieved. The quantitative evaluation is verified in an interleaved measurement with the conceptually simpler resolved sideband method. If not performed deep within the Lamb-Dicke regime, a temperature-dependent off...

  4. Passive regeneration of catalyst coated knitted fiber diesel particulate traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, A.; Emig, G.; Gmehling, B.; Popovska, N.; Hoelemann, K.; Buck, A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knitted fiber particulate traps facilitate deep-bed structures. These have excellent filtration properties, particularly for ultra-fine particulates. They are also suitable as substrate for catalytic processes. The two characteristics are: high total surface area of the filaments, and good mass transfer. These are prerequisites for intense catalytic activity. The deposited soot is uniformly distributed. Therefore, temperature peaks are avoided during regeneration. The tested coatings lower the regeneration temperature by about 200 C to burn-off temperatures below 350 C. Further improvements seem attainable. Thus, a purely passive regeneration appears feasible for most applications. The system is autonomous and cost effective. However, in extreme low load situations, e.g. city bus services, the necessary exhaust temperatures are not attained. Hence, burners or electrical heating is necessary for trap regeneration. Nevertheless, catalytic coating is attractive for substantially reducing the regeneration energy requirements.

  5. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay Kuznetsov; Oleg Motygin

    2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of $N \\geq 2$ bodies; every structure has the following properties: (i) a time-harmonic wave mode is trapped by it; (ii) some of its bodies (may be none) are motionless, whereas the rest of the bodies (may be none) are heaving at the same frequency as water. The construction of these structures is based on a generalization of the semi-inverse procedure applied earlier for obtaining trapping bodies that are motionless although float freely.

  6. Adiabatic trapping in coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, H. A.; Ali, Z. [Department of Physics, G.C. University, 54000 Lahore (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we have discussed the effects of adiabatic trapping of electrons on obliquely propagating Alfven waves in a low {beta} plasma. Using the two potential theory and employing the Sagdeev potential approach, we have investigated the existence of arbitrary amplitude coupled kinetic Alfven-acoustic solitary waves in both the sub and super Alfvenic cases. The results obtained have been analyzed and presented graphically and can be applied to regions of space where the low {beta} assumption holds true.

  7. Detection of Fusion Neutrons on the Multimirror Trap GOL-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdakov, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); England, A.C. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Koidan, V.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Kwon, M. [Korea Basic Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Postupaev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Rovenskikh, A.F. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Sulyaev, Yu.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently GOL-3 has been reconfigured to a multimirror trap with improved confinement and high ion temperature. A dense plasma is created with a life time in the millisecond range. BTI neutron bubble detectors, a stilbene scintillation crystal, a BC501A liquid scintillator, and a silver-activation counter have been used for measurements of the neutron emission from GOL-3. The results are in agreement with charge-exchange (CX), spectral broadening of the D{alpha} line, and diamagnetic measurements.

  8. Selection, Sizing, and Testing of Stream Traps in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armer, A.; Risko, J. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure tow and Medium Pressure Unit Heaters Slerilirers Autoclaves Dryers FIRST CHOICE Thermo-Matic Thermostatic Float-and-Thermostatic Float-and-Thermostatic Thermo-Matic Thcrmostalic Thermo-Matic Thermostatic Thermo-Dynamic Float...-and-Thermostatic Float-and-Thermostar ic Thcrmo-Dynamic Thermo-Dynamic Bimetallic Balanced Pressure Thermostatic Balanced-Pressure Thermostatic Platen Presses I L NOTE: Unusual operating conditions, or severe corrosion may influence the choice of a steam trap...

  9. Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vit Jakubsky; David Krejcirik

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the confinement of Dirac fermions in graphene and in carbon nanotubes by an external magnetic field, mechanical deformations or inhomogeneities in the substrate. By applying variational principles to the square of the Dirac operator, we obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for confinement of the quasi-particles. The rigorous theoretical results are illustrated on the realistic examples of the three classes of traps.

  10. Photon trap for neutralization of negative ions beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, S S; Ivanov, A A; Kotelnikov, I A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For effectively neutralization of the powerful negative ions beams of hydrogen and deuterium the photon target is considered in long time. The attractiveness of the traditional approach (Fabry-Perot resonators) to their creation is limited to a number of stringent technical requirements and large economic costs. In this paper we propose a new concept of non-resonant photon trap (storage) for creation more technologically simple optical neutralizers.

  11. Collective coherent population trapping in a thermal field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Macovei; Z. Ficek; C. H. Keitel

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed the efficiency of coherent population trapping (CPT) in a superposition of the ground states of three-level atoms under the influence of the decoherence process induced by a broadband thermal field. We showed that in a single atom there is no perfect CPT when the atomic transitions are affected by the thermal field. The perfect CPT may occur when only one of the two atomic transitions is affected by the thermal field. In the case when both atomic transitions are affected by the thermal field, we demonstrated that regardless of the intensity of the thermal field the destructive effect on the CPT can be circumvented by the collective behavior of the atoms. An analytic expression was obtained for the populations of the upper atomic levels which can be considered as a measure of the level of thermal decoherence. The results show that the collective interaction between the atoms can significantly enhance the population trapping in that the population of the upper state decreases with increased number of atoms. The physical origin of this feature was explained by the semiclassical dressed atom model of the system. We introduced the concept of multiatom collective coherent population trapping by demonstrating the existence of collective (entangled) states whose storage capacity is larger than that of the equivalent states of independent atoms.

  12. Production trap improvements using high-efficiency internals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delavan, D.P.; Wilson, T.T.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the Gas-Oil Separation Plants (GOSP) in Southern Area Producing of Saudi Aramco will be producing between 40% and 75% water cuts by the turn of the century. Many GOSPs will be producing more than twice the amount of water they were originally designed for. Consequently, modifications must be made to the GOSPs so that they will have the capacity to separate and clean up these large volumes of produced water. The most attractive option is to improve the separation efficiency of the High Pressure Production Traps (HPPT) where formation water is first removed from the wellhead fluid. These traps have historically removed very little water from the wellhead fluid. However, the following modifications have proven to significantly improve the separation efficiency of the traps: double the height of the weir, and raise the oil level from 40% to 65% full; install a new inlet device to minimize the formation of foam; install coalescing and foam-breaking internals to enhance oil/water coalescing and separation and to break the foam on top of the oil layer.

  13. FORMATION OF PLANETARY CORES AT TYPE I MIGRATION TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandor, Zsolt; Dullemond, Cornelis P. [Max Planck Research Group, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lyra, Wladimir, E-mail: sandor@mpia.de [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street at Central Park West, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the long-standing unsolved problems of planet formation is how solid bodies of a few decimeters in size can 'stick' to form large planetesimals. This is known as the 'meter-size barrier'. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that some form of 'particle trapping' must have played a role in overcoming the meter-size barrier. Particles can be trapped in long-lived local pressure maxima, such as those in anticyclonic vortices, zonal flows, or those believed to occur near ice lines or at dead zone boundaries. Such pressure traps are the ideal sites for the formation of planetesimals and small planetary embryos. Moreover, they likely produce large quantities of such bodies in a small region, making it likely that subsequent N-body evolution may lead to even larger planetary embryos. The goal of this Letter is to show that this indeed happens, and to study how efficient it is. In particular, we wish to find out if rocky/icy bodies as large as 10 M{sub +} can form within 1 Myr, since such bodies are the precursors of gas giant planets in the core accretion scenario.

  14. Demagnetization dynamics of non-interacting trapped fermions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koller, Andrew P; Wall, Michael L; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by several experimental efforts to understand spin diffusion and transport in ultracold fermionic gases, we study the spin dynamics of initially spin-polarized ensembles of harmonically trapped non-interacting spin-1/2 fermionic atoms, subjected to a magnetic field gradient. We obtain simple analytic expressions for spin observables in the presence of both constant and linear magnetic field gradients, with and without a spin-echo pulse, and at zero and finite temperatures. The analysis shows the relevance of spin-motional coupling in the non-interacting regime where the demagnetization decay rate at short times can be faster than the experimentally measured rates in the strongly interacting regime under similar trapping conditions. Our calculations also show that particle motion limits the ability of a spin-echo pulse to remove the effect of magnetic field inhomogeneity, and that a spin-echo pulse can instead lead to an increased decay of magnetization at times comparable to the trapping period.

  15. Single microbe trap and release in sub-microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.

    2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lab-on-a-chip systems have substantially impacted the way life-sciences are explored; life on earth, however, comprises mostly of microbes, which due to their sub-micron dimensions and high mobility are more challenging to dynamically manipulate on-a-chip. To address this challenge, we developed a high resolution microfluidic system (submicrofluidics) fabricated by direct electron beam lithography that is capable of trapping single microbes and releasing them upon demand. The fabrication method enabled the integration of sub-micron indentations (400 nm) with millimetre-scale fluidic channels rapidly in a single processing step. The larger channels deliver the cell suspension and reagents, while the sub-micron indentations immobilize the cells by locally increasing the hydrodynamic resistance. By volume exclusion, single cell trapping was possible in this system without any surface treatment. By increasing the flow rate, the microbes overcome the trap barrier and pass through the narrow indentation without undergoing lysis with kinetics that depend on their size. The fabrication method and its performance are described, along with microbial characterisations using E. coli.

  16. Consequences of three-dimensional physical and electromagnetic structures on dust particle trapping in high plasma density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    gradients are present, which introduce fluid drag and thermophoretic forces, dust particle traps may

  17. Report of Flood, Oil Sheen, and fish Kill Incidents on East Fork Poplar Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water quality and plant opemtion irriiormation provided by the Y-12 Plant strongly suggest that a dechlorinating agent, applied to the raw water released below the North-South Pipes was responsible for the toxicity resulting in the fish kill of July 24. Dissolved oxygen (DO) measurements in upper EFPC indicai e that low oxygen levels (3-5 ppm) occurred for a period of up to 30 min. This slug of low DO water traveling down EFPC to the lake could easily explain the massive fish kill and the resulting observations. Dissolved oxygen levels of 5.2 ppm or lower are documented as causing problems for warmwater fish species (Heath 1995). The presence of other stressors, including a range of petrochemicals, tends to lower resistance to low oxygen conditions. Given the sequence of events in upper EFPC in the few days prior to July 24, where extremely high flows were followed by inputs of a wide range of low concentrations of oils, the sensitivity to low DO conditions might be heightened. The possible toxic impact of ::he oils and other contaminants reaching EFPC as a result of the heavy rainfidl on July 22 doesn't appear significant enough to be the sole cause of the kill on July 24. Even during the height of the kill, a large school of fish remained immediately downstream of the North-South Pipes. If the toxicity of waters flowing through this outlet were the primary cause of the kill, then it would be expected that this school of fish would not have been present immediately below the pipes. Any impact of waters entering from other sources, such as pumping of basements WOUIC1 have produced a staggered pattern of mortality, with fishing dying in different localities at different times and rates. Further, it would be expected that the morta.lhy observed would have continued over several days at least, as more resistant individuals succumbed slowly to the toxic exposure. This would have provided freshly dead or dying fish for the surveys of July 25 and 28. In previous fish kills in this stream section, the impact on the fish community has been judged to be short-term only, with no significant long-term ecological effects. In fact, the numerous fish kills over the past 7 years do not appear to have dampened the growth of the stream fish populations. The magnit~de of these kills was far less than that of the July 24 kill; maximum mortality of 10-20o/0 of th{~ total population above Lake Reality. Because the current kill has tiected a much larger proportion of the resident population, the impacts are expected to extend for a longer period in this situation, perhaps up to a year. Decreased population levels should be evident through the fhll 1997 and spring 1998 samples. Depending on the success rate of reproduction during the summer cf 1998, the recovery of fish populations should be observed in the fdl 1998 population sample. However, complete recovery may take several reproductive seasons to reach the densities seen in 1997. The cyprinid species occurring in upper EFPC have tremendous reproductive capacities and should be able to repopulate this area with little or no long-term ecological impact. Even the redbreast sunfish should, at the worst, only endure a narrowing of its available gene pool, with little if any long-term impacts.

  18. Millikelvin cooling of an optically trapped microsphere in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tongcang Li; Simon Kheifets; Mark G. Raizen

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparent conflict between general relativity and quantum mechanics remains one of the unresolved mysteries of the physical world. According to recent theories, this conflict results in gravity-induced quantum state reduction of "Schr\\"odinger cats", quantum superpositions of macroscopic observables. In recent years, great progress has been made in cooling micromechanical resonators towards their quantum mechanical ground state. This work is an important step towards the creation of Schr\\"odinger cats in the laboratory, and the study of their destruction by decoherence. A direct test of the gravity-induced state reduction scenario may therefore be within reach. However, a recent analysis shows that for all systems reported to date, quantum superpositions are destroyed by environmental decoherence long before gravitational state reduction takes effect. Here we report optical trapping of glass microspheres in vacuum with high oscillation frequencies, and cooling of the center-of-mass motion from room temperature to a minimum temperature of 1.5 mK. This new system eliminates the physical contact inherent to clamped cantilevers, and can allow ground-state cooling from room temperature. After cooling, the optical trap can be switched off, allowing a microsphere to undergo free-fall in vacuum. During free-fall, light scattering and other sources of environmental decoherence are absent, so this system is ideal for studying gravitational state reduction. A cooled optically trapped object in vacuum can also be used to search for non-Newtonian gravity forces at small scales, measure the impact of a single air molecule, and even produce Schr\\"odinger cats of living organisms.

  19. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    # Y Strainer with 0.020" Perlorated Plate Basket 114" NPS - 600# Globe Valve 112" NPS - 600# Gate Valve 112" x 4" Nipple (Schedule 80) 1/2" x 6" Nipple (Schedule 80) 114" x 4" Nipple (Schedule 80) Orifice Plate FIGURE 3 TYPICAL DRIP LEG... down before test rig is installed. 3. "Y" Strainer ahead of steam trap may be blown down and test rig connected at strainer blow down point. FIGURE 3A 398 ESL-IE-80-04-73 Proceedings from the Second Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston...

  20. Nuclear spin qubits in a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Feng; Y. Y. Xu; F. Zhou; D. Suter

    2009-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical systems must fulfill a number of conditions to qualify as useful quantum bits (qubits) for quantum information processing, including ease of manipulation, long decoherence times, and high fidelity readout operations. Since these conditions are hard to satisfy with a single system, it may be necessary to combine different degrees of freedom. Here we discuss a possible system, based on electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in trapped ions. The nuclear spin yields long decoherence times, while the electronic spin, in a magnetic field gradient, provides efficient manipulation, and the optical transitions of the ions assure a selective and efficient initialization and readout.

  1. Energy trapping and shock disintegration in a composite granular medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Daraio; V. F. Nesterenko; E. B. Herbold; S. Jin

    2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Granular materials demonstrate a strongly nonlinear behavior influencing the wave propagation in the medium. We report the first experimental observation of impulse energy confinement and the resultant disintegration of shock and solitary waves. The medium consists of alternating ensambles of high-modulus vs orders of magnitude lower modulus chains of different masses. The trapped energy is contained within the "softer" portions of the composite chain and is slowly released in the form of weak, separated pulses over an extended period of time. This effect is enhanced by using a specific group assembly and superimposed force.

  2. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-xi Liu; L. F. Wei; J. R. Johansson; J. S. Tsai; Franco Nori

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the "vibrational" mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a SQUID). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings/decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way.

  3. Measuring molecular electric dipoles using trapped atomic ions and ultrafast laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordi Mur-Petit; Juan José García-Ripoll

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a hybrid quantum system composed of an ion and an electric dipole. We show how a trapped ion can be used to measure the small electric field generated by a classical dipole. We discuss the application of this scheme to measure the electric dipole moment of cold polar molecules, whose internal state can be controlled with ultrafast laser pulses, by trapping them in the vicinity of a trapped ion.

  4. Angular constraint on light-trapping absorption enhancement in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Zongfu

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light trapping for solar cells can reduce production cost and improve energy conversion efficiency. Understanding some of the basic theoretical constraints on light trapping is therefore of fundamental importance. Here, we develop a general angular constraint on the absorption enhancement in light trapping. We show that there is an upper limit for the angular integration of absorption enhancement factors. This limit is determined by the number of accessible resonances supported by an absorber.

  5. Cryogenic surface electrode ion traps with integrated superconducting microwave resonators for polar molecular ion spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antohi, Paul Bogdan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapped cold molecules open the possibility of studying ultracold chemistry and astrophysical processes in laboratory settings. Their rich internal structure also makes them suitable for quantum information manipulation ...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol trapping effect Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this infrared radiation is trapped... 'S TEMPERATURE IS RISING This is the greenhouse effect. Without it, the Earths climate would be ... Source: Brookhaven National...

  7. Ion Funnel Trap Interface for Orthogonal Time-of-Flight Mass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed and characterized. The ion trap was incorporated through the use of added terminal electrodynamic ion funnel electrodes enabling control over the axial dc gradient in...

  8. Bose-Einstein condensate in traps: A Diffusion Monte Carlo analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Bosons, we note that the energy of a single particle in a typical harmonic trap (e.g. 87 Rb) is (3/2)¯hho

  9. High-Sensitivity Two-Photon Spectroscopy in a Dark Optical Trap, based on Electron Shelving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khaykovich, B; Baluschev, S; Fathi, D; Davidson, N E

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new spectroscopic method for measuring weak transitions in cold and trapped atoms, which exploits the long interaction times and tight confinement offered by dark optical traps together with an electron shelving technique to achieve extremely high sensitivity. We demonstrate our scheme by measuring a 5S_{1/2}-> 5D_{5/2} two-photon transition in cold Rb atoms trapped in a new single-beam dark optical trap, using an extremely weak probe laser power of 25 micro-Watt. We were able to measure transitions with as small excitation rate as 0.09 sec^(-1).

  10. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjit, Gambhir; Stutz, Jordan H; Cunningham, Mark; Geraci, Andrew A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  11. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  12. Attonewton force detection using microspheres in a dual-beam optical trap in high vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gambhir Ranjit; David P. Atherton; Jordan H. Stutz; Mark Cunningham; Andrew A. Geraci

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of laser-cooled silica microspheres as force sensors in a dual-beam optical dipole trap in high vacuum. Using this system we have demonstrated trap lifetimes exceeding several days, attonewton force detection capability, and wide tunability in trapping and cooling parameters. Measurements have been performed with charged and neutral beads to calibrate the sensitivity of the detector. This work establishes the suitability of dual beam optical dipole traps for precision force measurement in high vacuum with long averaging times, and enables future applications including the study of gravitational inverse square law violations at short range, Casimir forces, acceleration sensing, and quantum opto-mechanics.

  13. Probing Entanglement in Adiabatic Quantum Optimization with Trapped Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Hauke; Lars Bonnes; Markus Heyl; Wolfgang Lechner

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Adiabatic quantum optimization has been proposed as a route to solve NP-complete problems, with a possible quantum speedup compared to classical algorithms. However, the precise role of quantum effects, such as entanglement, in these optimization protocols is still unclear. We propose a setup of cold trapped ions that allows one to quantitatively characterize, in a controlled experiment, the interplay of entanglement, decoherence, and non-adiabaticity in adiabatic quantum optimization. We show that, in this way, a broad class of NP-complete problems becomes accessible for quantum simulations, including the knapsack problem, number partitioning, and instances of the max-cut problem. Moreover, a general theoretical study reveals correlations of the success probability with entanglement at the end of the protocol. From exact numerical simulations for small systems and linear ramps, however, we find no substantial correlations with the entanglement during the optimization. For the final state, we derive analytically a universal upper bound for the success probability as a function of entanglement, which can be measured in experiment. The proposed trapped-ion setups and the presented study of entanglement address pertinent questions of adiabatic quantum optimization, which may be of general interest across experimental platforms.

  14. Heating of trapped ultracold atoms by collapse dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franck Laloë; William J. Mullin; Philip Pearle

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    {The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) theory alters the Schr\\"odinger equation. It describes wave function collapse as a dynamical process instead of an ill-defined postulate, thereby providing macroscopic uniqueness and solving the so-called measurement problem of standard quantum theory. CSL contains a parameter $\\lambda$ giving the collapse rate of an isolated nucleon in a superposition of two spatially separated states and, more generally, characterizing the collapse time for any physical situation. CSL is experimentally testable, since it predicts some behavior different from that predicted by standard quantum theory. One example is the narrowing of wave functions, which results in energy imparted to particles. Here we consider energy given to trapped ultra-cold atoms. Since these are the coldest samples under experimental investigation, it is worth inquiring how they are affected by the CSL heating mechanism. We examine the CSL heating of a BEC in contact with its thermal cloud. Of course, other mechanisms also provide heat and also particle loss. From varied data on optically trapped cesium BEC's, we present an energy audit for known heating and loss mechanisms. The result provides an upper limit on CSL heating and thereby an upper limit on the parameter $\\lambda$. We obtain $\\lambda\\lesssim 1(\\pm1)\\times 10^{-7}$sec$^{-1}$.}

  15. Upgrade of the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, D.; Yang, Y.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y.; Wei, B.; Yao, K.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y., E-mail: zouym@fudan.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Applied Ion Beam Physics, Ministry of Education, 200433 Shanghai (China); Shanghai EBIT Lab, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years the Shanghai electron beam ion trap (EBIT) has been successfully redesigned and rebuilt. The original machine, developed under collaboration with the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, first produced an electron beam in 2005. It could be tuned with electron energies between 1 and 130 keV and beam current up to 160 mA. After several years of operation, it was found that several modifications for improvements were necessary to reach the goals of better electron optics, higher photon detection, and ion injection efficiencies, and more economical running costs. The upgraded Shanghai-EBIT is made almost entirely from Ti instead of stainless steel and achieves a vacuum of less than 10{sup ?10} Torr, which helps to minimize the loss of highly changed ions through charge exchange. Meanwhile, a more compact structure and efficient cryogenic system, and excellent optical alignment have been of satisfactory. The magnetic field in the central trap region can reach up till 4.8 T with a uniformity of 2.77 × 10{sup ?4}. So far the upgraded Shanghai-EBIT has been operated up to an electron energy of 151 keV and a beam current of up to 218 mA, although promotion to even higher energy is still in progress. Radiation from ions as highly charged as Xe{sup 53+,} {sup 54+} has been produced and the characterization of current density is estimated from the measured electron beam width.

  16. INFLUENCE OF LOCAL CAPILLARY TRAPPING ON CONTAINMENT SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir, approaching a percolation threshold while non-barrier regions remain numerous. The maximum possible extent of LCT thus occurs at Pc,entrycrit near this threshold. Testing predictions of this simple algorithm against full-physics simulations of buoyancy-driven CO2 migration support the concept of critical capillary entry pressure. However, further research is needed to determine whether a single value of critical capillary entry pressure always applies and how that value can be determined a priori. Simulations of injection into high-resolution (cells 0.3 m on a side) 2D and 3D heterogeneous domains show two characteristic behaviors. At small gravity numbers (vertical flow velocity much less than horizontal flow velocity) the CO2 fills local traps as well as regions that would act as local barriers if CO2 weremoving only due to buoyancy. When injection ceases, the CO2 migrates vertically to establish large saturations within local traps and residual saturation elsewhere. At large gravity numbers, the CO2 invades a smaller portion of the perforated interval. Within this smaller swept zone the local barriers are not invaded, but local traps are filled to large saturation during injection and remain during post-injection gravity-driven migration. The small gravity number behavior is expected in the region within 100 m of a vertical injection well at anticipated rates of injection for commercial GCS. Simulations of leakage scenarios (through-going region of large permeability imposed in overlying seal) indicate that LCT persists (i.e. CO2 remains held in a large fraction of the local iv traps) and the persistence is independent of injection rate during storage. Simulations of leakage for the limiting case of CO2 migrating vertically from an areally extensive emplacement in the lower portion of a reservoir showed similar strong persistence of LCT. This research has two broad implications for GCS. The first is that LCT can retain a significant fraction of the CO2 stored in a reservoir – above and beyond the residual saturation -- if the overlying seal were to fail. Thus frameworks for risk assessment should be extended to account for LCT. The second implication is that compared to press

  17. A study of the regeneration process in diesel particulate traps using a copper fuel additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, J.C.; Opris, C.N.; Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 C to 375 C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration. The higher peak trap temperatures were predominantly controlled by the effect of the exhaust flow rates on the energy transfer processes. The total regeneration time was faster for the controlled regeneration compared to the uncontrolled regeneration. All traps passed the controlled regeneration tests having maximum temperatures less than 900 C. During the uncontrolled regeneration tests, trap failure occurred at 135 and 139 g particulate matter loadings. The maximum temperatures were in excess of 1,150 C. The pressure drop across the trap was modeled using the one dimensional Darcy`s law which accounted for the pressure drop due to the ceramic wall and the particulate layer. The experimental results for the substrate correlate well with the empirical substrate pressure drop models available in the literature. The models also enable an estimate to be made regarding trap mass loading. These data along with the laboratory data have indicated that mass loadings greater than 110 g followed by high temperature operation and subsequent engine idling can result in trap failures during regeneration.

  18. Gravid Mosquito Trap P462 -Trap The ChemTica GMT operates on 4 size D cell batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    batteries. A photo-activated switch turns on the fan at dusk. Manual shutoff is required at dawn to prevent at dawn to prevent loss of trapped mosquitoes. Power is supplied by four D cell batteries. The upper case

  19. Offline trapping of $^{221}$Fr in a magneto-optical trap from implantation of an $^{225}$Ac ion beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tandecki; J. Zhang; S. Aubin; J. A. Behr; R. Collister; E. Gomez; G. Gwinner; H. Heggen; J. Lassen; L. A. Orozco; M. R. Pearson; S. Raeder; A. Teigelhöfer

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a new technique to prepare an offline source of francium for trapping in a magneto-optical trap. Implanting a radioactive beam of $^{225}$Ac, $t_{1/2} = 9.920(3)$ days, in a foil, allows use of the decay products, i.e.$^{221}$Fr, $t_{1/2} = 288.0(4)$ s. $^{221}$Fr is ejected from the foil by the $\\alpha$ decay of $^{225}$Ac. This technique is compatible with the online accumulation of a laser-cooled atomic francium sample for a series of planned parity non-conservation measurements at TRIUMF. We obtain a 34% release efficiency for $^{221}$Fr from the recoil source based on particle detector measurements. We find that laser cooling operation with the source is $8^{+10}_{-5}$ times less efficient than from a mass-separated ion beam of $^{221}$Fr in the current geometry. While the flux of this source is two to three orders of magnitude lower than typical francium beams from ISOL facilities, the source provides a longer-term supply of francium for offline studies.

  20. Rotating electrical machines - Part 15: Impulse voltage withstand levels of rotating a.c. machines with form-wound stator coils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applies to rotating a.c. machines for rated voltages from 3 kV to 15 kV inclusive and incorporating form-wound stator coils. Specifies the rated phase-to-earth impulse voltage withstand levels and the test procedure and voltages to be applied to the main and interturn insulation of sample coils.

  1. Title of dissertation: ULTRAFAST CONTROL OF SPIN AND MOTION IN TRAPPED IONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    , I report here on the first experiments using ultrafast laser pulses to control the internalABSTRACT Title of dissertation: ULTRAFAST CONTROL OF SPIN AND MOTION IN TRAPPED IONS Jonathan and external states of a single trapped ion. I begin with experiments in ultrafast spin control, showing how

  2. Quantum Reactive Scattering of Ultracold NHX 3 Radicals in a Magnetic Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trap using Stark deceleration [23,24] and buffer gas cooling techniques [15,25,26], and earlier cooling more difficult than previously anticipated. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.063201 PACS numbers: 34 cooling. These second-stage cooling methods, which rely on strong elastic collisions between trapped

  3. Ultracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Deborah

    cooling, until now none of these techniques have been applicable to molecules. In this thesis, two majorUltracold molecules for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping by B. K. Stuhl for the masses: evaporative cooling and magneto-optical trapping written by B. K. Stuhl has been approved

  4. Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    with solar tracking may realize the predicted JSC improvement. PACS Nos.: 88.40.jj, 42.79.Dj, 88.05.De to a significant improvement in light-trapping for cells used with solar trackingARTICLE Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1 Brian

  5. Euler buckling-induced folding and rotation of red blood cells in an optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Euler buckling-induced folding and rotation of red blood cells in an optical trap A Ghosha 005, India Abstract. We investigate the physics of an optically-driven micromotor of biological origin. When a single, live red blood cell is placed in an optical trap, the normal biconcave disk shape

  6. Passive torque wrench and angular position detection using a single-beam optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Michelle

    Passive torque wrench and angular position detection using a single-beam optical trap James Inman,1 August 26, 2010 The recent advent of angular optical trapping techniques has allowed for rotational torsional measurements across a wide range of biological systems. © 2010 Optical Society of America OCIS

  7. Torque-generating malaria-infected red blood cells in an optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Shobhona

    Torque-generating malaria-infected red blood cells in an optical trap J.A. Dharmadhikari, S. Roy, A 005, India # atmol1@tifr.res.in Abstract: We have used optical tweezers to trap normal and Plasmodium emerge from our experiments. Firstly, while the optical field modifies both types of RBCs in the same

  8. Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state Q. A. Turchette,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sackett, Cass

    Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state Q. A. Turchette,*, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology heating of laser-cooled 9 Be ions held in radio-frequency Paul traps. We have measured heating rates

  9. I. Top 20 TA Traps 83 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 85

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 83 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 85 III. TA Office I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere with the work of teaching. General

  10. I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131 III for TAs 152 #12;#12;Page 129 I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere

  11. I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 129 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 131 III for TAs 152 #12;#12;I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do that interfere with the work

  12. Repulsive trap for two electrons in a magnetic field A. D. Chepelianskii1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    of crossed electric and magnetic fields. It is found that near one antidot the electron pair can be trapped for a long time, and the escape rate from such a trap is proportional to the square of a weak electric field field. Experiments with antidot lattices were car- ried out by different experimental groups see, e

  13. Ion Crystals Produced by Laser and Sympathetic Cooling in a Linear RF Ion Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed investigation of ion crystals produced by laser and sympathetic cooling in a linear RF trap has been conducted. The laser cooling methods were examined and applied to the trapped ^24Mg^(positive) ions. The crystals produced by the laser...

  14. Efficiency of Surveying, Baiting, and Trapping Wild Pigs at Fort Benning, Georgia Brian Lee Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    Efficiency of Surveying, Baiting, and Trapping Wild Pigs at Fort Benning, Georgia by Brian Lee surveys, trapping efficiency, Fort Benning Copyright 2010 by Brian Lee Williams Approved by Stephen S This study, conducted at Fort Benning, Georgia, sought to develop more efficient ways of surveying

  15. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 031108 (2011) Noise associated with nonconservative forces in optical traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Porta, Arthur

    nonconservative fluctuations to direct thermal fluctuations scales inversely with the square root of trap power) It is known that for a particle held in an optical trap the interaction of thermal fluctuations by a force Fg proportional to the optical intensity gradient. The force exerted on the particle

  16. The responses of freshwater macroinvertebrates to different wavelengths in submerged aquatic light traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Edward F.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attracted to green light emitting diodes more than infrared, amber, orange, red, white, or unlit diodes. The vertical placement of the trap in the water column is also important. Beehler and Webb (1992) found that traps placed at the bottom of the water...

  17. Poverty Trap with Convex Production Function: The role of Public and Private Capital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Poverty Trap with Convex Production Function: The role of Public and Private Capital Kumar Aniket University of Cambridge 20 September 2014 Abstract. The objective of the paper is to explain why poverty, there is a poverty trap region or a threshold below which the economy is in a low steady state. The paper shows

  18. Joule heating effects on electrokinetic focusing and trapping of particles in constriction microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuan, Xiangchun "Schwann"

    Joule heating effects on electrokinetic focusing and trapping of particles in constriction for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING JOURNAL.1088/0960-1317/22/7/075011 Joule heating effects on electrokinetic focusing and trapping of particles in constriction microchannels

  19. Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells Stephen Foster1,* and Sajeev John1,2 1 demonstrate numerically a 2-D nanostructured design for light trapping in a low band-gap polymer solar cell observe an enhancement in solar absorption of almost 40% relative to a planar cell. Improvements

  20. Ion Crystals Produced by Laser and Sympathetic Cooling in a Linear RF Ion Trap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Feng

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed investigation of ion crystals produced by laser and sympathetic cooling in a linear RF trap has been conducted. The laser cooling methods were examined and applied to the trapped ^24Mg^(positive) ions. The crystals produced by the laser...

  1. Laser cooling and sympathetic cooling in a linear quadrupole rf trap 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryjkov, Vladimir Leonidovich

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of the sympathetic cooling method for the studies of large ultra-cold molecular ions in a quadrupole ion trap has been conducted.Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the rf heating mechanisms in the ion trap...

  2. Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queensland, University of

    Dynamical quantum noise in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates M. J. Steel,1,2 M. K. Olsen,1, * L. I introduce the study of dynamical quantum noise in Bose-Einstein condensates through numerical simu- lation equations for a single trapped condensate in both the positive-P and Wigner representations and perform

  3. Kinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine BergSrensen \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    the kinetic theory for evaporative cooling of a dilute collisional gas in a trap. The analysis in 0. J. Luiten and increase the phase­space density of an atomic, bosonic gas towards a Bose­Einstein condensate (BECKinetics for evaporative cooling of a trapped gas Kirstine Berg­Sørensen \\Lambda The Rowland

  4. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  5. Adenoviral E4orf3 and E4orf6 Proteins, But Not E1B55K, Increase Killing of Cancer Cells by Radiotherapy in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liikanen, Ilkka; Dias, Joao D.; Nokisalmi, Petri; Sloniecka, Marta; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Rajecki, Mari [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Dobner, Thomas [Heinrich Pette Institute for Experimental Virology and Immunology, Hamburg (Germany); Tenhunen, Mikko [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kanerva, Anna [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pesonen, Sari [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Ahtiainen, Laura Ph.D., E-mail: laura.ahtiainen@helsinki.f [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Hemminki, Akseli, E-mail: akseli.hemminki@helsinki.f [Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Molecular Cancer Biology Program and Transplantation Laboratory and Haartman Institute and Finnish Institute for Molecular Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is widely used for treatment of many tumor types, but it can damage normal tissues. It has been proposed that cancer cells can be selectively sensitized to radiation by adenovirus replication or by using radiosensitizing transgenes. Adenoviral proteins E1B55K, E4orf3, and E4orf6 play a role in radiosensitization, by targeting the Mre11, Rad50, and NBS1 complex (MRN) and inhibiting DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We hypothesize that combined with irradiation, these adenoviral proteins increase cell killing through the impairment of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: We assessed the radiosensitizing/additive potential of replication-deficient adenoviruses expressing E1B55K, E4orf3, and E4orf6 proteins. Combination treatments with low-dose external photon beam radiotherapy were studied in prostate cancer (PC-3MM2 and DU-145), breast cancer (M4A4-LM3), and head and neck cancer (UT-SCC8) cell lines. We further demonstrated radiosensitizing or additive effects in mice with PC-3MM2 tumors. Results: We show enhanced cell killing with adenovirus and radiation combination treatment. Co-infection with several of the viruses did not further increase cell killing, suggesting that both E4orf6 and E4orf3 are potent in MRN inhibition. Our results show that adenoviral proteins E4orf3 and E4orf6, but not E1B55K, are effective also in vivo. Enhanced cell killing was due to inhibition of DSB repair resulting in persistent double-strand DNA damage, indicated by elevated phospho-H2AX levels at 24 h after irradiation. Conclusions: This knowledge can be applied for improving the treatment of malignant tumors, such as prostate cancer, for development of more effective combination therapies and minimizing radiation doses and reducing side effects.

  6. Hybrid particle traps and conditioning procedure for gas insulated transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Churchill, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner condor within the outer sheath, insulating supports supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath, and an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath. An apertured particle trapping ring is disposed within the outer sheath, and the trapping ring has a pair of dielectric members secured at each longitudinal end thereof, with the dielectric members extending outwardly from the trapping ring along an arc. A support sheet having an adhesive coating thereon is secured to the trapping ring and disposed on the outer sheath within the low field region formed between the trapping ring and the outer sheath. A conditioning method used to condition the transmission line prior to activation in service comprises applying an AC voltage to the inner conductor in a plurality of voltage-time steps, with the voltage-time steps increasing in voltage magnitude while decreasing in time duration.

  7. Efficient Photoionization-Loading of Trapped Cadmium Ions with Ultrafast Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Deslauriers; M. Acton; B. B. Blinov; K. -A. Brickman; P. C. Haljan; W. K. Hensinger; D. Hucul; S. Katnik; R. N. Kohn, Jr.; P. J. Lee; M. J. Madsen; P. Maunz; S. Olmschenk; D. L. Moehring; D. Stick; J. Sterk; M. Yeo; K. C. Younge; C. Monroe

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic cadmium ions are loaded into radiofrequency ion traps by photoionization of atoms in a cadmium vapor with ultrafast laser pulses. The photoionization is driven through an intermediate atomic resonance with a frequency-quadrupled mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser that produces pulses of either 100 fsec or 1 psec duration at a central wavelength of 229 nm. The large bandwidth of the pulses photoionizes all velocity classes of the Cd vapor, resulting in high loading efficiencies compared to previous ion trap loading techniques. Measured loading rates are compared with a simple theoretical model, and we conclude that this technique can potentially ionize every atom traversing the laser beam within the trapping volume. This may allow the operation of ion traps with lower levels of background pressures and less trap electrode surface contamination. The technique and laser system reported here should be applicable to loading most laser-cooled ion species.

  8. Low-temperature Bessel beam trap for single submicrometer aerosol particle studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jessica W.; Chasovskikh, Egor; Stapfer, David [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Isenor, Merrill; Signorell, Ruth [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a new instrument for single aerosol particle studies at low temperatures that combines an optical trap consisting of two counter-propagating Bessel beams (CPBBs) and temperature control down to 223 K (?50?°C). The apparatus is capable of capturing and stably trapping individual submicrometer- to micrometer-sized aerosol particles for up to several hours. First results from studies of hexadecane, dodecane, and water aerosols reveal that we can trap and freeze supercooled droplets ranging in size from ?450 nm to 5500 nm (radius). We have conducted homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing experiments, freezing-melting cycles, and evaporation studies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of the freezing process for levitated single submicrometer-sized droplets in air using optical trapping techniques. These results show that a temperature-controlled CPBB trap is an attractive new method for studying phase transitions of individual submicrometer aerosol particles.

  9. Adiabatic electron response and solitary wave generation by trapped particle nonlinearity in a hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The finite amplitude ion acoustic waves that trap electrons modify the structure of the evolving nonlinear soliton solutions. In the numerical simulations, self-consistently generated solitary waves are studied that emerge as a result of a current driven microinstability growing the ion acoustic mode in a collisionless Vlasov plasma. The growth saturates as a result of nonlinear effects governed by a combination of nonlinearities originating from the hydrodynamic model and kinetic particle trapping effects. The resulting solitary waves also coexist with a finite current and an electron plasma wave capable of perturbing the trapping potential. The results of multiscale simulation are analyzed and characterized following the kinetic prescription of undamped trapped particle mode in the form of phase space vortex solutions that are generalized form of Sagdeev's solitons and obey the solutions of a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, accounting for a stronger nonlinearity originating from the electron trapping.

  10. Sudden Expansion of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas from Power-Law Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Campbell; D. M. Gangardt; K. V. Kheruntsyan

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze free expansion of a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas after a sudden release from the confining trap potential. By using the stationary phase and local density approximations, we show that the long-time asymptotic density profile and the momentum distribution of the gas are determined by the initial distribution of Bethe rapidities (quasimomenta) and hence can be obtained from the solutions to the Lieb-Liniger equations in the thermodynamic limit. For expansion from a harmonic trap, and in the limits of very weak and very strong interactions, we recover the self-similar scaling solutions known from the hydrodynamic approach. For all other power-law traps and arbitrary interaction strengths, the expansion is not self-similar and shows strong dependence of the density profile evolution on the trap anharmonicity. We also characterize dynamical fermionization of the expanding cloud in terms of correlation functions describing phase and density fluctuations.

  11. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, D S; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  12. Ion-neutral sympathetic cooling in a hybrid linear rf Paul and magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Goodman; I. Sivarajah; J. E. Wells; F. A. Narducci; W. W. Smith

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Long range polarization forces between ions and neutral atoms result in large elastic scattering cross sections, e.g., 10^6 a.u. for Na+ on Na or Ca+ on Na at cold and ultracold temperatures. This suggests that a hybrid ion-neutral trap should offer a general means for significant sympathetic cooling of atomic or molecular ions. We present SIMION 7.0 simulation results concerning the advantages and limitations of sympathetic cooling within a hybrid trap apparatus, consisting of a linear rf Paul trap concentric with a Na magneto-optical trap (MOT). This paper explores the impact of various heating mechanisms on the hybrid system and how parameters related to the MOT, Paul trap, number of ions, and ion species affect the efficiency of the sympathetic cooling.

  13. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Ponnusamy, Senthil [ORNL; Ferguson, Harley Douglas [ORNL; Williams, Aaron M [ORNL; Tassitano, James B [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  14. Gyrotactic trapping in laminar and turbulent Kolmogorov flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Santamaria; Filippo De Lillo; Massimo Cencini; Guido Boffetta

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Phytoplankton patchiness, namely the heterogeneous distribution of microalgae over multiple spatial scales, dramatically impacts marine ecology. A spectacular example of such heterogeneity occurs in thin phytoplankton layers (TPLs), where large numbers of photosynthetic microorganisms are found within a small depth interval. Some species of motile phytoplankton can form TPLs by gyrotactic trapping due to the interplay of their particular swimming style (directed motion biased against gravity) and the transport by a flow with shear along the direction of gravity. Here we consider gyrotactic swimmers in numerical simulations of the Kolmogorov shear flow, both in laminar and turbulent regimes. In the laminar case, we show that the swimmer motion is integrable and the formation of TPLs can be fully characterized by means of dynamical systems tools. We then study the effects of rotational Brownian motion or turbulent fluctuations (appearing when the Reynolds number is large enough) on TPLs. In both cases we show that TPLs become transient, and we characterize their persistence.

  15. Gas turbine engine combustor can with trapped vortex cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrus, David Louis; Joshi, Narendra Digamber; Haynes, Joel Meier; Feitelberg, Alan S.

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine combustor can downstream of a pre-mixer has a pre-mixer flowpath therein and circumferentially spaced apart swirling vanes disposed across the pre-mixer flowpath. A primary fuel injector is positioned for injecting fuel into the pre-mixer flowpath. A combustion chamber surrounded by an annular combustor liner disposed in supply flow communication with the pre-mixer. An annular trapped dual vortex cavity located at an upstream end of the combustor liner is defined between an annular aft wall, an annular forward wall, and a circular radially outer wall formed therebetween. A cavity opening at a radially inner end of the cavity is spaced apart from the radially outer wall. Air injection first holes are disposed through the forward wall and air injection second holes are disposed through the aft wall. Fuel injection holes are disposed through at least one of the forward and aft walls.

  16. Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Tony; Kurcz, Andreas; Saleem, Norah S.; Beige, Almut [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters {eta}<<1. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but not affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well-established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

  17. Laser cooling of a trapped particle with increased Rabi frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tony Blake; Andreas Kurcz; Norah S. Saleem; Almut Beige

    2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyses the cooling of a single particle in a harmonic trap with red-detuned laser light with fewer approximations than previously done in the literature. We avoid the adiabatic elimination of the excited atomic state but are still interested in Lamb-Dicke parameters $\\eta \\ll 1$. Our results show that the Rabi frequency of the cooling laser can be chosen higher than previously assumed, thereby increasing the effective cooling rate but {\\em not} affecting the final outcome of the cooling process. Since laser cooling is already a well established experimental technique, the main aim of this paper is to present a model which can be extended to more complex scenarios, like cavity-mediated laser cooling.

  18. Magnetic-field dependent trap loss of ultracold metastable helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. S. Borbely; R. van Rooij; S. Knoop; W. Vassen

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have experimentally studied the magnetic-field dependence of the decay of a Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable 4He atoms confined in an optical dipole trap, for atoms in the m=+1 and m=-1 magnetic substates, and up to 450 G. Our measurements confirm long-standing calculations of the two-body loss rate coefficient that show an increase above 50 G. We demonstrate that for m=-1 atoms, decay is due to three-body recombination only, with a three-body loss rate coefficient of 6.5(0.4)(0.6)10^(-27)cm^6s^(-1), which is interesting in the context of universal few-body theory. We have also searched for a recently-predicted d-wave Feshbach resonance, but did not observe it.

  19. Graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianfa; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in optoelectronic devices and has been intensively studied for solar cells and photodetectors. Graphene has recently emerged as a powerful plasmonic material. It shows significantly less losses compared to traditional plasmonic materials such as gold and silver and its plasmons can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy with chemical or electrical doping. Here we propose the usage of graphene plasmonics for light trapping in optoelectronic devices and show that the excitation of localized plasmons in doped, nanostructured graphene can enhance optical absorption in its surrounding media including both bulky and two-dimensional materials by tens of times, which may lead to a new generation of highly efficient, spectrally selective photodetectors in mid-infrared and THz ranges. The proposed concept could even revolutionize the field of plasmonic solar cells if graphene plasmons in the visible and near-infrared are realized.

  20. Loopless non-trapping invasion percolation model for fracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, J Quinn; Rundle, John B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent developments in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) have enabled the recovery of large quantities of natural gas and oil from old, low permeability shales. These developments include a change from low-volume, high-viscosity fluid injection to high-volume, low-viscosity injection. The injected fluid introduces distributed damage that provides fracture permeability for the extraction of the gas and oil. In order to model this process, we utilize a loopless non-trapping invasion percolation previously introduced to model optimal polymers in a strongly disordered medium, and for determining minimum energy spanning trees on a lattice. We performed numerical simulations on a 2D square lattice and find significant differences from other percolation models. Additionally, we find that the growing fracture network satisfies both Horton-Strahler and Tokunaga network statistics. As with other invasion percolation models, our model displays burst dynamics, in which the cluster extends rapidly into a connected region. W...

  1. Local Detection of Quantum Correlations with a Single Trapped Ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gessner; M. Ramm; T. Pruttivarasin; A. Buchleitner; H. -P. Breuer; H. Haeffner

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    As one of the most striking features of quantum mechanics, quantum correlations are at the heart of quantum information science. Detection of correlations usually requires access to all the correlated subsystems. However, in many realistic scenarios this is not feasible since only some of the subsystems can be controlled and measured. Such cases can be treated as open quantum systems interacting with an inaccessible environment. Initial system-environment correlations play a fundamental role for the dynamics of open quantum systems. Following a recent proposal, we exploit the impact of the correlations on the open-system dynamics to detect system-environment quantum correlations without accessing the environment. We use two degrees of freedom of a trapped ion to model an open system and its environment. The present method does not require any assumptions about the environment, the interaction or the initial state and therefore provides a versatile tool for the study of quantum systems.

  2. Theory of phonon dynamics in an ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, T; Sengupta, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a theory to address the non-equilibrium dynamics of phonons in a one-dimensional trapped ion system. We elaborate our earlier results obtained in Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 111}, 170406 (2013) to chart out the mechanism of dynamics-induced cooling and entanglement generation between phonons in these systems when subjected to a linear ramp protocol inducing site-specific tuning of on-site interactions between the phonons. We further extend these studies to non-linear ramps and periodic drive protocols and identify the optimal ramp protocol for minimal cooling and entanglement generation time. We qualitatively address the effect of noise arising out of fluctuation of the intensity of the laser used to generate entanglement and provide a detailed discussion of a realistic experimental setup which may serve as a test bed for our theory.

  3. Weakly bound molecules trapped with discrete scaling symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuke Nishida; Dean Lee

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    When the scattering length is proportional to the distance from the center of the system, two particles are shown to be trapped about the center. Furthermore, their spectrum exhibits discrete scale invariance, whose scale factor is controlled by the slope of the scattering length. While this resembles the Efimov effect, our system has a number of advantages when realized with ultracold atoms. We also elucidate how the emergent discrete scaling symmetry is violated for more than two bosons, which may shed new light on Efimov physics. Our system thus serves as a tunable model system to investigate universal physics involving scale invariance, quantum anomaly, and renormalization group limit cycle, which are important in a broad range of quantum physics.

  4. Entropic Trapping of Particles at Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galen T. Pickett

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I consider the possibility that Gaussian random walk statistics are sufficient to trap nanoscopic additives at either a polymer interface or surface. When an additive particle goes to the free surface, two portions of the polymer surface energy behave quite differently. The purely enthalpic contribution increases the overall free energy when the additive protrudes above the level of the polymer matrix. The entropic part of the surface energy arising from constraints that segments near a surface can't cross it, is partly relaxed when the additive moves to the free surface. These two portions of the polymer surface energy determine the equilibrium wetting angle formed between the additive and the polymer matrix, the measurement of which in an experiment would allow an independent determination of each piece of the polymer surface energy.

  5. Spontaneous recoil effects of optical pumping on trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Wallentowitz; P. E. Toschek

    2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The recoil effects of spontaneous photon emissions during optical pumping of a trapped three-level atom are exactly calculated. Without resort to the Lamb-Dicke approximation, and considering arbitrary detuning and saturation of the pump laser, the density of recoil shifts in phase space is derived. It is shown that this density is not of Gaussian shape, and that it becomes isotropic in phase space only for a branching ratio corresponding to fluorescence scattering but unfavorable for optical pumping. The dependence of its anisotropy on the laser saturation is discussed in the resonant case, and the mapping of moments of the atom's center-of-mass motion due to the pumping is presented. Moreover, it is shown how optimum parameters for protecting the center-of-mass quantum state from pump-induced disturbance depend on the specific property to be protected.

  6. Shelving and Probe Efficiency in Trapped Ion Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schacht, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized probe sequence typical of trapped ion experiments using shelving is studied. Detection efficiency is analyzed for finite shelved state lifetimes and using multi-modal count distributions. Multi-modal distributions are more appropriate for measurements that use a small number of ions than the simple Poisson counting statistics usually considered and have a larger variance that may be significant in determining uncertainties and in making weighted fits. Optimal probe times and the resulting state detection efficiency and sensitivity are determined for arbitrary cooling rates, initial states and shelved state lifetimes, in terms of a probe coherence time {\\tau}p. A universal optimal probe time of tp ~ 0.43{\\tau}p is shown to give an almost optimal probe sensitivity for most systems.

  7. Dust trapping by spiral arms in gravitationally unstable protostellar discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dipierro, Giovanni; Lodato, Giuseppe; Testi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss the influence of gravitational instabilities in massive protostellar discs on the dynamics of dust grains. Starting from a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulation, we have computed the evolution of the dust in a quasi-static gas density structure typical of self-gravitating disc. For different grain size distributions we have investigated the capability of spiral arms to trap particles. We have run 3D radiative transfer simulations in order to construct maps of the expected emission at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths. Finally, we have simulated realistic observations of our disc models at (sub-)millimetre and near-infrared wavelengths as they may appear with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) and the High-Contrast Coronographic Imager for Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) in order to investigate whether there are observational signatures of the spiral structure. We find that the pressure inhomogeites induced by gravitational instabilities produce a...

  8. Trapping and aerogelation of nanoparticles in negative gravity hydrocarbon flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K., E-mail: rajan.chakrabarty@gmail.com [Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States); Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Novosselov, Igor V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Enertechnix Inc., Maple Valley, Washington 98068 (United States); Beres, Nicholas D.; Moosmüller, Hans [Laboratory for Aerosol Science, Spectroscopy, and Optics, Desert Research Institute, Nevada System of Higher Education, Reno, Nevada 89512 (United States); Sorensen, Christopher M. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Stipe, Christopher B. [TSI Incorporated, 500 Cardigan Rd, Shoreview, Minnesota 55126 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the experimental realization of continuous carbon aerogel production using a flame aerosol reactor by operating it in negative gravity (?g; up-side-down configuration). Buoyancy opposes the fuel and air flow forces in ?g, which eliminates convectional outflow of nanoparticles from the flame and traps them in a distinctive non-tipping, flicker-free, cylindrical flame body, where they grow to millimeter-size aerogel particles and gravitationally fall out. Computational fluid dynamics simulations show that a closed-loop recirculation zone is set up in ?g flames, which reduces the time to gel for nanoparticles by ?10{sup 6}?s, compared to positive gravity (upward rising) flames. Our results open up new possibilities of one-step gas-phase synthesis of a wide variety of aerogels on an industrial scale.

  9. High-k shallow traps observed by charge pumping with varying discharging times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Szu-Han; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen [Department of Electronics Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang@mail.phys.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Hsin; Lo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bin-Wei; Cao, Xi-Xin [Department of Embedded System Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, P.R.China (China); Chen, Hua-Mao [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Chen, Tsai-Fu [Device Department, United Microelectronics Corporation, Tainan Science Park, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of falling time and base level time on high-k bulk shallow traps measured by charge pumping technique in n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors with HfO{sub 2}/metal gate stacks. N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different duty ratios indicate that the electron detrapping time dominates the value of N{sub T} for extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps. N{sub T} is the number of traps, and I{sub cp} is charge pumping current. By fitting discharge formula at different temperatures, the results show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps at high voltage are in fact high-k bulk shallow traps. This is also verified through a comparison of different interlayer thicknesses and different Ti{sub x}N{sub 1?x} metal gate concentrations. Next, N{sub T}-V{sub high} {sub level} characteristic curves with different falling times (t{sub falling} {sub time}) and base level times (t{sub base} {sub level}) show that extra contribution of I{sub cp} traps decrease with an increase in t{sub falling} {sub time}. By fitting discharge formula for different t{sub falling} {sub time}, the results show that electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps first discharge to the channel and then to source and drain during t{sub falling} {sub time}. This current cannot be measured by the charge pumping technique. Subsequent measurements of N{sub T} by charge pumping technique at t{sub base} {sub level} reveal a remainder of electrons trapped in high-k bulk shallow traps.

  10. Spectral dependencies of killing, mutation, and transformation in mammalian cells and their relevance to hazards caused by solar ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, F.; Han, A.; Lankas, G.R.; Utsumi, H.; Elkind, M.M.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using germicidal lamps and Westinghouse sunlamps with and without filtration, the effectiveness of ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light in inducing molecular and cellular changes was measured. Cell survival and the induction of resistance to 6-thioguanine or to ouabain were measured with V79 Chinese hamster cells, cell survival and neoplastic transformation were measured with C3H mouse 10 T 1/2 cells, and the induction of pyrimidine dimers containing thymine was measured in both cell lines. The short-wavelength cutoff of the sunlamp emission was shifted from approximately 290 nm (unfiltered) to approximately 300 and approximately 310 nm by appropriate filters. Although it was found that the efficiency with which all end points were induced progressively decreased as the short-wavelength cutoff was shifted to longer wavelengths, the rates of decrease differed appreciably. For example, doses of near-ultraviolet light longer than approximately 300 nm that were effective in mutating or in transforming cells were ineffective in killing them. In respect to pyrimidine dimer induction, several but not all cellular end points were induced by dose ratios of sunlamp light (short-wavelength cutoff, approximately 290 nm) to germicidal lamp light (254 nm) in fairly close accord with the doses required to produce equivalent proportions of dimers. However, for near-ultraviolet light having cutoffs at longer wavelengths, the biological action observed was appreciably greater than what would be predicted from the proportion of dimers induced. From the latter observation, it is inferred that increasing intensities of short-wavelength ultraviolet light, as would be expected from reductions in stratospheric ozone around the earth, would result in smaller increases in biological action, e.g., skin cancer, compared to current levels of action than would be predicted from an action spectrum completely corresponding to that of a pyrimidine dimer induction spectrum in DNA.

  11. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  12. Modification of the Carbon and Beryllium Walls in JET by Erosion, Redeposition and Deuterium Trapping after the 1991 Discharge Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modification of the Carbon and Beryllium Walls in JET by Erosion, Redeposition and Deuterium Trapping after the 1991 Discharge Period

  13. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # SangHyuk Lee, Yael Roichman, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # Sang­Hyuk Lee, Yael Roichman 10003 (Dated: July 18, 2005) Holographic optical traps use the forces exerted by computer methods for optimizing holographic optical traps' e#ciency and accuracy, and an optimal statistical

  14. Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # SangHyuk Lee, Yael Roichman, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Optimized holographic optical traps Marco Polin, Kosta Ladavac, # Sang­Hyuk Lee, Yael Roichman 10003 (Dated: December 26, 2011) Holographic optical traps use the forces exerted by computer methods for optimizing holographic optical traps' e#ciency and accuracy, and an optimal statistical

  15. Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, NY 10003 (Dated: December 25, 2011) We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on optical traps holographic optical tweezers. The traps' lateral stiffness turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts

  16. Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, and David G. Grier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Performance of optical traps with geometric aberrations Yael Roichman, Alex Waldron, Emily Gardel, NY 10003 (Dated: November 12, 2005) We assess the influence of geometric aberrations on optical traps holographic optical tweezers. The traps' lateral stiffness turns out to be insensitive to moderate amounts

  17. Insensitivity of the rate of ion motional heating to trap-electrode material over a large temperature range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiaverini, John

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K to room temperature (295 K) in a single ...

  18. Trapped proton fluxes at low Earth orbits measured by the PAMELA experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Danilchenko, I A; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above > 70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350-610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  19. Light Trapping for Thin Silicon Solar Cells by Femtosecond Laser Texturing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B. G.; Lin, Y. T.; Sher, M. J.; Mazur, E.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Femtosecond laser texturing is used to create nano- to micron-scale surface roughness that strongly enhances light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells. Light trapping is crucial for thin solar cells where a single light-pass through the absorber is insufficient to capture the weakly absorbed red and near-infrared photons, especially with an indirect-gap semiconductor absorber layer such as crystalline Si which is less than 20 um thick. We achieve enhancement of the optical absorption from light-trapping that approaches the Yablonovitch limit.

  20. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  1. Manipulation of the magnetron orbit of a positron cloud in a Penning trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, T.; Deller, A.; Isaac, C. A.; Werf, D. P. van der; Charlton, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Machacek, J. R. [Centre for Matter-Antimatter Studies, Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a simple and versatile method to manipulate the amplitude of the magnetron orbit of ions stored in a Penning trap, applied here to a cloud of low energy positrons. By applying a pulsed voltage to a split electrode in the trap, which is normally used for rotating wall compression of the particles, the size of the magnetron orbit can be changed at will. The modified orbit has been shown to be stable for many magnetron periods. The technique could find use in applications which require off-axis ejection of particles, for instance in the filling of arrays of traps for multicell positron storage.

  2. Radial transport of energetic ions in the presence of trapped electron mode turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, J.; Wang, W.; Ethier, S.; Manickam, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of transport of hot ions is studied in the presence of microturbulence generated by the trapped electron mode in a Tokamak using massively parallel, first principle based global nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation, and with the help of a passive tracer method. Passing and trapped hot ions are observed to exhibit inverse and inverse square scaling with energy, while those with isotropic pitch distribution are found to exhibit inverse dependence on energy. For all types of hot ions, namely, isotropic, passing, and trapped, the radial transport appears to be subdiffusive for the parameters considered.

  3. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  4. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Dongdong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, (China); Jia, Weiyi [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Evans, D. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Dennis, W. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Liu, Huimin [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (Puerto Rico); Zhu, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, (China); Yen, W. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+} is a persistent red phosphor. Thermoluminescence was measured under different excitation and thermal treatment conditions. The results reveal that the charge defects, created by substituting Tm{sup 3+} for Ca{sup 2+}, serve as hole traps for the afterglow at room temperature. Tm{sup 3+} plays the role of deep electron trapping centers, capturing electrons either through the conduction band or directly from the excited Eu{sup 2+} ions. These two processes, in which two different sites of Tm{sup 3+} are involved, correspond to two traps with different depths. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Wavelength-Scale Imaging of Trapped Ions using a Phase Fresnel lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Jechow; E. W. Streed; B. G. Norton; M. J. Petrasiunas; D. Kielpinski

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated phase Fresnel lens was used to image ytterbium ions trapped in a radio frequency Paul trap. The ions were laser cooled close to the Doppler limit on the 369.5 nm transition, reducing the ion motion so that each ion formed a near point source. By detecting the ion fluorescence on the same transition, near diffraction limited imaging with spot sizes of below 440 nm (FWHM) was achieved. This is the first demonstration of imaging trapped ions with a resolution on the order of the transition wavelength.

  6. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  7. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, A.H.

    1984-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  8. Particle trap for compressed gas insulated transmission systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle trap is provided for gas insulated transmission lines having a central high voltage conductor supported within an outer coaxial conductive sheath by a dielectric support member. A cavity between the inner conductor and outer sheath is filled with a dielectric insulating gas. A cone-like particle deflector, mounted to the inner conductor, deflects moving particles away from the support member, to radially outer portions of the cavity. A conductive shield is disposed adjacent the outer sheath to form a field-free region in radially outer portions of the cavity, between the shield and the sheath. Particles traveling along the cavity are deflected by the cone-like deflector into the field-free region where they are held immobile. In a vertical embodiment, particles enter the field-free region through an upper end of a gap formed between shield and sheath members. In a horizontal embodiment, the deflector cone has a base which is terminated radially internally of the shield. Apertures in the shield located adjacent the deflector allow passage of deflected particles into the field-free region. The dielectric support member is thereby protected from contaminating particles that may otherwise come to rest thereon.

  9. Dynamical Friction and Resonance Trapping in Planetary Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1998-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A restricted planar circular three-body system, consisting of the Sun and two planets, is studied as a simple model for a planetary system. The mass of the inner planet is considered to be larger and the system is assumed to be moving in a uniform interplanetary medium with constant density. Numerical integrations of this system indicate a resonance capture when the dynamical friction of the interplanetary medium is taken into account. As a result of this resonance trapping, the ratio of orbital periods of the two planets becomes nearly commensurate and the eccentricity and semimajor axis of the orbit of the outer planet and also its angular momentum and total energy become constant. It appears from the numerical work that the resulting commensurability and also the resonant values of the orbital elements of the outer planet are essentially independent of the initial relative positions of the two bodies. The results of numerical integrations of this system are presented and the first-order partially averaged equations are studied in order to elucidate the behavior of the system while captured in resonance.

  10. Laser cooling and trapping of potassium at magic wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Safronova; U. I. Safronova; Charles W. Clark

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We carry out a systematic study of the static and dynamic polarizabilities of the potassium atom using a first-principles high-precision relativistic all-order method in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric-dipole matrix elements. Static polarizabilities of the 4s, 4p_j, 5s, 5p_j, and 3d_j states are compared with other theory and experiment where available. We use the results of the polarizability calculations to identify magic wavelengths for the 4s-np transitions for $n = 4, 5$, i.e. those wavelengths for which the two levels have the same ac Stark shifts. These facilitate state-insensitive optical cooling and trapping. The magic wavelengths for the $4s-5p$ transitions are of particular interest for attaining a quantum gas of potassium at high phase-space density. We find 20 such wavelengths in the technically interest region of 1050-1130 nm. Uncertainties of all recommended values are estimated.

  11. Capped colloids as light-mills in optical traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. S. Merkt; A. Erbe; P. Leiderer

    2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Custom-designed colloidal particles in an optical tweezers act as light-mills in a fluid. In particular, aqueous suspensions of capped colloids, in which half of the surface is covered with metal layers, are investigated. Due to their asymmetry, the capped colloids can act as rotators when exposed to intense laser fields. Particles of 4.7 micrometer in diameter are observed rotating around the focus of a laser beam. For low intensities, particles become trapped close to the spot of highest laser intensity. Above a threshold value of about 4 mW in total beam intensity, the particles move away from the center of the focus and start to rotate at frequencies of about 1 Hz. The balance of forces due to light pressure and hydrodynamic forces gives a constant rotation rate. The speed of the spinning particle increases linearly with laser power to above 2 Hz until the particles are ejected from the focus for intensities higher than 7 mW. Magnetic caps introduce further possibilities to tune the rotation rates.

  12. Operation of the Lower Granite Dam Adult Trap, 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Jerrel R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2008 we operated the adult salmonid trap at Lower Granite Dam from 7 March through 25 November, except during a short summer period when water temperatures were too high to safely handle fish. We collected and handled a total of 20,463 steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and radio-tagged 34 of the hatchery steelhead. We took scale samples from 3,724 spring/summer Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha for age and genetic analysis. We collected and handled a total of 8,254 fall Chinook salmon. Of those fish, 2,520 adults and 942 jacks were transported to Lyons Ferry Hatchery on the Snake River in Washington. In addition, 961 adults and 107 jacks were transported to the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery on the Clearwater River in Idaho. The remaining 3,724 fall Chinook salmon were passed upstream. Scales samples were taken from 780 fall Chinook salmon tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and collected by the sort-by-code system.

  13. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  14. Trapped surfaces and nature of singularities in Lyra's geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Hadi Ziaie; Arash Ranjbar; Hamid Reza Sepangi

    2015-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the geometrical interpretation of Brans-Dicke (BD) scalar field which may also act as a torsion potential in Lyra geometry, we study the effects of spacetime torsion on the dynamics of a collapsing massive star. Taking the interior spacetime as the FLRW metric and the matter content as spherically symmetric, homogeneous perfect fluid with the equation of state (EoS) $p=w\\rho$, we show that the collapse ends in a spacetime singularity which is of the strong curvature type in the sense of Tipler. Whether the trapped surfaces form during the dynamical evolution of the collapse depends on the torsion parameter, related to the BD coupling parameter, and the EoS subject to the conditions on physical reasonableness of the collapse configuration. Hence, the space of torsion and EoS parameters is divided into two portions, one for which the collapse process leads to the formation of apparent horizon and the other for which the apparent horizon is failed to form in the interior region. The nature of the singularity is examined from the exterior perspective, by searching for the existence of radial null geodesics reaching the faraway observers. Moreover, it is found that the effects of a dynamical torsion can be transferred to the outside region of the collapsing star, making the exterior region dynamic.

  15. Trapped Ion Quantum Error Correcting Protocols Using Only Global Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph F. Goodwin; Benjamin J. Brown; Graham Stutter; Howard Dale; Richard C. Thompson; Terry Rudolph

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum error-correcting codes are many-body entangled states that are prepared and measured using complex sequences of entangling operations. Each element of such an entangling sequence introduces noise to delicate quantum information during the encoding or reading out of the code. It is important therefore to find efficient entangling protocols to avoid the loss of information. Here we propose an experiment that uses only global entangling operations to encode an arbitrary logical qubit to either the five-qubit repetition code or the five-qubit code, with a six-ion Coulomb crystal architecture in a Penning trap. We show that the use of global operations enables us to prepare and read out these codes using only six and ten global entangling pulses, respectively. The proposed experiment also allows the acquisition of syndrome information during readout. We provide a noise analysis for the presented protocols, estimating that we can achieve a six-fold improvement in coherence time with noise as high as $\\sim 1\\%$ on each entangling operation.

  16. First Exit Times of Harmonically Trapped Particles: A Didactic Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. S. Grebenkov

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by one- or multi-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function, and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker-Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times such as detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion.

  17. High-field penning-malmberg trap: confinement properties and use in positron accumulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J.H.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation reports on the development of the 60 kG cryogenic positron trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and compares the trap`s confinement properties with other nonneutral plasma devices. The device is designed for the accumulation of up to 2{times}10{sup 9} positrons from a linear-accelerator source. This positron plasma could then be used in Bhabha scattering experiments. Initial efforts at time-of-flight accumulation of positrons from the accelerator show rapid ({approximately}100 ms) deconfinement, inconsistent with the long electron lifetimes. Several possible deconfinement mechanisms have been explored, including annihilation on residual gas, injection heating, rf noise from the accelerator, magnet field curvature, and stray fields. Detailed studies of electron confinement demonstrate that the empirical scaling law used to design the trap cannot be extrapolated into the parameter regime of this device. Several possible methods for overcoming these limitations are presented.

  18. An optical-fiber interface to a trapped-ion quantum computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tony Hyun

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The trapped-ion quantum computer is an atom-based implementation of a quantum computer that has successfully demonstrated numerous quantum algorithms and the potential for scalability. Fundamental to its operation is the ...

  19. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material (trap and core sediments) in an eutrophic lake (Aydat,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material (trap and core sediments) in an eutrophic Carbohydrate compositions were determined on sinking particles and core samples from eutrophic lake Aydat; Eutrophic lake; Aydat lake 1. Introduction Polysaccharides are common structural and storage polymers

  20. Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.

  1. Excellent Sulfur Resistance of Pt/BaO/CeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CHF Peden.2008."Excellent Sulfur Resistance of PtBaOCeO2 Lean NOx Trap Catalysts."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 84(3-4):545-551. doi:10.1016j.apcatb.2008.05.009...

  2. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  3. Decoherence and Quantum Interference assisted electron trapping in a quantum dot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed El Halawany; Michael N. Leuenberger

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical model for the dynamics of an electron that gets trapped by means of decoherence and quantum interference in the central quantum dot (QD) of a semiconductor nanoring (NR) made of five QDs, between 100 K and 300 K. The electron's dynamics is described by a master equation with a Hamiltonian based on the tight-binding model, taking into account electron-LO phonon interaction (ELOPI). Based on this configuration, the probability to trap an electron with no decoherence is almost 27%. In contrast, the probability to trap an electron with decoherence is 70% at 100 K, 63% at 200 K and 58% at 300 K. Our model provides a novel method of trapping an electron at room temperature.

  4. On the application of radio frequency voltages to ion traps via helical resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Siverns; L. R. Simkins; S. Weidt; W. K. Hensinger

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ions confined using a Paul trap require a stable, high voltage and low noise radio frequency (RF) potential. We present a guide for the design and construction of a helical coil resonator for a desired frequency that maximises the quality factor for a set of experimental constraints. We provide an in-depth analysis of the system formed from a shielded helical coil and an ion trap by treating the system as a lumped element model. This allows us to predict the resonant frequency and quality factor in terms of the physical parameters of the resonator and the properties of the ion trap. We also compare theoretical predictions with experimental data for different resonators, and predict the voltage applied to the ion trap as a function of the Q-factor, input power and the properties of the resonant circuit.

  5. Escaping the poverty trap: modeling the interplay between economic growth and the ecology of infectious disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goerg, Georg M; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Althouse, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of economies and infectious disease are inexorably linked: economic well-being influences health (sanitation, nutrition, treatment capacity, etc.) and health influences economic well-being (labor productivity lost to sickness and disease). Often societies are locked into ``poverty traps'' of poor health and poor economy. Here, using a simplified coupled disease-economic model with endogenous capital growth we demonstrate the formation of poverty traps, as well as ways to escape them. We suggest two possible mechanisms of escape both motivated by empirical data: one, through an influx of capital (development aid), and another through changing the percentage of GDP spent on healthcare. We find that a large influx of capital is successful in escaping the poverty trap, but increasing health spending alone is not. Our results demonstrate that escape from a poverty trap may be possible, and carry important policy implications in the world-wide distribution of aid and within-country healthcare spending.

  6. Vertically aligned gas-insulated transmission line having particle traps at the inner conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Steinar J. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas insulated electrical apparatus having first and second conductors separated by an insulating support within an insulating gas environment, and particle traps disposed along the surface of the high potential conductor for trapping and inactivating foreign particles which may be present within the insulating gas medium. Several embodiments of the invention were developed which are particularly suited for vertically aligned gas insulated transmission lines. The particle traps are grooves or cavities formed into the walls of the tubular inner conductor, without extending into the hollow portion of the conductor. In other embodiments, the traps are appendages or insert flanges extending from the inner conductor, with the insulator supports contacting the appendages instead of the inner conductor.

  7. Depletion, quantum jumps, and temperature measurements of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerme, Philip J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and construction of two laser systems to probe the 674nm transition of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul trap. The first laser system made use of a molecular transition in Iodine to stabilize the ...

  8. Efficient Light Trapping in Inverted Nanopyramid Thin Crystalline Silicon Membranes for Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    Thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with light-trapping structures can enhance light absorption within the semiconductor absorber layer and reduce material usage. Here we demonstrate that an inverted nanopyramid ...

  9. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  10. Engineering optical traps for new environments and applications in the measurement of biological adhesives and motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appleyard, David Collins

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical traps have played a central role in the exploration of biological systems through the examination of molecular motors, biopolymers, and many other interactions at the nano and micro length scales. This thesis seeks ...

  11. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  12. Polaronic trapping of electrons and holes by native defects in anatase TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Benjamin J.; Watson, Graeme W. [School of Chemistry, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the formation of native defects in anatase TiO{sub 2} using density functional theory (DFT) modified with on-site Coulomb terms (DFT+U) applied to both Ti d and O p states. Oxygen vacancies and titanium interstitials are found to be deep donors that trap two and four electrons, with transition levels that explain the two features seen in deep level transient spectroscopy experiments. Titanium vacancies are deep acceptors accommodating four holes. Self-trapping of both electrons and holes is also predicted. In all cases both donor and acceptor trap states correspond to strongly localized small polarons, in agreement with experimental EPR data. Variation in defect formation energies with stoichiometry explains the poor hole-trapping of reduced TiO{sub 2}.

  13. Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth's Magnetotail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egedal, Jan

    Situ Discovery Electrostatic Potential, Trapping Electrons and Mediating Fast Reconnection Earth phase distributions, measured Wind spacecraft a rare crossing diffusion region in Earth's magnetotail, the presence a strong electrostatic potential within ion diffusion region is revealed. potential reaching

  14. Triplet Transport to and Trapping by Acceptor End Groups on Conjugated Polyfluorene Chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreearunothai, P.; Miller, J.; Estrada, A.; Asaoka, S.; Kowalczyk, M.; Jang, S.; Cook, A.R.; Preses, J.M.

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Triplet excited states created in polyfluorene (pF) molecules having average lengths up to 170 repeat units were transported to and captured by trap groups at the ends in less {approx}40 ns. Almost all of the triplets attached to the chains reached the trap groups, ruling out the presence of substantial numbers of defects that prevent transport. The transport yields a diffusion coefficient D of at least 3 x 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, which is 30 times typical molecular diffusion and close to a value for triplet transport reported by Keller (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 11289-11298). The triplet states were created in solution by pulse radiolysis; time resolution was limited by the rate of attachment of triplets to the pF chains. Naphthylimide (NI) or anthraquinone (AQ) groups attached to the ends of the chains acted as traps for the triplets, although AQ would not have been expected to serve as a trap on the basis of triplet energies of the separate molecules. The depths of the NI and AQ triplet traps were determined by intermolecular triplet transfer equilibria and temperature dependence. The trap depths are shallow, just a few times thermal energy for both, so a small fraction of the triplets reside in the pF chains in equilibrium with the end-trapped triplets. Trapping by AQ appears to arise from charge transfer interactions between the pF chains and the electron-accepting AQ groups. Absorption bands of the end-trapped triplet states are similar in peak wavelength (760 nm) and shape to the 760 nm bands of triplets in the pF chains but have reduced intensities. When an electron donor, N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD), is added to the solution, it reacts with the end-trapped triplets to remove the 760 nm bands and to make the trapping irreversible. New bands created upon reaction with TMPD may be due to charge transfer states.

  15. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany and Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Duellmann, Ch. E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eibach, M. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Hessberger, F. P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ramirez, E. Minaya [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nesterenko, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  16. Emittance and Current of Electrons Trapped in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, N; Blumenfeld, I; Clayton, C.E.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Huang, C.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Muggli, P; Oz, E.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; Zhou, M.; /SLAC /UCLA /USC

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent experiments plasma electrons became trapped in a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). The transverse size of these trapped electrons on a downstream diagnostic yields an upper limit measurement of transverse normalized emittance divided by peak current, {var_epsilon}{sub N,x}/I. The lowest upper limit for {var_epsilon}{sub N,x}/I measured in the experiment is 1.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -10} m/A.

  17. I. Top 20 TA Traps 123 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 125

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Chapter 5 Other Teaching Resources Page I. Top 20 TA Traps 123 II. Team Meeting Guidelines 125 III.0.0 143 IX. Useful Information for TAs 147 #12;#12;Page 123 I. Top 20 TA Traps This list has been compiled by mentor TAs to help you avoid some common pitfalls of being a TA. These are the top twenty things TAs do

  18. Computation of the Field in an Axial Gap, Trapped-Flux Type Superconducting Electric Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zejun; Ainslie, Mark D.; Campbell, Archie M.; Cardwell, David A.

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract—The Bulk Superconductivity Group at the University of Cambridge is currently investigating the use of high temper- ature superconductors in wire and bulk form to increase the electrical and magnetic loading of an axial gap, trapped flux... electric machines are an importantapplication of superconducting materials in both bulk and wire forms. Bulk high temperature superconductors, in partic- ular, are capable of trapping magnetic fields greater than 17 T below 30 K [1], [2], as well as up to 3...

  19. An ion ring in a linear multipole trap for optical frequency metrology C. Champenois, # M. Marciante, J. PedregosaGutierrez, M. Houssin, and M. Knoop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    An ion ring in a linear multipole trap for optical frequency metrology C. Champenois, # M­Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184­8795, Japan (Dated: May 31, 2010) A ring crystal of ions trapped in a linear multipole multipole traps where the electric field amplitude is almost null in the center part of the trap [13]. Large

  20. Design modifications, fabrication and test of HFDB-03 racetrack magnet wound with pre-reacted Nb3Sn Rutherford cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgio Ambrosio et al.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A 10 T racetrack magnet (HFDB-03) wound with pre-reacted Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford cable has been fabricated and tested at Fermilab. This magnet is the third one in a proof-of-principle series for the use of the React-and-Wind technology in common-coil dipole magnets for future accelerators. It consists of two flat racetrack coils (28 turns each) separated by 5 mm. The maximum field on the coil, at the short sample limit of 16530 A, is 10 tesla. The cable has 41 strands with 0.7 mm diameter and the minimum bend radius in the magnet ends is 90 mm. The predecessor of this magnet (HFDB-02) reached 78% of the short sample limit at 7.7 T. The mechanical design was improved and the fabrication procedure was slightly modified in order to address possible causes of limitation. In this paper we present the mechanical design and analysis of HFDB-03, the modifications to the fabrication procedure and the test results.

  1. Immobilization of Cesium Traps from the BN-350 Fast Reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Michelbacher; C. Knight; O. G. Romanenko; I. L. Tazhibaeva; I. L. Yakovlev; A. V. Rovneyko; V. I. Maev; D. Wells; A. Herrick

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During BN-350 reactor operations and also during the initial stages of decommissioning, cesium traps were used to decontaminate the reactor’s primary sodium coolant. Two different types of carbon-based trap were used – the MAVR series, low ash granulated graphite adsorber (LAG) contained in a carrier designed to be inserted into the reactor core during shutdown; and a series of ex-reactor trap accumulators(TAs) which used reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) to reduce Cs-137 levels in the sodium after final reactor shutdown. In total four MAVRs and seven TAs were used at BN-350 to remove an estimated cumulative 755 TBq of cesium. The traps, which also contain residual sodium, need to be immobilized in an appropriate way to allow them to be consigned as waste packages for long term storage and, ultimately, disposal. The present paper reports on the current status of the implementation phase, with particular reference to the work done to date on the trap accumulators, which have the most similarity with the cesium traps used at other reactors.

  2. Deuterium trapping at defects created with neutron and ion irradiations in tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Hatano; M. Shimada; T. Otsuka; Y. Oya; V.Kh. Alimov; M. Hara; J. Shi; M. Kobayashi; T. Oda; G. Cao; K. Okuno; T. Tanaka; K. Sugiyama; J. Roth; B. Tyburska-Püschel; J. Dorner; N. Yoshida; N. Futagami; H. Watanabe; M. Hatakeyama; H. Kurishita; M. Sokolov; Y. Katoh

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of neutron and ion irradiations on deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) were investigated. Specimens of pure W were irradiated with neutrons to 0.3 dpa at around 323 K and then exposed to high-flux D plasma at 473 and 773 K. The concentration of D significantly increased by neutron irradiation and reached 0.8 at% at 473 K and 0.4 at% at 773 K. Annealing tests for the specimens irradiated with 20 MeV W ions showed that the defects which play a dominant role in the trapping at high temperature were stable at least up to 973 K, while the density decreased at temperatures equal to or above 1123 K. These observations of the thermal stability of traps and the activation energy for D detrapping examined in a previous study (˜1.8 eV) indicated that the defects which contribute predominantly to trapping at 773 K were small voids. The higher concentration of trapped D at 473 K was explained by additional contributions of weaker traps. The release of trapped D was clearly enhanced by the exposure to atomic hydrogen at 473 K, though higher temperatures are more effective for using this effect for tritium removal in fusion reactors.

  3. Transport of ions in a segmented linear Paul trap in printed-circuit-board technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Huber; T. Deuschle; W. Schnitzler; R. Reichle; K. Singer; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the construction and operation of a segmented linear Paul trap, fabricated in printed-circuit-board technology with an electrode segment width of 500 microns. We prove the applicability of this technology to reliable ion trapping and report the observation of Doppler cooled ion crystals of Ca-40 with this kind of traps. Measured trap frequencies agree with numerical simulations at the level of a few percent from which we infer a high fabrication accuracy of the segmented trap. To demonstrate its usefulness and versatility for trapped ion experiments we study the fast transport of a single ion. Our experimental results show a success rate of 99.0(1)% for a transport distance of 2x2mm in a round-trip time of T=20us, which corresponds to 4 axial oscillations only. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the excitation of oscillations caused by fast ion transports with error-function voltage ramps: For a slightly slower transport (a round-trip shuttle within T=30us) we observe non-adiabatic motional excitation of 0.89(15)meV.

  4. Loading of a surface electrode ion trap from a remote, pre-cooled source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate for the first time the loading of ions into a surface electrode trap (SET) from a remote, laser-cooled source of neutral atoms. We first cool and load $\\sim$ $10^6$ neutral $^{88}$Sr atoms into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) from an oven that has no line-of-sight with the SET. The cold atoms are then pushed with a resonant laser into the trap region where they are subsequently photoionized and trapped in an SET operated at a cryogenic temperature of 4.6 K. We present studies of the loading process and show that our technique achieves ion loading into a shallow (15 meV depth) trap at rates as high as 125 ions/s while drastically reducing the amount of deposition of metal on the trap surface as compared with direct loading from a hot vapor. Furthermore, we note that due to multiple stages of isotopic filtering in our loading process, this technique has enhanced isotopic selectivity over other loading methods. Rapid loading from a clean, isotopically pure, and pre-cooled source will potentially enab...

  5. Integrated Fiber-Mirror Ion Trap for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birgit Brandstätter; Andrew McClung; Klemens Schüppert; Bernardo Casabone; Konstantin Friebe; Andreas Stute; Piet O. Schmidt; Christian Deutsch; Jakob Reichel; Rainer Blatt; Tracy E. Northup

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to $12$ for FFPCs longer than $200 \\mu$m in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate distortions of the potential due to the fibers. Home-built fiber feedthroughs connect the FFPC to external optics, and an integrated nanopositioning system affords the possibility of retracting or realigning the cavity without breaking vacuum.

  6. Particle trap to sheath non-binding contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-binding particle trap to outer sheath contact for use in gas insulated transmission lines having a corrugated outer conductor. The non-binding feature of the contact according to the teachings of the invention is accomplished by having a lever arm rotatably attached to a particle trap by a pivot support axis disposed parallel to the direction of travel of the inner conductor/insulator/particle trap assembly.

  7. Particle trap to sheath contact for a gas-insulated transmission line having a corrugated outer conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, William H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Yoon, Kue H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle trap to outer elongated conductor or sheath contact for gas-insulated transmission lines. The particle trap to outer sheath contact of the invention is applicable to gas-insulated transmission lines having either corrugated or non-corrugated outer sheaths. The contact of the invention includes an electrical contact disposed on a lever arm which in turn is rotatably disposed on the particle trap and biased in a direction to maintain contact between the electrical contact and the outer sheath.

  8. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  9. Resonance capture by hydrogenous impurities and losses of ultracold neutrons in solid material traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. S. Danilov

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The capture of trapped ultracold neutrons (UCNs) by closed hydrogenous impurities within a solid coating of the trap is discussed as a possible cause of observed anomalously large losses of UCNs in solid material UCN traps. Then significant losses of UCNs arise only if resonances occur in the UCN-impurity scattering amplitude. For a large size impurity, higher partial waves in the UCN-impurity interaction are important, and they are taken into account in the present paper. The method of the calculation is applicable to irregular shape impurities as well. A small distortion of an impurity shape, if it splits the resonance, can increase the UCN losses by a few times. UCN losses in the beryllium trap are calculated assuming they are due to the UCN capture by ice spherical impurities within the coating of the trap walls. Both s- and p-wave resonances contribute significantly to the UCN losses considered. As an example, observed anomalous large UCN losses are achieved if the average radius of the impurity is about 600 Angstroms and the impurity density is about 3*10^{14}/cm^3. A distortion of the spherical shape of the impurity could increase the UCN losses and therefore decrease the impurity density.

  10. Current leakage relaxation and charge trapping in ultra-porous low-k materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borja, Juan; Plawsky, Joel L., E-mail: plawsky@rpi.edu; Gill, William N. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lu, T.-M. [Department of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Bakhru, Hassaram [University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Time dependent dielectric failure has become a pivotal aspect of interconnect design as industry pursues integration of sub-22?nm process-technology nodes. Literature has provided key information about the role played by individual species such as electrons, holes, ions, and neutral impurity atoms. However, no mechanism has been shown to describe how such species interact and influence failure. Current leakage relaxation in low-k dielectrics was studied using bipolar field experiments to gain insight into how charge carrier flow becomes impeded by defects within the dielectric matrix. Leakage current decay was correlated to injection and trapping of electrons. We show that current relaxation upon inversion of the applied field can be described by the stretched exponential function. The kinetics of charge trapping events are consistent with a time-dependent reaction rate constant, k=k{sub 0}?(t+1){sup ??1}, where 0?trapping reactions in amorphous solids by W. H. Hamill and K. Funabashi, Phys. Rev. B 16, 5523–5527 (1977). We explain the relaxation process in charge trapping events by introducing a nonlinear charge trapping model. This model provides a description on the manner in which the transport of mobile defects affects the long-tail current relaxation processes in low-k films.

  11. Single trap dynamics in electrolyte-gated Si-nanowire field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pud, S.; Li, J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Vitusevich, S. A., E-mail: s.vitusevich@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Gasparyan, F. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Semiconductor Physics and Microelectronics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Petrychuk, M. [Radiophysics Faculty, T. Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 60 Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-gated silicon nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated and their transport and dynamic properties are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations were registered in the nanolength channel FETs and used for the experimental and theoretical analysis of transport properties. The drain current and the carrier interaction processes with a single trap are analyzed using a quantum-mechanical evaluation of carrier distribution in the channel and also a classical evaluation. Both approaches are applied to treat the experimental data and to define an appropriate solution for describing the drain current behavior influenced by single trap resulting in RTS fluctuations in the Si NW FETs. It is shown that quantization and tunneling effects explain the behavior of the electron capture time on the single trap. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the single trap were determined. The trap is located at a distance of about 2?nm from the interface Si/SiO{sub 2} and has a repulsive character. The theory of dynamic processes in liquid-gated Si NW FET put forward here is in good agreement with experimental observations of transport in the structures and highlights the importance of quantization in carrier distribution for analyzing dynamic processes in the nanostructures.

  12. Dislocation-related trap levels in nitride-based light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturi, Giulia; Castaldini, Antonio; Cavallini, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, Bologna 40127 (Italy); Meneghini, Matteo; Zanoni, Enrico [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo 6/B, Padova 35131 (Italy); Zhu, Dandan; Humphreys, Colin [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep level transient spectroscopy was performed on InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes (LEDs) in order to determine the effect of the dislocation density on the deep intragap electronic levels. The LEDs were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN templates with a high dislocation density of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup ?2} and a low dislocation density of 3 × 10{sup 8} cm{sup ?2}. Three trapping levels for electrons were revealed, named A, A1, and B, with energies E{sub A}???0.04?eV, E{sub A1}???0.13?eV, and E{sub B}???0.54?eV, respectively. The trapping level A has a much higher concentration in the LEDs grown on the template with a high density of dislocations. The logarithmic dependence of the peak amplitude on the bias pulse width for traps A and A1 identifies the defects responsible for these traps as associated with linearly arranged defects. We conclude that traps A and A1 are dislocation-related intragap energy levels.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive 1/r interaction: The case of self-trapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Papadopoulos; P. Wagner; G. Wunner; J. Main

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Amplifying on a proposal by O'Dell et al. for the realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of neutral atoms with attractive $1/r$ interaction, we point out that the instance of self-trapping of the condensate, without external trap potential, is physically best understood by introducing appropriate "atomic" units. This reveals a remarkable scaling property: the physics of the condensate depends only on the two parameters $N^2 a/a_u$ and $\\gamma/N^2$, where $N$ is the particle number, $a$ the scattering length, $a_u$ the "Bohr" radius and $\\gamma$ the trap frequency in atomic units. We calculate accurate numerical results for self-trapping wave functions and potentials, for energies, sizes and peak densities, and compare with previous variational results. As a novel feature we point out the existence of a second solution of the extended Gross-Pitaevskii equation for negative scattering lengths, with and without trapping potential, which is born together with the ground state in a tangent bifurcation. This indicates the existence of an unstable collectively excited state of the condensate for negative scattering lengths.

  14. Total current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S. Krishnan*, N. Tipirneni*, S. Pendharkar* and J. A. del Alamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    Total current collapse in High-Voltage GaN MIS-HEMTs induced by Zener trapping D. Jin, J. Joh*, S collapse in GaN MIS-HEMTs for >600 V operation. Extreme trapping leading to total current collapse has been trapping ("Zener trapping") inside the AlGaN barrier or the GaN channel layers. The trapping takes place

  15. Light Trapping for High Efficiency Heterojunction Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light trapping plays an important role to achieve high short circuit current density (Jsc) and high efficiency for amorphous/crystalline Si heterojunction solar cells. Si heterojunction uses hydrogenated amorphous Si for emitter and back contact. This structure of solar cell posses highest open circuit voltage of 0.747 V at one sun for c-Si based solar cells. It also suggests that over 25% record-high efficiency is possible with further improvement of Jsc. Light trapping has two important tasks. The first one is to reduce the surface reflectance of light to zero for the solar spectrum that Si has a response. The second one is to increase the effective absorption length to capture all the photon. For Si heterojunction solar cell, surface texturing, anti-reflectance indium tin oxides (ITO) layer at the front and back are the key area to improve the light trapping.

  16. BPM Button Optimization to Minimize Distortion Due to Trapped Mode Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron,P.; Blednyk, A.; Kosciuk, B.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, I.; Singh, O

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The outer circumference of a BPM button and the inner circumference of the button housing comprise a transmission line. This transmission line typically presents an impedance of a few tens of ohms to the beam, and couples very weakly to the 50 ohm coaxial transmission line that comprises the signal path out of the button. The modes which are consequently excited and trapped often have quality factors of several hundred, permitting resonant excitation by the beam. The thermal distortion resulting from trapped mode heating is potentially problematic for achieving the high precision beam position measurements needed to provide the sub-micron beam position stability required by light source users. We present a button design that has been optimized via material selection and component geometry to minimize both the trapped mode heating and the resulting thermal distortion.

  17. Cooling the motion of a trapped atom with a cavity field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Giovanna Morigi

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically analyze the cooling dynamics of an atom which is tightly trapped inside a high-finesse optical resonator. Cooling is achieved by suitably tailored scattering processes, in which the atomic dipole transition either scatters a cavity photon into the electromagnetic field external to the resonator, or performs a stimulated emission into the cavity mode, which then dissipates via the cavity mirrors. We identify the parameter regimes in which the atom center-of-mass motion can be cooled into the ground state of the external trap. We predict, in particular, that for high cooperativities interference effects mediated by the atomic transition may lead to higher efficiencies. The dynamics is compared with the cooling dynamics of a trapped atom inside a resonator studied in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143001, (2005)] where the atom, instead of the cavity, is driven by a laser field.

  18. Tapered optical fibers as tools for probing magneto-optical trap characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Morrissey; K. Deasy; Y. Wu; S. Chakrabarti; S. Nic Chormaic

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel technique for measuring the characteristics of a magneto-optical trap for cold atoms by monitoring the spontaneous emission from trapped atoms coupled into the guided mode of a tapered optical nanofiber. We show that the nanofiber is highly sensitive to very small numbers of atoms close to its surface. The size and shape of the MOT, determined by translating the cold atom cloud across the tapered fiber, is in excellent agreement with measurements obtained using the conventional method of fluorescence imaging using a CCD camera. The coupling of atomic fluorescence into the tapered fiber also allows us to monitor the loading and lifetime of the trap. The results are compared to those achieved by focusing the MOT fluorescence onto a photodiode and it was seen that the tapered fiber gives slightly longer loading and lifetime measurements due to the sensitivity of the fiber, even when very few atoms are present.

  19. Modeling and control of entanglement dynamics in laser cooling of trapped atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryam Roghani; Heinz-Peter Breuer; Hanspeter Helm

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the dynamical behavior of the entanglement between the internal and the external degrees of freedom of a trapped atom in electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) laser cooling. It is shown that essential features of the intricate entanglement dynamics observed in full numerical simulations of the underlying quantum master equation can be understood in terms of a two-state model on the basis of Landau-Zener splittings in the atom-laser field Hamiltonian. An extension of this model to an effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian is constructed which describes the decay of entanglement by spontaneous emission processes. We also discuss schemes for the control of entanglement and demonstrate that a permanent entanglement can be imprinted on trapped atoms through a rapid switch off of the driving fields. Finally, we point out fundamental distinctions between the entanglement created in EIT cooling and in the cooling scheme based on velocity-selective coherent population trapping.

  20. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivarajah, I.; Goodman, D. S.; Wells, J. E.; Smith, W. W. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Narducci, F. A. [Naval Air Systems Command, EO Sensors Division, Bldg 2187, Suite 3190 Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)] [Naval Air Systems Command, EO Sensors Division, Bldg 2187, Suite 3190 Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear Paul traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions, and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  1. Structure and dynamics of ion clusters in linear octupole traps: Phase diagrams, chirality, and melting mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurtsever, E.; Onal, E. D.; Calvo, F. [Koc University, Rumelifeneriyolu, Sariyer, Istanbul TR-34450 (Turkey); LASIM, Universite de Lyon and CNRS UMR 5579, 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, FR-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The stable structures and melting dynamics of clusters of identical ions bound by linear octupole radiofrequency traps are theoretically investigated by global optimization methods and molecular dynamics simulations. By varying the cluster sizes in the range of 10-1000 ions and the extent of trap anisotropy by more than one order of magnitude, we find a broad variety of stable structures based on multiple rings at small sizes evolving into tubular geometries at large sizes. The binding energy of these clusters is well represented by two contributions arising from isotropic linear and octupolar traps. The structures generally exhibit strong size effects, and chiral arrangements spontaneously emerge in many crystals. Sufficiently large clusters form nested, coaxial tubes with different thermal stabilities. As in isotropic octupolar clusters, the inner tubes melt at temperatures that are lower than the overall melting point.

  2. Improving Ion Mobility Measurement Sensitivity by Utilizing Helium in an Ion Funnel-Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Venkata BS; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion mobility instruments that utilize nitrogen as buffer gas are often preceded by an ion trap and accumulation region that also uses nitrogen, and for different inert gases no significant effects upon performance are expected for IMS of larger ions. However, we have observed significantly improved performance for an ion funnel trap upon adding helium; the signal intensities for higher m/z species were improved by more than an order of magnitude compared to using pure nitrogen. The effect of helium upon IMS resolving power was also studied by introducing a He/N2 gas mixture into the drift cell, and in some cases a slight improvement was observed compared to pure N2. The improvement in signal can be largely attributed to faster and more efficient ion ejection into the drift tube from the ion funnel trap.

  3. Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium in a two-species magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlöder, U; Schünemann, U; Grimm, R; Weidemüller, M

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate collisional properties of lithium and cesium which are simultaneously confined in a combined magneto-optical trap. Trap-loss collisions between the two species are comprehensively studied. Different inelastic collision channels are identified, and inter-species rate coefficients as well as cross sections are determined. It is found that loss rates are independent of the optical excitation of Li, as a consequence of the repulsive Li$^*$-Cs interaction. Li and Cs loss by inelastic inter-species collisions can completely be attributed to processes involving optically excited cesium (fine-structure changing collisions and radiative escape). By lowering the trap depth for Li, an additional loss channel of Li is observed which results from ground-state Li-Cs collisions changing the hyperfine state of cesium.

  4. Impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic micro traps for neutral atoms near superconducting thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Cano; B. Kasch; H. Hattermann; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; C. Zimmermann; J. Fortágh

    2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically evaluate changes in the magnetic potential arising from the magnetic field near superconducting thin films. An example of an atom chip based on a three-wire configuration has been simulated in the superconducting and the normal conducting state. Inhomogeneous current densities within the superconducting wires were calculated using an energy-minimization routine based on the London theory. The Meissner effect causes changes to both trap position and oscillation frequencies at short distances from the superconducting surface. Superconducting wires produce much shallower micro traps than normal conducting wires. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the importance of taking the Meissner effect into account when designing and carrying out experiments on magnetically trapped neutral atoms near superconducting surfaces.

  5. Enhanced Raman sideband cooling of caesium atoms in a vapour-loaded magneto-optical trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Y; Feng, G; Nute, J; Piano, S; Hackermuller, L; Ma, J; Xiao, L; Jia, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report enhanced three-dimensional degenerated Raman sideband cooling (3D DRSC) of caesium (Cs) atoms in a standard single-cell vapour-loading magneto-optical trap. Our improved scheme involves using a separate repumping laser and optimized lattice detuning. We load $1.5 \\times 10^7$ atoms into the Raman lattice with a detuning of -15.5 GHz (to the ground F = 3 state). Enhanced 3D DRSC is used to cool them from 60 $\\mu$K to 1.7 $\\mu$K within 12 ms and the number of obtained atoms is about $1.2 \\times 10^7$. A theoretical model is proposed to simulate the measured number of trapped atoms. The result shows good agreement with the experimental data. The technique paves the way for loading a large number of ultracold Cs atoms into a crossed dipole trap and efficient evaporative cooling in a single-cell system.

  6. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  7. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  8. Pore-scale study of capillary trapping mechanism during CO2 injection in geological formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, Uditha C.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} gas emerged as a promising solution for reducing amount of green house gases in atmosphere. A number of continuum scale models are available to describe the transport phenomena of CO{sub 2} sequestration. These models rely heavily on a phenomenological description of subsurface transport phenomena and the predictions can be highly uncertain. Pore-scale models provide a better understanding of fluid displacement processes, nonetheless such models are rare. In this work we use a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) model to study pore-scale displacement and capillary trapping mechanisms of super-critical CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Simulations are carried out to investigate the effects of gravitational, viscous, and capillary forces in terms of Gravity, Capillary, and Bond numbers. Contrary to the other published continuum scale investigations, we found that not only Gravity number but also Capillary number plays an important role on the fate of injected CO{sub 2}. For large Gravity numbers (on the order of 10), most of the injected CO{sub 2} reaches the cap-rock due to gravity segregation. A significant portion of CO{sub 2} gets trapped by capillary forces when Gravity number is small (on the order of 0.1). When Gravity number is moderately high (on the order of 1), trapping patterns are heavily dependent on Capillary number. If Capillary number is very small (less than 0.001), then capillary forces dominate the buoyancy forces and a significant fraction of injected CO{sub 2} is trapped by the capillary forces. Conversely, if Capillary number is high (higher than 0.001), capillary trapping is relatively small since buoyancy dominates the capillary forces. In addition, our simulations reveal different types of capillary trapping and flow displacement mechanisms during and after injection. In gravity dominated cases leave behind was the widespread trapping mechanism. Division was the primary trapping mechanism in viscous dominated cases. In capillary dominated cases, snap-off of the CO{sub 2} plume is the most commonly observed displacement mechanism. Large CO{sub 2} blobs are created due to coalescence mechanism.

  9. Control considerations for an on-line, active regeneration system for diesel particulate traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiglic, P.; Hardy, J.; Gabelman, B. (Garrett Automotive Group, Allied-Singal, Torrance, CA (US))

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors are developing an exhaust aftertreatment system aimed at particulate emissions reduction from commercial diesel engines. The system uses a ceramic wall flow filter to trap the particulates, and regeneration is effected by raising gas temperature by throttling the exhaust downstream of the turbocharger. Lab testing at steady conditions demonstrated good performance with both catalyzed and uncatalyzed traps. Road testing shows the regeneration must be accomplished under severe transient conditions created by the normal vehicle operating modes. Primary efforts are to accommodate those transients using advanced control and digital computational techniques. Some of those techniques are described and are shown to yield improved control performance.

  10. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montoya, Cris; Geraci, Andrew A; Eardley, Matthew; Moreland, John; Hollberg, Leo; Kitching, John

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  11. Resonant interaction of trapped cold atoms with a magnetic cantilever tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cris Montoya; Jose Valencia; Andrew A. Geraci; Matthew Eardley; John Moreland; Leo Hollberg; John Kitching

    2015-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic resonance in an ensemble of laser-cooled trapped Rb atoms is excited using a micro- cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is mounted on a multi-layer chip designed to capture, cool, and magnetically transport cold atoms. The coupling is observed by measuring the loss from a magnetic trap as the oscillating cantilever induces Zeeman state transitions in the atoms. Interfacing cold atoms with mechanical devices could enable probing and manipulating atomic spins with nanometer spatial resolution and single-spin sensitivity, leading to new capabilities in quantum computation, quantum simulation, or precision sensing.

  12. Heat conduction through a trapped solid: effect of structural changes on thermal conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debasish Chaudhuri; Abhishek Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the conduction of heat across a narrow solid strip trapped by an external potential and in contact with its own liquid. Structural changes, consisting of addition and deletion of crystal layers in the trapped solid, are produced by altering the depth of the confining potential. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and, wherever possible, simple analytical calculations are used to obtain the thermal resistance in the liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza or contact resistance). We show that these layering transitions are accompanied by sharp jumps in the contact thermal resistance. Dislocations, if present, are shown to increase the thermal resistance of the strip drastically.

  13. Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trompoukis, Christos; Depauw, Valérie; Gordon, Ivan; Poortmans, Jef; 10.1063/1.4749810.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the fabrication of two-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures by nanoimprint lithography and dry etching, and their integration into a 1-{\\mu}m-thin mono-crystalline silicon solar cell. Thanks to the periodic nanopatterning, a better in-coupling and trapping of light is achieved, resulting in an absorption enhancement. The proposed light trapping mechanism can be explained as the superposition of a graded index effect and of the diffraction of light inside the photoactive layer. The absorption enhancement is translated into a 23% increase in short-circuit current, as compared to the benchmark cell, resulting in an increase in energy-conversion efficiency.

  14. Dissipative dynamics of a vortex state in a trapped Bose-condensed gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. O. Fedichev; G. V. Shlyapnikov

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss dissipative dynamics of a vortex state in a trapped Bose-condensed gas at finite temperature and draw a scenario of decay of this state in a static trap. The interaction of the vortex with the thermal cloud transfers energy from the vortex to the cloud and induces the motion of the vortex core to the border of the condensate. Once the vortex reaches the border, it immediately decays through the creation of excitations. We calculate the characteristic life-time of a vortex state and address the question of how the dissipative dynamics of vortices can be studied experimentally.

  15. Experimental demonstration of a compact stellarator magnetic trap using four circular coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, T. Sunn; Kremer, J.P.; Lefrancois, R.G.; Marksteiner, Q.; Sarasola, X.; Ahmad, N. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental demonstration of a compact stellarator magnetic trap created from four circular coils is presented. The coil manufacturing and assembly tolerances were on the order of 0.5-1%, far less stringent than most other stellarators. The simplicity, loose mechanical tolerances, and low cost of the trap design makes it feasible for stellarators to be used for a variety of novel physics experiments, in addition to their present use for magnetic confinement fusion. The experiment, the Columbia Non-neutral Torus, has several other desirable features such as no significant internal island chains and the lowest aspect ratio, A{<=}1.9, of any stellarator built to date.

  16. Radial electric field generated by resonant trapped electron pinch with radio frequency injection in a tokamak plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radial electric field generated by resonant trapped electron pinch with radio frequency injection of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China (Received 10 May 2011 by charge accumulation due to a resonant trapped electron pinch effect. The radial field can then drive

  17. Laser cooling of two trapped ions: Sideband cooling beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit G. Morigi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blatt, Rainer

    of ultracold atoms, have provided renewed interest and applications for laser cooling techniques 1- onstrated to be a successful technique for cooling single ions to the ground state of a harmonic trap 9Laser cooling of two trapped ions: Sideband cooling beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit G. Morigi,1 J

  18. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

  19. Fabrication and heating rate study of microscopic surface electrode ion traps This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallraff, Andreas

    and recombination of ion crystals [3, 4]. To overcome the difficulties of assembling three-dimensional (3D) trap information processing was proposed in which segmented trap electrodes allow splitting, shuttling

  20. Infrared spectroscopic study of rovibrational states of methane trapped in parahydrogen crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    Infrared spectroscopic study of rovibrational states of methane trapped in parahydrogen crystal observed by using Fourier transform infrared and high resolution laser spectroscopy. The observed spectrum broader lines of a width of 1 cm 1 . The infrared selection rules derived from an extended group theory