National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for world co2 emissions

  1. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, J; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  2. Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Socolow, RH

    2014-01-01

    us My IOPscience Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions This9326/9/8/084018 Commitment accounting of CO 2 emissionsthe potential for ‘commitment accounting’ to inform public

  3. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

  4. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    gross world product, E is global energy consumption, Authorglobal consumption-based CO 2 emissions inventory and calcula- tions of associated consumption-based energyenergy consumption, and combustion-based CO 2 emissions of each region sector were all taken from Version 7 of the Global

  5. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  6. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    impose a price on the carbon in their own fossil fuels forprice A nthropogenic climate change is driven by CO 2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (fossil fuel resources are suf?ciently concentrated such that, if the relatively few countries that extract the most fuels imposed a price

  7. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    emission and resource accounting. Ecol Econ 69:211–222. 12.Consumption-based accounting of CO 2 emissions Steven J.Consump- tion-based accounting of CO 2 emissions differs

  8. Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Aquatic primary production in a high-CO2 world Etienne Low-De´carie, Gregor F. Fussmann, and Graham-Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1, Canada Here, we provide a review of the direct effect of increas- ing CO2 on aquatic: the assessment of theories about limitation of productivity and the integration of CO2 into the co

  9. A Statistical Model to Assess Indirect CO2 Emissions of the UAE Residential Sector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radhi, H.; Fikry, F.

    2010-01-01

    and increasing economic expenditure with huge architectural projects and population growth rates and a fairly low energy cost, the UAE?s energy consumption has increased tremendously, making it one of the highest energy consumers per capita in the world [1... ) Electricity CO2 emissions Figure 2 Increase in CO2 emissions relative to the use of energy [3] To tackle with CO2 emissions and global warming issues, UAE began planning regulation energy efficiency and environmental codes for buildings. Therefore, new...

  10. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manning, Martin; Edmonds, James A.; Emori, S.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kainuma, M.; Keeling, Ralph; Kram, Tom; Manning, Andrew; Meinhausen, Malte; Moss, Richard H.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; Rose, Steven K.; Smith, Steven J.; Swart, Robert; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2010-06-01

    Estimates of recent fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been compared with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios that had been developed for analysis of future climate change, impacts and mitigation. In some cases this comparison uses averages across subgroups of SRES scenarios and for one category of greenhouse gases (industrial sources of CO2). That approach can be misleading and cause confusion as it is inconsistent with many of the papers on future climate change projections that are based on a specific subset of closely scrutinized SRES scenarios, known as illustrative marker scenarios. Here, we show that comparison between recent estimates of fossil fuel emissions trends and the SRES illustrative marker scenarios leads to the conclusion that recent trends are not outside the SRES range. Furthermore, the recent economic downturn appears to have brought actual emission back toward the middle of the SRES illustrative marker scenarios. We also note that SRES emission scenarios are designed to reflect potential alternative long-term trends in a world without climate policy intervention and the trend in the resulting climate change is not sensitive to short-term fluctuations.

  11. CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Updated Analysis of Advanced/2003) #12;PNNL-18075 CO2 Emissions Mitigation and Technological Advance: An Analysis of Advanced Technology, by itself, the scope or quantity of greenhouse gas emissions reductions needed to achiev

  12. The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development in China Xiliang Zhang, Tianyu://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 The Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of Renewable Energy Development Qi, and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 242 April 2013 China Energy & Climate Project TSINGHUA - MIT

  13. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    is the largest source of NEU-CO2 emissions (233 Mt CO 2 ),black (another key source of NEU-CO2 emissions reported bysource and geographical distributions of NEU-CO2 emissions.

  14. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 D. J. Erickson III,1,2 R. T. Mills,1 J. Gregg,3 T. J. Blasing,4 F. M. Hoffman,1 R. J. Andres,4 of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series

  15. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

  16. Economics of Energy Efficiency in a CO2 Constrained World Daniel Trombley and Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Economics of Energy Efficiency in a CO2 Constrained World Daniel Trombley and Kelly Kissock energy certificates, and improving energy efficiency on site. This paper investigates the economics of energy efficiency in comparison to purchasing renewable energy certificates or CO2 emission reduction

  17. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy Consumption:10. China's 2008 Total CO 2 Emissions from Energy: Sectoral16 Table 11. China's 2008 CO 2 Emissions from Energy:

  18. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO 2emissions (233 Mt CO 2 ), accounting for around one-third ofCO2 emissions? 3 Accounting challenges and opportunities

  19. Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature­2001 are spatially correlated to anthropogenic surface CO2 emissions, which we use as a measure of industrialization change, CO2 emissions. Citation: de Laat, A. T. J., and A. N. Maurellis (2004), Industrial CO2 emissions

  20. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    as NEU-CO2 emissions (i.e. , a carbon storage fraction ofand stored fractions. It follows that, in practice, NEU-CO2

  1. Wavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Jaideep

    for source locations #12;Background on ffCO2 inversion · Unlike biogenic CO2 emissions, anthropogenicWavelet-based reconstruction of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from sparse measurements J. Ray1, V: Develop a technique to estimate anthropogenic (fossil- fuel) CO2 emissions from sparse observations

  2. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01

    related to fuel use or emissions than car ownership alone.Limiting CO2 Emissions from new cars promulgated by the EU (of 120 gm/km CO2 emissions from new cars, which corresponds

  3. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    Future CO 2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energynon-energy emissions could diminish in the future. In viewfuture CO 2 emissions is much greater in China, because China’s energy

  4. Evaluation of KDOT's Vehicle Fleet's CO2 Emissions and Possible Energy Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Eric

    2012-12-31

    Increasing energy demands require more energy extraction from fossil fuels. The energy is extracted through combustion and results in mainly CO2 emissions as well as other trace emissions. Reducing energy usage can save money and CO2 emissions...

  5. Comment on "Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    Comment on "Phytoplankton Calcification in a High-CO2 World" Ulf Riebesell,1 * Richard G. J conclusions. T he uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean is projected to drive seawater pH in the course as increasing ocean carbonation [increasing CO2 partial pres- sure (PCO2)] makes it energetically less expensive

  6. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    He, et. al. 2005. “Oil consumption and CO2 emissions inHe, et. al. 2005. “Oil consumption and CO2 emissions inin all types of oil consumption are needed to reduce crude

  7. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy...

  8. Analysis of CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel in Korea: 19611994 Ki-Hong Choi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .......................................................................................................7 3.2 Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions ................................................................8 3.2.1 Energy Consumption Pattern Appendix 3. Emission Coefficient of Electricity

  9. Estimation of CO2 Emissions from China's Cement Production: Methodologies and Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2014-01-01

    emissions from electricity consumption. This paper examinesmainly from electricity consumption for cement production,CO 2 emissions from electricity consumption are usually

  10. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  11. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  12. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    for preliminary cost–bene?t analyses of discrete NEU-CO2of the costs and bene?ts of various NEU-CO2 emissionscosts and GHG emissions reduction bene?ts as compared to competing options—will require greater NEU-CO2

  13. emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    CO2 emissions: mineral carbonation and Finnish pulp and paper industry (CO2 Nordic Plus) and Use, utilisation and long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the pulp and paper industry. The Geological of serpentinites in energy and metal industry (ECOSERP) Carl-Johan Fogelholm, Project leader, professor Sanni

  14. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    state-level cost and bene?t estimates of renewable portfoliostandards National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technicalnatural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissions

  15. Climatedependent CO2 emissions from lakes Sarian Kosten,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in 83 shallow lakes over a large climatic gradient in South influence lakes' metabolism as well. For instance through its effect on the hydraulic residence time, which

  16. Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacialinterglacial CO2 variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Model limits on the role of volcanic carbon emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 (2009) proposed that an increase in volcanic activity provoked by ice sheet melting contributed emissions in regulating glacial­interglacial CO2 variations, but uncertainties prevent a firm conclusion

  17. THE POTENTIAL FOR CO2 EMISSIONS TRADING IN TRANSPORT: THE CASE OF PERSONAL VEHICLES AND FREIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 THE POTENTIAL FOR CO2 EMISSIONS TRADING IN TRANSPORT: THE CASE OF PERSONAL VEHICLES AND FREIGHT, it is of some interest to explore the inclusion of road transport in emission trading schemes. Starting from

  18. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Agency (IEA). 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECDresults are taken from World Energy Outlook 2009. As seen in

  19. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    in trade (EET) and therefore equals emissions embodied inexports (EEE) less emissions embodied in imports (EEI).re?ects the net export of emissions and a negative value

  20. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency improvements will play in carbon mitigation along with a decarbonized power supply through greater renewable and non-fossil fuel generation.

  1. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    drivers of regional carbon dioxide emissions for China. J.D. & Rose, A. Carbon dioxide emissions in the U.S. economy.Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Emission Changes in Germany -

  2. Will Economic Restructuring in China Reduce Trade-Embodied CO2 Emissions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Tianyu

    We calculate CO2 emissions embodied in China’s net exports using a multi-regional input-output database. We find that the majority of China’s export-embodied CO2 is associated with production of machinery and equipment ...

  3. Gas-phase CO2 emission toward Cepheus A East: the result of shock activity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Sonnentrucker; E. González-Alfonso; D. A. Neufeld; E. A. Bergin; G. J. Melnick; W. J. Forrest; J. L. Pipher; D. M. Watson

    2006-09-05

    We report the first detection of gas-phase CO2 emission in the star-forming region Cepheus A East, obtained by spectral line mapping of the v2 bending mode at 14.98 micron with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. The gaseous CO2 emission covers a region about 35'' x 25'' in extent, and results from radiative pumping by 15 micron continuum photons emanating predominantly from the HW2 protostellar region. The gaseous CO2 exhibits a temperature distribution ranging from 50 K to 200 K. A correlation between the gas-phase CO2 distribution and that of H2 S(2), a tracer of shock activity, indicates that the CO2 molecules originate in a cool post-shock gas component associated with the outflow powered by HW2. The presence of CO2 ice absorption features at 15.20 micron toward this region and the lack of correlation between the IR continuum emission and the CO2 gas emission distribution further suggest that the gaseous CO2 molecules are mainly sputtered off grain mantles -- by the passage of slow non-dissociative shocks with velocities of 15-30 km/s -- rather than sublimated through grain heating.

  4. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

    2008-06-11

    This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

  5. Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model Uwe earth system model con- sisting of an atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean general

  6. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    Motor Vehicle Growth, Oil Demand and CO2 Emissions through61 4.3.2 Crude Oil Demand and Tradethe increase in crude oil demand is driven by a burgeoning

  7. Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement Challenges and Metrology for Monitoring CO2 Emissions from Smokestacks NIST with an instrument that has the highest level of precision. The smaller the unit, or fraction of a unit

  8. Dynamics of Implementation of Mitigating Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Commercial Aviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Rahul

    2010-07-13

    Increasing demand for air transportation and growing environmental concerns motivate the need to implement measures to reduce CO2 emissions from aviation. Case studies of historical changes in the aviation industry have ...

  9. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cost effective reduction of legislated emissions (including CO2) is a major issue. NOx control must not be a limiting factor to the long term success of Diesel engines.

  10. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Agency (IEA). 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECDfocuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assessesfocuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 with 2020 and

  11. Ris-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions Trading in Poland By Jochen Hauff Edited feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissions trading system

  12. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    separation of production and consumption complicates theto compare production- and consumption-based emissions2008) From production-based to consumption-based national

  13. 12 Absolute versus Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a component of cli- mate policy in the UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK DEFRA 2001),2 and in 2001 the Bush

  14. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Analysis (2014). 12. EIA. International Energy Statistics.U.S. Energy Information Administration 13. Afsah, S. &decomposition analysis applied to energy and emissions: some

  15. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    S3). Net exports of emissions from China, Russia, and theof exports from emerging markets such as China, Russia, andRussia, India, and the Middle East is consistently far less than that of their exports,

  16. Consumption, Not CO2 emissions: Reframing Perspectives on Climate Change and Sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harriss, Robert; Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    A stunning documentary film titled “Mardi Gras: Made in China” provides an insightful and engaging perspective on the globalization of desire for material consumption. Tracing the life cycle of Mardi Gras beads from a small factory in Fuzhou, China to the streets of the Mardi Gras celebration in New Orleans the viewer grasps the near universal human desire to strive for an affluent lifestyle. David Redmon, an independent film maker, follows the beads' genealogy back to the industrial town of Fuzhou, China, to the factory that is the world's largest producer of Mardi Gras beads and related party trinkets. He explores how these frivolous and toxic products affect the people who make them and those who consume them. Redmon captures the daily reality of a Chinese manufacturing facility. It’s workforce of approximately 500 teenage girls, and a handful of boys, live like prisoners in a fenced-in compound. These young people, often working 16-hour days, are constantly exposed to styrene, a chemical known to cause cancer — all for about 10 cents an hour. In addition to indoor pollution, the decrepit coal-fired manufacturing facilities are symbolic of China’s fast rise to the world’s top producer of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.1 The process of industrialization and modernization in China is happening at an unprecedented rate and scale.

  17. Decarbonization and the time-delay between peak CO2 emissions and concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Ashwin K

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-dioxide (CO2) is the main contributor to anthropogenic global warming, and the timing of its peak concentration in the atmosphere is likely to govern the timing of maximum radiative forcing. While dynamics of atmospheric CO2 is governed by multiple time-constants, we idealize this by a single time-constant to consider some of the factors describing the time-delay between peaks in CO2 emissions and concentrations. This time-delay can be understood as the time required to bring CO2 emissions down from its peak to a small value, and is governed by the rate of decarbonizaton of economic activity. This decarbonization rate affects how rapidly emissions decline after having achieved their peak, and a rapid decline in emissions is essential for limiting peak radiative forcing. Long-term mitigation goals for CO2 should therefore consider not only the timing of peak emissions, but also the rate of decarbonization. We discuss implications for mitigation of the fact that the emissions peak corresponds to small bu...

  18. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  19. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEATCNAA Jump to:Emissions from

  20. An approach for verifying biogenic greenhouse gas emissions inventories with atmospheric CO 2 concentration data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogle, Stephen; Davis, Kenneth J.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Schuh, Andrew E.; Cooley, Dan; West, Tristram O.; Heath, L.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Breidt, F. Jay; et al

    2015-03-10

    Verifying national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories is a critical step to ensure that reported emissions data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are accurate and representative of a country’s contribution to GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Verification could include a variety of evidence, but arguably the most convincing verification would be confirmation of a change in GHG concentrations in the atmosphere that is consistent with reported emissions to the UNFCCC. We report here on a case study evaluating this option based on a prototype atmospheric CO2 measurement network deployed in the Mid-Continent Region of themore »conterminous United States. We found that the atmospheric CO2 measurement data did verify the accuracy of the emissions inventory within the confidence limits of the emissions estimates, suggesting that this technology could be further developed and deployed more widely in the future for verifying reported emissions.« less

  1. The Future Trajectory of US CO2 Emissions: The Role of State vs. Aggregate Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Steinhauser, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    R. A. : 1998, World carbon dioxide emissions 1950 - 2050,in per capita carbon dioxide emissions, Harvard Departmentof u.s. state-level carbon dioxide emissions, The Journal of

  2. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  3. Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment-emission electricity within one or two decades. Renewable generation is also planned to increase over similar time, it is therefore possible that large (~45%) reductions in CO2 emissions from UK electricity generation could

  4. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2012. Potential energy savings and CO 2 emissions reductiondesign code for energy saving, energy consumption auditingCement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement

  5. NETL - World CO2 Emissions - Projected Trends Tool | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformationOliver,Minnesota:EnergyNARI Jump

  6. On the Road to Climate Stability: The Parable of the Secretary A-Team Report on Prospects for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    for Halting the Growth of CO2 Emissions James Hansen1,2, Darnell Cain3, Robert Schmunk3 After President Bush) reducing non-CO2 climate forcings, and (2) getting CO2 emissions to level out in the near-term and decline for a path in which the United States achieves an energy and CO2 emissions pathway consistent

  7. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  8. Energy and the Evolution of World-Systems: Fueling Power and Environmental Degradation, 1800-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Kirk Steven

    2011-01-01

    Energy Use, CO2 Emissions, and GDP in the World-System,Penetration and CO2 Emissions 1980-1996. ” Journal of World-

  9. A Review of Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, A.; Price, L.; Lin, E.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO2 emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key...

  10. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  11. Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman and Annelne Decaux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis of Post-Kyoto CO2 Emissions Trading Using Marginal Abatement Curves A. Denny Ellerman the advantages of emissions trading. In this paper, the authors derive MACs from EPPA, the MIT Joint Program the benefits of emissions trading in achieving the emission reduction targets implied by the Kyoto Protocol

  12. Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    Efficient 13.5 nm extreme ultraviolet emission from Sn plasma irradiated by a long CO2 laser pulse 17 April 2008; accepted 4 June 2008; published online 23 June 2008 The effect of pulse duration on in with pulse durations from 25 to 110 ns. Employing a long pulse, for example, 110 ns, in a CO2 laser system

  13. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the lab’s total carbon footprint.

  14. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Week Since 1990, China shows the greatest increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The Americas, Europe and Eurasia have about the same CO2 emissions in 2012 as in...

  15. A bottom up approach to on-road CO2 emissions estimates: improved spatial accuracy and applications for regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    point sources, but California's also sets future fuel economy standards for vehicles. Regulating-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing emission inventories use spatial proxies

  16. Rapid growth in CO2 emissions after the 2008-2009 global financial crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Glen P.; Marland, Gregg; Le Quere, Corinne; Boden, Thomas A; Canadell, Josep; Raupach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a return to emissions growth in developed economies, and an increase in the fossil-fuel intensity of the world economy.

  17. A Bottom up Approach to on-Road CO2 Emissions Estimates: Improved Spatial Accuracy and Applications for Regional Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutyra, Lucy R.

    targets for power plants and other point sources, but California's also sets future fuel economy standards Supporting Information ABSTRACT: On-road transportation is responsible for 28% of all U.S. fossil- fuel CO2 emissions. Mapping vehicle emissions at regional scales is challenging due to data limitations. Existing

  18. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  19. Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States P U S H K E R options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by 2030. We focus on coal for physical science research in the past few years: The "safe" long-term level of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs

  20. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  1. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    14. International Energy Agency (IEA), CO 2 Emissionsfrom Fuel Combustion (IEA, Paris, 2009). 15. G. A. Meehl et

  2. The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny Ellerman, Henry D. Jacoby and Annelne Decaux*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny by the scope of CO2 emissions trading, by various limitations that Annex I countries might place on emissions.1 Trade in Goods with No Emissions Trading

  3. THE INCREASING CONCENTRATION OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2: HOW MUCH, WHEN, AND WHY?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the world suggests that the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has varied considerably over geologic time consequence of the varying ratio of H to C is that different fuels have different rates of CO2 emissions per emissions when fuel consumption is expressed in energy units. Table 1: CO2 Emission Rates for Fossil

  4. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    to 336) Gt CO 2 from primary energy infrastructure beforemore numerous than primary energy infrastructure, monitoringare similar to those of primary energy infrastructure, which

  5. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    standards National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technicalnatural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissionsuse of both coal and renewable energy technologies in the

  6. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

  7. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  8. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions into the atmosphere2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dioxide sequestration process. The overall carbonation reaction includes the following steps: (1)23 CaCarbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas1 emissions change.20 This study investigates experimentally the aqueous carbonation mechanisms of an alkaline paper

  9. ASummary for Policymakers Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Wei

    O ASummary for Policymakers Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World #12;Scientific for Policymakers ­ Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme to affect food security and it limits the capacity of the ocean to absorb CO2 from human emissions

  10. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    2009. CO 2 Capture in the Cement Industry. Energy Procedia2 Capture Technologies for Cement Industry. Energy Procedia,J.M. Makar, T. Sato. 2010. Cement and concrete nanoscience

  11. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    Acronyms ATC BTS CALEB CARB CEC CHP CO 2 EEA EIA EMFAC FHWANatural Gas Electricity & CHP Plants On-road vehiclesRail Marine NG: Refining Coal: CHP Coal: Cement P: Cement P:

  12. SPECIAL REPORT 298: EFFECTS OF LAND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ON MOTORIZED TRAVEL, ENERGY, AND CO2 EMISSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    SPECIAL REPORT 298: EFFECTS OF LAND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ON MOTORIZED TRAVEL, ENERGY, AND CO2 land use changes, biofuels (especially advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol) are a good

  13. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO 2 emissionsrenewable energy use compared to low supply—and the amountnatural gas supply decreased future renewable energy use and

  14. Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schipper, Lee

    2008-01-01

    Price on New Car MPG, 1978-89,” The Energy Journal, vol. 11,reasons, new diesel cars show only slightly lower energy- orand rapid energy savings and CO2 restraint in new cars. Fuel

  15. Patterns of Fossil-based CO2 Emissions from US Croplands Contact: Tris West, 865-574-7322, westto@ornl.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    fossil-fuel combustion. A method was developed to calculate on-site and off-site energy and CO2 emissionsPatterns of Fossil-based CO2 Emissions from US Croplands Contact: Tris West, 865-574-7322, westto@ornl.gov Funding: DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research; and DOE Office of Biomass

  16. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    N. , 2008. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values forpublications/world-best-practice-energy-intensity-values-the current world best practice energy intensity14 and one-

  17. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    Agency (IEA). 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECDIEA. 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECDAgency (IEA). 2009. World Energy Outlook 2009. Paris: OECD

  18. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    CIS Total and Power Sector Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-Power Sector CIS and AIS Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-Inter-scenario Carbon Dioxide Emissions Mitigation Potential

  19. High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    1 distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelcycle of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions in the Unitedspatial patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from national

  20. Canada’s Bitumen Industry Under CO2 Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.-H. Henry

    We investigate the effects of implementing CO2 emissions reduction policies on Canada’s oil sands industry, the largest of its kind in the world. The production of petroleum products from oils sands involves extraction of ...

  1. Exposure to an enriched CO2 atmosphere alters carbon assimilation and allocation in a pine forest ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    to reduce the rate at which atmospheric CO2 increases, the Kyoto Protocol has transformed CO2 emissions in a future CO2-enriched world is even greater (Houghton, 1997). For example, despite some downExposure to an enriched CO2 atmosphere alters carbon assimilation and allocation in a pine forest

  2. PASSIVE WIRELESS SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE SENSORS FOR MONITORING SEQUESTRATION SITES CO2 EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yizhong; Chyu, Minking; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2012-11-30

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/?. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/?. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2. The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2. With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  3. Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2013-01-01

    energy efficiency measures in heavy industry in China, India, Brazil,and energy (including electricity) in 2003-2004 were about 0.65 t CO 2 /t of cement in Brazil,Brazil, 78% in Italy, 80% in Spain, 74% in China, and 91% in the United This article was originally published in “Energy

  4. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  5. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    for helpful comments. References [1] IEA 2013 Worldenergy balances IEA World Energy Statistics and Balances (

  6. Buildings, Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    .6% of world CO2 emissions)? US commercial sector use ~50% of world commercial use? Asia today 10-20% of world commercial use 2055200514 7 Billion of Tons of Carbon Emitted per Year 1955 0 C Flat path Historicalemissions 1.9 ?Æ?Æ 2105 14 GtC/y7 GtC/y Seven..., Commissioning, Efficiency, Comfort, and CO2 Asian Pacific Building Commissioning Conference ICEBONovember 8, 2006Shenzhen, ChinaPresented ByDavid E. ClaridgeEnergy Systems LaboratoryTexas A&M University Commissioning New Buildings Beginnings Building Handover...

  7. Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-01-01

    fuel and sector; following CARB convention, emissions from domestic and international air travel, and international shipping,

  8. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  9. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    energy challenge with ISO 50001, International Organizationgas emissions. Also, the ISO 50001 standard for Energy

  10. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    world experience, mobility management strategies appear to have the po­ tential to reduce energy and CO2 emissions

  11. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

  12. CO2 Injection in the Subsurface Kjetil Haugen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    (1015 BTU) Year Oil Coal Gas Hydro Nuclear Other Figure 1: World energy consumption by energy type. Thus, replacing oil and coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas, is probably the fastest way of achieving a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. CO2 Capture Natural gas is the most clean burning fossil

  13. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and integrated mine-mouth generation. The CIS and AIS results are also contextualized and compared to model scenarios in other published studies. The results of this study show that China's energy and CO{sub 2} emissions will not likely peak before 2030, although growth is expected to slow after 2020. Moreover, China will be able to meet its 2020 carbon intensity reduction target of 40 to 45% under both CIS and AIS, but only meet its 15% non-fossil fuel target by 2020 under AIS. Under both scenarios, efficiency remains a key resource and has the same, if not greater, mitigation potential as new technologies in transport and power sectors. In the transport sector, electrification will be closely linked the degree of decarbonization in the power sector and EV deployment has little or no impact on China's crude oil import demand. Rather, power generation improvements have the largest sector potential for overall emission mitigation while mine-mouth power generation and CCS have limited mitigation potential compared to fuel switching and efficiency improvements. Comparisons of this study's results with other published studies reveal that CIS and AIS are within the range of other national energy projections but alternative studies rely much more heavily on CCS for carbon reduction. The McKinsey study, in particular, has more optimistic assumptions for reductions in crude oil imports and coal demand in its abatement scenario and has much higher gasoline reduction potential for the same level of EV deployment. Despite these differences, this study's scenario analysis of both transport and power sectors illustrate the necessity for continued efficiency improvements and aggressive power sector decarbonization in flattening China's CO{sub 2} emissions.

  14. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    emissions are allocated to that sector accordingly. Biogas.The majority of biogas consumed in China is from rural

  15. Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

    2009-01-09

    In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

  16. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA). 2009. World EnergyIEEJ: July 2007. OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of OECDParis: OECD Publishing. OECD/IEA. 2010. Energy Balances of

  17. Building new power plants in a CO2 constrained world: A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building new power plants in a CO2 constrained world: A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power director. Most of the material used in this work are either courtesy of the persons I talked to in Norway, or the results of interviews the author conducted in Norway, between August 26 and August 30.The author

  18. Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale in a Mediterranean climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Kessel, Chris

    Tillage and seasonal emissions of CO2, N2O and NO across a seed bed and at the field scale tillage may increase N2O emissions under certain circumstances, thereby offsetting C sequestration manage- ment accounted for almost 94% of total US N2O emissions from 1990 to 2004 (USEPA, 2006). In 2004

  19. Supplementary Material for the ACP manuscript "CO2 and its1 correlation with CO at a rural site near Beijing: implications for2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ., Andres, R. J., and Marland, G.: China: Emissions pattern of the world2 leader in CO2 emissions from over China have a CO2/CO emission ratio of 21 mol/mol16 [Zhang et al., 2009; Gregg et al., 2008- 1 - Supplementary Material for the ACP manuscript "CO2 and its1 correlation with CO at a rural

  20. Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-01-01

    recovery from waste ?ows of polymers and tires might lead to net GHG emissions reductions by offsetting fuels such as coal,

  1. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    emissions. The renewable energy base case assumes 296 GW of2007, pp.32-44. renewable energy sensitivity cases result in

  2. Future CO2 Emissions and Climate Change from Existing Energy Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Caldeira, K; Matthews, HD

    2010-01-01

    2 from combustion of fossil fuels by existing infrastructureas well as estimates of fossil fuel emissions produced di-the combustion of fossil fuels by existing infrastructure

  3. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Fridley, David

    2010-01-01

    of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2009 76 published by theto at least 2030, with WEO and Tyndall extending theirthe range of CEACER, McKinsey, WEO and Tyndall Centre’s

  4. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Applications of 100 Percent Fly Ash Concrete. 2005 World ofTowards sustainable solutions for fly ash through mechanicalVerification of Self- Cementing Fly Ash Binders for “Green”

  5. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Measurement of radon in springs has improved significantly since the field program first began; however, in situ measurement of 222Rn and particularly 220Rn in springs is problematic. Future refinements include simultaneous salinity measurements and systematic corrections, or adjustments to the partition coefficient as needed for more accurate radon concentration determination. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; he is currently employed with a geologic consulting company. Both graduate students are poised to begin work in a CCS technology area. Laboratory experiments evaluated important process-level fundamentals that effect measurements of radon and CO2. Laboratory tests established that fine-grained source minerals yield higher radon emissivity compared to coarser-sized source minerals; subtleties in the dataset suggest that grain size alone is not fully representative of all the processes controlling the ability of radon to escape its mineral host. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn increases linearly with temperature due to reaction of rocks with water, consistent with faster diffusion and enhanced mineral dissolution at higher temperatures. The presence of CO2 changes the relative importance of the factors that control release of radon. Emissivity for both 222Rn and 220Rn in CO2-bearing experiments is greater at all temperatures compared to the experiments without CO2, but emissivity does not increase as a simple function of temperature. Governing processes may include a balance between enhanced dissolution versus carbonate mineral formation in CO2-rich waters.

  6. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theUS exports of natural gas Energy Policy www.bipac.net/dow/

  7. Diesel Passenger Car Technology for Low Emissions and CO2 Compliance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the US Market Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept Light-Duty Diesel Market Potential in North America...

  8. The effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and CO2emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shearer, C; Shearer, C; Bistline, J; Inman, M; Davis, SJ; Davis, SJ

    2014-01-01

    leaks from North American natural gas systems Science 343of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in theThe effect of natural gas supply on US renewable energy and

  9. Supplementary Information for Refined Estimate of China's CO2 Emissions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    coal 0.93 (0.89-0.98); Gamma IPCC( 2006); Cai et al. (2009); Zhao et al (2012) Cleaned coal 0.96 (0.95-0.98); Weibull Other washed coal 0.96 (0.92-1); Triangular Briquettes 0.90 (0.89-0.98); Weibull IPCC( 2006); Coke provincial emissions Emission sector Type of activity data Proxy Industrial energy consumption Fuel

  10. Review of cost estimates for reducing CO2 emissions. Final report, Task 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Since the ground breaking work of William Nordhaus in 1977, cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions have been developed by numerous groups. The various studies have reported sometimes widely divergent cost estimates for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Some recent analyses have indicated that large reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved at zero or negative costs (e.g. Rocky Mountain Institute 1989). In contrast, a recent study by Alan Manne of Stanford and Richard Richels of the Electric Power Research Institute (Manne-Richels 1989) concluded that in the US the total discounted costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 20 percent below the 1990 level could be as much as 3.6 trillion dollars over the period from 1990 to 2100. Costs of this order of magnitude would represent about 5 percent of US GNP. The purpose of this briefing paper is to summarize the different cost estimates for CO{sub 2} emission reduction and to identify the key issues and assumptions that underlie these cost estimates.

  11. Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission reductions of CO2 in developing of Physical Resource Theory #12;CO2 per capita emissions in 1999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Population PercapitaCO2emissions(tonC/cap/yr) AFRICA CPA FAR EAST MEA OCEANIA WEU NAM FSU/ EEU WORLD AVERAGE LAM Department

  12. CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus: Role of CO in the Cameron band production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the model calculations of CO Cameron band and CO2+ ultraviolet doublet emissions in the dayglow of Venus. The overhead and limb intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are calculated for low, moderate, and high solar activity conditions. Using updated cross sections, the impact of dierent e-CO cross section for Cameron band production is estimated. The electron impact on CO is the major source mechanism of Cameron band, followed by electron and photon impact dissociation of CO2. The overhead intensities of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions are about a factor of 2 higher in solar maximum than those in solar minimum condition. The effect of solar EUV flux models on the emission intensity is ~30-40% in solar minimum condition and ~2-10% in solar maximum condition. At the altitude of emission peak (135 km), the model predicted limb intensity of CO Cameron band and CO2+ UV doublet emissions in moderate (F10.7 = 130) solar activity condition is about 2400 an...

  13. Variations in mid-ocean ridge CO2 emissions driven by glacial cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burley, Jonathan M A

    2015-01-01

    The geological record shows links between glacial cycles and volcanic productivity, both subaerially and at mid-ocean ridges. Sea-level-driven pressure changes could also affect chemical properties of mid-ocean ridge volcanism. We consider how changing sea-level could alter the \\cotwo{} emissions rate from mid-ocean ridges, on both the segment and global scale. We develop a simplified transport model for a highly incompatible element through a homogenous mantle; variations in the melt concentration the emission rate of the element are created by changes in the depth of first silicate melting. The model predicts an average global mid-ocean ridge \\cotwo{} emissions-rate of $53$~Mt/yr, in line with other estimates. We show that falling sea level would cause an increase in ridge \\cotwo{} emissions with a lag of about $100$~kyrs after the causative sea level change. The lag and amplitude of the response are sensitive to mantle permeability and plate spreading rate. For a reconstructed sea-level time series of the ...

  14. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  15. Modeling impacts of farming management alternatives on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions: A case study for water management of rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions about 40%, or 5 Tg CH4 yrÀ1 , roughly 5­10% of total global methane emissions from rice paddies contribution to the net climate impact due to the low radiative potential of CO2. The change in water. Introduction [2] Food production contributes approximately 70% of global atmospheric input of nitrous oxide (N2

  16. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  17. CO2 emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Méjean, Aurélie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore »strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  18. MINIMIZING NET CO2 EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL / BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd Lang; Robert Hurt

    2001-12-23

    This study presents a set of thermodynamic calculations on the optimal mode of solid fuel utilization considering a wide range of fuel types and processing technologies. The technologies include stand-alone combustion, biomass/coal cofiring, oxidative pyrolysis, and straight carbonization with no energy recovery but with elemental carbon storage. The results show that the thermodynamically optimal way to process solid fuels depends strongly on the specific fuels and technologies available, the local demand for heat or for electricity, and the local baseline energy-production method. Burning renewable fuels reduces anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions as widely recognized. In certain cases, however, other processing methods are equally or more effective, including the simple carbonization or oxidative pyrolysis of biomass fuels.

  19. Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milorad Boji?; Dragan Cvetkovi?; Marko Mileti?; Jovan Maleševi?; Harry Boyer

    2012-12-18

    The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrodiev, S Cht; Vachev, B

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  1. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  2. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called ?chloride process?. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to be extremely effective in achieving these targets. A model plant producing 100,000 tons TiO{sub 2} per year was designed that would employ the new method of pigment manufacture. A flow sheet was developed and a mass and energy balance was performed. A comparison of the new process and the chloride process indicate that implementation of the new process in the US would result in a 21% decrease in energy consumption, an annual energy savings of 42.7 million GJ. The new process would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% in comparison to the chloride process, an annual reduction of 2.70 million tons of CO{sub 2}. Since the process equipment employed in the new process is well established in other industrial processes and the raw materials for the two processes are identical we believe the capital, labor and materials cost of production of pigment grade TiO{sub 2} using the new method would be at least equivalent to that of the chloride process. Additionally, it is likely that the operating costs will be lower by using the new process because of the reduced energy consumption. Although the new process technology is logical and feasible based on its chemistry, thermodynamic principles, and experimental results, its development and refinement through more rigorous and comprehensive research at the kilogram scale is needed to establish it as a competitive industrial process. The effect of the recycling of process streams on the final product quality should also be investigated. Further development would also help determine if the energy efficiency and the environmental benefits of the new process are indeed significantly better than current commercial methods of pigment manufacture.

  3. Reduction of Non-CO2 Gas Emissions Through The In Situ Bioconversion of Methane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, B; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The primary objectives of this research were to seek previously unidentified anaerobic methanotrophs and other microorganisms to be collected from methane seeps associated with coal outcrops. Subsurface application of these microbes into anaerobic environments has the potential to reduce methane seepage along coal outcrop belts and in coal mines, thereby preventing hazardous explosions. Depending upon the types and characteristics of the methanotrophs identified, it may be possible to apply the microbes to other sources of methane emissions, which include landfills, rice cultivation, and industrial sources where methane can accumulate under buildings. Finally, the microbes collected and identified during this research also had the potential for useful applications in the chemical industry, as well as in a variety of microbial processes. Sample collection focused on the South Fork of Texas Creek located approximately 15 miles east of Durango, Colorado. The creek is located near the subsurface contact between the coal-bearing Fruitland Formation and the underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. The methane seeps occur within the creek and in areas adjacent to the creek where faulting may allow fluids and gases to migrate to the surface. These seeps appear to have been there prior to coalbed methane development as extensive microbial soils have developed. Our investigations screened more than 500 enrichments but were unable to convince us that anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) was occurring and that anaerobic methanotrophs may not have been present in the samples collected. In all cases, visual and microscopic observations noted that the early stage enrichments contained viable microbial cells. However, as the levels of the readily substrates that were present in the environmental samples were progressively lowered through serial transfers, the numbers of cells in the enrichments sharply dropped and were eliminated. While the results were disappointing we acknowledge that anaerobic methane oxidizing (AOM) microorganisms are predominantly found in marine habitats and grow poorly under most laboratory conditions. One path for future research would be to use a small rotary rig to collect samples from deeper soil horizons, possibly adjacent to the coal-bearing horizons that may be more anaerobic.

  4. Deployment of CCS Technologies across the Load Curve for a Competitive Electricity Market as a Function of CO2 Emissions Permit Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    Consistent with other published studies, the modelling presented here reveals that baseload power plants are the first aspects of the electricity sector to decarbonize and are essentially decarbonized once CO2 permit prices exceed a certain threshold ($90/ton CO2 in this study). The decarbonization of baseload electricity is met by significant expansions of nuclear power and renewable energy generation technologies as well as the application of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies applied to both coal and natural gas fired power plants. Relatively little attention has been paid thus far to whether intermediate and peaking units would respond the same way to a climate policy given the very different operational and economic context that these kinds of electricity generation units operate under. In this paper, the authors discuss key aspects of the load segmentation methodology used to imbed a varying electricity demand within the GCAM (a state-of-the-art Integrated Assessment Model) energy and economic modelling framework and present key results on the role CCS technologies could play in decarbonizng subpeak and peak generation (encompassing only the top 10% of the load) and under what conditions. To do this, the authors have modelled two hypothetical climate policies that require 50% and 80% reductions in US emissions from business as usual by the middle of this century. Intermediate electricity generation is virtually decarbonized once carbon prices exceed approximately $150/tonCO2. When CO2 permit prices exceed $160/tonCO2, natural gas power plants with CCS have roughly the same marketshare as conventional gas plants in serving subpeak loads. The penetration of CCS into peak load (upper 6% here) is minimal under the scenarios modeled here suggesting that CO2 emissions from this aspect of the U.S. electricity sector would persist well into the future even with stringent CO2 emission control policies in place.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    of energy-efficiency measures, the actual energy savingsCO 2 ) Fuel Savings (PJ) Efficiency Measure*** Injection ofRank Fuel Savings (PJ) Efficiency Measure*** Injection of

  6. Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 14:179-190, 2006 Energy Pay-Back and Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an innovative PV installation program guided by design optimization and cost minimization. The advanced design. The total cost of the balance of system components was $940 US per kWp of installed PV, another milestone Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an Optimized 3.5 MW PV Installation J.M. Mason1 , V.M. Fthenakis2 , T

  7. Remote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the development of coal fires (Figure 1) are: (1) the type of coal. Its vulnerability to spontaneous combustionRemote-sensing GIS based investigations of coal fires in northern China; global monitoring to support the estimation of CO2 emissions from spontaneous combustion of coal Freek van der Meer, Paul van

  8. Land and Water Use, CO2 Emissions, and Worker Radiological Exposure Factors for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett W Carlsen; Brent W Dixon; Urairisa Pathanapirom; Eric Schneider; Bethany L. Smith; Timothy M. AUlt; Allen G. Croff; Steven L. Krahn

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Fuel Cycle Technologies program is preparing to evaluate several proposed nuclear fuel cycle options to help guide and prioritize Fuel Cycle Technology research and development. Metrics are being developed to assess performance against nine evaluation criteria that will be used to assess relevant impacts resulting from all phases of the fuel cycle. This report focuses on four specific environmental metrics. • land use • water use • CO2 emissions • radiological Dose to workers Impacts associated with the processes in the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, mining through enrichment and deconversion of DUF6 are summarized from FCRD-FCO-2012-000124, Revision 1. Impact estimates are developed within this report for the remaining phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. These phases include fuel fabrication, reactor construction and operations, fuel reprocessing, and storage, transport, and disposal of associated used fuel and radioactive wastes. Impact estimates for each of the phases of the nuclear fuel cycle are given as impact factors normalized per unit process throughput or output. These impact factors can then be re-scaled against the appropriate mass flows to provide estimates for a wide range of potential fuel cycles. A companion report, FCRD-FCO-2013-000213, applies the impact factors to estimate and provide a comparative evaluation of 40 fuel cycles under consideration relative to these four environmental metrics.

  9. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  10. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in New York (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in New York. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in New York to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,230 million gallons.

  11. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Virginia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Virginia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Virginia to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,600 million gallons.

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Michigan to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,542 million gallons.

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Nebraska (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Nebraska. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Nebraska to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 4.1 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,840 million gallons.

  14. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maryland (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Michigan. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maryland to be $1.2 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,581 million gallons.

  15. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arkansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arkansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arkansas to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.7 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,507 million gallons.

  16. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Ohio (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Ohio. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Ohio to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.5 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,343 million gallons.

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Kansas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Kansas. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Kansas to be $1.08 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.2 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,816 million gallons.

  18. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    3 (Table 6 and Figure 4), and LPG savings 13 million tonnes.electricity and 28 billion m 3 LPG, with a CO2 reduction ofGas WH* (billion m 3 ) LPG WH (million tonnes) Electric

  19. How much CO2 is too much? Nobody knows for sure, but sophisticated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    the next 30 to 60 years than by capturing and storing CO2. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is no panacea. Carbon capture and storage(CCS)offersoneofthemostdirectandrapidwaysofreducing CO2 emissions right now fuels provides most of the world's electrical energy. It also produces large amounts of carbon dioxide

  20. Reproducedwith pennissionfrom PNL V ARIANTS OF A LOW CO2-EMITTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ~-~--- Reproducedwith pennissionfrom PNL ~ V ARIANTS OF A LOW CO2-EMITTING ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEM for the LESS Constructions 4 Constructing Alternative Low CO2-Emitting Energy Supply Systems 6 The Comparable variants of a Low Emissions Energy Supply System (LESS) for the World, which were presented in Section 3

  1. Pricing greenhouse gas emissions Larry Hughes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    limits (contraction) · Equalize world per capita emissions (convergence) · Each adult receives a CO2 CO2 emissions Decrease Unchanged Increase Decreases Intensity: Decreases if emissions fall faster and Canadian jurisdictions (initially west coast) ­ Focus on transportation ­ Stationary emitters of CO2 given

  2. Fine root dynamics in a loblolly pine forest are influenced by free-air-CO2-enrichment: a six-year-minirhizotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    ). Accelerating rates of anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, and accompanying forcing effects world, and that this will slow the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 (DeLucia et al., 2005). In 1996Fine root dynamics in a loblolly pine forest are influenced by free-air-CO2-enrichment: a six

  3. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01

    2 0 Emissions form a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor," Fuelcontrol SO emissions bubbling fluidized-bed coal combustor

  4. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01

    control SO emissions bubbling fluidized-bed coal combustorN 2 0 Emissions form a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor,"

  5. New Automobile Regulations: Double the Fuel Economy, Half the CO2 Emissions, and Even Automakers Like It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nic

    2012-01-01

    ever taken to reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions inever taken to reduce oil consumption and carbon emissions in

  6. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  7. Developing the Fuels of the Future Road transport accounts for 21% of the CO2 emissions of the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·Vast majority of vehicles are powered by hydrocarbon fuels ·Situation unlikely to change soon. Hydrogen required to develop new fuels, reducing NOx, CO2, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates. All new secondary. This allows measurement of the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a strategy used to reduce NOx

  8. Scope for Future CO2 Emission Reductions from Electricity Generation through the Deployment of Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Projections (UEP) [1] show a decrease over the next two decades, but at a reduced rate compared to the 1990's represent electricity supplies with no (historically) or low (UEP projections) UK CO2 reduction targets of alternative options to deliver at a lower price. Additional costs for the 'decarbonised electricity' options

  9. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  10. U.S. Agriculture's Role Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    U.S. Agriculture's Role in a Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation World: An Economic Perspective the IMPAC project. #12;Abstract International agreements are likely to stimulate greenhouse gas mitigation Words Agricultural Sinks, Emissions Trading, Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions, Kyoto Protocol #12

  11. World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ñ 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and per

  12. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  14. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  15. Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Alloys Offer Prospects for CO2 Mgt. Technologies Utilizing and Storing Carbon Dioxide Emissions Quantum Alloys Offer Unique Prospects for CO2 Management Technologies...

  16. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01

    965-976 (1987). Arthur D. Little, Inc. , Methane EmissionsAlphatania Group (1989) Arthur D. Little (1989) European gas

  17. nature geoscience | VOL 2 | NOVEMBER 2009 | www.nature.com/naturegeoscience 737 CO2 emissions from forest loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    emissions from forest loss G. R. van der Werf,D. C. Morton, R. S. DeFries, J. G. J. Olivier, P. S as a notable carbon dioxide source. P rogrammes that aim to reduce the emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are being considered as a cost-effective way to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions1

  18. Quantifying Regional Economic Impacts of CO2 Intensity Targets in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Da

    2012-09-01

    To address rising energy use and CO2 emissions, China’s leadership has enacted energy and CO2 intensity

  19. Multiple Molecular Winds in Evolved Stars I. A Survey of CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) Emission from 45 Nearby AGB Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Knapp; K. Young; E. Lee; A. Jorissen

    1997-11-12

    This paper describes observations of a new phenomenon in evolved mass-losing AGB stars: the presence of two winds with different expansion velocities. CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) line emission was observed for 45 AGB stars at high velocity resolution and double winds found in 20% of the sample. Highly asymmetric lines were found in six other stars. The data tentatively suggest that double winds occur when the star undergoes a change (pulsational mode, chemical composition) and that the very narrow components represent the onset of a new phase of mass loss.

  20. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA), 2011a. Energy TransitionInternational Energy Agency (IEA), 2011b. World EnergyInternational Energy Agency (IEA), 2012. Energy Prices and

  1. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissionsmay prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO 2www.dsireusa.org Renewable Energy Policy Network, http://

  2. UKERC Landscapes CO2 Capture and Storage Last Updated: 14 May 2009 UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH LANDSCAPE: CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Mark

    of CCS worldwide could halve new CO2 emissions (IPCC, 2005). In the 2006 IEA World Energy Outlook (BeyondUKERC ­ Landscapes ­ CO2 Capture and Storage Last Updated: 14 May 2009 UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH) Programmes. Section 8: UK participation in energy-related EU Framework Research and Technology Development

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Total primary energy saving energy saving in Chinese steelPower Enterprises Energy Savings and Emissions Reductioncost of the measures, and energy saving of the measures). It

  4. Diesel Engine CO2 and SOx Emission Compliance Strategy for the Royal Navy (RN) and Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) Flotillas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  5. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Emissions (Mt CO2) Region Pacific OECD Canada/US Europe Transition Economies Latin America Africa/Middle East Asia World

  6. The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

    2009-01-01

    the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits MattNATURE AND EXTENT OF THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION REDUCTIONa similar situation with greenhouse gas emission reductions.

  7. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  8. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  9. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, Goncalo

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Building Energy Costs and CO 2 Emissions, ACEEEDistributed   Energy  Costs  and  CO 2  Abatement:     A  of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO 2 Abatement: A

  10. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  11. Risk Assessment and Monitoring of Stored CO2 in Organic Rocks Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, Vivak

    2014-06-30

    The USA is embarking upon tackling the serious environmental challenges posed to the world by greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2). The dimension of the problem is daunting. In fact, according to the Energy Information Agency, nearly 6 billion metric tons of CO2 were produced in the USA in 2007 with coal-burning power plants contributing about 2 billion metric tons. To mitigate the concerns associated with CO2 emission, geological sequestration holds promise. Among the potential geological storage sites, unmineable coal seams and shale formations in particular show promise because of the probability of methane recovery while sequestering the CO2. However. the success of large-scale sequestration of CO2 in coal and shale would hinge on a thorough understanding of CO2's interactions with host reservoirs. An important parameter for successful storage of CO2 reservoirs would be whether the pressurized CO2 would remain invariant in coal and shale formations under reasonable internal and/or external perturbations. Recent research has brought to the fore the potential of induced seismicity, which may result in caprock compromise. Therefore, to evaluate the potential risks involved in sequestering CO2 in Illinois bituminous coal seams and shale, we studied: (i) the mechanical behavior of Murphysboro (Illinois) and Houchin Creek (Illinois) coals, (ii) thermodynamic behavior of Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, (iii) how high pressure CO2 (up to 20.7 MPa) modifies the viscosity of the host, (iv) the rate of emission of CO2 from Illinois bituminous coal and shale cores if the cores, which were pressurized with high pressure (? 20.7 MPa) CO2, were exposed to an atmospheric pressure, simulating the development of leakage pathways, (v) whether there are any fractions of CO2 stored in these hosts which are resistance to emission by simply exposing the cores to atmospheric pressure, and (vi) how compressive shockwaves applied to the coal and shale cores, which were pressurized with high pressure CO2, determine the fate of sequestered CO2 in these cores. Our results suggested that Illinois bituminous coal in its unperturbed state, i.e., when not pressurized with CO2, showed large variations in the mechanical properties. Modulus varied from 0.7 GPa to 3.4 GPa even though samples were extracted from a single large chunk of coal. We did not observe any glass transition for Illinois bituminous coal at - 100oC ? T ? 300oC, however, when the coal was pressurized with CO2 at ambient ? P ? 20.7 MPa, the viscosity of the coal decreased and inversely scaled with the CO2 pressure. The decrease in viscosity as a function of pressure could pose CO2 injection problems for coal as lower viscosity would allow the solid coal to flow to plug the fractures, fissures, and cleats. Our experiments also showed a very small fraction of CO2 was absorbed in coal; and when CO2 pressurized coals were exposed to atmospheric conditions, the loss of CO2 from coals was massive. Half of the sequestered gas from the coal cores was lost in less than 20 minutes. Our shockwave experiments on Illinois bituminous coal, New Albany shale (Illinois), Devonian shale (Ohio), and Utica shale (Ohio) presented clear evidence that the significant emission of the sequestered CO2 from these formations cannot be discounted during seismic activity, especially if caprock is compromised. It is argued that additional shockwave studies, both compressive and transverse, would be required for successfully mapping the risks associated with sequestering high pressure CO2 in coal and shale formations.

  12. Over the past years, an interest has arisen in resolving two major issues: increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and depleting energy resources. A convenient solution would be a process that could simultaneously

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Over the past years, an interest has arisen in resolving two major issues: increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and depleting energy resources. A convenient solution would be a process that could the photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO2) is such a process. However, this process is presently inefficient

  13. Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles: The State-of-the-Art 2003 DEER...

  14. Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab Measuring "Real World" Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions with a Mobile Lab 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of...

  15. Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes A new approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of co-firing plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass torrefaction and CO2 capture using mining wastes ­ A new approach for reducing greenhouse: Biomass Torrefaction Carbon dioxide Sequestration Mining residues a b s t r a c t A novel combination. Torrefaction was combined with ultramafic mining residues to capture emitted CO2. Presence of CH4 and CO

  16. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

    2007-01-01

    dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by COregional, and national fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbon

  17. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  18. Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

    2007-01-01

    2004. Experience curves for power plant emission controlassessments of fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capturethe future cost of power plants with CO 2 capture Edward S.

  19. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    data provided were for final energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions for nine worlddata provided were for primary energy use and CO 2 emissions for 11 worldscenario data, respectively. Table 1. World Primary Energy

  20. Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    In India, vehicular emissions and energy consumption havesince two decades in India. emissions and energy consumption

  1. WELL KNOWN . . . TO A FEW PEOPLE: ATTRIBUTION OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND RESULTING GLOBAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    century the major source of incremental atmospheric CO2 was not FF emissions but emissions from so to deforestation. LUC CO2 emissions have been a substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions throughout the industrial period and even at present are about a third as great as FF emissions. Cumulative LUC CO2

  2. Quick Notes on CO2 Diagram and Energy Diagram For the ESRP 285 Website (Spring 2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    (CO2) emissions are the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for over 80% of the emissions in the USA (EIA 2003, p. 35). CO2 emissions arise from the combustion of carbon fuels arrows are sized to represent emissions in million metric tons of CO2 equivalent, hereafter abbreviated

  3. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  4. Regulation, Allocation, and Leakage in Cap-and-Trade Markets for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushnell, Jim B; Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01

    and Philippe Quirion. Co2 abatement, competitiveness andDaniel Kahn. Allocation of co2 emissions al- lowances in theA short-run case analysis of co2 leakage and nox and so2

  5. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  6. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward...

  7. Capturing CO2 via reactions in nanopores.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Tang, Z; Dong, J. H.

    2008-10-01

    This one-year exploratory LDRD aims to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanism of CO2 scrubbing platforms that will reduce green house gas emission and mitigate the effect of climate change. The project builds on the team member's expertise developed in previous LDRD projects to study the capture or preferential retention of CO2 in nanoporous membranes and on metal oxide surfaces. We apply Density Functional Theory and ab initio molecular dynamics techniques to model the binding of CO2 on MgO and CaO (100) surfaces and inside water-filled, amine group functionalized silica nanopores. The results elucidate the mechanisms of CO2 trapping and clarify some confusion in the literature. Our work identifies key future calculations that will have the greatest impact on CO2 capture technologies, and provides guidance to science-based design of platforms that can separate the green house gas CO2 from power plant exhaust or even from the atmosphere. Experimentally, we modify commercial MFI zeolite membranes and find that they preferentially transmit H2 over CO2 by a factor of 34. Since zeolite has potential catalytic capability to crack hydrocarbons into CO2 and H2, this finding paves the way for zeolite membranes that can convert biofuel into H2 and separate the products all in one step.

  8. Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    J. and Mohan, M. , Emission Estimates and Trends (1990-Evo]ving Motor Nehicle Emission Modeling, Tlransportation P]Testing Automotive Exhaust Emission, Society of Automobile

  9. A brief study into the impact University of Bath has had on CO2 emissions and the cost of ownership of passenger cars.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    their expertise and resources are among the very best applicators of these tests in the UK and have been able of oil needed to protect the engine at any particular time thereby saving energy, fuel and reducing CO2 totalled 129,200 in Europe in 2012 and sales of this engine will soon reach 300,000 per year, coming from

  10. China's Pathways to Achieving 40percent 45percent Reduction in CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Zhou, 2007, “World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values forcurrent international best practice energy intensity levelsmeets current world best practice energy intensity shortly

  11. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across...

  12. REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 0121 NOx(g/gal) Truck Number Highway Arterial Comparison of Trucks: Fuel-Based NO Emission Rates NOx emissions are substantially lower than Truck 5715. 1999 2005 2007 2009 2010 Fuel-Based Emission

  13. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source ..67 AIS Power Sector CO2 Emissions Reduction by Source EnergyCO2 Emission Reduction under AIS by Fuel Source

  14. Seasonal and latitudinal variability of troposphere ?14CO2: Post bomb contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere, and the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randerson, J. T; Enting, I. G; Schuur, E. A. G; Caldeira, K.; Fung, I. Y

    2002-01-01

    CO 2 Emissions From Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cementof seasonal variation in fossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Tellus,contributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,

  15. North American CO2 exchange: Inter comparison of modeled estimates with results from a fine scale atmospheric inversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourdji, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    2009),  High  resolution  fossil  fuel   combustion  CO 2  high-­?resolution  global  fossil  fuel  CO 2  emission  biospheric   Prior  –  fossil   fuels   Winds  &  

  16. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P.; Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

    2007-06-01

    Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N’-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25°C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40°C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of “staining” upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

  17. Rate Determination of the CO2* Chemiluminescence Reaction CO + O + M = CO2* + M 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Madeleine Marissa, 1987-

    2012-10-15

    numerous works have monitored CO2* chemiluminescence, a full kinetic scheme for the species has yet to be developed. A series of shock-tube experiments was performed in H2-N2O-CO mixtures highly diluted in argon at conditions where emission from CO2... for eleven common collision partners. The final mechanism developed for CO2* consisted of 14 reactions and 13 species. The rate for R1 was determined based on low-pressure experiments performed in two different H2-N2O-CO-Ar mixtures. Final mechanism...

  18. Using the National Fire Research Laboratory as a Test Bed for Traceable CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the source ­ Predicted Emissions vs Direct Emissions #12;Hydrocarbon Fuels GHG: CO2 Hydrocarbon Fuels GHG: CO Research Laboratory · Goal: Measure CO2 emissions with ±1% uncertainty · Reconcile the carbon mass balanceUsing the National Fire Research Laboratory as a Test Bed for Traceable CO2 Measurements Rodney

  19. The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    their CO2 emissions. Point-source CCS could be implemented without significant changes for consumers, which, 11). Point-source CCS and air capture are not the only options for reducing CO2 emissions. Stationary as insurance against CO2 leaking from storage and furthermore may provide an option for dealing with emissions

  20. BUILDING A CO2 STORAGE HUB IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    , once at the forefront of this innovative technology that can give us clean energy from abundant fossil technology we have in the battle to reduce CO2 emissions from power and industrial sources. Without it we and global reliance on low-cost energy from coal and gas shows no sign of diminishing, the time has come

  1. Enhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are a strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Burning of fossil fuel to generate electricity is a major source of CO2 in the atmosphere, but the capture and sequestration of CO2 from flue gasEnhancement of CO2/N2 selectivity in a metal-organic framework by cavity modification Youn-Sang Bae

  2. The relationship between policy choice and the size of the policy region: Why small jurisdictions may prefer renewable energy policies to reduce CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accordino, Megan H.; Rajagopal, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    a subsidy to zero-emissions generation, nuclear and hydrono taxes or subsidies there. If nuclear and hydro are usedtaxes and subsidies, denoted here by x. If nuclear and hydro

  3. Impact of Real-World Driving Characteristics on Vehicular Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NESAMANI, K.S.; SUBRAMANIAN, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    No.3 (1978),pp.147-152. (13) Kuhler, M. and Karstens, D. ,influence on emissions. Kuhler and Karstens included a few

  4. Impact Of Real-World Driving Characteristics On Vehicular Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesamani, K S; Subramanian, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    University of Hawaii. (2001). Kuhler, M. and D. Karstens,influence on emissions. Kuhler and Karstens included a fewcharacterize the driving cycle (Kuhler and Karstens 1978).

  5. Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the global production of palm oil increased 4.6-fold from 4.5 million to 20.9 million tonnes per year. (1). · Indonesia and Malaysia produce 88 % of the world's palm oil. · Nearly half of a projected 57% increase in palm oil production is due to biofuel demand (3) · Palm oil price is up 70% in 2007 (11

  6. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide form combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  7. World energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions : 1950-2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard.; Stoker, Thomas M.; Judson, Ruth A.

    Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may contribute to long-term climate change, are projected through 2050 using reduced form models estimated with national-level panel data for the period ...

  8. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

    2007-01-01

    1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelfossil fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal.1995 emissions, scaled uniformly based on the Carbon Dioxide

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    vegetation near shallow subsurface CO2 releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research to the CO2 sink­source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain sequestration for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is accompanied by a need for methods to detect CO2

  10. Energy and CO2 efficient scheduling of smart appliances in active houses equipped with batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Energy and CO2 efficient scheduling of smart appliances in active houses equipped with batteries the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions. Mathematically, the scheduling problem is posed as a multi that the new formulation can decrease both the CO2 emissions and the electricity bill. Furthermore, a survey

  11. 10-MW Supercritical-CO2 Turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet describes a 10-megawatt supercritical carbon dioxide turbine project, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The research team, led by NREL, intends to showcase the turbomachinery for a new cycle—the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycle. The cycle is being optimized and tested at conditions representing dry cooling in desert environments, thereby accurately simulating real-world concentrating solar power system operating conditions.

  12. Plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    To eliminate the harmful effects of greenhouse gases, especially that of CO2, future coalfired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture. The loss in efficiency for CO2 capture is less in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant compared to other conventional coal combustion processes. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. With this objective in mind, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture has been developed. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of about 96 mol% of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. The clean syngas is sent to a gas turbine (GT) followed by a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. A 5 % ramp increase in the flowrate of coal is introduced to study the system dynamics. To control the conversion of CO at a desired level in the WGS reactors, the steam/CO ratio is manipulated. This strategy is found to be efficient for this operating condition. In the absence of an efficient control strategy in the AGR process, the environmental emissions exceeded the limits by a great extent.

  13. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO 2Fluid, Proceedings, World Geothermal Congress 2010, Bali,Remain? Transactions, Geothermal Resources Council, Vol. 17,

  14. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    clean sources of energy. Asturias, in northern Spain, is theThe CO 2 emissions in Asturias represent the 8% of total COsequestration in Asturias are deep saline aquifers and

  15. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    to all DER technologies, PV adoption increases, but only in2 Pricing Scheme on CHP/PV adoption and CO 2 emissions SinceCO 2 price, PV and solar thermal adoption increases in all

  16. CO2 migration in saline aquifers. Part 1. Capillary trapping under slope and groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMinn, Christopher W.

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into geological formations is widely regarded as a promising tool for reducing global atmospheric CO2 emissions. To evaluate injection scenarios, estimate reservoir capacity and assess ...

  17. Assessing velocity and impedance changes due to CO2 saturation using interferometry on repeated seismic sources.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Barcelona : Spain (2010)" #12;Introduction The role played by the industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) in climate change has been well documented. Geological sequestration is a process to store CO2

  18. Non-CO2, Non-Greenhouse, Non-Gas Forcing Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    AEROSOLS: Non-CO2, Non-Greenhouse, Non-Gas Forcing Stephen E. Schwartz Symposium on Controlling Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols: Scientific and Policy Challenges http

  19. Impacts of CO2 Mandates for New Cars in the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, S.

    CO2 emissions mandates for new light-duty passenger vehicles have recently been adopted in the European Union (EU), which require steady reductions to 95 g CO2/km in 2021. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, ...

  20. CO2 interaction with aquifer and seal on geological timescales: the Miller oilfield, UK North Sea 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as a feasible technology to reduce CO2 emissions whilst permitting the continued use of fossil fuels. Injected CO2 must remain efficiently isolated from the atmosphere ...

  1. Surface controls on the characteristics of natural CO2 seeps: implications for engineered CO2 stores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    be characterized to design the most effective monitoring strategy. Key words: carbon capture and storage, carbon are considering adoption of carbon capture and storage technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK ABSTRACT Long-term security of performance of engineered CO2 storage is a principle

  2. CO2 interaction with geomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guthrie, George D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Al-Saidi, Wissam A. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Jordan, Kenneth D. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Voora, Vamsee, K. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lopano, Christina L (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Myshakin, Eugene M. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Hur, Tae Bong (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Warzinski, Robert P. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Lynn, Ronald J. (URS Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA); Howard, Bret H. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-09-01

    This work compares the sorption and swelling processes associated with CO2-coal and CO2-clay interactions. We investigated the mechanisms of interaction related to CO2 adsortion in micropores, intercalation into sub-micropores, dissolution in solid matrix, the role of water, and the associated changes in reservoir permeability, for applications in CO2 sequestration and enhanced coal bed methane recovery. The structural changes caused by CO2 have been investigated. A high-pressure micro-dilatometer was equipped to investigate the effect of CO2 pressure on the thermoplastic properties of coal. Using an identical dilatometer, Rashid Khan (1985) performed experiments with CO2 that revealed a dramatic reduction in the softening temperature of coal when exposed to high-pressure CO2. A set of experiments was designed for -20+45-mesh samples of Argonne Premium Pocahontas No.3 coal, which is similar in proximate and ultimate analysis to the Lower Kittanning seam coal that Khan used in his experiments. No dramatic decrease in coal softening temperature has been observed in high-pressure CO2 that would corroborate the prior work of Khan. Thus, conventional polymer (or 'geopolymer') theories may not be directly applicable to CO2 interaction with coals. Clays are similar to coals in that they represent abundant geomaterials with well-developed microporous structure. We evaluated the CO2 sequestration potential of clays relative to coals and investigated the factors that affect the sorption capacity, rates, and permanence of CO2 trapping. For the geomaterials comparison studies, we used source clay samples from The Clay Minerals Society. Preliminary results showed that expandable clays have CO2 sorption capacities comparable to those of coal. We analyzed sorption isotherms, XRD, DRIFTS (infrared reflectance spectra at non-ambient conditions), and TGA-MS (thermal gravimetric analysis) data to compare the effects of various factors on CO2 trapping. In montmorillonite, CO2 molecules may remain trapped for several months following several hours of exposure to high pressure (supercritical conditions), high temperature (above boiling point of water) or both. Such trapping is well preserved in either inert gas or the ambient environment and appears to eventually result in carbonate formation. We performed computer simulations of CO2 interaction with free cations (normal modes of CO2 and Na+CO2 were calculated using B3LYP / aug-cc-pVDZ and MP2 / aug-cc-pVDZ methods) and with clay structures containing interlayer cations (MD simulations with Clayff potentials for clay and a modified CO2 potential). Additionally, interaction of CO2 with hydrated Na-montmorillonite was studied using density functional theory with dispersion corrections. The sorption energies and the swelling behavior were investigated. Preliminary modeling results and experimental observations indicate that the presence of water molecules in the interlayer region is necessary for intercalation of CO2. Our preliminary conclusion is that CO2 molecules may intercalate into interlayer region of swelling clay and stay there via coordination to the interlayer cations.

  3. A Multi-Model Analysis of the Regional and Sectoral Roles of Bioenergy in Near- and Long-Term CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Klein, David; McCollum, David; Tavoni, Massimo; van der Zwaan, Bob; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2013-11-01

    We study the near term and the longer term the contribution of bioenergy in different LIMITS scenarios as modeled by the participating models in the LIMITS project. With These scenarios have proven useful for exploring a range of outcomes for bioenergy use in response to both regionally diverse near term policies and the transition to a longer-term global mitigation policy and target. The use of several models has provided a source of heterogeneity in terms of incorporating uncertain assumptions about future socioeconomics and technology, as well as different paradigms for how the world may respond to policies. The results have also highlighted the heterogeneity and versatility of bioenergy itself, with different types of resources and applications in several energy sectors. In large part due to this versatility, the contribution of bioenergy to climate mitigation is a robust response across all models, despite their differences.

  4. The nations of the world are converging in health and wealth as the world grows more polluted. Navigating a path away from this

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    without increasing energy consumption and CO2 emissions (Rosling, 2009, 2010, 2011; Emerson, Levy, EstyThe nations of the world are converging in health and wealth as the world grows more polluted principle, is consistent with sustainable values for the rate of entropy production. To see a world

  5. Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    out and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost andthe costs of stabiliz­ ing atmospheric CO2 concentrations at

  6. Northern California CO2 Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hymes, Edward

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO2 reduction requirements set forth in California?s Climate Change law, presents a major opportunity for both the environment as well as the region. C6 Resources is conducting the Project in collaboration with federally-funded research centers, such as Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Lawrence Livermore National Lab. C6 Resources and Shell have identified CCS as one of the critical pathways toward a worldwide goal of providing cleaner energy. C6 Resources, in conjunction with the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), has conducted an extensive and ongoing public outreach and CCS education program for local, regional and state-wide stakeholders. As part of a long term relationship, C6 Resources will continue to engage directly with community leaders and residents to ensure public input and transparency. This topical report summarizes the technical work from Phase 1 of the Project in the following areas: ? Surface Facility Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the preliminary engineering work performed for CO2 capture, CO2 compression and dehydration at the refinery, and surface facilities at the sequestration site ? Pipeline Preliminary Engineering: summarizes the pipeline routing study and preliminary engineering design ? Geologic Sequestration: summarizes the work to characterize, model and evaluate the sequestration site ? Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (MVA): summarizes the MVA plan to assure long-term containment of the sequestered CO2

  7. Real-World Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a MY2010 Diesel Truck Traveling Across the Continental United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data analysis from this study will provide insight into real-world performance of current emissions reduction devices, under various operating conditions, and with respect to greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Growing concern over the potential adverse effects of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) buildup in the atmosphere in three world-class CO2 storage projects that are endorsed by the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum04/2008 Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2 : the Geo-Seq Project Background

  9. Obstacles to Global CO2 Trading: A Familiar Problem A. Denny Ellerman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    obstacles to the development of an international CO2 emissions trading system, but the biggest is a feature emissions trading. The paper reviews the various instruments by which such the Kyoto target might be met. The development of an international system for CO2 emissions trading should not be expected to be either quick

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 Jason J. Heinrich, Howard J. Herzog, David M. Reiner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    analogs: acid gas injection (AGI), enhanced oil recovery (EOR), natural gas storage, and CO2 transportENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 * Jason J. Heinrich, Howard J. Herzog, David M of reducing CO2 emissions. The storage of CO2 in underground geologic reservoirs is one such idea that employs

  11. Policy effectiveness for road passenger transport emissions reductions across the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J -F

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of policy for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of prices, engine sizes and emissions. This is done in order to evaluate the effectiveness of existing and possible fiscal and technological change policies for emissions reductions. We provide tools to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of policy taking account of the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We furthermore explai...

  12. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard J. Norby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate-carbon cycleFree-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Experiment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Richard J. Norby PARTICIPATING Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) project is to understand how the eastern deciduous forest

  13. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals: current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2013.03.005 Introduction Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere will needAvailable online at www.sciencedirect.com Electrochemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals further undesirable climate change. Electrochemical reduction of CO2 into value-added chemicals using

  14. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Feasibility Evaluation for East Texas Oil Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Ping

    2012-08-31

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) has been undergoing for four decades and is now a proven technology. CO2-EOR increases oil recovery, and in the meantime reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by capture CO2 underground. The objectives...

  15. CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability Richard J for review May 9, 2010) Stimulation of terrestrial plant production by rising CO2 concentra- tion is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate­carbon cycle

  16. An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration through Mineralization Conference on Sustainable Construction area and increased availability of CO2 for rapid carbonation. The hardened and carbonated materials Slag #12;Carbonation Chemistry Dissolution of CO2 in water. CO2(g) CO2(aq) Formation of carbonic acid

  17. Commitment accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, SJ; Socolow, RH

    2014-01-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA) for the years 1971–2011 [are within 42% of the IEA data over the period priorto 1975, within 29% of IEA data from 1975–1985, and within

  18. The supply chain of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

    2011-01-01

    Russia, former Soviet states, the Middle East, and areas of Africa and South America). However, net exports

  19. THE CO2 ABATEMENT POTENTIAL OF CALIFORNIA'S MID-SIZED COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Electricity Generation from CHP by Building Types, Referenceimpact of mid-sized building CHP systems on CO 2 emissions.Electricity Generation from CHP by Building Types, Reference

  20. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

  1. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    6. Lo AY (2012) Carbon emissions trading in China. Nat Climof interprovincial emissions trading (6–9). Additionally,the central coast. The emissions trading scheme being tested

  2. CO2 | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEATCNAA Jump to:Emissions fromCO2

  3. Surface CO2 leakage during the first shallow subsurface CO2 release experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewicki, J.L.; Oldenburg, C.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2008-01-01

    numbered 0-6. Plots of F CO2 measured along the surface wellin Figure 2. Figure 2. Log F CO2 maps for measurements madeof soil CO 2 flux (F CO2 ). The surface leakage onset,

  4. Predicting CO2-water interfacial tension under pressure and temperature conditions of geologic CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    E EPM2- TIP4P2005 PPL- TIP4P2005 Predicted (f) a P ? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE ? CO2 2SE a Surface excess CO

  5. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    2006 GDP CO2 Population Source: LBNL, emissions are derivedCarbon Emissions Reductions, 2000-2020 Mt CO2 Source:CO 2 Emissions, 1950-2006 Mt CO2 USA PRC Source: Historical

  6. Comparison of Real World Emissions of Backhoes, Front-End Loaders, and Motor Graders for B20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Comparison of Real World Emissions of Backhoes, Front-End Loaders, and Motor Graders for B20,500Words #12;2 Abstract Field data for in-use fuel consumption and emission rates were collected for 15 nonroad vehicles using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS). Each vehicle, including 5 backhoes

  7. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  8. Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO 2 in surface air across North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsueh, Diana Y; Krakauer, Nir Y; Randerson, James T; Xu, Xiaomei; Trumbore, Susan E; Southon, John R

    2007-01-01

    changes resulting from fossil-fuel CO 2 release and cosmic-for recently added fossil fuel CO 2 in the atmosphere anddioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

  9. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caron, J.

    We improve on existing estimates of the carbon dioxide (CO2) content of consumption across regions of the United States. Using a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) framework, we estimate the direct and indirect CO2 emissions ...

  10. Comparing large scale CCS deployment potential in the USA and China: a detailed analysis based on country-specific CO2 transport & storage cost curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Dooley, James J.

    2011-04-18

    The United States and China are the two largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and their projected continued growth and reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal, make them strong candidates for CCS. Previous work has revealed that both nations have over 1600 large electric utility and other industrial point CO2 sources as well as very large CO2 storage resources on the order of 2,000 billion metric tons (Gt) of onshore storage capacity. In each case, the vast majority of this capacity is found in deep saline formations. In both the USA and China, candidate storage reservoirs are likely to be accessible by most sources with over 80% of these large industrial CO2 sources having a CO2 storage option within just 80 km. This suggests a strong potential for CCS deployment as a meaningful option to efforts to reduce CO2 emissions from these large, vibrant economies. However, while the USA and China possess many similarities with regards to the potential value that CCS might provide, including the range of costs at which CCS may be available to most large CO2 sources in each nation, there are a number of more subtle differences that may help us to understand the ways in which CCS deployment may differ between these two countries in order for the USA and China to work together - and in step with the rest of the world - to most efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper details the first ever analysis of CCS deployment costs in these two countries based on methodologically comparable CO2 source and sink inventories, economic analysis, geospatial source-sink matching and cost curve modeling. This type of analysis provides a valuable insight into the degree to which early and sustained opportunities for climate change mitigation via commercial-scale CCS are available to the two countries, and could facilitate greater collaboration in areas where those opportunities overlap.

  11. Stragegies to Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems Based on Monitoringand Analysis of CO2 in the Near-Surface Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-03-29

    We investigate the potential for CO2 monitoring in thenear-surface environment as an approach to exploration for hiddengeothermal systems. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration from a modelhidden geothermal system show that CO2 concentrations can reach highlevels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low CO2 fluxes.Therefore, subsurface measurements offer an advantage over above-groundmeasurements which are affected by winds that rapidly disperse CO2. Tomeet the challenge of detecting geothermal CO2 emissions within thenatural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach thatintegrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statisticalanalysis and modeling.

  12. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  13. Impact of CO2 quota allocation to new entrants in the electricity market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of allocating free CO2 -allowances to new entrants in the EU emissions trading scheme for the Danish on a greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme (ETS) encompassing all major energy-producing units and the majority

  14. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  15. Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and airsea CO2 fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short communication Satellite-derived surface water pCO2 and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern for the estimation of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and air­sea CO2 fluxes in the northern South), respectively, the monthly pCO2 fields were computed. The derived pCO2 was compared with the shipboard pCO2

  16. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental targets and quality of the feed to other sections, wherever applicable, without violating the operating constraints, and without sacrificing the efficiency. However, it was found that the emission of acid gases may far exceed the environmental targets and the overshoot of some of the key variables may be unacceptable under transient operation while following the load. A number of operational strategies and control configurations is explored for achieving these stringent requirements. The transient response of the plant is also studied by perturbing a number of key inputs.

  17. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foss, Bjarne A.

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A O2/CO2 GAS TURBINE CYCLE FOR CO2 CAPTURE Lars Imsland Dagfinn Snarheim and control of a semi-closed O2/CO2 gas turbine cycle for CO2 capture. In the first part the process predictive control, Gas turbines, CO2 capture 1. INTRODUCTION Gas turbines are widely used for power

  18. Fluid flow and CO2fluidmineral interactions during CO2-storage in sedimentary basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    mineral dissolution rates. Observations from CO2-EOR exper- iments and natural analogues suggestFluid flow and CO2­fluid­mineral interactions during CO2-storage in sedimentary basins Niko Kampman Natural CO2 analogues Modelling the progress of geochemical processes in CO2 storage sites is frustrated

  19. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    Potential by Source Power Sector CO2 Emissions (Mt CO2)CO2 Emissions Reference Agriculture Industrial Transport Commercial Residential Max Tech Agriculture Industrial Transport Commercial Residential In terms of fuel source,

  20. mong the biggest chal-lenges the world faces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blevis, Eli

    EnErgy Consumption A Forrester Research report proj- ects the number of personal com- puters in use consumption by com- puters--including the power con- sumption and embodied energy of data centers, PCs stated goal is to reduce world energy use to 1990 levels, thereby stabilizing atmo- spheric CO2 emissions

  1. co2-transport | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Cost Model FENETL CO2 Transport Cost Model About the model: This model was developed to estimate the cost of transporting a user-specified mass rate of CO2 by pipeline...

  2. Engineered yeast for enhanced CO2 mineralization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbero, Roberto Juan

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a biologically catalysed CO2 mineralization process for the capture of CO2 from point sources was designed, constructed at a laboratory scale, and, using standard chemical process scale-up protocols, was ...

  3. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    and Fehsenfeld, F. C. : Emission sources and ocean uptake ofand No- vakov, T. : Emissions of trace gases and particlesGroot, W. J. : Future emissions from Canadian boreal forest

  4. LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

  5. CO2 Cycle du Fiche dtaille

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dintrans, Boris

    CO2 ­ Cycle du Carbone Polluants Fiche détaillée Niveau (A partir de la 2nd) #12;I. Introduction Les origines du CO2 atmosphérique dépendent de l'échelle de temps que l'on considère. A l, ce cycle commence avec la dissolution du CO2 dans l'eau de pluie pour former de l'acide carbonique

  6. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200454 Mechanical Activation of CaO-Based Adsorbents for CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    efforts to find less energy-intensive and more cost-effective ways for CO2 cap- ture, which accountsDOI: 10.1002/cssc.201200454 Mechanical Activation of CaO-Based Adsorbents for CO2 Capture Maryam-fuel-burning power plants account for approximately one third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.[1,2] Carbon capture

  7. The impact of geologic variability on capacity and cost estimates for storing CO2 in deep-saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    The impact of geologic variability on capacity and cost estimates for storing CO2 in deep States could store many de- cades worth of the nation's current annual CO2 emissions, the likely cost estimates for storage span three orders of magnitude and average>$100/tonne CO2. However, when the cost

  8. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost ($of CO2 per Megawatt Hrs) Carbon Dioxide Emissions Cost MSA

  9. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  10. Using CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    global data of column- averaged CO2 dry-air mole fraction (XCO2) at high spatial resolutions. These dataUsing CO2 spatial variability to quantify representation errors of satellite CO2 retrievals A. A 2008; published 29 August 2008. [1] Satellite measurements of column-averaged CO2 dry- air mole

  11. The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than when attributed on a production basis. Second, when attributing emissions on a consumption basisThe CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions: A Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO) Approach: globalchange@mit.edu Website: http://globalchange.mit.edu/ #12;The CO2 Content of Consumption Across US Regions

  12. Temperature and peat type control CO2 and CH4 production in Alaskan permafrost peats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temperature and peat type control CO2 and CH4 production in Alaskan permafrost peats C . C . T R E poorly under- stood despite the potential for a significant positive feedback to climate change. Our dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from peat samples collected at active layer and permafrost

  13. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    A. : The Tropical Forest and Fire Emis- sions Experiment:W. M. : The Trop- ical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment:A. : The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment:

  14. Characterizing the Effects of Driver Variability on Real-World Vehicle Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    D. H. (1995) On-road vehicle emissions: regulations, costs,L. (1996) Motor vehicle emissions variability. Journal ofections on controlling vehicle emissions. Science 261, 37±

  15. NOVEL DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE FIELD NOx AND CO2 CONTINUOUS EMISSION DATA, BASED ON THE EVALUATION OF: (1) AN OFF-ROAD DIESEL COMPACTOR RUNNING ON THREE FUEL TYPES AND (2) TWO COMPACTORS RUNNING ON DIESEL FUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Sergio

    2012-12-31

    profiles; (4) evaluate the emission variability between two pieces of equipment of the same model; and (5) develop a standard, systematic analysis for handling large emission data sets. The study is based on the tailpipe emission sampling of a diesel fueled...

  16. Changes in mixing ratio and isotopic composition of CO2 in urban air from the Los Angeles basin, California, between 1972 and 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /[CO2] with local CO2 source end-member d13 C values of À30.9 ± 0.5% for 1972­1973 and À29.9 ± 0 increase in CO2 emissions between these two time periods. Citation: Newman, S., X. Xu, H. P. Affek, E composition of atmospheric CO2 have focused on sites far from anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CO2 [e

  17. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO 2 Heat Pump Water Heater 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Evaporator Kyle Gluesenkamp, gluesenkampk@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  18. CO2 Conference Presentation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Conference Presentation More Documents & Publications POWER-GEN Conference Presentation U.S. Energy Association Presentation EEI Environment Meetings Presentation...

  19. CO2 Abatement in the UK Power Sector: Evidence from the EU ETS Trial Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of CO2 emissions abatement in the UK power sector during the trial period of the EU ETS. Using an econometrically estimated model of fuel switching, it separates the impacts of ...

  20. Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

    2007-01-01

    of power plant emissions of greenhouse gases, and thee) power plant FGD and SCR systems; also, (f) gas turbineno IGCC power plant has yet combined CO 2 capture with a gas

  1. The CO2 Reduction Potential of Combined Heat and Power in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    impact of mid-sized building CHP systems on CO 2 emissions.medium-sized commercial building CHP-enabled DG in reducingFigure 13. Adopted CHP Capacities by Building Types for the

  2. The Influence of a CO2 Pricing Scheme on Distributed Energy Resources in California's Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    impact of mid-sized building CHP systems on CO 2 emissions.of medium-sized commercial building CHP-enabled DG in GHGbased CHP systems is wrong and large office buildings,

  3. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortis, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    2 emission from a 1 GWatt coal-fired power plant (sufficientprogram designed for a 1 GW coal-fired power plant, whichCO 2 storage for a 1 GW coal-fired power plant. R=10 -2 R=

  4. YAZDANI BOROUJENI, BEHDAD. Road Grade Quantification Using GPS in On-Board Vehicle Emission Measurements. (Under the direction of H. Christopher Frey.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    that NOx emission rates are 4 times higher when driving on a road with +5 percent grade compared to a flat Emission Measurements. (Under the direction of H. Christopher Frey.) Real-world vehicle tailpipe emissions constitute an important portion of ambient air pollution. NOx , CO2, CO, and hydrocarbons are among the main

  5. CO2watermineral reactions during CO2 leakage: Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of a CO2 injection field test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be addressed during the selection and characterization of suitable CO2 storage sites (IEA-GHG, 2011; Lemieux., 2007; IEA-GHG, 2011). Considering a sce- nario where CO2 ­ or brine or both ­ escapes from the storage., 2010; Kharaka et al., 2010; Humez et al., 2011a, 2011b; IEA-GHG, 2011; Lemieux, 2011; Keating et al

  6. CO2 utilization and storage in shale gas reservoirs: Experimental results and economic impacts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Owen, Antionette Toni; Miller, Quin R. S.; Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-12-31

    Natural gas is considered a cleaner and lower-emission fuel than coal, and its high abundance from advanced drilling techniques has positioned natural gas as a major alternative energy source for the U.S. However, each ton of CO2 emitted from any type of fossil fuel combustion will continue to increase global atmospheric concentrations. One unique approach to reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions involves coupling CO2 based enhanced gas recovery (EGR) operations in depleted shale gas reservoirs with long-term CO2 storage operations. In this paper, we report unique findings about the interactions between important shale minerals and sorbing gases (CH4 and CO2) andmore »associated economic consequences. Where enhanced condensation of CO2 followed by desorption on clay surface is observed under supercritical conditions, a linear sorption profile emerges for CH4. Volumetric changes to montmorillonites occur during exposure to CO2. Theory-based simulations identify interactions with interlayer cations as energetically favorable for CO2 intercalation. Thus, experimental evidence suggests CH4 does not occupy the interlayer and has only the propensity for surface adsorption. Mixed CH4:CO2 gas systems, where CH4 concentrations prevail, indicate preferential CO2 sorption as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Collectively, these laboratory studies combined with a cost-based economic analysis provide a basis for identifying favorable CO2-EOR opportunities in previously fractured shale gas reservoirs approaching final stages of primary gas production. Moreover, utilization of site-specific laboratory measurements in reservoir simulators provides insight into optimum injection strategies for maximizing CH4/CO2 exchange rates to obtain peak natural gas production.« less

  7. Near-Surface CO2 Monitoring And Analysis To Detect Hidden Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-01-19

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are systems devoid of obvious surface hydrothermal manifestations. Emissions of moderate-to-low solubility gases may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. We investigate the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring below and above ground in the near-surface environment as an approach to exploration targeting hidden geothermal systems. We focus on CO2 because it is the dominant noncondensible gas species in most geothermal systems and has moderate solubility in water. We carried out numerical simulations of a CO2 migration scenario to calculate the magnitude of expected fluxes and concentrations. Our results show that CO2 concentrations can reach high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are predominantly controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in the near-surface environment include the infrared gas analyzer, the accumulation chamber method, the eddy covariance method, hyperspectral imaging, and light detection and ranging. To meet the challenge of detecting potentially small-magnitude geothermal CO2 emissions within the natural background variability of CO2, we propose an approach that integrates available detection and monitoring techniques with statistical analysis and modeling strategies. The proposed monitoring plan initially focuses on rapid, economical, reliable measurements of CO2 subsurface concentrations and surface fluxes and statistical analysis of the collected data. Based on this analysis, are as with a high probability of containing geothermal CO2 anomalies can be further sampled and analyzed using more expensive chemical and isotopic methods. Integrated analysis of all measurements will determine definitively if CO2 derived from a deep geothermal source is present, and if so, the spatial extent of the anomaly. The suitability of further geophysical measurements, installation of deep wells, and geochemical analyses of deep fluids can then be determined based on the results of the near surface CO2 monitoring program.

  8. An Integrated Framework for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis in CO2-EOR Sites An integrated framework for CO2 accounting and risk analysis of CO2-EOR Authors: Dai, Zhenxue 1 ; Viswanathan, Hari S....

  9. Comparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Mark

    of the world econ- omy and demand for aviation and its emissions are expected to increase in the future from aviation (mainly carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), VOCsComparison of model estimates of the effects of aviation emissions on atmospheric ozone and methane

  10. SecuestrodeCO2enestructurasgeolgicas Modelacin numrica de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Inyección CO2 en medio carbonatado #12;SecuestrodeCO2enestructurasgeológicas Gases de efecto invernadero #12

  11. Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legal Implications of CO2 Ocean Storage Jason Heinrich Working Paper Laboratory for Energy the deployment of CO2 storage technologies used in the marine environment. This paper will address some of the legal issues involved in ocean storage of carbon dioxide from a US perspective. The following paragraphs

  12. The Outlook for CO2 Capture Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Common Measures of CCS Cost · Capital cost · Increased cost of electricity · Cost of CO2 avoided · Cost of CO2 captured E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Elements of Capital Cost Note: · Nomenclature and cost items construction Total Capital Requirement (TCR) E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon Cost of Electricity (COE) COE ($/MWh

  13. 2, 711743, 2006 Glacial CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CO2 change: a simple "hypsometric effect" on deep-ocean carbon sequestration? L. C. Skinner Godwin carbon sequestration, this mechanism may help to significantly reduce the "deficit" of explained glacialCPD 2, 711­743, 2006 Glacial CO2 sequestration L. C. Skinner Title Page Abstract Introduction

  14. CASSEMCHAPTER 5 HOW DOWE KNOWWHERETHE CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    where some minimum threshold volume or saturation of CO2 has been exceeded within a subsurface reservoir reservoir engineering by repeated or continuous assessment that informs on the evolving physical conditions to a large amount of injected CO2 are only viable (1) for onshore reservoirs and (2) where the target

  15. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Cordatos

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  16. 4, 23852405, 2007 CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 2385­2405, 2007 CO2 and climate affect European carbon ballance R. Harrison and C. Jones Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance R. Harrison and C. Jones Met Office, Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK Received: 13 April 2007

  17. Study of CO2 Mobility Control in Heterogeneous Media Using CO2 Thickening Agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Yousef, Zuhair

    2012-10-19

    CO2 injection is an effective method for performing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). There are several factors that make CO2 useful for EOR, including promoting swelling, reducing oil viscosity, decreasing oil density, and vaporizing and extracting...

  18. Dynamics of CO2 fluxes and concentrations during a shallow subsurface CO2 release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.

    2009-09-01

    A field facility located in Bozeman, Montana provides the opportunity to test methods to detect, locate, and quantify potential CO2 leakage from geologic storage sites. From 9 July to 7 August 2008, 0.3 t CO2 d{sup -1} were injected from a 100-m long, {approx}2.5 m deep horizontal well. Repeated measurements of soil CO2 fluxes on a grid characterized the spatio-temporal evolution of the surface leakage signal and quantified the surface leakage rate. Infrared CO2 concentration sensors installed in the soil at 30 cm depth at 0 to 10 m from the well and at 4 cm above the ground at 0 and 5 m from the well recorded surface breakthrough of CO2 leakage and migration of CO2 leakage through the soil. Temporal variations in CO2 concentrations were correlated with atmospheric and soil temperature, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, rainfall, and CO2 injection rate.

  19. Comparison of Real-World Fuel Use and Emissions for Dump Trucks Fueled with B20 Biodiesel Versus Petroleum Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Versus Petroleum Diesel By H. Christopher Frey, Ph.D. Professor Department of Civil, Construction 2006 Annual Meeting CD-ROM Paper revised from original submittal. #12;Frey and Kim 1 ABSTRACT Diesel-world in-use on-road emissions of selected diesel vehicles, fueled with B20 biodiesel and petroleum diesel

  20. Real-World Emissions from Model Year 1993, 2000, and 2010 Passenger Cars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, M.

    2010-01-01

    Cars B.2. Cold Start Emissions of Properly-Functioning CarsDriving B.5. Malfunctioning Exhaust Emissions Controls C.and California Tailpipe Emission Standards References List o

  1. Real-World Emissions from Model Year 1993, 2000, and 2010 Passenger Cars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, M.

    2010-01-01

    Properly-Functioning Cars Emissions are relatively high whenmay exaggerate p-car emissions; in effect, the cutpoint mayFederal passenger car tailpipe emission standards at 50,000

  2. Real-World Emissions from Model Year 1993, 2000, and 2010 Passenger Cars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, M.

    2010-01-01

    the 5th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emissions Workshop, CoordinatingApproach to Estimating Vehicle Emissions,” Presented at the4th CRC On-Road Vehicle Emission Workshop, March 16-18,

  3. meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    meters in CO2 euthanasia chambers. All CO2 euthanasia chambers in both the facilities, and durable flow meter to install in all of the CO2 chambers in all of the vivaria. When a specific model and laboratories will need flow meters. ULAR is currently in the process of identifying a cost-effective, accurate

  4. Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01

    1999?for fuel economy, CO2 emissions, car dealerships Tax onfor passenger cars and induce GHG emission reductions. Taxesregulates CO2 emissions from passenger cars; the policy

  5. ON-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS FROM AROUND THE WORLD Donald H. Stedman and Gary A. Bishop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    consists of a non-dispersive infrared (IR) component for detecting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide (CO2 successful in the past have reached a level of diminishing returns combined with escalating costs. The remote, the remote sensor only directly measures ratios of CO, HC or NO to CO2. The ratios of CO, HC, or NO to CO2

  6. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G [ORNL; Goodman, Angela [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Ilton, Eugene [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Bodnar, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.

  7. Diesel Engines: What Role Can They Play in an Emissions-Constrained World?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation; California Air Resources Board

  8. Real-World Emissions from Model Year 1993, 2000, and 2010 Passenger Cars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, M.

    2010-01-01

    emissions of up-stream energy production facilities foremissions of up- stream energy production facilities for

  9. Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gas Using Metal-Organic Frameworks?A Fixed Bed Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jian; Tian, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2012-05-03

    It is important to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas which is considered to be the main reason to cause global warming. CO2/N2 separation by novel adsorbents is a promising method to reduce CO2 emission but effect of water and CO2/N2 selectivity is critical to apply the adsorbents into practical applications. A very well known, Metal Organic Framework, NiDOBDC (Ni-MOF-74 or CPO-27-Ni) was synthesized through a solvothermal reaction and the sample (500 to 800 microns) was used in a fixed bed CO2/N2 breakthrough study with and without H2O. The Ni/DOBDC pellet has a high CO2 capacity of 3.74 mol/kg at 0.15 bar and a high CO2/N2 selectivity of 38, which is much higher than those of reported MOFs and zeolites under dry condition. Trace amount of water can impact CO2 adsorption capacity as well as CO2/N2 selectivity for the Ni/DOBDC. However, Ni/DOBDC can retain a significant CO2 capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity at 0.15 bar CO2 with 3% RH water. These results indicate a promising future to use the Ni/DOBDC in CO2 capture from flue gas.

  10. Heterogenised Molecular Catalysts for CO2 Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Windle, Christopher D.; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-08-01

    perspective, these systems do not utilise solar light directly but could be powered by photovoltaics. 2) No electrode is required in photocatalysis and the energy for the reaction is obtained through light absorption. Electrons are typically supplied by a... cluster.[3a] 2. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction Photocatalytic CO2 reduction cuts out the electrolytic middleman in solar fuels synthesis. Instead of relying on a photovoltaic panel for providing the electricity to drive electrolysis, photocatalysis...

  11. INTRODUCTION ossil fuels help drive the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measures are taken to reduce CO2 emissions, they are projected to retain a 75% share in 2035.1 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only technology available to drastically reduce CO2 emissions from fossil Sponsored by the Shenhua Group of CO2 Capture from a Gasification Unit with Storage in a Saline Aquifer #12

  12. Version 3.0 SOP 4 --p(CO2) October 12, 2007 (p(CO2))

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Version 3.0 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) October 12, 2007 91 SOP 4 (p(CO2)) - 1. . microatmospheres . (20°C 250-2000 µatm) (mole fraction) . 2. CO2 (mole fraction) . 2 2(CO ) (CO( ) . . Frit . #12;October 12, 2007 SOP 4 -- p(CO2) Version 3.0 92 CO2 CO2 2 . p(CO2) (1) . 4. 3

  13. The Next-Generation Massively Parallel Reactive Flow and Transport Code PFLOTRAN: Application to CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers P. Lichtner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    aquifers as a possible solution to reduce green house gas emissions. Dissolution of supercritical CO2-term fate of a supercritical CO2 plume will be resolved with high-resolution numerical simulations into a relatively deep saline aquifer above the critical point where CO2 exists as a supercritical fluid (Tcrit =31

  14. CitySee: Urban CO2 Monitoring with Sensors Xufei Mao, Xin Miao, Yuan He, Tong Zhu, Jiliang Wang, Wei Dong, Xiang-Yang Li, and Yunhao Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yunhao

    CitySee: Urban CO2 Monitoring with Sensors Xufei Mao, Xin Miao, Yuan He, Tong Zhu, Jiliang Wang of precise carbon emission measurement and real-time surveillance for CO2 management in cities, we present CitySee, a real-time CO2-monitoring system using sensor networks for an urban area (around 100 square

  15. Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

    2010-09-30

    For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

  16. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01

    targets and the role of bio-energy with carbon capture andCO 2 emission, such as bio-energy with carbon capture and

  17. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  18. Growth, CO2 Consumption, and H2 Production of Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413-U under Different Irradiances and CO2 Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berberoglu, Halil; Barra, Natasha; Pilon, Laurent; Jay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Phase Medium Irradiance ? H2 ? CO2 Maximum Reported Ratesa) Specific CO 2 uptake rate, ? CO2 (kg CO 2 /kg dry cell/h)

  19. CO2 Capture Poject CCP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank, Maine:Kansas: Energy Resources JumpCIA-The World FactbookCN Solar CoCO2

  20. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  1. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  2. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  3. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 13, PAGES 2637-2640, JULY 1, 2001 Ocean release of fossil fuel CO2: A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drange, Helge

    of Norway at 65o N (see Fig. 3). The CO2 source can be deep water installations on the shelf or point sources on land [Eliasson et al., 1999; Broecker, 1997]. In both cases liquid CO2 can be piped or shipped are 200, 400 and 800 Gg-CO2, corresponding to CO2 emissions from conventional 55-220 MW gas power plants

  4. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    WITH SITE SCREENING AND SELECTION FOR CO 2 STORAGE D. A.77 ASSESSING AND EXPANDING CO 2 STORAGE CAPACITY IN DEPLETEDFOR CO 2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE IN CENTRAL COAL BASIN (NORTHERN

  5. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    20-22, 2006 End of CO2 injection Fraction Variation 5E-05 -point. End of CO2 injection Fraction Variation Figure 3.poin Y (m (m X End of CO2 storage Fraction Variation Y (m (m

  6. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we...

  7. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    of the buoyancy of supercritical CO2 in the presence ofindividual pock- ets of supercritical CO2 to form, therebydomain. Injection of supercritical CO2 occurs at a depth of

  8. Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Feasibility of CO2 Capture from Mobile Sources Presents integrated system for post-combustion CO2 capture from mobile sources p-16davis.pdf More...

  9. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    of Geologic Storage of CO2, in Carbon Dioxide Capture forFormations - Results from the CO2 Capture Project: GeologicBenson, Process Modeling of CO2 Injection into Natural Gas

  10. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    CO2 Emissions Reduced (Mt) Taxes Subsidies Agreements Total Source:CO2 from UTO Source: CARB, 2009a; LBNL own estimates Not Specified: emissions

  11. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air (Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry 1982; O'Leary 1984

  12. Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois November 19,...

  13. Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Coal is the workhorse of our power industry, responsible for...

  14. Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Ubiquitous clay minerals can play an important role in assessing...

  15. Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 Meeting the CO2 Challenge DEER 2002 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ricardo 2002deergraham.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of...

  16. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts Print Researchers have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse...

  17. Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Synthesis of Mixed Materials for CO2 Capture...

  18. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    CONSTRAIN CO2 INJECTION FEASIBILITY: TEAPOT DOME EOR PILOTEOR, and coupled process modeling will investigate the total system including preliminary estimates of CO2

  19. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Texas •? Over 30 years of CO2-EOR •? Sampled outside ofF Monitoring studies above EOR-CO2 fields Weyburn-Midale

  20. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  1. Early Opportunities of CO2 Geological Storage Deployment in Coal Chemical Industry in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R.T.; Davidson, C.L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2more »per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 20USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  2. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late in Phase 1 an opportunity arose to collaborate with another turbine-development team to construct a shared s-CO2 test facility. The synergy of the combined effort would result in greater facility capabilities than either separate project could produce and would allow for testing of both turbine designs within the combined budgets of the two projects. The project team requested a no-cost extension to Phase 1 to modify the subsequent work based on this collaborative approach. DOE authorized a brief extension, but ultimately opted not to pursue the collaborative facility and terminated the project.

  3. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  5. The effect of carburetor refurbishing on emissions, performance, and fuel economy in a classic pickup tested using real-world tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Jacklyn (Jacklyn A.)

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated how refurbishing the carburetor of a 1952 Chevrolet Pickup would affect emissions, performance, and fuel economy. The test used were real-world tests that anyone, with or without access to a ...

  6. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  7. Capture and Sequestration of CO2 at the Boise White Paper Mill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.P. McGrail; C.J. Freeman; G.H. Beeman; E.C. Sullivan; S.K. Wurstner; C.F. Brown; R.D. Garber; D. Tobin E.J. Steffensen; S. Reddy; J.P. Gilmartin

    2010-06-16

    This report documents the efforts taken to develop a preliminary design for the first commercial-scale CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) project associated with biomass power integrated into a pulp and paper operation. The Boise Wallula paper mill is located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. Infrastructure at the paper mill will be upgraded such that current steam needs and a significant portion of the current mill electric power are supplied from a 100% biomass power source. A new biomass power system will be constructed with an integrated amine-based CO2 capture plant to capture approximately 550,000 tons of CO2 per year for geologic sequestration. A customized version of Fluor Corporation’s Econamine Plus™ carbon capture technology will be designed to accommodate the specific chemical composition of exhaust gases from the biomass boiler. Due to the use of biomass for fuel, employing CCS technology represents a unique opportunity to generate a net negative carbon emissions footprint, which on an equivalent emissions reduction basis is 1.8X greater than from equivalent fossil fuel sources (SPATH and MANN, 2004). Furthermore, the proposed project will offset a significant amount of current natural gas use at the mill, equating to an additional 200,000 tons of avoided CO2 emissions. Hence, the total net emissions avoided through this project equates to 1,100,000 tons of CO2 per year. Successful execution of this project will provide a clear path forward for similar kinds of emissions reduction that can be replicated at other energy-intensive industrial facilities where the geology is suitable for sequestration. This project also represents a first opportunity for commercial development of geologic storage of CO2 in deep flood basalt formations. The Boise paper mill site is host to a Phase II pilot study being carried out under DOE’s Regional Carbon Partnership Program. Lessons learned from this pilot study and other separately funded projects studying CO2 sequestration in basalts will be heavily leveraged in developing a suitable site characterization program and system design for permanent sequestration of captured CO2. The areal extent, very large thickness, high permeability in portions of the flows, and presence of multiple very low permeability flow interior seals combine to produce a robust sequestration target. Moreover, basalt formations are quite reactive with water-rich supercritical CO2 and formation water that contains dissolved CO2 to generate carbonate minerals, providing for long-term assurance of permanent sequestration. Sub-basalt sediments also exist at the site providing alternative or supplemental storage capacity.

  8. Ocean Acidification: The Other CO2 Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childress, Michael J.

    reserved 1941-1405/09/0115-0169$20.00 Key Words biogeochemistry, calcification, carbon dioxide, climate of calcium carbonate saturation states, which impacts shell-forming marine organisms from plankton to benthic for marine organisms to adapt to increasing CO2 and broader implications for ocean ecosystems are not well

  9. Aquifer Management for CO2 Sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anchliya, Abhishek

    2010-07-14

    Storage of carbon dioxide is being actively considered for the reduction of green house gases. To make an impact on the environment CO2 should be put away on the scale of gigatonnes per annum. The storage capacity of deep saline aquifers...

  10. Porous Hexacyanometalates for CO2 capture applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2013-07-30

    Prussian blue analogues of M3[Fe(CN)6]2 x H2O (where M=Fe, Mn and Ni) were synthesized, characterized and tested for their gas sorption capabilities. The sorption studies reveal that, these Prussian blue materials preferentially sorb CO2 over N2 and CH4 at low pressure (1bar).

  11. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    /ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, rangingThe millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 David Archer & Victor Brovkin Received: 19

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress. #12;3 Abstract The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine transfer area as IMTP#40 dumped packing. Independent measurements of CO2 solubility give a CO2 loading

  13. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest Colleen2 Ecological Society of America, 2008 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;+ [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] + C and N storage in biomass #12;+ Net primary production

  14. Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    production - superheated steam injection The CO2 phase, whether gas, liquid or supercritical, is determined

  15. Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related to CO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    underground injection of supercritical CO2 in a hypotheticalthe CO2-rich phase (supercritical CO2 with small amounts of

  16. Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development – A Review of Key Data Types, Analyses, and Selected Software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Sullivan, E. C.; Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Black, Gary D.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has embarked on an initiative to develop world-class capabilities for performing experimental and computational analyses associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. The ultimate goal of this initiative is to provide science-based solutions for helping to mitigate the adverse effects of greenhouse gas emissions. This Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative currently has two primary focus areas—advanced experimental methods and computational analysis. The experimental methods focus area involves the development of new experimental capabilities, supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL) housed at PNNL, for quantifying mineral reaction kinetics with CO2 under high temperature and pressure (supercritical) conditions. The computational analysis focus area involves numerical simulation of coupled, multi-scale processes associated with CO2 sequestration in geologic media, and the development of software to facilitate building and parameterizing conceptual and numerical models of subsurface reservoirs that represent geologic repositories for injected CO2. This report describes work in support of the computational analysis focus area. The computational analysis focus area currently consists of several collaborative research projects. These are all geared towards the development and application of conceptual and numerical models for geologic sequestration of CO2. The software being developed for this focus area is referred to as the Geologic Sequestration Software Suite or GS3. A wiki-based software framework is being developed to support GS3. This report summarizes work performed in FY09 on one of the LDRD projects in the computational analysis focus area. The title of this project is Data Assimilation Tools for CO2 Reservoir Model Development. Some key objectives of this project in FY09 were to assess the current state-of-the-art in reservoir model development, the data types and analyses that need to be performed in order to develop and parameterize credible and robust reservoir simulation models, and to review existing software that is applicable to these analyses. This report describes this effort and highlights areas in which additional software development, wiki application extensions, or related GS3 infrastructure development may be warranted.

  17. Supercritical fluid behavior at nanoscale interfaces: implications for CO2 sequestration in geologic formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, David R [ORNL; Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Vlcek, L. [Vanderbilt University; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into subsurface geologic formations has been identified as a key strategy for mitigating the impact of anthropogenic emissions of CO2. A key aspect of this process is the prevention of leakage from the host formation by an effective cap or seal rock which has low porosity and permeability characteristics. Shales comprise the majority of cap rocks encountered in subsurface injection sites with pore sizes typically less than 100 nm and whose surface chemistries are dominated by quartz (SiO2) and clays. We report the behavior of pure CO2 interacting with simple substrates, i.e. SiO2 and mica, that act as proxies for more complex mineralogical systems. Modeling of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data taken from CO2- silica aerogel (95% porosity; 6 nm pores) interactions indicates the presence of fluid depletion for conditions above the critical density. A theoretical framework, i.e. integral equation approximation (IEA), is presented that describes the fundamental behavior of near-critical adsorption onto a non-confining substrate that is consistent with SANS experimental results. Structural and dynamic behavior for supercritical CO2 interaction in K-mica slit pores was assessed by classical molecular dynamics (CMD). These results indicate the development of distinct layers of CO2 within slit pores, reduced mobility by one to two orders of magnitudes compared to bulk CO2 depending on pore size and formation of bonds between CO2 oxygens and H from mica hydroxyls. Analysis of simple, well-characterized fluid-substrate systems can provide details on the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties of CO2 at conditions relevant to sequestration.

  18. Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Using CO2 & Algae to Treat Wastewater and Produce Biofuel Feedstock Tryg Lundquist Cal Poly State of the Industry and Growth · Algae's Role in WW Treatment · CO2's New Role · Research at Cal Poly · Future Work/MG 0.3 MGD average flow per facility #12;Reclaimed Algae Bacteria O2 CO2 N Organics N P CO2 P CO2 Waste

  19. The response of soil CO2 ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    The response of soil CO2 ¯ux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity J O. Paul, MN 55108 USA Abstract We measured soil CO2 ¯ux over 19 sampling periods that spanned two growing three major anthropogenic global changes: atmos- pheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, nitrogen (N

  20. CO2-H2O mixtures in the geological sequestration of CO2. II ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-07-01

    experimental and field data. ... In all studies discussed above, the solubility of CO2 in water ...... Li Y., and Nghiem L. X. (1986) Phase equilibria of oil, gas and.

  1. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  2. Uncertainty analyses of CO2 plume expansion subsequent to wellbore CO2 leakage into aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Bacon, Diana H.; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Ren, Huiying; Fang, Zhufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we apply an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to CO2 sequestration problems. In one scenario, we look at the risk of wellbore leakage of CO2 into a shallow unconfined aquifer in an urban area; in another scenario, we study the effects of reservoir heterogeneity on CO2 migration. We combine various sampling approaches (quasi-Monte Carlo, probabilistic collocation, and adaptive sampling) in order to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to fully explore the input parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. The CO2 migration is simulated using the PNNL-developed simulator STOMP-CO2e (the water-salt-CO2 module). For computationally demanding simulations with 3D heterogeneity fields, we combined the framework with a scalable version module, eSTOMP, as the forward modeling simulator. We built response curves and response surfaces of model outputs with respect to input parameters, to look at the individual and combined effects, and identify and rank the significance of the input parameters.

  3. A Novel Theoretical Method to Search Good Candidates of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2008-07-01

    The increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is the most important environmental issue of global warming that the world faces today. During past few decades, many technologies have been developing to separate and capture CO2 from coal gasifier. As high temperature CO2 absorbents, solid materials are potential candidates. Lithium silicate(Li4SiO4) and zirconate(Li2ZrO3) have been studying for CO2 capture by researchers at Toshiba and found that they absorb CO2 at 773K and release CO2 around 973K. Based on these well-known experimental exploring results on these lithium salts, we have been developing a novel theoretical methodology to search better solid materials for CO2 capture: (1) Based on the crystal structures of solids, the density functional calculations are performed to obtain their electronic structural properties and their binding energies. The energy change(?E) for the reaction solid_sorbent+CO2 ? sorbent_CO2+ solid are evaluated. (2) For a vast of data-bank of solid materials, as our first filter if |?E|<|?GLi2SiO4|, where ?G is the free energy change for reaction of Li2SiO4+CO2? Li2CO3 +Li2SiO3, we select this solid as a potential good candidate for CO2 capture. (3) For these possible candidates, we further perform phonon calculations and obtain their vibration frequencies. With them, partition functions of solids(Z) can be calculated out. With Z, the thermal dynamical properties (zero point energy, entropy, enthalpy, free energy, etc.) under different conditions (temperature(T), pressure(P)) can be readily calculated. With them, the chemical potentials(??)(functional of T and P) for the sorption/desorption reaction are evaluated. (4) Using ?? as our second filter, we can reduce the number of our selected good candidates to a small number of better candidates. (5) The last step is to make the fine tune (the 3rd filter) the better candidates to a small set of the best candidates by considering the operating conditions(T, P, etc.), absorbing CO2 weight percentage, stabilities, and the associated costs, etc.

  4. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 Aaron warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR. global warming | climate feedbacks | energy accumulation Global global warm- ing, with the world ocean as the primary reservoir for energy accumulation (1). In turn

  5. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is produced in large quantities during electricity generation and by industrial processes. These CO2 streams vary in terms of both composition and mass flow rate, sometimes substantially. The impact of a varying CO2 stream on pipeline and storage operation is not fully understood in terms of either operability or infrastructure robustness. This study was performed to summarize basic background from the literature on the topic of operational flexibility of CO2 transport and storage, but the primary focus was on compiling real-world lessons learned about flexible operation of CO2 pipelines and storage from both large-scale field demonstrations and commercial operating experience. Modeling and pilot-scale results of research in this area were included to illustrate some of the questions that exist relative to operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects with variable CO2 streams. It is hoped that this report’s real-world findings provide readers with useful information on the topic of transport and storage of variable CO2 streams. The real-world results were obtained from two sources. The first source consisted of five full-scale, commercial transport–storage projects: Sleipner, Snøhvit, In Salah, Weyburn, and Illinois Basin–Decatur. These scenarios were reviewed to determine the information that is available about CO2 stream variability/intermittency on these demonstration-scale projects. The five projects all experienced mass flow variability or an interruption in flow. In each case, pipeline and/or injection engineers were able to accommodate any issues that arose. Significant variability in composition has not been an issue at these five sites. The second source of real- world results was telephone interviews conducted with experts in CO2 pipeline transport, injection, and storage during which commercial anecdotal information was acquired to augment that found during the literature search of the five full-scale projects. The experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  6. Towards Zero Emissions CO2-Reduction in Mediterranean Social Housing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabate, J.; Peters, C.; Cuchi, A.; Lopez, F.; Sagrera, A.; Wadel, G.; Vidal, J.; Cantos, S.

    2008-01-01

    of lacquered aluminium with interruption of thermal bridge. Exterior carpentry made of laminated Northern pine, controlled forest management and valid certificate. Solar protection Venetian blind of lacquered aluminium with vertical, manually...

  7. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as clean coal technologies · Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells

  8. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    demand, bunker fuel (heavy oil) demand will continue to risea gasoline exporter, as demand for other oil products is notof oil equivalent, but increase annual electricity demand by

  9. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    in changes in total primary energy use in the range of 300Rate of -4% Total Primary Energy USe (Mtce) ERI Referenceof Figures Figure 1. Primary Energy Consumption in Different

  10. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, K; Davis, SJ; Sun, L; Hubacek, K

    2015-01-01

    future increases in natural gas use act to both reduce domestic coal use and slow the growth of renewable energy,

  11. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    technology and demand side management. This study uses twoGeneration Growth Demand Side Management EV mandates or

  12. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    vis- à-vis lowering electricity demand), as efficiencygce/kWh) in 2050 Total electricity demand reaches 9100 TWhin 2050 Total electricity demand reaches 7,764 TWh in 2050

  13. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    is the rapid expansion of nuclear generation, whichfurther expansion of renewable and nuclear power capacity.further expansion of renewable and nuclear power capacity.

  14. Consumption-based accounting of CO2 emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, S. J; Caldeira, K.

    2010-01-01

    low value of energy-intensive exports. In contrast, exportson energy-intensive manufacturing of goods for export, >19%do their exports, re?ecting the import of energy- intensive

  15. High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    systems at fluxes one to three orders of magnitude higher than normally encountered in soil respiration studies, a test system was constructed in the laboratory where known fluxes...

  16. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Electricity includes hydropower, wind, solar and otherNuclear Power NG Fired CC Hydropower Oil Fired Units Biomassand higher renewable and hydropower capacity each contribute

  17. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    nuclear power capacity. With aggressive implementation of energy efficiencynuclear power capacity. These results emphasize the significant role that energy efficiencyenergy efficiency policies in industry, buildings, appliances, and motor vehicles, as well as further expansion of renewable and nuclear

  18. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    china/en/press/reports/wind-power-report.pdf National Bureauet. al. 2007. “China Wind Power Report. ” Beijing: ChinaCIS and AIS CIS AIS Wind Power Nuclear Power NG Fired CC

  19. Drivers of the US CO2 emissions 1997-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, K; Davis, SJ; Sun, L; Hubacek, K

    2015-01-01

    innovations in hydraulic fracturing technology havefrom breakthroughs in hydraulic fracturing of shale deposits

  20. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Scenario”) and an alternative energy efficiency scenario (“of important alternative energy technologies as a result ofthe LEAP (Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning) modeling

  1. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    the LEAP (Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning) modelingScenario”) and an alternative energy efficiency scenario (“of important alternative energy technologies as a result of

  2. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    kWh) in 2050 Installed capacity of wind, solar, and biomassTWh in 2050 Installed capacity of wind, solar, and biomass

  3. Reduction of CO2 emissions and utilization of slag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    coordinator Sanni Eloneva & Arshe Said, Researchers Helsinki University of Technology, Dept. of Energy Technology/Research group of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection (ENY) Sähkömiehentie 4 A, 02015 be achieved. The relatively high price of PCC (ten times that of raw limestone or steelmaking slag) could

  4. High Co2 Emissions Through Porous Media- Transport Mechanisms And

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources Jump to:Hershey, Pennsylvania:Hidden Hills,Implications For Flux

  5. Calculating CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County, California: Energy ResourcesCRED: A New Model(RedirectedCalculating

  6. Impacts of Elevated Atmospheric CO2and O3on Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera): Reproductive Fitness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Darbah, Joseph N. T.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Nelson, Neil; Oksanen, Elina; Vaapavuori, Elina; Karnosky, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2and tropospheric O3are rising in many regions of the world. Little is known about how these two commonly co-occurring gases will affect reproductive fitness of important forest tree species. Here, we report on the long-term effects of CO3and O3for paper birch seedlings exposed for nearly their entire life history at the Aspen FACE (Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) site in Rhinelander, WI. Elevated CO2increased both male and female flower production, while elevated O3increased female flower production compared to trees in control rings. Interestingly, very little flowering has yet occurred in combined treatment. Elevated CO2had significant positive effect on birchmore »catkin size, weight, and germination success rate (elevated CO2increased germination rate of birch by 110% compared to ambient CO2concentrations, decreased seedling mortality by 73%, increased seed weight by 17%, increased root length by 59%, and root-to-shoot ratio was significantly decreased, all at 3 weeks after germination), while the opposite was true of elevated O3(elevated O3decreased the germination rate of birch by 62%, decreased seed weight by 25%, and increased root length by 15%). Under elevated CO2, plant dry mass increased by 9 and 78% at the end of 3 and 14 weeks, respectively. Also, the root and shoot lengths, as well as the biomass of the seedlings, were increased for seeds produced under elevated CO2, while the reverse was true for seedlings from seeds produced under the elevated O3. Similar trends in treatment differences were observed in seed characteristics, germination, and seedling development for seeds collected in both 2004 and 2005. Our results suggest that elevated CO2and O3can dramatically affect flowering, seed production, and seed quality of paper birch, affecting reproductive fitness of this species.« less

  7. Impacts of CO2 Mandates for New Cars in the European Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic; understand complex connections among the many forces that will shape our future; and improve methods to model equilibrium (CGE) model, we analyze the impact of the mandates on oil demand, CO2 emissions, and economic

  8. Modeling of CO2 Reduction Impacts on Energy Prices with Modelica Philip Machanick1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machanick, Philip

    at an increasing rate as technologies such as wind, solar and carbon capture and storage mature ­ hence the need.machanick@gmail.com, petfr@ida.liu.se Abstract There is growing evidence that anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will then grow at an increas- ing rate as technologies such as wind, solar and car- bon capture and storage

  9. Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

  10. Stuart Michael Cohen The Implications of Flexible CO2 Capture on the ERCOT Electric Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    , and coal burning for electricity generation is responsible for 60% of America's power sector CO2 emissions. However, since coal is relatively inexpensive, available, politically secure, and uses mature, widespread technology, coal is likely to remain a major fuel for electricity generation for several decades. Thus

  11. Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon storage: the economic efficiency of storing CO2 in leaky reservoirs Minh Ha-Duong David W. Keith April 11, 2003 Abstract Fossil fuels can be used with minimal atmospheric emissions of carbon diox, the cost of sequestration and the energy penalty (the energy necessary to capture, transport and inject

  12. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  13. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Kovarik, Libor; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Arey, Bruce W.; Tucek, Jiri; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-11-25

    Olivines, a significant constituent of basaltic rocks, have the potential to immobilize permanently CO2 after it is injected in the deep subsurface, due to carbonation reactions occurring between CO2 and the host rock. To investigate the reactions of fayalitic olivine with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and formation of mineral carbonates, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 35 °C to 80 °C, 90 atm pressure and anoxic conditions. For every temperature, the dissolution of fayalite was examined both in the presence of liquid water and H2O-saturated scCO2. The experiments were conducted in a high pressure batch reactor at reaction time extending up to 85 days. The newly formed products were characterized using a comprehensive suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques X-ray diffraction, Transmission/Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Focused Ion Beam, and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Siderite with rhombohedral morphology was formed at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C in the presence of liquid water and scCO2. In H2O-saturated scCO2, the formation of siderite was confirmed only at high temperature (80 °C). Characterization of reacted samples in H2O-saturated scCO2 with high resolution TEM indicated that siderite formation initiated inside voids created during the initial steps of fayalite dissolution. Later stages of fayalite dissolution result in the formation of siderite in layered vertical structures, columns or pyramids with a rhombus base morphology.

  14. NETL CO2 Storage Frequently Asked Questions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGEMissionStressMoveMuncriefB NESEA Newsletter ContentCO2

  15. CO2 Compression | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &Bradbury ScienceComplex earning FPEComplex CNS,CO2

  16. CO2 Utilization | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETOof Energy Office ofCERTIFIED2,May 4, 2011CO2

  17. Upstream vs. Downstream CO2 Trading: A Comparison for the Electricity Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Bushnell, J.; Wolak, F. A.

    ; a charge paid by all California electricity consumers to fund cost- effective energy efficiency programs; the decoupling of utility revenues from sales; and rate-of-return incentives adopted by the CPUC in September 2007. With implementation of AB... In electricity, “downstream” CO2 regulation requires retail suppliers to buy energy from a mix of sources so that their weighted emissions satisfy a standard. It has been argued that such “load-based” regulation would solve emissions leakage, cost consumers...

  18. Visualizing the Surface Infrastructure Used to Move 2 MtCO2/year from the Dakota Gasification Company to the Weyburn CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Project: Version of July 1, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2009-07-09

    Google Earth Pro has been employed to create an interactive flyover of the world’s largest operational carbon dioxide capture and storage project. The visualization focuses on the transport and storage of 2 MtCO2/year which is captured from the Dakota Gasification Facility (Beula, North Dakota) and transported 205 miles and injected into the Weyburn oil field in Southeastern Saskatchewan.

  19. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2010-01-01

    CO 2 sequestration; In Salah; geomechanics; ground surfaceCO 2 injection, geomechanics, and ground surface

  20. CO2 capture processes in power plants - Le captage du CO2 dans les centrales thermiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakib Bouallou

    2010-08-12

    This review is devoted to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO2 from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post combustion CO2 capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO2. These processes were evaluated to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents.

  1. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National...

  2. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

  3. UPDATE ON THE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIMENT ON CO2 OCEAN SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    discussed strategies for ocean carbon sequestration are direct injection of CO2 into the deep ocean and iron effort is solely focused on the direct injection approach. In this method, liquid CO2 is injected

  4. HYDROMECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION FOR SITE SELECTION IN CO2 PERMANENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    of info and lack of info Arguments against: - It increases electricity cost + extra CO2 (CO2 market Sleipner In Salah Weyburn Snohvit #12;Uplift of 5 mm/yr in In Salah (Rutqvist et al., 2010, IJGGC

  5. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  6. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    phase dispersivity test (BTC) Porosity-thickness product oftest Two-phase tracer BTC Evolution of CO 2 saturation

  7. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  8. Variability of primary production and air-sea CO 2 flux in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shanlin; Moore, J. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Lima (2007), Enhanced CO 2 outgassing in the Southern OceanCO 2 run, there is a CO 2 outgassing trend of 0.07 PgC/yr/sink and a natural CO 2 outgassing. The anthropogenic CO 2

  9. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  10. Post-Combustion CO2 Capture 11 -13 July 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Tufts European Center Talloires, France Institute | | Clean Air Task Force | | Asia Clean Energy Innovation Initiative | #12;Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop 11 - 13 July 2010 Talloires, France PROCEEDINGS: Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Workshop

  11. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ?30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  12. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Second Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing% inlet CO2. A rate-based model demonstrates that the stripper is primarily controlled by liquid film mast

  13. Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle H O R M O an integrated assessment of the nitrogen (N) cycle and whether it is influenced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 significantly changes foliage d15 N in a wide range

  14. he leading technology under development for management of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydilek, Ahmet

    T he leading technology under development for management of CO2 separated and captured from large assessment in relation to deploy- ment of the technology. Potential mechanisms for leakage from CO2 storage Series*sponsored by John J. Kirlin Lecture funds Geologic Sequestration of CO2 : Evaluating

  15. Cimpor inventa nova frmula para reduzir pegada de CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    Cimpor inventa nova fórmula para reduzir pegada de CO2 CIMENTO. A Cimpor descobriu uma nova fórmula para produzir ci- mento que lhe permitirá reduzir a pegada de CO 2 em 25%. Segundo as contas da as fábricas do grupo, seriam emitidos menos quatro milhões de toneladas de CO 2 por ano, o que permitiria uma

  16. CO2 dissolution in water using long serpentine microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    CO2 dissolution in water using long serpentine microchannels Thomas Cubaud,a) Martin Sauzade dioxide-water is particularly impor- tant to the environment. When CO2 dissolves in water, it forms a weak shells.2 A method for enriching minute amount of water with CO2 on-chip would facilitate biological

  17. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2007 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing, requires equivalent work of 31.8 kJ/mole CO2 when used with a double matrix stripper and an intercooled

  18. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate First Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous. Uninhibited 5 m KHCO3/2.5 m PZ corrodes 5 to 6 times faster that 30% MEA with 0.2 mol CO2/mol MEA. #12

  19. Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2 Gordon F. Buchanana,b,1 and George B neurons are stimulated by CO2, and sero- tonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Third Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing use. Extensive measurements of CO2 solubility in 7 m MEA at 40 and 60o C have confirmed the work

  1. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2006 Quarterly Progress of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing 20% of the power output from a 500 MW power plant with 90% CO2 removal. The stripper rate model shows

  2. CO2 cost pass through and windfall profits in the power sectorâ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Chen, Yihsu

    unit concerned. As a consequence, the CO2 costs pass through is defined as the average increase in power price over a certain period due to the increase in the CO2 price of an emission allowance. Pri ce/ MW h Hours/year 8760Oil CCGT Gas Coal... -generation power- intensive industry would benefit from the economic rent due to the transfer of valuable, freely allocated assets. The extent to which carbon costs are passed through to power prices depends also on changes in the merit order of the supply...

  3. Directed Technical Change and the Adoption of CO2 Abatement Technology: The Case of CO2 Capture and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otto, Vincent M.

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2 trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement ...

  4. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  5. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, K.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Concept Utilizing Supercritical CO2 Instead of Water,Feasibility of Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmissionsupercritical CO 2 and rock minerals. Studies of geochemical interactions in EGS-CO2

  6. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Changes in Response to CO2 Leakage from Deep Geologicalstudy mineral trapping for CO2 disposal in deep arenaceousconstituents as function of P(CO2)? function of P(CO2)? – –

  7. INTEGRATING MEA REGENERATION WITH CO2 COMPRESSION AND PEAKING TO REDUCE CO2 CAPTURE COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    by combining use of the heat integration configurations evaluated in this study and for the support and guidance of the DOE/NETL project manager, Jose D. Figueroa. Platte River Power Authority's insight on integrating a CO2 capture system into a full-scale power plant was also of great value

  8. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel combustion R. J. Andres 1 , T. A.resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 emission fluxes forCO 2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2010 edition, OECD/IEA,

  9. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  10. TransCom 3 inversion intercomparison: Impact of transport model errors on the interannual variability of regional CO 2 fluxes, 1988-2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuelH.1: World carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption andof A. L. Brenkert (Carbon dioxide emission estimates from

  11. CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHBE 484: Term Report Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Future UBC Transportation Options Curtis Wan Joyce Ying Torrio Louie April 18th 2008 #12;ii Summary: This report analyzes the CO2 emissions and 53.0 g/CO2 respectively. It is determined that the emissions for 2007 were 83646.07 tonnes CO2

  12. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  13. Supersonic Technology for CO2 Capture: A High Efficiency Inertial CO2 Extraction System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Researchers at ATK and ACENT Laboratories are developing a device that relies on aerospace wind-tunnel technologies to turn CO2 into a condensed solid for collection and capture. ATK’s design incorporates a special nozzle that converges and diverges to expand flue gas, thereby cooling it off and turning the CO2 into solid particles which are removed from the system by a cyclonic separator. This technology is mechanically simple, contains no moving parts and generates no chemical waste, making it inexpensive to construct and operate, readily scalable, and easily integrated into existing facilities. The increase in the cost to coal-fired power plants associated with introduction of this system would be 50% less than current technologies.

  14. Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Kicklighter, David W. [Ecosystem Center, The; Gurney, Kevin R [Arizona State University; Burnside, Todd [University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that, historically, terrestrial ecosystems of the northern high latitude region may have been responsible for up to 60% of the global net land-based sink for atmospheric CO2. However, these regions have recently experienced remarkable modification of the major driving forces of the carbon cycle, including surface air temperature warming that is significantly greater than the global average and associated increases in the frequency and severity of disturbances. Whether arctic tundra and boreal forest ecosystems will continue to sequester atmospheric CO2 in the face of these dramatic changes is unknown. Here we show the results of model simulations that estimate a 41 Tg C yr-1 sink in the boreal land regions from 1997 to 2006, which represents a 73% reduction in the strength of the sink estimated for previous decades in the late 20th Century. Our results suggest that CO2 uptake by the region in previous decades may not be as strong as previously estimated. The recent decline in sink strength is the combined result of 1) weakening sinks due to warming-induced increases in soil organic matter decomposition and 2) strengthening sources from pyrogenic CO2 emissions as a result of the substantial area of boreal forest burned in wildfires across the region in recent years. Such changes create positive feedbacks to the climate system that accelerate global warming, putting further pressure on emission reductions to achieve atmospheric stabilization targets.

  15. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

  16. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  17. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) comparing water with CO2 as heat transmission fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2007-01-01

    Interactions at the Supercritical CO2–liquid InterfaceEnergy Concept Utilizing Supercritical CO2 Instead of Water,Feasibility of Using Supercritical CO2 as Heat Transmission

  18. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Chao

    2015-01-01

    351. Tsung, F. , et al. , CO2 Laser acceleration of forwardJoshi, Fifteen terawatt picosecond CO2 laser system. Opticspicosecond, multiwavelength CO2 laser pulse. Applied Optics,

  19. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  20. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Fourth Quarterly Report 2005 Quarterly Progress. #12;3 Abstract The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO2 capture by alkanolamine from 0.06 to 0.01 mol/(m3 .s.kPa) as the rich loading increased from 0.45 to 0.6 mol CO2/ mol MEA

  1. A Comparative Evaluation of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Strategies for the Maritime Shipping and Aviation Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Mark; Smirti, Megan; Zou, Bo

    2008-01-01

    2001) The impact of CO 2 emissions trading on the EuropeanJ. D. et al. (2007) Emissions Trading for internationalinvestigating an open emission trading system for aviation

  2. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cementwith CDIAC estimates of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emission.emissions from fossil-fuel combustion. Biogeosciences 9,

  3. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmore »land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.« less

  4. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts Investigating Water Extraction •! LLNL –! Active CObenefits of various water extraction, treatment, and reuseof CO 2 storage and water extraction scenarios –! Technical

  5. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    COAL MODEL Significant potential exists for carbon sequestration and enhanced methane recoverycoal zones within the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Assessment of the CO 2 sequestration and enhanced recovery

  6. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    The geomechanics of CO 2 storage in deep sedimentaryThis paper provides a review of the geomechanics andmodeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon

  7. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    and performance of oil well cement with 30 years of CO 2cement –? Carbonation –? Sulfate attack –? Acid attack State of Alaska Oil and Gas Division Old Wells

  8. From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers have discovered that nanoparticles of cerium oxide (ceria) in contact with copper will form metal-oxide interfaces that allow the adsorption and activation of CO2,...

  9. Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Prepared for the Clean Air Task Force under a grant from...................................................................................... 3 2. Current Status of Post-Combustion Capture

  10. Evaluating a new approach to CO2 capture and storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 capture and storage In a perspective paper published in Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, researchers examined a new approach that could potentially overcome many...

  11. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2 Geological Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-01-01

    by well/VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) data. Fractures andat the Frio site, a vertical seismic profile ficult due towells VSP (vertical seismic profile) CO 2 distribution updip

  12. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with CO2 as Heat Transmission Fluid Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Enhanced...

  13. Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring CO2 intrusion and associated geochemical transformations in a shallow groundwater system using complex electrical methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  14. Direct s-CO2 Reciever Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Receiver for Use in a Supercritical CO2 Recompression Cycle - FY13 Q1 High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Near-Blackbody Enclosed Particle Receiver...

  15. The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2013-01-01

    implications for CO 2 storage risk. Energy Procedia 4:3699–storage events and putting risk into perspective with other areas of the energy

  16. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-15

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  17. The Smart Grid: An Estimation of the Energy and CO2 Benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Robert G.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Katipamula, Srinivas; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-01-27

    This report articulates nine mechanisms by which the smart grid can reduce energy use and carbon impacts associated with electricity generation and delivery. The quantitative estimates of potential reductions in electricity sector energy and associated CO2 emissions presented are based on a survey of published results and simple analyses. This report does not attempt to justify the cost effectiveness of the smart grid, which to date has been based primarily upon the twin pillars of cost-effective operation and improved reliability. Rather, it attempts to quantify the additional energy and CO2 emission benefits inherent in the smart grid’s potential contribution to the nation’s goal of mitigating climate change by reducing the carbon footprint of the electric power system.

  18. Dynamic coupling of volcanic CO2 flow and wind at the HorseshoeLake tree kill, Mammoth Mountain, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Hilley, G.E.; Tosha, T.; Aoyagi, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Benson, S.M.

    2006-11-20

    We investigate spatio-temporal relationships between soilCO2 flux (FCO2), meteorological variables, and topography over a ten-dayperiod (09/12/2006 to 09/21/2006) at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill,Mammoth Mountain, CA. Total CO2 discharge varied from 16 to 52 t d-1,suggesting a decline in CO2 emissions over decadal timescales. Weobserved systematic changes in FCO2 in space and time in association witha weather front with relatively high wind speeds from the west and lowatmospheric pressures. The largest FCO2 changes were observed inrelatively high elevation areas. The variations in FCO2 may be due todynamic coupling of wind-driven airflow through the subsurface and flowof source CO2 at depth. Our results highlight the influence of weatherfronts on volcanic gas flow in the near-surface environment and how thisinfluence can vary spatially within a study area.

  19. Estakhri and Saylak 1 Potential for Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Texas Through the Use of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions are from the transportation sector. The next largest source of CO2 emissions is from per cent of CO2 emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels, and approximately 30% of those the manufacture of cement and account for approximately 10% of all CO2 emissions (1). When faced

  20. Solid molecular basket sorbent for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoxing [Pennsylvania State University; Ma, Xiaoliang [Pennsylvania State University; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Clark, Jason C [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Zhao, Shuqi [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Xu, Xiaochun [Pennsylvania State University; Song, Chunshan [Pennsylvania State University

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a solid molecular basket sorbent, 50 wt% PEI/SBA-15 was studied for CO2 capture from gas streams with low CO2 concentration at ambient conditions. The sorbent was able to effectively and selectively capture CO2 from a gas stream containing 1% CO2 at 75 C, with a breakthrough and saturation capacity of 63.1 and 66.7 mg/g, respectively, and a selectivity of 14 for CO2/CO and 185 for CO2/Ar. The sorption performance of the sorbent was influenced greatly by the operating temperature. The CO2-TPD study showed that the sorbent could be regenerated at mild conditions (50-110 C) and was stable in the cyclical operations for at least 20 cycles. Furthermore, the possibility for CO2 capture from air using the PEI/SBA-15 sorbent was studied by FTIR and proved by TPD. A capacity of 22.5 mg/g was attained at 75 C via TPD method using a simulated air with 400 ppmv CO2 in N2.

  1. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites, Vadose Zoneseepage from geologic carbon sequestration sites may occur.

  2. Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City ofNovel CO 2

  3. Version 3.0 SOP 5 --Underway p(CO2) October 12, 2007 Determination of p(CO2) in air that is in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the product of the mole fraction of CO2, x(CO2), in the equilibrated gas phase and the total pressure (p . The analyzer is calibrated using gases of known CO2 concentration (mole fraction). The partial pressure, p(CO2 in sea water, it is necessary to convert the mole fraction to fugacity, (CO2), to account for the fact

  4. Greener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants would alleviate concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    to remove CO2 from dilute gas streams because they have very high affinity for CO2. Unfortunately high solvents that balance high affinity for CO2 with ease of solvent recovery and reuse. Because the numberGreener Solvent Selection and Solvent Recycling for CO2 Capture Economically removing CO2 from

  5. Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n,,H2O...m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.

    Single photon ionization of van der Waals clusters with a soft x-ray laser: ,,CO2...n and ,,CO2...n 2006; published online 20 October 2006 Pure neutral CO2 n clusters and mixed CO2 n H2O m clustersV. The distribution of pure CO2 n clusters decreases roughly exponentially with increasing cluster size. During

  6. Evaluating the Suitability for CO2 Storage at the FutureGen 2.0 Site, Morgan County, Illinois, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Sullivan, E. C.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Kelley, Mark E.; White, Signe K.; Appriou, Delphine; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gerst, Jacqueline L.; Gupta, Neeraj; Horner, Jacob A.; McNeil, Caitlin; Moody, Mark A.; Rike, William M.; Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Zeller, Evan R.; Zhang, Z. F.; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Humphreys, Kenneth K.

    2013-08-05

    FutureGen 2.0 site will be the first near-zero emission power plant with fully integrated long-term storage in a deep, non-potable saline aquifer in the United States. The proposed FutureGen 2.0 CO2 storage site is located in northeast Morgan County, Illinois, U.S.A., forty-eight kilometres from the Meredosia Energy Center where a large-scale oxy-combustion demonstration will be conducted. The demonstration will involve > 90% carbon capture, which will produce more than one million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 per year. The CO2 will be compressed at the power plant and transported via pipeline to the storage site. To examine CO2 storage potential of the site, a 1,467m characterization well (FGA#1) was completed in December 2011. The target reservoir for CO2 storage is the Mt. Simon Sandstone and Elmhurst Sandstone Member of the lower Eau Claire Formation for a combined thickness of 176 m. Confining beds of the overlying Lombard and Proviso Members (upper Eau Claire Formation) reach a thickness of 126 m. Characterization of the target injection zone and the overlying confining zone was based on wellbore data, cores, and geophysical logs, along with surface geophysical (2-D seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity), and structural data collected during the initial stage of the project . Based on this geological model, 3D simulations of CO2 injection and redistribution were conducted using STOMP-CO2, a multiphase flow and transport simulator. After this characterization stage, it appears that the injection site is a suitable geologic system for CO2 sequestration and that the injection zone is sufficient to receive up to 33 MMT of CO2 at a rate of 1.1 MMT/yr. GHGT-11 conference

  7. Mathematical models as tools for probing long-term safety of CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Interactions at the Supercritical CO2–liquid InterfaceProperties of the Supercritical CO2–Water Pure Interface, J.

  8. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, H.

    2010-01-01

    displaces. In situ, the supercritical CO2 partitions betweenprocess, CO2 is injected in a supercritical state that has a

  9. Intercomparison of simulation models for CO2 disposal in underground storage reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Law, David; Oldenburg, Curt

    2001-01-01

    experience with using CO2 for EOR projects (SPE, 1999), andoil recovery (EOR) using CO2 requires an understanding of

  10. Vehicular Sensing System for CO2 Monitoring Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tseng, Yu-Chee

    --We are interested in monitoring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas in a large field such as an urban area sensor, vehicular sensing system, wireless sensor network. I. INTRODUCTION Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has concentration in Hsin-Chu city, Taiwan. The collected data is reported to a remote server, which is integrated

  11. CO2 Sequestration Modeling Using Pattern Recognition and Data Mining;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . In order to perform a safe and efficient carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) project, a comprehensive. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a process including the capture of CO2 from high production, USA Abstract Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy-related sources and depositing

  12. Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Influence of C4 vegetation on 13 CO2 discrimination and isoforcing in the upper Midwest, United vegetation on the 13 CO2 photosynthetic discrimination and atmospheric isotopic forcing in the upper Midwest discrimination within this heterogeneous landscape? (3) To what extent does land use change (i.e., a change in C4

  13. Variations in 13 C discrimination during CO2 exchange1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exchange. Observed 13 were described well by the classical model of5 Farquhar, O'Leary & Berry (1982 enzymes, as well as to differential diffusivities of 13 CO2 and 12 CO2 in air9 (O'Leary, 1984; Farquhar, O'Leary

  14. Comprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    , carbon sequestration, ecosystem, multi-tier, multi-modal, multi-scale, self organized, sensor array to comprehensively monitor ecosystem carbon sequestration. The network consists of CO2, Weather (pressureComprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems and Its Relation

  15. Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean C. L. Sabine,1 R. A. Feely,2 R. M. Key,3 J] This work presents an estimate of anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean based on measurements from the WOCE tracers; 9355 Information Related to Geographic Region: Pacific Ocean; KEYWORDS: Pacific Ocean

  16. Integrated Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for Fuel Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meeting the most stringent emission standards in the world (EPA2002, EPA2007, EPA2010) required the strength of global organizations EPA2002 emission regulation was associated with a significant drop in engine thermal efficiency; DOE support of R&D program helped avoid further efficiency drop in 2007; EPA2010 will lead to simultaneous improvements in emissions and fuel efficiency for most manufacturers

  17. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 hasmore »been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  18. Exsolution Enhanced Oil Recovery with Concurrent CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Lin; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel EOR method using carbonated water injection followed by depressurization is introduced. Results from micromodel experiments are presented to demonstrate the fundamental principles of this oil recovery method. A depressurization process (1 MPa/hr) was applied to a micromodel following carbonated water injection (Ca ? 10-5). The exsolved CO2 in water-filled pores blocked water flow in swiped portions and displaced water into oil-filled pores. Trapped oil after the carbonated water injection was mobilized by sequentially invading water. This method's self-distributed mobility control and local clogging was tested in a sandstone sample under reservoir conditions. A 10% incremental oil recovery was achieved by lowering the pressure 2 MPa below the CO2 liberation pressure. Additionally, exsolved CO2 resides in the pores of a reservoir as an immobile phase with a high residual saturation after oil production, exhibiting a potential synergy opportunity between CO2 EOR and CO2 sequestration

  19. Does elevated CO2 alter silica uptake in trees?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Maguire, Timothy J.; Carey, Joanna C.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2015-01-13

    Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global CO2 fertilization, longterm free-air CO2 enrichment experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si) in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine), and five hardwoodmore »species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20 and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.« less

  20. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.