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1

Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

2

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

3

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research into gas injection processes in four main areas: laboratory experiments to measure three-phase relative permeability; network modeling to predict three-phase relative permeability; benchmark simulations of gas injection and water flooding at the field scale; and the development of fast streamline techniques to study field-scale ow. The aim of the work is to achieve a comprehensive description of gas injection processes from the pore to the core to the reservoir scale. To this end, measurements of three-phase relative pemeability have been made and compared with predictions from pore scale modeling. At the field scale, streamline-based simulation has been extended to compositional displacements, providing a rapid method to predict oil recovery from gas injection.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.; Martin J. Blunt

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

End-of-Month Working Gas in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March 31, 2000) was 1,150 billion cubic feet (Bcf), just above the 1995-1999 average of 1,139 Bcf. However, according to American Gas Association data, injection rates since April 1 have been below average, resulting in a 10-percent shortfall compared to the 5-year average for total stocks as of September 1. Net injections in August have been 10 percent below average. If net injections continue at 10 percent below historically average rates through the remainder of the refill season, gas inventories would be 2,750 Bcf on November 1, which is 8 percent below the 5-year average of about 3,000 Bcf. We are currently projecting that working gas will be between 2,800 and 2,900 Bcf at the end of October, entering the heating season

5

Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

6

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Measurements of injected impurity assimilation during massive gas injection experiments in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Impurities (H-2, D-2, He, Ne or Ar) injected into steady (non-disrupting) discharges with massive gas injection (MGI) are shown to mix into the plasma core dominantly via magnetohydrodynamic activity during the plasma thermal quench (TQ). Mixing efficiencies of injected impurities into the plasma core are measured to be of order 0.05-0.4. 0D modelling of the experiments is found to reproduce observed TQ and current quench durations reasonably well (typically within +/- 25% or so), although shutdown onset times are underestimated (by around 2 x). Preliminary 0D modelling of ITER based on DIII-D mixing efficiencies suggests that MGI will work well in ITER with regard to disruption heat load and vessel force mitigation, but may not collisionally suppress runaway electrons.

Hollmann, E. M. [University of California, San Diego; Jernigan, T. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Boedo, J.A. [University of California, San Diego; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Humphreys, D A [General Atomics, San Diego; James, A. N. [University of California, San Diego; Lanctot, M J [Columbia University; Nishijima, D. [University of California, San Diego; Rudakov, D.L. [University of California, San Diego; Scott, H A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics; West, J C [General Atomics, San Diego; Wu, W [General Atomics, San Diego; Yu, J.H. [University of California, San Diego

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

9

California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

10

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines, but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor, which draws air into the engine, pressurizes it, and feeds it to the combustion chamber at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. The combustion system, typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel into combustion chambers where it mixes with the air. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees F. The combustion produces a high temperature, high pressure gas stream that enters and expands through the turbine section. The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and

11

Biomethane to Natural Gas Grid Injection.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Biomethane (upgraded form of biogas) holds unlocked potential as a substitute to fossil natural gas, in terms of achieving climate reduction targets as well… (more)

Singhal, Ankit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

focus on reducing this effects. Only very recently, active cooling strategies have been developed alsoNumerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques Wolfgang Dahmen Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen Abstract The interaction of a jet of cooling gas

13

Prediction of Asphaltene Instability under Gas Injection with the PC-SAFT Equation of State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction of Asphaltene Instability under Gas Injection with the PC-SAFT Equation of State† ... In this work, the applicability of simple and recombined live oil models using the PC-SAFT equation of state to predict the onset of asphaltene precipitation is demonstrated by studying pressure depletion and gas injection (carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), methane, and ethane) in oil reservoirs. ... The pure component PC-SAFT parameters are fitted to the saturated liquid density and vapor pressure data, and the oil/gas pseudocomponent parameters are estimated from molecular-weight-based correlations. ...

Doris L. Gonzalez; P. David Ting; George J. Hirasaki; Walter G. Chapman

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

14

16 - Biomethane injection into natural gas networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Biomethane is a flexible and easily storable fuel that can be used wherever natural gas is used without the need to change any settings on equipment designed to use natural gas. In regions where a natural gas grid already exists, there is a ready-made system for the distribution of biomethane. This chapter briefly introduces: the legal framework and technical standards of biomethane feed-in into the gas network in Germany; the different subsidy schemes and reliefs to encourage biomethane production or utilization; and the different available options for biomethane feed-in and feed-in facilities. The chapter also looks at one of the most challenging aspects of biomethane feed-in – costs and energy efficiency – and outlines several options for improvement.

Wolfgang Urban

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary Prices Exploration & Reserves Production Imports/Exports Pipelines Storage Consumption All Natural Gas Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption Exploration & Reserves Imports/Exports & Pipelines Prices Production Projections Storage All Reports ‹ See All Natural Gas Reports Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity With Data for November 2012 | Release Date: July 24, 2013 | Next Release Date: Spring 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Go Methodology Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity Estimates: Estimates are based on aggregation of the noncoincident peak levels of working gas inventories at individual storage fields as reported monthly over a 60-month period ending in November 2012 on Form EIA-191, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage

16

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions Definitions Since 2006, EIA has reported two measures of aggregate capacity, one based on demonstrated peak working gas storage, the other on working gas design capacity. Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity: This measure sums the highest storage inventory level of working gas observed in each facility over the 5-year range from May 2005 to April 2010, as reported by the operator on the Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Underground Gas Storage Report." This data-driven estimate reflects actual operator experience. However, the timing for peaks for different fields need not coincide. Also, actual available maximum capacity for any storage facility may exceed its reported maximum storage level over the last 5 years, and is virtually certain to do so in the case of newly commissioned or expanded facilities. Therefore, this measure provides a conservative indicator of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored.

17

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research carried out in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Stanford University from September 1997 - September 1998 under the second year of a three-year grant from the Department of Energy on the "Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs." The research effort is an integrated study of the factors affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involves theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulation. The original proposal described research in four areas: (1) Pore scale modeling of three phase flow in porous media; (2) Laboratory experiments and analysis of factors influencing gas injection performance at the core scale with an emphasis on the fundamentals of three phase flow; (3) Benchmark simulations of gas injection at the field scale; and (4) Development of streamline-based reservoir simulator. Each state of the research is planned to provide input and insight into the next stage, such that at the end we should have an integrated understanding of the key factors affecting field scale displacements.

Blunt, Martin J.; Orr, Franklin M.

1999-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This report was an integrated study of the physics and chemistry affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involved theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. Specifically, advances were made on streamline-based simulation, analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements, and modeling and experimental measures of three-phase flow.

Blunt, M.J.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

19

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 50,130 81,827 167,632 312,290 457,725 420,644 359,267 370,180 453,548 436,748 221,389 90,432 2012 74,854 56,243 240,351 263,896 357,965 323,026 263,910 299,798 357,109 327,767 155,554 104,953 2013 70,592 41,680 99,330 270,106 465,787 438,931 372,458 370,471 418,848 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators

20

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production… (more)

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 TOTAL PRODUCTION GAIN VERSUS GAS INJECTED FOR KW/K = 1 Cum. Water Prod. STB 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 Cum. Gas Prod. MMMSCF . 545 715 . 825 . 830 . 979 . 788 . 979 1. 100 1. 100 1. 230 Cum... Production 13. 0 11. 3 12. 0 12. 5 3. 4 0. 22 TABLE 4 TOTAL PRODUCTION GAIN VERSUS GAS INJECTED FOR KW/K = 10 Cum. Water Prod. STB 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 10000 10000 10000 10000 10000 Cum. Gas Prod. MMMSCF 1. 549 1. 814 1. 942...

Haugen, Sigurd Arild

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

22

Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

24

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 7,862 17,834 34,190 160,946 247,849 262,039 269,285 244,910 208,853 134,234 47,094 16,471 1995 13,614 4,932 36,048 85,712 223,991 260,731 242,718 212,493 214,385 160,007 37,788 12,190 1996 12,276 39,022 32,753 130,232 233,717 285,798 303,416 270,223 247,897 166,356 39,330 28,875 1997 16,058 14,620 25,278 93,501 207,338 258,086 250,776 252,129 233,730 152,913 53,097 10,338 1998 21,908 13,334 48,068 139,412 254,837 234,427 234,269 207,026 178,129 144,203 52,518 28,342

25

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology Methodology Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity Estimates: Estimates are based on aggregation of the noncoincident peak levels of working gas inventories at individual storage fields as reported monthly over a 60-month period ending in April 2010 on Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage Report." The months of measurement for the peak storage volumes by facilities may differ; i.e., the months do not necessarily coincide. As such, the noncoincident peak for any region is at least as big as any monthly volume in the historical record. Data from Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage Report," are collected from storage operators on a field-level basis. Operators can report field-level data either on a per reservoir basis or on an aggregated reservoir basis. It is possible that if all operators reported on a per reservoir basis that the demonstrated peak working gas capacity would be larger. Additionally, these data reflect inventory levels as of the last day of the report month, and a facility may have reached a higher inventory on a different day of the report month, which would not be recorded on Form EIA-191M.

26

Colorado Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun...

27

Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule | Department of...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule Philadelhia Gas Works (PGW) Doe Furnace Rule DOE Furnace Rule More Documents & Publications Focus Series: Philadelphia Energyworks: In...

28

Federal Utility Partnership Working Group: Atlanta Gas Light...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Group: Atlanta Gas Light Resources Federal Utility Partnership Working Group: Atlanta Gas Light Resources Presentation-given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working...

29

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 48,055 33,801 35,146 27,858 45,903 22,113 5,766 6,401 1995 2,960 9,426 8,840 10,680 42,987 47,386 37,349 22,868 31,053 25,873 15,711 3,003 1996 2,819 8,696 9,595 20,495 41,216 36,086 25,987 20,787 24,773 17,795 13,530 9,122 1997 6,982 4,857 15,669 28,479 47,040 49,438 38,542 31,080 29,596 23,973 10,066 1,975 1998 5,540 1,847 14,429 21,380 49,816 48,423 30,073 34,243 31,710 34,744 26,456 6,404 1999 4,224 3,523 10,670 17,950 41,790 42,989 40,381 26,942 30,741 20,876 18,806 4,642

30

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 20,366 29,330 55,297 93,538 129,284 83,943 104,001 98,054 88,961 65,486 49,635 27,285 1995 24,645 25,960 57,833 78,043 101,019 100,926 77,411 54,611 94,759 84,671 40,182 33,836 1996 34,389 48,922 38,040 76,100 98,243 88,202 88,653 109,284 125,616 91,618 37,375 48,353 1997 45,327 35,394 89,625 83,137 107,821 99,742 71,360 95,278 116,634 117,497 49,750 33,170 1998 41,880 59,324 73,582 119,021 128,323 96,261 107,136 94,705 87,920 129,117 58,026 47,924 1999 35,830 50,772 49,673 80,879 110,064 100,132 72,348 67,286 103,587 79,714 66,465 32,984

31

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 184,212 180,918 178,620 181,242 179,235 181,374 183,442 187,348 185,848 181,029 1991 179,697 178,285 176,975 176,918 178,145 179,386 181,094 182,534 182,653 181,271 178,539 174,986 1992 111,256 109,433 109,017 109,150 110,146 110,859 111,885 112,651 112,225 110,868 107,520 101,919 1993 96,819 92,399 89,640 87,930 86,773 86,048 87,257 87,558 88,012 87,924 85,137 81,930 1994 78,106 72,445 71,282 70,501 71,440 73,247 74,599 75,685 77,456 78,490 76,784 74,111 1995 70,612 68,618 67,929 68,727 70,007 72,146 75,063 78,268 79,364 78,810 75,764 70,513

32

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 22,371 18,661 17,042 17,387 20,796 23,060 26,751 30,924 33,456 34,200 30,588 1991 24,821 19,663 16,425 15,850 17,767 18,744 22,065 26,710 31,199 37,933 35,015 30,071 1992 23,328 18,843 14,762 14,340 15,414 17,948 23,103 27,216 32,427 35,283 32,732 29,149 1993 23,702 18,626 15,991 17,160 18,050 20,109 24,565 29,110 33,303 34,605 32,707 30,052 1994 23,623 20,052 18,102 17,396 17,194 19,647 24,780 29,088 33,077 35,877 36,408 33,424 1995 27,732 21,973 19,542 18,899 19,227 21,026 23,933 27,541 31,972 36,182 36,647 31,830

33

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 33,234 33,553 34,322 39,110 43,935 47,105 53,425 58,298 62,273 65,655 66,141 60,495 1991 43,838 39,280 39,196 45,157 48,814 50,833 52,841 54,954 60,062 64,120 56,034 50,591 1992 40,858 39,723 37,350 37,516 41,830 46,750 51,406 51,967 58,355 59,621 59,164 52,385 1993 46,427 38,859 32,754 35,256 42,524 46,737 51,884 55,215 61,028 60,752 38,314 31,086 1994 21,838 17,503 20,735 25,099 29,837 30,812 37,339 42,607 44,739 47,674 48,536 43,262 1995 32,938 27,069 23,018 27,735 34,699 36,337 40,488 41,240 47,530 50,166 40,729 32,224

34

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 65,683 55,509 49,604 47,540 48,128 53,233 64,817 76,933 92,574 99,253 115,704 93,290 1991 59,383 54,864 49,504 47,409 53,752 61,489 64,378 67,930 78,575 89,747 80,663 82,273 1992 76,311 63,152 53,718 48,998 51,053 53,700 57,987 69,653 79,756 82,541 73,094 61,456 1993 44,893 33,024 27,680 26,796 46,806 58,528 64,198 75,616 89,955 92,825 87,252 76,184 1994 52,998 41,644 39,796 40,779 49,519 55,059 64,664 77,229 86,820 91,309 84,568 74,364 1995 59,292 47,263 37,998 39,071 48,761 60,148 65,093 65,081 81,654 93,880 90,905 73,982

35

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1995 499 497 233 233 260 302 338 556 1,148 1,075 886 485 1996 431 364 202 356 493 971 1,164 1,553 1,891 2,008 1,879 1,119 1997 588 404 429 559 830 923 966 1,253 1,515 1,766 1,523 1,523 1998 773 585 337 582 727 1,350 1,341 1,540 1,139 1,752 1,753 1,615 1999 802 688 376 513 983 1,193 1,428 1,509 1,911 1,834 1,968 1,779 2000 865 863 1,178 1,112 1,202 1,809 1,890 1,890 1,780 1,638 1,434 1,349 2001 1,020 1,261 657 851 807 1,384 1,538 1,651 1,669 1,549 2,837 2,848 2002 2,435 2,119 1,849 2,106 2,206 2,076 2,326 2,423 2,423 1,863 2,259 2,117

36

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 27,491 22,694 17,504 13,313 17,552 23,767 28,965 33,972 35,196 34,955 34,660 1991 26,266 24,505 17,544 16,115 17,196 21,173 25,452 30,548 35,254 36,813 37,882 36,892 1992 33,082 29,651 22,962 18,793 18,448 20,445 24,593 30,858 36,770 38,897 35,804 33,066 1993 28,629 23,523 21,015 17,590 20,302 24,947 28,113 31,946 36,247 34,224 30,426 29,254 1994 24,249 19,331 16,598 11,485 16,989 18,501 23,590 28,893 34,044 34,298 32,687 29,307 1995 24,948 21,446 16,467 12,090 14,043 19,950 25,757 29,774 32,507 33,707 35,418 30,063

37

California Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 125,898 106,575 111,248 132,203 157,569 170,689 174,950 177,753 182,291 196,681 196,382 153,841 1991 132,323 132,935 115,982 136,883 163,570 187,887 201,443 204,342 199,994 199,692 193,096 168,789 1992 125,777 109,000 93,277 107,330 134,128 156,158 170,112 182,680 197,049 207,253 197,696 140,662 1993 106,890 87,612 100,869 109,975 138,272 152,044 175,917 185,337 199,629 210,423 198,700 164,518 1994 121,221 77,055 76,162 95,079 123,190 143,437 161,081 170,434 191,319 203,562 186,826 161,202 1995 130,241 125,591 117,650 114,852 141,222 167,231 181,227 179,508 194,712 212,867 214,897 188,927

38

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 115,418 117,492 109,383 110,052 117,110 131,282 145,105 158,865 173,570 188,751 197,819 190,747 1991 141,417 109,568 96,781 103,300 122,648 146,143 159,533 169,329 190,953 211,395 197,661 165,940 1992 120,212 91,394 79,753 85,867 106,675 124,940 136,861 152,715 174,544 194,414 187,236 149,775 1993 103,287 66,616 47,157 49,577 86,976 120,891 149,120 176,316 212,046 227,566 213,581 170,503 1994 112,054 93,499 80,056 101,407 134,333 155,279 184,802 207,383 230,726 239,823 235,775 197,145 1995 145,373 106,289 97,677 107,610 126,266 154,036 174,808 175,953 199,358 213,417 188,967 141,572

39

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 53,604 51,563 52,120 53,225 54,581 56,980 58,990 61,428 62,487 60,867 1991 54,085 53,423 53,465 53,581 54,205 56,193 58,416 60,163 61,280 61,366 59,373 57,246 1992 30,371 28,356 27,542 27,461 27,843 28,422 29,588 29,692 30,555 29,505 27,746 23,929 1993 20,529 18,137 17,769 18,265 19,253 21,322 23,372 24,929 26,122 27,044 24,271 21,990 1994 21,363 18,661 19,224 20,115 21,689 22,447 23,568 25,072 26,511 27,440 26,978 25,065 1995 22,086 20,762 19,352 18,577 19,027 20,563 22,264 23,937 25,846 27,025 26,298 24,257

40

Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 459 343 283 199 199 199 333 467 579 682 786 787 1999 656 532 401 321 318 462 569 645 749 854 911 855 2000 691 515 452 389 371 371 371 371 371 420 534 619 2001 623 563 490 421 525 638 669 732 778 840 598 597 2002 647 648 650 650 625 622 609 605 602 600 512 512 2003 404 294 226 179 214 290 365 460 463 508 508 447 2004 344 293 281 312 345 391 454 509 514 539 527 486 2005 444 364 265 184 143 126 126 126 88 79 73 60 2006 52 52 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 163,571 125,097 100,438 110,479 158,720 215,000 265,994 318,024 358,535 364,421 359,766 306,561 1991 194,349 153,061 137,579 147,399 174,145 196,678 219,025 254,779 297,531 315,601 305,179 272,103 1992 201,218 144,582 93,826 103,660 140,908 188,078 222,215 264,511 306,113 331,416 332,959 288,433 1993 217,967 120,711 66,484 89,931 133,866 187,940 233,308 272,685 320,921 334,285 328,073 278,791 1994 172,190 97,587 75,470 114,979 166,013 222,300 272,668 315,887 339,424 354,731 335,483 294,393 1995 232,561 139,624 111,977 124,790 168,112 221,731 253,442 290,185 338,021 355,887 311,749 236,656

42

Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 311,360 252,796 228,986 221,127 269,595 333,981 410,982 481,628 534,303 553,823 542,931 472,150 1991 348,875 285,217 262,424 287,946 315,457 372,989 431,607 478,293 498,086 539,454 481,257 405,327 1992 320,447 244,921 179,503 179,306 224,257 292,516 367,408 435,817 504,312 532,896 486,495 397,280 1993 296,403 194,201 133,273 148,416 222,106 303,407 386,359 468,790 534,882 568,552 516,491 426,536 1994 282,144 193,338 162,719 203,884 276,787 351,286 425,738 502,577 568,235 599,504 579,874 516,887 1995 410,946 298,325 247,016 245,903 299,050 364,569 438,995 492,773 545,157 577,585 511,573 392,896

43

Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 129,245 118,053 119,532 116,520 130,817 139,698 150,336 158,048 165,206 171,008 180,706 154,515 1991 111,225 106,204 111,759 125,973 140,357 150,549 151,393 156,066 166,053 169,954 144,316 133,543 1992 115,658 107,281 103,919 109,690 117,435 128,505 145,962 153,948 166,637 174,182 154,096 123,225 1993 46,462 26,472 19,429 30,902 49,259 67,110 82,104 95,435 111,441 118,880 101,220 86,381 1994 56,024 35,272 32,781 49,507 73,474 86,632 102,758 115,789 124,652 129,107 126,148 109,979 1995 86,312 72,646 62,779 67,245 83,722 96,319 103,388 101,608 113,587 126,287 116,265 92,617

44

Iowa Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,740 243 1,516 3,236 5,817 8,184 5,657 5,928 4,903 4,971 1,423 854 1991 1,166 155 231 1,829 4,897 8,985 6,518 8,058 11,039 10,758 2,782 860 1992 488 43 1,246 3,184 7,652 7,568 11,453 11,281 11,472 9,000 1,228 1,203 1993 0 0 733 5,547 6,489 7,776 10,550 10,150 12,351 8,152 2,437 0 1994 0 75 1,162 3,601 7,153 7,638 11,999 12,405 13,449 10,767 2,678 0 1995 0 0 251 1,041 5,294 9,889 12,219 17,805 13,756 8,855 1,283 391 1996 2 2 0 40 1,921 7,679 12,393 13,168 12,537 10,556 2,760 0

45

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objectives of this study are to determine the most suitable type of gas for a water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection scheme, the WAG cycle time, and gas injection rate to increase oil production rate and recovery from the San Francisco field...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 55,226 54,179 53,869 54,783 56,160 57,690 56,165 56,611 57,708 58,012 57,606 54,005 1991 52,095 51,060 50,341 51,476 54,531 56,673 56,409 56,345 57,250 56,941 56,535 54,163 1992 52,576 51,568 51,525 52,136 53,768 56,396 58,446 59,656 60,842 60,541 57,948 54,512 1993 51,102 49,136 48,100 49,069 52,016 55,337 57,914 59,772 61,281 10,707 8,936 6,562 1994 3,476 743 886 1,845 3,983 4,882 6,505 6,852 8,978 9,908 10,078 8,075 1995 6,063 5,068 4,138 3,940 4,583 5,449 3,881 4,059 4,443 3,676 2,078 485 1996 - - - - - 806 1,938 3,215 3,960 3,389 2,932 1,949

47

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 8,882 5,257 3,304 2,365 1,893 5,005 7,942 10,880 11,949 12,154 12,235 9,008 1991 6,557 6,453 3,509 6,342 7,864 10,580 12,718 12,657 12,652 14,112 15,152 14,694 1992 12,765 9,785 9,204 8,327 9,679 10,854 11,879 13,337 14,533 13,974 13,312 9,515 1993 6,075 2,729 3,958 4,961 9,491 10,357 12,505 13,125 15,508 13,348 9,567 11,274 1994 9,672 5,199 4,765 6,867 9,471 11,236 13,045 13,496 14,629 14,846 14,458 12,884 1995 10,750 8,520 8,267 8,500 11,070 12,622 14,035 13,764 16,258 16,158 16,224 12,869 1996 6,547 5,488 4,672 4,780 6,742 10,060 11,344 15,100 14,244 12,391 11,634 9,724

48

Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,708 1,141 1,211 1,688 2,017 2,129 2,261 2,309 2,370 2,397 2,395 2,007 1991 1,551 1,313 1,207 1,362 1,619 1,931 2,222 2,214 2,307 2,273 2,191 2,134 1992 1,685 1,556 1,228 1,019 1,409 1,716 2,013 2,193 2,319 2,315 2,307 2,104 1993 1,708 1,290 872 824 1,141 1,485 1,894 2,022 2,260 2,344 2,268 1,957 1994 1,430 1,235 1,045 888 1,237 1,642 2,011 2,213 2,362 2,360 2,356 2,284 1995 1,771 1,294 1,037 990 1,321 1,584 1,890 2,121 2,362 2,368 2,365 2,110 1996 1,329 1,069 847 935 1,301 1,596 1,883 2,093 2,295 2,328 2,297 2,070

49

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 8,081 5,796 6,047 7,156 7,151 7,146 7,140 7,421 7,927 8,148 8,157 7,869 1991 7,671 5,875 4,819 6,955 7,638 7,738 8,033 8,335 8,547 8,765 8,964 8,952 1992 7,454 6,256 5,927 7,497 7,924 8,071 8,337 8,555 8,763 8,954 8,946 8,939 1993 7,848 6,037 4,952 6,501 7,550 8,001 8,104 8,420 8,627 8,842 8,720 8,869 1994 7,602 7,073 6,794 4,640 6,094 7,449 7,765 8,072 8,341 8,548 8,778 8,783 1995 8,200 7,921 7,879 7,608 8,230 8,221 8,210 8,559 9,022 9,145 9,311 8,981 1996 7,558 7,658 7,225 6,931 8,250 8,511 8,751 8,958 9,162 9,372 9,067 8,993

50

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 1,309 844 534 742 1,055 1,364 1,553 1,894 2,218 2,349 2,255 1,897 1999 1,519 1,070 745 929 1,202 1,413 1,641 1,830 2,248 2,357 2,175 1,708 2000 998 843 814 1,063 1,642 1,848 2,066 2,215 2,223 2,594 2,242 1,529 2001 991 823 532 963 1,477 1,869 2,113 2,416 2,677 2,651 2,711 2,503 2002 2,029 1,356 968 1,090 1,627 1,899 2,181 2,322 2,631 2,838 2,559 2,065 2003 1,042 546 367 660 1,107 1,582 1,994 2,710 3,247 3,281 3,167 2,621 2004 1,570 1,195 865 1,024 1,706 1,990 2,188 2,925 3,253 4,115 4,082 3,077

51

Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 3,705 2,366 1,668 2,849 4,357 5,601 6,365 7,001 7,373 7,562 7,517 6,766 1991 5,691 4,726 2,959 1,980 2,694 4,248 5,706 6,798 7,472 7,811 7,834 7,347 1992 5,779 4,239 2,653 2,211 3,783 5,323 6,518 7,528 7,981 8,154 7,055 6,475 1993 4,557 3,161 2,433 2,007 3,651 4,949 6,130 7,172 7,750 8,240 7,509 6,406 1994 5,145 4,018 3,073 648 1,858 3,357 4,553 5,628 6,312 6,566 6,129 5,491 1995 3,814 3,429 2,989 3,856 5,035 6,069 6,765 6,765 7,251 7,251 7,193 6,371 1996 5,120 4,179 3,528 3,396 4,119 5,292 6,425 6,862 6,965 6,759 6,206 4,967

52

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 549,759 455,591 416,294 457,969 533,496 599,582 638,359 634,297 713,319 766,411 700,456 552,458 1996 369,545 263,652 195,447 224,002 279,731 339,263 391,961 474,402 578,991 638,500 562,097 466,366 1997 314,140 248,911 297,362 326,566 401,514 471,824 478,925 532,982 617,733 705,879 642,254 494,485 1998 391,395 384,696 362,717 457,545 550,232 610,363 684,086 748,042 784,567 893,181 888,358 768,239 1999 611,978 585,458 530,610 568,307 653,498 728,071 744,307 750,460 826,493 858,836 849,011 718,513

53

West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 95,718 84,444 80,152 86,360 105,201 122,470 139,486 155,506 168,801 172,513 172,198 155,477 1991 102,542 81,767 79,042 86,494 101,636 117,739 132,999 142,701 151,152 154,740 143,668 121,376 1992 87,088 60,200 32,379 33,725 57,641 75,309 97,090 115,537 128,969 141,790 135,853 143,960 1993 112,049 69,593 41,670 46,361 84,672 111,540 131,113 150,292 170,597 176,189 162,821 129,738 1994 71,547 38,973 20,662 41,766 67,235 97,887 125,442 147,683 168,538 174,514 166,920 140,377 1995 96,574 55,283 43,199 48,420 72,781 96,991 120,021 128,965 146,728 161,226 138,140 98,925

54

Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented September 26, 2013) Attendees: Robert...

55

Solar hybrid steam injection gas turbine (STIG) cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar heat at moderate temperatures around 200 °C can be utilized for augmentation of conventional steam-injection gas turbine power plants. Solar concentrating collectors for such an application can be simpler and less expensive than collectors used for current solar power plants. We perform a thermodynamic analysis of this hybrid cycle. High levels of steam-to-air ratio are investigated, leading to high power augmentation compared to the simple cycle and to conventional STIG. The Solar Fraction can reach up to 50% at the highest augmentation levels. The overall conversion efficiency from heat to electricity (average over fuel and solar contributions) can be in the range of 40–55% for typical candidate turbines. The incremental efficiency (corresponding to the added steam beyond conventional STIG) is in the range of 22–37%, corresponding to solar-to-electricity efficiency of about 15–24%, similar to and even exceeding current solar power plants using higher temperature collectors. The injected water can be recovered and recycled leading to very low water consumption of the cycle, but a very low cost condenser is required to make water recovery feasible.

Maya Livshits; Abraham Kribus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

HEAT TRANSFER ON A HYPERSONIC SPHERE WITH DIFFUSE RAREFIED-GAS INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HEAT TRANSFER ON A HYPERSONIC SPHERE WITH DIFFUSE RAREFIED-GAS INJECTION Vladimir V. Riabov* Rivier numbers Re0,R.3-7 Mass injection can be considered as an effective way of the reduction of heat transfer in the case of small Reynolds numbers. Moss12 found that mass injection dramatically reduces heat transfer

Riabov, Vladimir V.

57

Philadelphia Gas Works: Who’s on First?  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—about the Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) and its federal projects.

58

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -2,863 -1,902 -2,297 -1,134 -1,671 -1,997 -907 -144 629 992 2,290 1,354 1991 30,778 27,964 37,141 36,920 15,424 -18,322 -46,969 -63,245 -61,004 -48,820 -54,587 -34,458 1992 6,870 -8,479 -43,753 -43,739 -33,236 -8,601 3,190 9,732 8,583 15,815 27,780 16,330 1993 16,748 -23,871 -27,342 -13,729 -7,043 -138 11,093 8,174 14,808 2,868 -4,885 -9,642 1994 -45,776 -23,124 8,987 25,048 32,148 34,360 39,360 43,202 18,502 20,447 7,409 15,602 1995 60,371 42,037 36,507 9,811 2,098 -569 -19,226 -25,702 -1,403 1,156 -23,733 -57,737

59

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

An economic analysis of solar hybrid steam injected gas turbine (STIG) plant for Indian conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Steam injection for power augmentation is one of the significant modifications of gas turbines that has been commercialized for natural gas-fired applications. The primary objective of this work is to demonstrate that the installation of a solar hybrid steam injected gas turbine plant (STIG) for power generation could have a lower installed cost and lower solar levelized tariff compared to the solar-only thermal power plant while producing a comparable energy output. An economic evaluation is presented for the locations Indore and Jaipur in India under constant, variable power and mixed power scenarios. The levelized tariff (LT) of solar hybrid STIG plant ranges 0.24–0.26 $/kWh, and the levelized tariff (solar only) or solar levelized tariff (SLT) of solar STIG plant ranges from 0.29 to 0.4 $/kWh in constant power (CP) and variable power (VP) scenarios. In case of mixed power (MP) scenario, the range of LT varies from 0.16 to 0.21 $/kWh for CP and VP modes basis. In this analysis, size of the solar STIG plant varies from 48 MW to 212 MW based on the steam to air ratio. The IRR and payback period varies between 12%–17% and 6.3–8 years for both CP and VP scenarios at Jaipur and Indore. Sensitivity analysis reports that the performance of the power plants depends, to a large degree, on boundary conditions such as fuel and equipment costs.

A. Immanuel Selwynraj; S. Iniyan; Guy Polonsky; L. Suganthi; Abraham Kribus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 18.8 22.4 37.0 33.4 9.7 -8.5 -17.7 -19.9 -17.0 -13.4 -15.2 -11.2 1992 3.5 -5.5 -31.8 -29.7 -19.1 -4.4 1.5 3.8 2.9 5.0 9.1 6.0 1993 8.3 -16.5 -29.1 -13.2 -5.0 -0.1 5.0 3.1 4.8 0.9 -1.5 -3.3 1994 -21.0 -19.2 13.5 27.9 24.0 18.3 16.9 15.8 5.8 6.1 2.3 5.6 1995 35.1 43.1 48.4 8.5 1.3 -0.3 -7.1 -8.1 -0.4 0.3 -7.1 -19.6 1996 -32.3 -32.6 -49.9 -39.0 -28.4 -18.3 -0.5 4.4 0.7 -0.2 3.9 26.8 1997 31.1 63.7 89.6 41.7 24.2 9.7 -4.5 -6.2 -2.2 -2.4 -0.3 -8.7 1998 5.7 9.8 22.4 52.3 49.3 32.7 23.0 11.1 3.1 4.1 12.5 17.6

62

Cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration by work-expanding pipeline gas  

SciTech Connect

The process for the cogeneration of electricity and commercially saleable refrigeration by expanding pressurized pipeline gas with the performance of work is described which comprises: injecting methanol into the pipeline gas; passing the pipeline gas containing the methanol through a turbo-expander coupled to an electrical generator to reduce the pressure of the pipeline gas at least 100 psi but not reducing the pressure enough to drop the temperature of the resulting cold expanded gas below about - 100/sup 0/F; separating aqueous methanol condensate from the cold expanded gas and introducing the condensate into a distillation column for separation into discard water and recycle methanol for injection into the pipeline gas; recovering the saleable refrigeration from the cold expanded gas; adding reboiler heat to the distillation column in an amount required to warm the expanded gas after the recovery of the saleable refrigeration therefrom to a predetermined temperature above 32/sup 0/F; and passing the expanded gas after the recovery of the saleable refrigeration therefrom in heat exchange with methanol vapor rising to the top of the distillation column to condense the methanol vapor so that liquid methanol is obtained partly for reflux in the distillation column and partly for the recycle methanol and simultaneously the expanded gas is warmed to the predetermined temperature above 32/sup 0/F.

Markbreiter, S.J.; Dessanti, D.J.

1987-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

63

Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

Hindes, Clyde J. (Troy, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Energy Information  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity With Data for November 2012 | Release Date: July 24, 2013 | Next Release Date: Spring 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Go Overview Natural gas working storage capacity increased by about 2 percent in the Lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has two measures of working gas storage capacity, and both increased by similar amounts: Demonstrated maximum volume increased 1.8 percent to 4,265 billion cubic feet (Bcf) Design capacity increased 2.0 percent to 4,575 Bcf Maximum demonstrated working gas volume is an operational measure of the highest level of working gas reported at each storage facility at any time

65

Gas Flowmeter Calibrations with the Working Gas Flow Standard NIST Special Publication 250-80  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Flowmeter Calibrations with the Working Gas Flow Standard NIST Special Publication 250-80 John of Standards and Technology U. S. Department of Commerce #12;ii Table of Contents Gas Flowmeter Calibrations with the Working Gas Flow Standard .......................... i Abstract

66

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

67

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Maximum Rebate Residential: $750 Commercial: $60,000 Program Info Start Date 9/1/2012 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount '''Residential''' Residential Construction: $750 '''Commercial/Industrial''' 10% to 20% to 30% above code, $40/MMBtu first-year savings Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) provides incentives to developers, home

68

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) and sulfur (SO[sub x]) on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO[sub x] and 50 percent in SO[sub x] emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO[sub x] is converted to N[sub 2]. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. So[sub x] emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO[sub x] as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting; (2) Construction and Startup; and, (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel.

Not Available

1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Heat Transfer on a Hypersonic Sphere with Gas Injection Vladimir V. Riabov  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Transfer on a Hypersonic Sphere with Gas Injection Vladimir V. Riabov Department be considered as an effective way of the reduction of heat transfer to the surface in this area [1 the viscous layer is blown completely off the surface, and heat transfer is zero. The effect of injecting

Riabov, Vladimir V.

70

Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-ultraviolet to X-ray region. Recently, injection of a single-pass FEL by the third laser harmonic of a TiLETTERS Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense-electron lasers promise to extend this down to femtosecond timescales. The process by which free-electron lasers

Loss, Daniel

71

The effects of production rate and gravitational segregation on gas injection performance of oil reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING THE EFFECTS OF PRODUCTION RATE AND GRAVITATIONAL SEGREGATION ON GAS INJECTION PERFORMANCE OF OIL RESERVOIRS A Thesis by ED MARTIN FERGUSON Approved as. to style...

Ferguson, Ed Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

72

Philadelphia Navy Yard: UESC Project with Philadelphia Gas Works  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—provides information on the Philadelphia Navy Yard's utility energy services contract (UESC) project with Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW).

73

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial

74

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Because of cost growth and lack of available funding, no further work has been done after Phase 1 at site B; the wall fired unit.

Not Available

1992-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

75

Numerical Modeling of Diffusion in Fractured Media for Gas-Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hoteit,* SPE, and Abbas Firoozabadi, SPE, Reservoir Engineering Research Institute Summary Diffusion in fractured reservoirs, unlike in unfractured reservoirs, can affect significantly the efficiency of gas injection in oil reser- voirs and recycling in gas/condensate reservoirs. The physical diffusion, similar

Firoozabadi, Abbas

76

Study in High Speed Gas Chromatography I. Injections of Narrow Sample Plugs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......bility to the device. To reduce the amount of gas used, electric valves switch off the gas flows after an injection is completed...logiques fluidiques en controle industriel. Ingenieurs de I'Automobile, Paris. 15:1 (1967). 12. M.J.E. Golay. Theory......

Gyula Gaspar; Patrick Arpino; Georges Guiochon

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.  

SciTech Connect

Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

79

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive FILE COPY TAP By Irwin Stambler, Field Editor, is sized for a 10-ton heat pump system - will be scaled to power a commercial product line ranging from 7 of the cycle- as a heat pump drive for commercial installations. Company is testing prototype gas turbine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

80

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Construction Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Manufacturing Insulation Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate $75,000 Program Info Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies Widely Philadelphia Gas Works' (PGW) Commercial and Industrial Retrofit Incentive Program is part of EnergySense, PGW's portfolio of energy efficiency

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Magnetic Injection of Nanoparticles into Rat Inner Ears at a Human Head Working Distance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

t57 1 Magnetic Injection of Nanoparticles into Rat Inner Ears at a Human Head Working Distance: azeem@umd.edu Due to the physics of magnetic fields and forces, any single magnet will always attract or pull-in magnetically-responsive particles. However, there are a variety of clinical needs where

Shapiro, Benjamin

82

,"Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050de2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050de2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

83

,"Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050id2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050id2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:51 PM"

84

,"South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050sc2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050sc2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:29:07 PM"

85

,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1973 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050wi2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050wi2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:29:12 PM"

86

,"Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ak2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ak2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:46 PM"

87

,"Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1996 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ct2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ct2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

88

,"Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ga2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ga2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

89

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2...

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Superconductor fiber elongation with a heated injected gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method and apparatus for producing flexible fibers of superconducting material includes a crucible for containing a charge of the superconducting material. The material is melted in the crucible and falls in a stream through a bottom hole in the crucible. The stream falls through a protecting collar which maintains the stream at high temperatures. The stream is then supplied through a downwardly directed nozzle where it is subjected to a high velocity of a heated gas which breaks the melted superconducting material into ligaments which solidify into the flexible fibers. The fibers are collected by directing them against a collection filter. 10 figs.

Zeigler, D.D.; Conrad, B.L.; Gleixner, R.A.

1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

93

Modeling effects of diffusion and gravity drainage on oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs under gas injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas injection in naturally fractured reservoirs maintains the reservoir pressure, and increases oil recovery primarily by gravity drainage and to a lesser extent by mass transfer between the flowing gas in the fracture and the porous matrix...

Jamili, Ahmad

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

94

Influence of steam injection and hot gas bypass on the performance and operation of a combined heat and power system using a recuperative cycle gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of steam injection and hot gas bypass on the performance and operation of ... power (CHP) system using a recuperative cycle gas turbine was investigated. A full off-design analysis ... in steam gene...

Soo Young Kang; Jeong Ho Kim; Tong Seop Kim

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

Hagoort, J. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

97

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (sox) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions. Gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO[sub x] to molecular nitrogen (N[sub 2]) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO[sub x] emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO[sub x]. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO[sub 4], an injection temperature of about 1230[degrees]C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H[sub 2]O added for humidification. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

98

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Low-Income Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info Start Date 4/1/2011 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Boiler (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $1000 Boiler (Purchase 02/17/12 or after): $2000 Furnace (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $250 Furnace (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $500

99

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 341 1994-Jan 01/07 331 01/14 316 01/21 303 01/28 290 1994-Feb 02/04 266 02/11 246 02/18 228 02/25 212 1994-Mar 03/04 206 03/11 201 03/18 205 03/25 202 1994-Apr 04/01 201 04/08 201 04/15 202 04/22 210 04/29 215 1994-May 05/06 225 05/13 236 05/20 242 05/27 256

100

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Program Info Start Date 9/1/2012 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Boiler Size 300-500 (kBtu/h): $800; $2900 Boiler Size 500-700 (kBtu/h): $1400; $3600 Boiler Size 700-900 (kBtu/h): $2000; $4200 Boiler Size 900-1100 (kBtu/h): $2600; $4800 Boiler Size 1100-1300 (kBtu/h): $3200; $5400 Boiler Size 1300-1500 (kBtu/h): $3800; $6000 Boiler Size 1500-1700 (kBtu/h): $4400; $6600 Boiler Size 1700-2000 (kBtu/h): $5200; $7400

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 841 2007-Jan 01/05 823 01/12 806 01/19 755 01/26 716 2007-Feb 02/02 666 02/09 613 02/16 564 02/23 538 2007-Mar 03/02 527 03/09 506 03/16 519 03/23 528 03/30 550 2007-Apr 04/06 560 04/13 556 04/20 568 04/27 590 2007-May 05/04 610 05/11 629 05/18 648 05/25 670

102

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22 334 04/29 353 1994-May 05/06 376 05/13 399 05/20 429 05/27 443

103

Differences Between Monthly and Weekly Working Gas In Storage  

Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

December 19, 2013 December 19, 2013 Note: The weekly storage estimates are based on a survey sample that does not include all companies that operate underground storage facilities. The sample was selected from the list of storage operators to achieve a target standard error of the estimate of working gas in storage which was no greater than 5 percent for each region. Based on a comparison of weekly estimates and monthly data from May 2002 through September 2013, estimated total working gas stocks have exhibited an average absolute error of 16 billion cubic feet, or 0.6 percent. Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides weekly estimates of working gas volumes held in underground storage facilities at the national and regional levels. These are estimated from volume data provided by a

104

Differences Between Monthly and Weekly Working Gas In Storage  

Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

November 7, 2013 November 7, 2013 Note: The weekly storage estimates are based on a survey sample that does not include all companies that operate underground storage facilities. The sample was selected from the list of storage operators to achieve a target standard error of the estimate of working gas in storage which was no greater than 5 percent for each region. Based on a comparison of weekly estimates and monthly data from May 2002 through August 2013, estimated total working gas stocks have exhibited an average absolute error of 16 billion cubic feet, or 0.6 percent. Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides weekly estimates of working gas volumes held in underground storage facilities at the national and regional levels. These are estimated from volume data provided by a

105

Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

None

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

An investigation of high pressure/late cycle injection of CNG (compressed natural gas) as a fuel for rail applications  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a demonstration effort to investigate the use of natural gas in a medium-speed diesel engine. The effort was unique in the sense that natural gas was injected directly into the combustion chamber late in the compression stroke, as a high pressure gas rather than through low pressure fumigation or low pressure injection early in the compression stroke. Tests were performed on a laboratory two-cylinder, two-stroke cycle medium-speed diesel engine in an attempt to define its ability to operate on the high pressure/late cycle injection concept and to define the performance and emission characteristics of the engine under such operation. A small quantity of No.-2 diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder slightly before the gas injection to be used as an ignition source for the gas. Pilot (diesel fuel) and main (natural gas) timing and injection duration were systematically varied to optimize engine performance. The test demonstrated that the medium-speed engine was capable of attaining full rated speed and load (unlike the low pressure approach) with very low percentages of pilot injection with the absence of knock. Thermal efficiency was as much as 10 percent less than thermal efficiency levels obtained with neat diesel fuel. This was primarily due to the placement and injection characteristics of the pilot and main injectors. Optimization of the injection system would undoubtedly result in increased thermal efficiency. 11 figs., 4 tabs.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.G.; Baker, Q.A.; Urban, C.M.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 288,908 270,955 251,410 246,654 284,291 328,371 362,156 372,718 398,444 418,605 419,849 366,944 1996 280,620 236,878 221,371 232,189 268,812 299,619 312,736 313,747 330,116 333,134 322,501 282,392 1997 216,113 179,067 171,563 184,918 227,756 273,507 306,641 330,075 351,975 363,189 350,107 263,455 1998 211,982 163,084 150,923 155,766 206,048 254,643 281,422 305,746 346,135 379,917 388,380 330,906

109

Radiation asymmetries during disruptions on DIII-D caused by massive gas injection  

SciTech Connect

One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries of the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n?=?1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak, thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n?=?1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ?1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. No significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done “in the way” of the VDE (upward VDE mitigated by injection from the upper part of the vessel vs the lower part) or not.

Commaux, N.; Baylor, L. R.; Jernigan, T. C.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S.; Meitner, S. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Moyer, R. A. [University of California San Diego, San Diego, California (United States); Humphreys, D. A.; Wesley, J. C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5440us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5440us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:30 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5440US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" 34349,10956 34380,12444

111

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection David H.-S. Law (law@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5034) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 L.H.G. (Bert) van der Meer (l.vandermeer@nitg.tno.nl; +31-30-256-4635) Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands W.D. (Bill) Gunter (gunter@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5467) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 Abstract The injection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in deep, unmineable coalbeds is a very attractive option for geologic CO 2 storage: the CO 2 is stored and at the same time the recovery of

112

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5540us2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5540us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:33 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" 34515,2654035 34880,2371697 35246,2647124 35611,2532986

113

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5440us2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5440us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:29 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5440US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" 34515,142243 34880,194185 35246,258468

114

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5540us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5540us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:33 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" 34349,23610 34380,37290 34408,91769

115

Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Gas Slug. 13 4, Refined Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Water Slug. 14 5. The Effect of Slug Length on Recovery of Refined Oil. 15 6. Recovery of East... Texas Crude Oil vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Gas Slug. ig 7. Recovery of East Texas Crude Oil vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Water Slug. 19 8. The Effect of Slug Length on Recovery of East Texas Crude Oil. 20...

Givens, James Wilson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

117

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (MMcf)" Working Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5410us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5410us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:28 PM"

118

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (MMcf)" Working Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5510us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5510us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:32 PM"

119

An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

output of the turbine without increasing the work required for compression. Second, the steam may be generated with waste 15 heat from the combustion process. In an internal combustion gas turbine, this would result in an increased work output per... which are: 1. Gas Turbine Engine 2. Heat Exchanger Unit 3. Steam Generator Unit 4. Dynamometer 26 A detailed description of the equipment used in the experiment will be presented in the section entitled Ap- paratus since the purpose...

Ford, David Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 101 2007-Jan 01/05 109 01/12 107 01/19 96 01/26 91 2007-Feb 02/02 78 02/09 63 02/16 52 02/23 54 2007-Mar 03/02 59 03/09 58 03/16 64 03/23 70 03/30 78 2007-Apr 04/06 81 04/13 80 04/20 80 04/27 83 2007-May 05/04 85 05/11 88 05/18 92 05/25 97 2007-Jun 06/01 100 06/08 101 06/15 102 06/22 102 06/29 102

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 2,322 1994-Jan 01/07 2,186 01/14 2,019 01/21 1,782 01/28 1,662 1994-Feb 02/04 1,470 02/11 1,303 02/18 1,203 02/25 1,149 1994-Mar 03/04 1,015 03/11 1,004 03/18 952 03/25 965 1994-Apr 04/01 953 04/08 969 04/15 1,005 04/22 1,085 04/29 1,161 1994-May 05/06 1,237 05/13 1,325 05/20 1,403 05/27 1,494

122

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 1,411 1994-Jan 01/07 1,323 01/14 1,199 01/21 1,040 01/28 958 1994-Feb 02/04 838 02/11 728 02/18 665 02/25 627 1994-Mar 03/04 529 03/11 531 03/18 462 03/25 461 1994-Apr 04/01 465 04/08 475 04/15 494 04/22 541 04/29 593 1994-May 05/06 636 05/13 690 05/20 731 05/27 795

123

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 20, July 1--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}) on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. So{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting; (2) Construction and Startup; and, (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel.

Not Available

1992-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 1,206,116 814,626 663,885 674,424 850,290 1,085,760 1,300,439 1,487,188 1,690,456 1,811,013 1,608,177 1,232,901 1996 812,303 520,053 341,177 397,770 612,572 890,243 1,192,952 1,456,355 1,695,873 1,838,842 1,664,539 1,423,793 1997 965,310 711,444 521,508 539,750 735,527 985,803 1,230,970 1,474,855 1,702,601 1,816,709 1,706,526 1,416,580 1998 1,108,737 878,420 669,205 772,790 1,017,260 1,248,564 1,462,360 1,644,247 1,797,048 1,918,157 1,878,225 1,630,559

126

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

127

An experimental investigation of high performance natural gas engine with direct injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The original gasoline-PI engine was also modified to a CNG bi-fuel system. The test results obtained from CNG fuel using two different systems (i.e. bi-fuel and DI) have been investigated and compared with the original gasoline engine. The objective of this investigation is to compare the test results between CNG-DI, with CNG-BI and gasoline-PI engines with the same displacement volume. It was found that the CNG-DI engine produces similar brake power at 6000 rpm and wide open throttle (WOT) but produces higher brake power at part load condition as compared to the original gasoline. The CNG-BI engine produces 23% lower brake power than the CNG-DI engine. The average brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the CNG-DI engine was 0.28% and 8% lower than gasoline-PI and CNG-BI engines respectively. The CNG-DI engine reduces 42% \\{NOx\\} emission as compared to the base engine. However, the CNG-DI engine produces higher HC and CO emissions as compared to the base engine. This paper discusses a review on the direct injection (DI) natural gas engine with new information along with other investigations.

M.A. Kalam; H.H. Masjuki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Philadelphia Gas Works Looking for a challenge and ready to power up your career?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Philadelphia Gas Works Looking for a challenge and ready to power up your career? The Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) is the largest municipally-owned gas utility in the nation, supplying gas service into the large, modern facility that exists today. As one of the nation's leading natural gas providers, PGW

Plotkin, Joshua B.

129

Collection efficiency of photoelectrons injected into near- and supercritical argon gas  

SciTech Connect

Injection of photoelectrons into gaseous or liquid dielectrics is a widely used technique to produce cold plasmas in weakly ionized systems for investigating the transport properties of electrons. We report measurements of the collection efficiency of photoelectrons injected into dense argon gas for T= 152.7 K, close to the critical temperature T{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 150.9 K, and for T= 200.0 K. The high-field data agree with the Young-Bradbury model and with previous measurements below T{sub c} and at an intermediate temperature above T{sub c}. The effective, density-dependent electron-atom momentum transfer scattering cross section can be deduced. However, the weak-field data near T{sub c} show large deviations from the theoretical model. We show that the electron behavior at weak field is influenced by electrostriction effects that are only important near the critical point.

Borghesani, A. F. [CNISM-Unit, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Lamp, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik u. Astrophysik, Munich (Germany)

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Experiment and Numerical Simulation of Bubble Behaviors in Argon Gas Injection Into Lead-Bismuth Pool  

SciTech Connect

In a lead-bismuth alloy (45%Pb-55%Bi) cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR), steam can be produced by direct contact of feed water with primary Pb-Bi coolant in the upper core plenum, and Pb-Bi coolant can be circulated by buoyancy forces of steam bubbles. As a basic study to investigate the two-phase flow characteristics in the chimneys of PBWFR, a two-dimensional two-phase flow was simulated by injecting argon gas into Pb-Bi pool in a rectangular vessel (400 mm in length, 1500 mm in height, 50 mm in width), and bubble behaviors were investigated experimentally. Bubble sizes, bubble rising velocities and void fractions were measured using void probes. Argon gas was injected through five nozzles of 4 mm in diameter into Pb-Bi at two locations. The experimental conditions are the pressure of atmospheric pressure, Pb-Bi temperatures of 443 K, and the flow rate of injection Ar gas is 10, 20, and 30 NL/min. The measured bubble rising velocities were distributed in the range from 1 to 3 m/s. The average velocity was about 0.6 m/s. The measured bubble chord lengths were distributed from 1 mm up to 30 mm. The average chord length was about 7 mm. An analysis was performed by two-dimensional and two-fluid model. The experimental results were compared with the analytical results to evaluate the validity of the analytical model. Although large diameter bubbles were observed in the experiment, the drag force model for spherical bubbles performed better for simulation of the experimental result because of high surface tension force of Pb-Bi. (authors)

Yumi Yamada [Advanced Reactor Technology Company, Ltd. (Japan); Toyou Akashi; Minoru Takahashi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 6, October 1--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Because of cost growth and lack of available funding, no further work has been done after Phase 1 at site B; the wall fired unit.

Not Available

1992-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research  

SciTech Connect

Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

Yu Yaowei [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Zhuang Huidong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen Zhongyong [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Lower 48 States Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 1,985 38,541 -75,406 -222,622 -232,805 -210,409 -190,434 -133,607 -91,948 -46,812 73,978 350,936 2012 778,578 852,002 1,047,322 994,769 911,345 800,040 655,845 556,041 481,190 406,811 271,902 259,915 2013 -216,792 -360,517 -763,506 -767,663 -631,403 -489,573 -325,475 -214,105 -148,588 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

134

U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,034,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,403,000 NA 2,050,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,468,000 2,599,000 2,541,000 2,212,000 1976 1,648,000 1,444,000 1,326,000 1,423,000 1,637,000 1,908,000 2,192,000 2,447,000 2,650,000 2,664,000 2,408,000 1,926,000 1977 1,287,000 1,163,000 1,215,000 1,427,000 1,731,000 2,030,000 2,348,000 2,599,000 2,824,000 2,929,000 2,821,000 2,475,000 1978 1,819,000 1,310,000 1,123,000 1,231,000 1,491,000 1,836,000 2,164,000 2,501,000 2,813,000 2,958,000 2,927,000 2,547,000

135

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 74,086 66,477 61,296 61,444 65,918 70,653 76,309 82,236 85,955 89,866 87,913 73,603 1991 71,390 60,921 57,278 59,014 63,510 74,146 79,723 86,294 97,761 109,281 101,166 86,996 1992 67,167 54,513 50,974 53,944 62,448 70,662 82,259 93,130 103,798 112,898 103,734 83,223 1993 18,126 8,099 5,896 10,189 16,993 25,093 35,988 46,332 58,949 64,538 57,880 40,257 1994 21,994 12,505 9,508 11,414 16,978 23,485 33,733 44,726 56,420 65,515 60,945 43,175 1995 22,656 11,780 7,447 6,865 10,632 18,717 28,858 43,748 55,435 62,560 51,890 36,857

136

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 321,678 314,918 308,955 347,344 357,995 370,534 383,549 377,753 378,495 396,071 402,265 365,396 1991 279,362 271,469 271,401 289,226 303,895 323,545 327,350 329,102 344,201 347,984 331,821 316,648 1992 284,571 270,262 264,884 267,778 286,318 298,901 320,885 338,320 341,156 345,459 324,873 288,098 1993 165,226 149,367 141,472 157,250 183,990 198,041 207,344 220,032 216,071 222,798 210,181 194,014 1994 143,701 103,889 111,945 135,634 168,679 181,683 207,232 226,641 248,857 261,209 266,958 235,718 1995 215,449 192,489 184,914 206,178 228,388 238,593 238,850 234,779 254,339 265,781 248,336 200,382

137

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,305,843 1,721,875 1,577,007 1,788,480 2,186,855 2,529,647 2,775,346 3,019,155 3,415,698 3,803,828 3,842,882 3,462,021 2012 2,910,007 2,448,810 2,473,130 2,611,226 2,887,060 3,115,447 3,245,201 3,406,134 3,693,053 3,929,250 3,799,215 3,412,910 2013 2,693,215 2,088,293 1,709,624 1,843,563 2,255,657 2,625,874 2,919,726 3,192,029 3,544,465 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

138

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas  

SciTech Connect

A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator must operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. S. Shen has recently carried out a detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues, not the design features.

Ryutov,, D.D.

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

139

Influence of steam injection through exhaust heat recovery on the design performance of solid oxide fuel cell — gas turbine hybrid systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzed the influence of steam injection on the performance of hybrid systems combining a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine. Two different ... the effects of injecting steam, generated by recovering

Sung Ku Park; Tong Seop Kim; Jeong L. Sohn

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel. Phase I of the project commenced on June 5, 1987. Phases I, II and III for the Illinois Power Project have been completed; Phases I and II for the CWLP project have been completed; Phase III is in progress. All site activities have been completed with the exception of restoration at CWLP.

NONE

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 33, October 1--December 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub 2}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, has been stopped because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, shed through the formation of an industry, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Technology transfer to industry is accomplished through the formation of an industry panel. Phase 1 of the project commenced on June 5, 1987. Phases 1, 2 and 3 for the Illinois Power Project have been completed; Phases 1 and 2 for the CWLP project have been completed; Phase 3 is in progress. All site activities have been completed with the exception of restoration at CWLP.

NONE

1996-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 47,455 36,864 41,979 49,646 58,678 56,813 63,882 64,460 70,583 72,447 73,277 69,641 1995 72,965 64,476 58,510 66,025 73,529 78,437 76,026 63,026 80,949 87,711 83,704 71,638 1996 58,880 47,581 37,918 56,995 62,439 71,476 70,906 75,927 84,962 88,061 87,029 85,140 1997 57,054 49,490 55,865 58,039 73,265 79,811 65,589 66,536 77,598 93,020 95,180 82,610 1998 69,390 68,851 63,549 80,476 82,711 83,080 90,544 92,319 83,365 115,709 118,521 104,104 1999 82,043 77,133 67,758 77,908 94,436 101,788 95,521 102,210 111,680 115,048 116,495 99,921

143

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 35,239 28,083 24,437 26,484 32,304 42,192 50,845 59,950 66,681 69,508 68,996 59,183 1991 38,557 30,227 25,695 29,076 35,780 43,534 51,822 60,564 69,005 73,760 68,941 61,246 1992 49,781 35,441 23,732 26,771 36,307 45,716 57,152 66,993 72,724 76,134 72,836 56,289 1993 43,019 26,790 16,578 20,740 30,875 41,858 51,917 54,363 63,952 65,899 62,563 53,140 1994 40,502 26,320 17,867 26,755 35,465 47,773 56,880 65,819 70,776 72,168 69,544 60,807 1995 46,883 32,592 26,685 27,192 35,773 47,125 54,358 62,641 71,561 73,249 63,560 45,810

144

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 12,085 11,213 10,893 12,718 8,903 13,496 17,077 20,270 21,829 24,996 26,006 23,472 1991 20,026 18,023 15,855 8,701 11,626 14,635 15,689 13,734 16,376 16,270 16,031 16,988 1992 14,969 14,258 13,522 11,923 11,828 12,369 10,270 12,215 13,412 15,976 14,938 15,350 1993 12,704 8,540 8,417 5,490 8,195 9,416 9,685 7,367 8,356 10,544 7,832 7,914 1994 4,952 3,973 3,588 3,256 4,025 4,716 5,087 5,306 8,708 10,826 10,274 9,735 1995 7,590 7,588 8,025 8,247 9,470 10,575 10,593 9,503 10,022 10,057 8,980 7,490 1996 6,178 4,942 4,250 3,871 4,212 4,219 4,193 4,308 5,444 5,866 5,030 4,605

145

Alternative Techniques for Injecting Massive Quantities of Gas for Plasma Disruption Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Injection of massive quantities of noble gases or D2 has proven to be effective at mitigating some of the deleterious effects of disruptions in tokamaks. Two alternative methods that might offer some advantages over the present technique for massive gas injection are shattering massive pellets and employing closecoupled rupture disks. Laboratory testing has been carried out to evaluate their feasibility. For the study of massive pellets, a pipe gun pellet injector cooled with a cryogenic refrigerator was fitted with a relatively large barrel (16.5 mm bore), and D2 and Ne pellets were made and were accelerated to speeds of ~600 and 300 m/s, respectively. Based on the successful proof-of-principle testing with the injector and a special double-impact target to shatter pellets, a similar system has been prepared and installed on DIII-D, with preliminary experiments already carried out. To study the applicability of rupture disks for disruption mitigation, a simple test apparatus was assembled in the lab. Commercially available rupture disks of 1 in. nominal diameter were tested at conditions relevant for the application on tokamaks, including tests with Ar and He gases and rupture pressures of ~54 bar. Some technical and practical issues of implementing this technique on a tokamak are discussed.

Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A parametric study of steam injected gas turbine with steam injector  

SciTech Connect

The interest in the STIG concept has arisen from the fact that the application shows high flexibility in power output, and therefore can serve well as a peak load unit. A new addition to the STIG-cycle is proposed and investigated in this paper. The introduction of steam injectors at the injection point of the steam is proposed to lightly raise the pressure of the gas flow entering the expander. The injector reduces the thermodynamic irreversibilities associated with the throttling nature of injecting a high pressure steam into a lower pressure region. A thermodynamic study has been conducted on the STIG with steam injectors for power generation. Steam pressure and superheating temperature are the main parameters for the system. The impact and usefulness of supplementary firing before the HRSG has also been investigated. The results are compared with a STIG with throttling valves instead of injectors. The efficiency and power output proves to increase somewhat upon introducing the steam injectors. This modification can be of commercial interest since the injectors are of low installation cost and need virtually no maintenance.

Aagren, N.D.; Svedberg, G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Frutschi, H.U. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

The effect of high-pressure injection of gas on the reservoir volume factor of a crude oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By+ BAXTER DS'kONEYCUTT o Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, i957 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF HIGH-PRESSURE INJECTION OF GAS ON THE RESERVOIR VOLUME FACTOR OF A CRUDE OIL A Thesis By BAXTER D. HONEYCUTT Appro d as to style...

Honeycutt, Baxter Bewitt

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -114 -943 -336 775 774 774 773 -107 103 55 -146 1,291 1991 -410 79 -1,227 -201 487 592 893 913 620 617 807 1,083 1992 -216 381 1,107 542 286 333 304 220 216 189 -18 -13 1993 393 -220 -975 -996 -374 -69 -233 -135 -136 -112 -226 -70 1994 -245 1,036 1,842 -1,862 -1,456 -552 -338 -348 -285 -294 58 -85 1995 598 848 1,085 2,969 2,136 772 445 487 680 597 533 197 1996 -642 -262 -655 -677 21 290 541 398 140 226 -244 12 1997 309 461 -279 -42 -162 -311 -119 55 90 95 607 453

149

Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines progress in the second quarter of the third year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs''. This report presents results of an investigation of the effects of variation in interfacial tension (IFT) on three-phase relative permeability. We report experimental results that demonstrate the effect of low IFT between two of three phases on the three-phase relative permeabilities. In order to create three-phase systems, in which IFT can be controlled systematically, we employed analog liquids composing of hexadecane, n-butanol, isopropanol, and water. Phase composition, phase density and viscosity, and IFT of three-phase system were measured and are reported here. We present three-phase relative permeabilities determined from recovery and pressure drop data using the Johnson-Bossler-Naumann (JBN) method. The phase saturations were obtained from recovery data by the Welge method. The experimental results indicate that the wetting phase relative permeability was not affected by IFT variation whereas the other two-phase relative permeabilities were clearly affected. As IFT decreases the ''oil'' and ''gas'' phases become more mobile at the same phase saturations.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Performance and emission characteristics of natural gas combined cycle power generation system with steam injection and oxyfuel combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Natural gas combined cycle power generation systems are gaining popularity due to their high power generation efficiency and reduced emission. In the present work, combined… (more)

Varia, Nitin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Natural Gas Issues and Trends - Record winter withdrawals create...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

withdrawals create summer storage challenges Released: June 12, 2014 On June 6, a net natural gas storage injection of 107 billion cubic feet (Bcf) brought natural gas working...

153

Comment on "Potential for environmental impact due to acid gas leakage from wellbores at EOR injection sites near Zama Lake, Alberta" by D.M. LeNeveu (2012)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas leakage from wellbores at EOR injection sites near Zamagas leakage from wellbores at EOR injection sites near Zamaenhanced oil recovery (EOR) coupled with geologic disposal

Houseworth, J.E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Work...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Work Plans API has developed a work plan based on API's commitment letter and the Climate Challenge Program which addresses the overall elements of the Climate VISION program...

155

Analysis of the injection process in direct injected natural gas engines. Part 1: Study of unconfined and in-cylinder plume behavior  

SciTech Connect

A study of natural gas (NG) direct injection (DI) processes has been performed using multidimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis. The purpose was to improve the understanding of mixing in DI NG engines. Calculations of injection into a constant-volume chamber were performed to document unconfined plume behavior. A full three-dimensional calculation of injection into a medium heavy-duty diesel engine cylinder was also performed to study plume behavior in engine geometries. The structure of the NG plume is characterized by a core of unmixed fuel confined to the near-field of the jet. This core contains the bulk of the unmixed fuel and is mixed by the turbulence generated by the jet shear layer. The NG plume development in the engine is dominated by combustion chamber surface interactions. A Coanda effect causes plume attachment to the cylinder head, which has a detrimental impact on mixing. Unconfined plume calculations with different nozzle hole sizes demonstrate that smaller nozzle holes are more effective at mixing the fuel and air.

Jennings, M.J.; Jeske, F.R. (Ricardo North America, Burr Ridge, IL (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -30,641 13,186 6,384 -1,434 1,227 -3,129 3,399 2,573 2,606 1,953 968 1,423 1991 1,986 2,360 1,291 -869 -1,664 -1,353 -659 -203 99 250 317 582 1992 89 -487 -305 231 1,089 1,075 811 730 509 343 -779 -872 1993 -1,222 -1,079 -221 -204 -131 -374 -387 -356 -231 86 454 -69 1994 587 858 640 -1,359 -1,793 -1,593 -1,578 -1,544 -1,438 -1,674 -1,380 -915 1995 -1,331 -589 -83 3,208 3,177 2,713 2,212 1,136 939 685 1,065 880 1996 1,306 751 539 -460 -916 -777 -340 97 -286 -492 -987 -1,405

157

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -10,714 -2,484 2,221 9,026 9,501 3,159 1,926 1,511 539 1,182 1,803 9,892 1991 10,604 5,727 4,873 6,047 4,879 3,728 -584 -3,344 -2,211 -1,535 -10,107 -9,904 1992 -2,980 443 -1,846 -7,642 -6,984 -4,083 -1,435 -2,987 -1,706 -4,499 3,130 1,793 1993 5,569 -864 -4,596 -2,260 694 -12 478 3,249 2,672 1,131 -20,850 -21,299 1994 -24,589 -21,355 -12,019 -10,157 -12,687 -15,926 -14,545 -12,608 -16,289 -13,079 10,221 12,176 1995 11,100 9,566 2,283 2,636 4,862 5,526 3,149 -1,367 2,792 2,492 -7,807 -11,038

158

Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 9,275 18,043 13,193 1,851 5,255 9,637 5,108 8,495 9,773 7,534 9,475 11,984 1991 -9,933 -7,259 454 6,145 6,270 3,648 2,744 1,010 -13 7,942 -12,681 -9,742 1992 -9,345 -8,466 -9,599 -19,126 -16,878 -15,372 -13,507 -9,010 -7,228 -7,653 -6,931 -18,707 1993 -51,572 -52,876 -51,081 -40,760 -41,229 -40,132 -39,867 -44,533 -43,110 -44,873 -36,080 -34,184 1994 -6,101 -1,289 8,929 5,795 -3,558 -6,807 -4,948 -4,181 -3,006 -678 -77 11,376 1995 20,962 7,104 -805 -3,970 -29,257 -30,038 -32,571 -35,022 -40,472 -36,406 -41,858 -53,433

159

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 705 2,167 1,643 1,813 -2,403 355 272 -26 131 59 561 542 1991 -4,514 -2,633 -2,648 -1,702 -3,097 151 -280 -908 -3,437 -6,076 -7,308 -6,042 1992 -68,442 -68,852 -67,958 -67,769 -67,999 -68,527 -69,209 -69,883 -70,428 -70,404 -71,019 -73,067 1993 -14,437 -17,034 -19,377 -21,219 -23,373 -24,811 -24,628 -25,093 -24,213 -22,944 -22,384 -19,989 1994 -18,713 -19,954 -18,358 -17,429 -15,333 -12,802 -12,658 -11,874 -10,555 -9,434 -8,353 -7,819 1995 -7,494 -3,827 -3,353 -1,774 -1,433 -1,101 464 2,584 1,908 321 -1,020 -3,599

160

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 21,315 40,513 43,111 18,628 12,189 2,033 47 -10,549 -21,072 -9,288 -13,355 -8,946 1991 -42,316 -43,449 -37,554 -58,118 -54,100 -46,988 -56,199 -48,651 -34,294 -48,087 -70,444 -48,747 1992 5,209 -1,207 -6,517 -21,448 -17,577 -24,644 -6,465 9,218 -3,044 -2,525 -6,948 -28,550 1993 -119,345 -120,895 -123,412 -110,528 -102,328 -100,860 -113,541 -118,288 -125,086 -122,661 -114,692 -94,084 1994 -21,524 -45,478 -29,527 -21,615 -15,311 -16,358 -113 6,609 32,786 38,411 56,777 41,703 1995 71,748 88,600 72,969 70,544 59,709 56,910 31,618 8,138 5,482 4,572 -18,623 -35,336

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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161

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -10,362 -8,989 -8,480 -6,853 -3,138 -3,221 -2,686 -2,091 824 166 -307 3,561 1991 -6,300 -645 -100 -132 5,625 8,255 -439 -9,003 -13,999 -9,506 -35,041 -11,017 1992 16,928 8,288 4,215 1,589 -2,700 -7,788 -6,391 1,723 1,181 -7,206 -7,569 -20,817 1993 -31,418 -30,129 -26,038 -22,202 -4,247 4,828 6,211 5,963 10,199 10,284 14,158 14,727 1994 8,105 8,620 12,116 13,982 2,713 -3,469 465 1,613 -3,134 -1,516 -2,683 -1,820 1995 6,294 5,619 -1,798 -1,708 -758 5,090 429 -12,148 -5,167 2,571 6,337 -382

162

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,533 1999 210 227 211 187 147 49 88 -64 30 8 -80 -189 2000 -521 -228 69 134 440 435 425 385 -24 236 67 -179 2001 -7 -19 -282 -100 -165 21 46 202 453 58 469 975 2002 1,038 533 436 127 151 30 68 -94 -46 187 -153 -439 2003 -987 -810 -600 -430 -520 -317 -187 388 616 443 608 557 2004 528 649 498 364 599 408 194 216 6 834 916 456 2005 201 391 -60 22 -116 -186 -62 -780 -679 -910 1,097 1,608 2006 3,081 2,559 3,389 3,163 2,744 2,220 2,009 2,014 2,869 2,415 531 784

163

Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -862 -85 724 658 416 -1,091 -1,477 -807 2,724 -222 -1,505 5,333 1991 4,470 4,339 1,613 1,801 727 1,324 628 202 -123 -686 1,727 2,620 1992 900 -745 -1,784 -3,603 -1,779 -745 -328 -176 -219 356 579 -1,431 1993 153 742 1,488 1,891 777 -736 -1,464 -2,133 -1,700 -270 -379 -1,170 1994 -4,444 -2,565 -113 1,629 1,482 1,771 2,779 2,519 1,569 658 -517 1,249 1995 5,583 3,808 3,166 1,674 1,629 2,195 -93 -369 129 -488 -247 -2,056 1996 -3,630 -2,064 -3,459 -3,286 -3,097 -2,473 -372 315 -34 394 -346 1,808

164

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -3,295 -2,048 303 1,673 2,267 2,054 632 690 1,081 1,169 1,343 2,765 1991 2,450 1,002 -617 -1,537 -1,372 -2,052 -995 -41 274 4,477 815 -517 1992 -1,493 -820 -1,663 -1,510 -2,353 -796 1,038 506 1,229 -2,650 -2,283 -922 1993 374 -217 1,229 2,820 2,636 2,160 1,462 1,893 876 -679 -25 903 1994 -79 1,426 2,111 236 -856 -462 215 -22 -226 1,272 3,701 3,372 1995 4,108 1,921 1,440 1,503 2,033 1,379 -847 -1,547 -1,105 305 239 -1,594 1996 -2,809 -931 -2,059 -2,296 -2,608 -2,010 -508 2,016 1,499 -9 283 1,806

165

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -2,696 -5,556 -4,018 -2,430 -2,408 3,493 3,414 4,058 11,806 19,414 13,253 13,393 1992 -4,224 -6,407 -6,304 -5,070 -1,061 -3,484 2,536 6,836 6,037 3,618 2,568 -3,773 1993 -49,040 -46,415 -45,078 -43,755 -45,456 -45,569 -46,271 -46,798 -44,848 -48,360 -45,854 -42,967 1994 3,868 4,407 3,612 1,225 -15 -1,608 -2,255 -1,606 -2,529 977 3,064 2,918 1995 662 -725 -2,062 -4,549 -6,346 -4,768 -4,875 -978 -985 -2,955 -9,054 -6,318 1996 -2,596 -433 -1,982 -2,204 -5,609 -6,677 -4,290 -5,912 -4,983 -1,206 3,642 151

166

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 701 995 446 26 639 1,368 2,249 3,219 1,102 2,496 892 1991 -1,225 1,811 40 2,493 3,883 3,621 1,685 1,583 1,282 1,616 2,927 2,233 1992 6,816 5,146 5,417 2,679 1,253 -728 -859 310 1,516 2,085 -2,078 -3,827 1993 -4,453 -6,128 -1,947 -1,204 1,853 4,502 3,520 1,087 -522 -4,673 -5,378 -3,812 1994 -4,380 -4,192 -4,417 -6,105 -3,313 -6,446 -4,523 -3,052 -2,203 74 2,261 53 1995 699 2,115 -131 605 -2,947 1,448 2,167 881 -1,537 -592 2,731 756 1996 -3,583 -1,460 -1,587 1,297 1,828 892 223 -114 831 -332 -2,174 183

167

West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -1,093 -693 -375 128 493 786 2 -447 -512 -333 -99 1,138 1991 6,825 -2,677 -1,109 134 -3,564 -4,731 -6,487 -12,806 -17,650 -17,773 -28,530 -34,101 1992 -15,454 -21,567 -46,663 -52,768 -43,995 -42,430 -35,909 -27,164 -22,183 -12,950 -7,815 22,584 1993 24,960 9,394 9,292 12,636 27,031 36,232 34,023 34,755 41,628 34,399 26,968 -14,222 1994 -40,501 -30,621 -21,008 -4,595 -17,438 -13,653 -5,670 -2,609 -2,058 -1,674 4,099 10,639 1995 25,027 16,310 22,537 6,655 5,546 -896 -5,421 -18,718 -21,810 -13,288 -28,780 -41,453

168

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -4,944 -5,851 -5,300 -3,038 -4,576 -4,057 77 1,820 2,686 6,478 7,515 9,209 1991 7,941 6,810 4,962 -4,017 2,723 1,139 -1,388 -6,536 -5,453 -8,726 -9,976 -6,483 1992 -5,057 -3,765 -2,333 3,222 202 -2,266 -5,420 -1,519 -2,964 -294 -1,093 -1,638 1993 -2,265 -5,717 -5,105 -6,433 -3,632 -2,953 -584 -4,847 -5,056 -5,431 -7,107 -7,436 1994 -7,752 -4,567 -4,829 -2,234 -4,170 -4,700 -4,598 -2,062 352 281 2,443 1,820 1995 2,638 3,615 4,436 4,991 5,445 5,859 5,506 4,197 1,314 -768 -1,294 -2,244

169

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -16,163 -3,291 4,933 5,735 6,541 3,761 1,457 -2,718 333 6,361 22,218 1991 25,998 -7,924 -12,602 -6,752 5,539 14,861 14,428 10,464 17,383 22,644 -158 -24,807 1992 -21,205 -18,174 -17,028 -17,433 -15,973 -21,203 -22,672 -16,614 -16,409 -16,981 -10,425 -16,165 1993 -16,925 -24,778 -32,596 -36,290 -19,699 -4,049 12,259 23,601 37,502 33,152 26,345 20,728 1994 8,768 26,882 32,899 51,830 47,357 34,388 35,682 31,067 18,680 12,257 22,195 26,643 1995 33,319 12,790 17,621 6,203 -8,067 -1,243 -9,994 -31,430 -31,368 -26,406 -46,809 -55,574

170

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -525 -558 -653 -568 -437 -289 -114 76 566 493 1,000 1,188 1991 482 1,359 1,901 1,461 980 1,611 1,437 1,173 -147 -1,122 -1,494 -1,591 1992 -23,715 -25,067 -25,923 -26,121 -26,362 -27,771 -28,829 -30,471 -30,725 -31,860 -31,627 -33,317 1993 -9,841 -10,219 -9,773 -9,196 -8,590 -7,100 -6,215 -4,763 -4,433 -2,461 -3,475 -1,939 1994 834 524 1,455 1,850 2,436 1,126 195 143 389 396 2,707 3,074 1995 723 2,101 128 -1,538 -2,661 -1,884 -1,303 -1,135 -665 -416 -680 -807 1996 -1,225 -2,881 -2,568 -1,148 1,099 1,302 1,744 832 -482 -1,417 -3,593 -5,063

171

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -72 452 283 -1,858 -801 699 -1,353 41 108 1,167 -1,339 1991 -2,326 1,196 205 3,977 26,799 5,575 4,775 1,778 703 1,958 2,917 5,687 1992 6,208 3,332 5,695 1,986 1,815 275 -839 679 1,880 -138 -1,840 -5,179 1993 -6,689 -7,057 -5,245 -3,367 -188 -497 627 -212 975 -626 -3,745 1,760 1994 3,597 2,471 806 1,906 -20 879 539 371 -878 1,499 4,890 1,609 1995 1,078 3,321 3,503 1,633 1,599 1,386 990 268 1,628 1,312 1,767 -15 1996 -4,203 -3,033 -3,595 -3,720 -4,328 -2,562 -2,690 1,336 -2,014 -3,767 -4,591 -3,144

172

U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 305,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 16,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 196,000 NA 162,000 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 182,000 65,000 -133,000 -286,000 1977 -361,000 -281,000 -111,000 4,000 94,000 122,000 156,000 152,000 174,000 265,000 413,000 549,000 1978 532,000 147,000 -92,000 -196,000 -240,000 -194,000 -184,000 -98,000 -11,000 29,000 106,000 72,000 1979 71,000 39,000 113,000 104,000 128,000 114,000 120,000 127,000 107,000 121,000 118,000 207,000

173

Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,596 507 381 -2,931 -46 -596 -311 -234 178 167 7,030 9,898 1991 19,571 17,816 10,871 17,001 13,713 16,734 12,252 11,416 8,857 5,742 -6,023 -8,607 1992 -14,527 -26,506 -45,308 -51,996 -46,282 -36,996 -26,224 -22,672 -22,086 -18,888 -11,177 -16,353 1993 -11,967 -21,375 -21,809 -21,634 -20,069 -20,488 -16,719 -11,806 -1,499 -5,717 -13,058 -21,422 1994 -39,036 -30,048 -9,070 4,162 7,033 5,081 8,939 7,976 3,961 7,543 16,019 30,397 1995 36,925 34,571 29,611 9,077 7,499 9,345 6,077 2,682 -942 -2,597 -22,632 -39,593

174

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -67 -133 -30 123 233 669 826 998 743 933 994 633 1997 156 40 226 203 337 -48 -197 -301 -376 -242 -356 405 1998 185 181 -92 24 -103 427 374 288 -376 -14 230 91 1999 29 103 39 -69 257 -156 88 -31 772 82 214 164 2000 63 175 802 599 219 615 462 381 -131 -196 -533 -430 2001 155 398 -521 -260 -395 -413 -352 -239 -111 -89 1,403 1,499 2002 1,415 858 1,192 1,255 1,399 692 788 772 755 314 -578 -731 2003 -2,107 -1,207 -476 304 1,194 2,067 2,346 2,392 3,132 4,421 4,005 3,823

175

Geochemical evaluation of CO2 injection and containment in a depleted gas field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The short- and long-term geochemical impact of CO2 injection into a depleted gas reservoir (DGR) is investigated using reservoir/geochemical modeling with TOUGH2/TOUGHREACT and 1D kinetic diffusion modeling with PHREEQC (caprock/well-cement). Simulations of CO2 injection into the reservoir predict displacement and buoyancy of post-production CH4, as well as dry-out of the near-well zone. We computed that the areal extent of the CH4/brine dominated zone and the dry-out zone are relatively small compared to the CO2/brine dominated zone after well-closure. For the current DGR model we therefore conclude that it is reasonable to model geochemical reactions in the reservoir without taking into account post-production CH4. Although the CO2 dissolution capacity of the studied DGR is smaller compared to a deep saline aquifer of similar size, the modeling predicts that dissolution and subsequent CO2 mineral trapping proceed faster. Precipitation of dawsonite and magnesite were yet predicted at initial CO2 partial pressure (PCO2) of 9.3 bar, while these minerals were not identified in reservoir samples. This could indicate that their tendency of precipitation is overestimated by the model and hence the database used. This has significant impact on long-term modeled bulk porosity and PCO2. Simulations of CO2 diffusion through the caprock show that mineral reactions significantly retard the total dissolved carbon (TDC) plume. After 10,000 years, 99% of the TDC is present within the first 6.4 m above the reservoir contact. The progression of the TDC plume in the caprock is sensitive to the composition, kinetic rates, and surface area of primary and secondary minerals. Cement alteration modeling shows progressive carbonation of cement phases, resulting in three zones of distinct mineralogy and porosity. The three zones are predominantly characterized by: (i) unaltered cement, (ii) portlandite dissolution, and (iii) calcite precipitation. The simulated thickness of the affected zone is 3.8 cm after 100 years. This distance is sensitive to kinetic rate constants of C–S–H phases, but less sensitive to kinetic rate constant of portlandite. In summary, our applied methodology provides quantitative predictions of the geochemical impact of CO2 on the DGR storage complex. The methodology can be used for screening of potential DGR storage locations and to define criteria for minimal caprock and cement sheet thickness, for assuring short- and long-term integrity of the storage location.

Tim J. Tambach; Mariëlle Koenen; Laura J. Wasch; Frank van Bergen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine Shoemaker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Working Together in Shale Gas Policy Hosts: Todd Cowen, Teresa Jordan and Christine and environmental groups. The Shale Gas Roundtable of the Institute of Politics at the University of Pittsburgh produced a report with several recommendations dealing especially with shale gas research, water use

Angenent, Lars T.

177

Government works with technology to boost gas output/usage  

SciTech Connect

Specially treated ethane gas from fields of the Moomba area in the Cooper basin of South Australia now flows freely through 870 mi of interstate gas pipeline to an end-user in Sydney, New South Wales. This unprecedented usage of ethane is the result of a long-term cooperative agreement. The producer sought to provide the end-user with ethane gas for usage as a petrochemical feedstock to manufacture ethylene and plastic goods. The end-user had strict specifications for a low-CO{sub 2}, very dry ethane product with a small percentage of methane. In order to meet these, the producer committed millions of dollars to construct a high-technology, state-of-the-art ethane treatment facility in the Moomba area, and lay an extensive pipeline. Santos also contracted with the amines supplier to provide a high-performance, deep CO{sub 2} removal solvent with good corrosion prevention characteristics. The paper discusses the Moomba field overflow, gas treatment, government cooperation, and project completion.

Nicoll, H. [Dow Chemical Co., Houston, TX (United States). GAS/SPEC Technology Group

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

How the Simplification of Work Can Degrade Safety: A Gas Company Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How the Simplification of Work Can Degrade Safety: A Gas Company Case Study Hortense Blazsin.guarnieri @ mines-paristech.fr christophe.martin @ mines-paristech.fr Abstract. Work is focused on a gas company that wishes to develop a better understanding of its safety culture and identify potential enhancement

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Underground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies & Practicality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that are received for injection. We recently received a new permit in VA, but it is for disposal of coalbed methane

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

180

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 31.9 17.1 14.2 15.5 11.1 7.9 -1.1 -5.7 -3.6 -2.3 -15.3 -16.4 1992 -6.8 1.1 -4.7 -16.9 -14.3 -8.0 -2.7 -5.4 -2.8 -7.0 5.6 3.5 1993 13.6 -2.2 -12.3 -6.0 1.7 0.0 0.9 6.3 4.6 1.9 -35.2 -40.7 1994 -53.0 -55.0 -36.7 -28.8 -29.8 -34.1 -28.0 -22.8 -26.7 -21.5 26.7 39.2 1995 50.8 54.7 11.0 10.5 16.3 17.9 8.4 -3.2 6.2 5.2 -16.1 -25.5 1996 -25.7 -20.7 -31.6 -29.8 -36.9 -21.2 -9.3 8.1 9.4 9.4 21.0 38.5 1997 33.4 39.7 105.3 64.1 71.0 44.2 10.9 -1.2 -5.3 -6.4 1.9 -7.4 1998 6.1 2.0 -13.3 -3.6 -8.6 -10.1 5.8 7.1 -4.2 10.9 11.9 23.7

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 11.0 5.4 -3.6 -8.8 -7.2 -9.9 -4.3 -0.2 0.9 13.4 2.4 -1.7 1992 -6.0 -4.2 -10.1 -9.5 -13.2 -4.2 4.7 1.9 3.9 -7.0 -6.5 -3.1 1993 1.6 -1.2 8.3 19.7 17.1 12.0 6.3 7.0 2.7 -1.9 -0.1 3.1 1994 -0.3 7.7 13.2 1.4 -4.7 -2.3 0.9 -0.1 -0.7 3.7 11.3 11.2 1995 17.4 9.6 8.0 8.6 11.8 7.0 -3.4 -5.3 -3.3 0.8 0.7 -4.8 1996 -10.1 -4.2 -10.5 -12.2 -13.6 -9.6 -2.1 7.3 4.7 0.0 0.8 5.7 1997 5.1 6.0 13.3 1.9 2.2 -0.6 -6.1 -12.4 -8.9 -7.0 -6.5 -9.3 1998 0.6 3.3 -5.1 6.1 8.3 -0.3 -0.9 -0.2 -0.4 -0.8 2.9 3.4

182

California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 13,690 18,121 8,849 5,853 7,132 14,219 18,130 10,561 13,390 31,974 19,181 9,703 1991 6,425 26,360 4,734 4,680 6,001 17,198 26,493 26,589 17,703 3,011 -3,286 14,947 1992 -6,546 -23,935 -22,706 -29,553 -29,442 -31,729 -31,331 -21,662 -2,945 7,561 4,600 -28,127 1993 -18,888 -21,388 7,592 2,646 4,145 -4,114 5,805 2,657 2,580 3,170 1,004 23,856 1994 14,332 -10,557 -24,707 -14,896 -15,082 -8,607 -14,837 -14,903 -8,310 -6,861 -11,874 -3,316 1995 9,020 48,536 41,487 19,773 18,032 23,794 20,147 9,074 3,393 9,305 28,072 27,725

183

Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 103.9 379.8 71.8 60.5 13.1 20.1 7.2 1.8 -0.9 -4.6 13.4 22.0 1992 10.3 -13.6 -46.2 -75.4 -28.4 -9.4 -3.5 -1.5 -1.6 2.5 4.0 -9.9 1993 1.6 15.7 71.7 160.6 17.3 -10.3 -16.3 -18.7 -12.6 -1.8 -2.5 -8.9 1994 -45.2 -46.8 -3.2 53.1 28.2 27.5 36.9 27.2 13.4 4.6 -3.5 10.5 1995 103.8 130.7 91.8 35.6 24.2 26.7 -0.9 -3.1 1.0 -3.2 -1.7 -15.6 1996 -33.1 -30.7 -52.3 -51.6 -37.0 -23.8 0.0 0.0 -0.3 2.7 -2.5 16.3 1997 -3.8 -5.7 -21.1 -23.6 -25.2 -29.3 -27.9 -19.8 -9.3 -3.7 4.9 1.1 1998 39.5 61.5 119.5 179.6 87.5 54.4 63.0 38.2 13.2 4.1 3.6 -1.8

184

U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 17.6 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.8 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 8.2 NA 7.9 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.4 2.5 -5.2 -12.9 1977 -21.9 -19.5 -8.4 0.3 5.7 6.4 7.1 6.2 6.6 9.9 17.2 28.5 1978 41.3 12.6 -7.6 -13.7 -13.9 -9.6 -7.8 -3.8 -0.4 1.0 3.8 2.9 1979 3.9 3.0 10.1 8.4 8.6 6.2 5.5 5.1 3.8 4.1 4.0 8.1 1980 23.0 37.3 29.0 26.7 23.4 17.9 13.3 8.6 6.1 3.5 -0.6 -3.6 1981 -7.4 -1.5 2.3 4.3 -1.1 -2.0 -1.1 1.0 1.7 1.9 5.8 6.1 1982 1.4 -2.0 -1.7 -5.0 2.9 5.2 5.7 4.0 3.1 3.6 3.4 9.0

185

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1998 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1999 16.1 26.9 39.6 25.2 13.9 3.6 5.7 -3.4 1.3 0.3 -3.5 -10.0 2000 -34.3 -21.3 9.2 14.4 36.6 30.7 25.9 21.0 -1.1 10.0 3.1 -10.5 2001 -0.7 -2.3 -34.6 -9.4 -10.1 1.1 2.2 9.1 20.4 2.2 20.9 63.8 2002 104.8 64.7 81.8 13.2 10.2 1.6 3.2 -3.9 -1.7 7.0 -5.6 -17.5 2003 -48.6 -59.7 -62.0 -39.4 -32.0 -16.7 -8.6 16.7 23.4 15.6 23.8 27.0 2004 50.7 118.7 135.4 55.0 54.1 25.8 9.7 8.0 0.2 25.4 28.9 17.4

186

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.5 8.0 0.2 18.3 29.2 20.6 7.1 5.5 3.8 4.6 8.4 6.4 1992 25.9 21.0 30.9 16.6 7.3 -3.4 -3.4 1.0 4.3 5.7 -5.5 -10.4 1993 -13.5 -20.7 -8.5 -6.4 10.0 22.0 14.3 3.5 -1.4 -12.0 -15.0 -11.5 1994 -15.3 -17.8 -21.0 -34.7 -16.3 -25.8 -16.1 -9.6 -6.1 0.2 7.4 0.2 1995 2.9 10.9 -0.8 5.3 -17.3 7.8 9.2 3.0 -4.5 -1.7 8.4 2.6 1996 -14.4 -6.8 -9.6 10.7 13.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 2.6 -1.0 -6.1 0.6 1997 15.7 -0.6 19.6 -8.7 10.6 9.4 9.1 10.7 13.9 12.4 3.0 -2.1 1998 1.5 1.9 -7.3 5.5 7.3 -0.1 -5.5 -0.6 1.5 8.0 23.7 18.0

187

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -484 -13 300 294 -712 -349 -288 393 1,101 972 1,011 1,114 1991 3,318 2,144 1,258 2,592 3,476 1,343 977 614 2,324 4,252 -55 2,063 1992 11,224 5,214 -1,963 -2,306 527 2,182 5,330 6,430 3,719 2,374 3,894 -4,958 1993 -6,762 -8,650 -7,154 -6,031 -5,432 -3,859 -5,235 -12,631 -8,772 -10,235 -10,273 -3,149 1994 -2,517 -470 1,289 6,015 4,590 5,915 4,963 11,457 6,824 6,269 6,981 7,667 1995 6,381 6,272 8,818 437 309 -648 -2,521 -3,178 786 1,081 -5,984 -14,997 1996 -14,592 -13,733 -14,382 -13,026 -10,421 -9,742 -4,162 368 -1,791 -848 2,368 11,761

188

Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.2 -4.0 0.3 4.2 3.5 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.0 2.4 -3.8 -3.3 1992 -4.2 -4.8 -6.4 -12.6 -9.2 -7.2 -5.6 -3.3 -2.3 -2.3 -2.2 -6.6 1993 -24.0 -31.6 -36.3 -30.7 -24.7 -20.2 -17.4 -16.7 -14.3 -13.7 -11.6 -12.9 1994 -3.7 -1.1 10.0 6.3 -2.8 -4.3 -2.6 -1.9 -1.2 -0.2 0.0 4.9 1995 13.3 6.3 -0.8 -4.1 -24.0 -19.8 -17.7 -16.0 -15.8 -12.9 -15.3 -22.1 1996 -32.4 -34.1 -42.5 -37.1 -6.6 -2.1 2.0 3.5 5.3 3.1 3.2 8.3 1997 15.3 24.7 33.5 27.3 14.8 7.4 3.9 3.6 2.9 2.4 8.6 5.5 1998 12.9 22.3 23.5 24.2 18.8 14.7 8.2 4.3 2.2 2.3 -0.8 0.8

189

Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -9.2 15.0 -0.3 -19.3 -19.7 -9.3 -1.7 -4.1 -2.7 -5.2 -8.5 6.3 1992 8.7 18.6 1.8 -25.1 -13.0 -11.2 -9.4 -1.0 0.5 1.8 5.3 -1.4 1993 1.3 -17.1 -29.0 -19.2 -19.0 -13.4 -5.9 -7.8 -2.5 1.2 -1.7 -7.0 1994 -16.3 -4.2 19.8 7.9 8.4 10.5 6.2 9.4 4.5 0.7 3.9 16.7 1995 23.8 4.8 -0.7 11.5 6.8 -3.5 -6.0 -4.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 -7.6 1996 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2.8 -1.7 -2.9 -1.9 1997 11.5 27.8 39.0 29.2 13.8 12.4 12.3 7.6 3.7 2.3 3.5 14.6 1998 30.1 26.3 11.2 -4.8 -22.3 -26.4 -23.9 -19.0 -11.9 -4.1 -0.3 -18.6

190

Arkansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.4 -8.3 -11.6 -14.2 -13.7 -14.5 -14.1 -18.0 -20.2 -20.4 -25.8 -30.6 1992 -22.4 -25.3 -26.8 -25.8 -27.1 -23.8 -18.0 -10.3 -5.1 -6.0 -1.3 1.0 1993 1.6 -2.9 -4.6 -5.4 -14.6 -17.3 -27.6 -34.0 -37.6 -37.9 -42.3 -48.2 1994 -63.6 -74.6 -86.5 -87.0 -71.6 -60.3 -47.2 -35.4 -31.0 -29.2 -21.3 -6.6 1995 17.7 53.9 163.4 177.6 64.0 80.9 96.0 105.5 99.3 96.9 80.2 20.9 1996 -23.6 -51.7 -97.8 -92.0 -31.2 -23.8 -31.6 -36.6 -21.2 -16.7 -17.7 8.9 1997 22.6 54.8 3,707.8 830.5 36.2 47.9 57.3 62.7 46.5 34.5 36.1 21.2

191

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.8 1.8 3.0 2.5 2.0 -0.2 -1.8 -2.5 -2.7 1992 -43.8 -46.9 -48.5 -48.7 -48.6 -49.4 -49.4 -50.6 -50.1 -51.9 -53.3 -58.2 1993 -32.4 -36.0 -35.5 -33.5 -30.9 -25.0 -21.0 -16.0 -14.5 -8.3 -12.5 -8.1 1994 4.1 2.9 8.2 10.1 12.7 5.3 0.8 0.6 1.5 1.5 11.2 14.0 1995 3.4 11.3 0.7 -7.6 -12.3 -8.4 -5.5 -4.5 -2.5 -1.5 -2.5 -3.2 1996 -5.5 -13.9 -13.3 -6.2 5.8 6.3 7.8 3.5 -1.9 -5.2 -13.7 -20.9 1997 -28.6 -33.1 -34.9 -38.1 -41.3 -35.8 -27.4 -18.7 -11.1 -9.6 -6.5 -5.2 1998 -4.6 1.6 0.9 -10.6 -7.1 2.5 -1.3 -4.6 -3.6 0.4 12.4 16.6

192

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -13.2 -13.8 -12.2 -16.7 -15.1 -12.7 -14.7 -12.9 -9.1 -12.1 -17.5 -13.3 1992 1.9 -0.4 -2.4 -7.4 -5.8 -7.6 -2.0 2.8 -0.9 -0.7 -2.1 -9.0 1993 -41.9 -44.7 -46.6 -41.3 -35.7 -33.7 -35.4 -35.0 -36.7 -35.5 -35.3 -32.7 1994 -13.0 -30.4 -20.9 -13.7 -8.3 -8.3 -0.1 3.0 15.2 17.2 27.0 21.5 1995 49.9 85.3 65.2 52.0 35.4 31.3 15.3 3.6 2.2 1.8 -7.0 -15.0 1996 -39.6 -55.6 -63.2 -60.9 -56.4 -52.4 -54.0 -45.4 -36.2 -30.4 -29.0 -23.9 1997 -22.9 -11.1 43.9 42.6 36.6 44.1 39.4 29.5 14.7 19.6 15.0 -3.0 1998 10.4 54.6 29.7 45.6 40.4 30.3 52.1 51.3 37.5 31.2 44.1 72.7

193

Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 12.0 12.8 14.6 30.2 17.0 11.7 5.0 -0.7 -6.8 -2.6 -11.4 -14.2 1992 -8.1 -14.1 -31.6 -37.7 -28.9 -21.6 -14.9 -8.9 1.2 -1.2 1.1 -2.0 1993 -7.5 -20.7 -25.8 -17.2 -1.0 3.7 5.2 7.6 6.1 6.7 6.2 7.4 1994 -4.8 -0.4 22.1 37.4 24.6 15.8 10.2 7.2 6.2 5.4 12.3 21.2 1995 45.7 54.3 51.8 20.6 8.0 3.8 3.1 -2.0 -4.1 -3.7 -11.8 -24.0 1996 -36.3 -39.8 -47.6 -41.4 -32.3 -22.7 -17.5 -9.7 -4.1 -0.9 -0.2 9.0 1997 16.9 31.2 41.0 40.5 23.5 15.4 11.0 6.8 3.1 0.2 1.9 3.7 1998 17.4 33.0 41.3 43.7 44.2 36.0 22.0 14.2 6.0 4.5 11.4 17.1

194

Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 19.5 22.4 15.4 23.1 14.3 14.4 9.1 7.4 5.2 3.1 -3.3 -5.5 1992 -12.1 -27.3 -55.6 -57.4 -42.1 -27.9 -17.8 -13.7 -12.2 -10.0 -6.4 -11.0 1993 -11.3 -30.2 -60.3 -56.1 -31.6 -21.4 -13.8 -8.2 -0.9 -3.4 -7.9 -16.2 1994 -41.7 -61.0 -63.3 24.5 16.2 6.8 8.5 6.1 2.5 4.6 10.6 27.3 1995 67.7 179.6 562.8 43.0 14.8 11.6 5.3 1.9 -0.6 -1.5 -13.5 -28.0 1996 -36.6 -54.9 -83.2 -46.6 -20.6 -7.3 -0.6 4.2 6.7 8.8 9.2 20.8 1997 11.5 50.2 163.8 -2.8 8.0 4.9 2.0 2.8 2.3 -0.2 6.1 3.3 1998 43.1 60.2 92.8 193.9 65.5 24.3 15.1 8.6 5.6 7.5 12.7 20.9

195

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -3.6 -8.4 -6.6 -4.0 -3.7 4.9 4.5 4.9 13.7 21.6 15.1 18.2 1992 -5.9 -10.5 -11.0 -8.6 -1.7 -4.7 3.2 7.9 6.2 3.3 2.5 -4.3 1993 -73.0 -85.1 -88.4 -81.1 -72.8 -64.5 -56.2 -50.3 -43.2 -42.8 -44.2 -51.6 1994 21.3 54.4 61.3 12.0 -0.1 -6.4 -6.3 -3.5 -4.3 1.5 5.3 7.2 1995 3.0 -5.8 -21.7 -39.9 -37.4 -20.3 -14.5 -2.2 -1.7 -4.5 -14.9 -14.6 1996 -11.5 0.0 -26.6 -32.1 -52.8 -35.7 -14.9 -13.5 -9.0 -1.9 7.0 0.4 1997 5.1 11.2 76.8 72.4 129.0 65.0 16.6 4.6 3.7 -1.1 8.3 16.8 1998 15.2 41.6 15.6 34.6 25.3 14.9 48.5 17.4 12.0 8.3 9.4 4.7

196

Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -13.9 -10.0 -6.5 8.1 7.3 7.8 0.7 -1.3 0.5 -0.6 -20.1 -13.6 1992 4.0 1.0 -7.0 -12.9 -16.3 -14.6 -3.6 -1.4 0.4 2.5 6.8 -7.7 1993 -59.8 -75.3 -81.3 -71.8 -58.1 -47.8 -43.7 -38.0 -33.1 -31.7 -34.3 -29.9 1994 20.6 33.2 68.7 60.2 49.2 29.1 25.2 21.3 11.9 8.6 24.6 27.3 1995 54.1 106.0 91.5 35.8 13.9 11.2 0.6 -12.2 -8.9 -2.2 -7.8 -15.8 1996 -31.5 -51.7 -63.0 -57.6 -49.9 -45.9 -42.1 -26.5 -18.0 -15.4 -23.0 -27.6 1997 -28.4 -3.5 62.3 59.0 49.7 32.7 17.2 5.5 0.1 6.6 12.9 11.8 1998 34.3 61.5 15.9 41.1 37.9 45.5 53.2 46.9 37.6 31.0 46.7 62.1

197

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -9.6 -1.2 -0.2 -0.3 11.7 15.5 -0.7 -11.7 -15.1 -9.6 -30.3 -11.8 1992 28.5 15.1 8.5 3.4 -5.0 -12.7 -9.9 2.5 1.5 -8.0 -9.4 -25.3 1993 -41.2 -47.7 -48.5 -45.3 -8.3 9.0 10.7 8.6 12.8 12.5 19.4 24.0 1994 18.1 26.1 43.8 52.2 5.8 -5.9 0.7 2.1 -3.5 -1.6 -3.1 -2.4 1995 11.9 13.5 -4.5 -4.2 -1.5 9.2 0.7 -15.7 -6.0 2.8 7.5 -0.5 1996 -22.8 -19.2 -23.4 -13.2 -16.5 -13.8 -4.8 7.7 -4.5 -10.7 -22.9 -23.0 1997 -0.9 -1.0 19.1 6.4 12.1 9.5 -2.4 2.6 9.6 12.4 23.3 28.2 1998 26.0 30.6 4.0 18.0 34.9 19.3 33.7 29.6 20.8 18.7 25.3 28.3

198

Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1998 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1999 43.0 55.3 41.7 61.2 59.6 131.5 70.6 38.1 29.2 25.1 16.0 8.6 2000 5.3 -3.2 12.8 21.0 16.7 -19.5 -34.7 -42.4 -50.4 -50.8 -41.4 -27.6 2001 -9.8 9.3 8.4 8.3 41.3 71.7 80.1 97.0 109.6 99.9 12.1 -3.5 2002 3.9 15.1 32.5 54.2 19.0 -2.5 -9.0 -17.3 -22.6 -28.6 -14.4 -14.2 2003 -37.6 -54.6 -65.2 -72.4 -65.7 -53.4 -40.1 -24.0 -23.2 -15.3 -0.8 -12.8 2004 -15.0 -0.5 24.1 74.4 61.1 82.6 24.4 10.6 11.2 6.1 3.7 8.9

199

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 221.1 244.8 179.6 64.8 86.8 112.2 130.5 1997 36.2 10.9 111.7 57.1 68.4 -5.0 -17.0 -19.4 -19.9 -12.1 -19.0 36.2 1998 31.5 45.0 -21.4 4.3 -12.4 46.2 38.7 23.0 -24.8 -0.8 15.1 6.0 1999 3.8 17.6 11.5 -11.9 35.3 -11.6 6.5 -2.0 67.7 4.7 12.2 10.2 2000 7.9 25.4 213.4 116.8 22.2 51.5 32.4 25.3 -6.9 -10.7 -27.1 -24.2 2001 17.9 46.2 -44.2 -23.4 -32.8 -23.0 -18.6 -12.6 -6.3 -5.4 97.8 111.1 2002 138.8 68.1 181.5 147.4 173.3 50.0 51.2 46.8 45.2 20.3 -20.4 -25.7 2003 -86.5 -57.0 -25.7 14.4 54.1 99.5 100.8 98.7 129.2 237.3 177.3 180.6

200

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -2.5 -1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -1.7 0.1 -0.2 -0.5 -1.8 -3.2 -3.9 -3.3 1992 -38.1 -38.6 -38.4 -38.3 -38.2 -38.2 -38.2 -38.3 -38.6 -38.8 -39.8 -41.8 1993 -13.0 -15.6 -17.8 -19.4 -21.2 -22.4 -22.0 -22.3 -21.6 -20.7 -20.8 -19.6 1994 -19.3 -21.6 -20.5 -19.8 -17.7 -14.9 -14.5 -13.6 -12.0 -10.7 -9.8 -9.5 1995 -9.6 -5.3 -4.7 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 0.6 3.4 2.5 0.4 -1.3 -4.9 1996 -9.0 -11.4 -16.2 -18.1 -20.7 -19.2 -18.0 -16.9 -13.6 -13.4 -16.2 -17.7 1997 -18.5 -20.5 -19.6 -21.9 -19.3 -20.3 -20.1 -20.8 -22.7 -23.8 -22.5 -20.6

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201

Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 6,258 1,922 -2,167 -243 10 2,672 -2,738 -4,873 -6,032 -7,692 -923 338 1992 -6,698 -535 4,172 3,577 4,237 4,004 2,095 84 -3,541 -5,140 1,162 1,110 1993 -850 -4,870 -7,443 -9,206 -6,521 -660 270 742 2,661 8,010 4,211 6,489 1994 7,656 4,514 6,002 8,910 9,109 5,722 6,012 6,934 10,321 7,849 7,551 8,609 1995 5,458 10,271 8,870 8,362 6,546 8,164 11,552 10,230 4,613 2,012 5,484 -708 1996 -5,185 -10,201 -9,074 -10,256 -8,313 -7,322 -7,566 -7,192 -6,606 -8,327 -14,146 -13,483 1997 -10,123 -4,260 296 2,223 969 2,109 3,330 4,725 5,811 8,139 10,145 6,148

202

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 22.5 -6.7 -11.5 -6.1 4.7 11.3 9.9 6.6 10.0 12.0 -0.1 -13.0 1992 -15.0 -16.6 -17.6 -16.9 -13.0 -14.5 -14.2 -9.8 -8.6 -8.0 -5.3 -9.7 1993 -14.1 -27.1 -40.9 -42.3 -18.5 -3.2 9.0 15.5 21.5 17.1 14.1 13.8 1994 8.5 40.4 69.8 104.5 54.4 28.4 23.9 17.6 8.8 5.4 10.4 15.6 1995 29.7 13.7 22.0 6.1 -6.0 -0.8 -5.4 -15.2 -13.6 -11.0 -19.9 -28.2 1996 -31.0 -28.8 -47.1 -50.7 -48.5 -47.6 -37.5 -19.6 -12.8 -11.9 -14.6 -6.4 1997 -14.5 -14.9 61.5 61.3 62.8 54.4 24.7 7.8 3.7 7.4 13.1 7.3 1998 40.7 86.3 35.5 55.9 46.9 35.0 42.0 40.1 22.5 26.5 40.7 56.9

203

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 65.7 60.7 45.6 -31.6 30.6 8.4 -8.1 -32.2 -25.0 -34.9 -38.4 -27.6 1992 -25.3 -20.9 -14.7 37.0 1.7 -15.5 -34.5 -11.1 -18.1 -1.8 -6.8 -9.6 1993 -15.1 -40.1 -37.8 -54.0 -30.7 -23.9 -5.7 -39.7 -37.7 -34.0 -47.6 -48.4 1994 -61.0 -53.5 -57.4 -40.7 -50.9 -49.9 -47.5 -28.0 4.2 2.7 31.2 23.0 1995 53.3 91.0 123.6 153.3 135.3 124.2 108.2 79.1 15.1 -7.1 -12.6 -23.1 1996 -18.6 -34.9 -47.0 -53.1 -55.5 -60.1 -60.4 -54.7 -45.7 -41.7 -44.0 -38.5 1997 -33.5 -29.5 0.6 10.4 4.4 10.4 13.4 27.8 18.1 14.5 24.1 19.8

204

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 9.4 7.6 5.1 9.8 10.8 3.2 1.9 1.0 3.5 6.1 -0.1 3.5 1992 29.1 17.2 -7.6 -7.9 1.5 5.0 10.3 10.6 5.4 3.2 5.6 -8.1 1993 -13.6 -24.4 -30.1 -22.5 -15.0 -8.4 -9.2 -18.9 -12.1 -13.4 -14.1 -5.6 1994 -5.8 -1.8 7.8 29.0 14.9 14.1 9.6 21.1 10.7 9.5 11.2 14.4 1995 15.8 23.8 49.4 1.6 0.9 -1.4 -4.4 -4.8 1.1 1.5 -8.6 -24.7 1996 -31.2 -42.1 -53.7 -47.7 -29.0 -20.4 -7.4 0.8 -1.8 -1.2 3.8 25.9 1997 23.3 57.3 67.6 58.2 25.1 3.5 -0.3 -3.1 -5.1 -5.3 -2.6 -2.0 1998 13.7 23.0 38.5 46.2 37.9 33.6 18.6 6.4 6.6 9.4 15.5 25.9

205

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -26.2 22.8 6.2 168.1 -141.5 111.4 60.1 16.3 5.9 16.1 23.8 63.1 1992 94.7 51.6 162.3 31.3 23.1 2.6 -6.6 5.4 14.9 -1.0 -12.1 -35.2 1993 -52.4 -72.1 -57.0 -40.4 -1.9 -4.6 5.3 -1.6 6.7 -4.5 -28.1 18.5 1994 59.2 90.5 20.4 38.4 -0.2 8.5 4.3 2.8 -5.7 11.2 51.1 14.3 1995 11.1 63.9 73.5 23.8 16.9 12.3 7.6 2.0 11.1 8.8 12.2 -0.1 1996 -39.1 -35.6 -43.5 -43.8 -39.1 -20.3 -19.2 9.7 -12.4 -23.3 -28.3 -24.4 1997 25.9 17.4 -31.4 -31.5 35.7 28.4 19.3 -17.0 3.9 13.8 20.4 11.4 1998 30.6 2.6 2.4 -47.6 -38.3 -33.5 -34.2 0.1 -2.9 -3.1 3.0 3.4

206

Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -5.7 -5.8 -6.6 -6.0 -2.9 -1.8 0.4 -0.5 -0.8 -1.8 -1.9 0.3 1992 0.9 1.0 2.4 1.3 -1.4 -0.5 3.6 5.9 6.3 6.3 2.5 0.6 1993 -2.8 -4.7 -6.6 -5.9 -3.3 -1.9 -0.9 0.2 0.7 -82.3 -84.6 -88.0 1994 -93.2 -98.5 -98.2 -96.2 -92.3 -91.2 -88.8 -88.5 -85.3 -7.5 12.8 23.1 1995 74.4 582.5 367.3 113.6 15.1 11.6 -40.3 -40.8 -50.5 -62.9 -79.4 -94.0 1996 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -85.2 -50.1 -20.8 -10.9 -7.8 41.1 301.9 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 193.8 26.0 6.0 13.6 34.7 51.4 79.3 1998 188.1 377.6 104.3 6.6 14.8 -1.5 28.0 9.9 2.4 8.9 -0.1 -7.9

207

Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 36.3 23.0 19.6 25.2 19.8 15.5 10.9 5.6 1.2 -2.7 -5.1 -1.7 1992 5.7 8.9 7.7 -0.9 -5.4 -7.3 -8.9 -10.3 -9.2 2.6 8.5 8.4 1993 3.5 -8.1 -14.7 -13.7 -3.8 4.4 9.2 12.9 14.8 3.2 -1.2 -9.6 1994 -25.7 -31.2 -28.1 -20.1 -13.8 -10.6 -7.3 -4.7 -7.2 -4.8 1.4 4.5 1995 14.0 16.7 18.3 14.2 16.8 12.2 7.3 3.3 6.6 5.5 -4.6 -8.7 1996 -14.5 -16.8 -24.3 -29.4 -33.2 -22.0 -13.0 -5.9 -3.8 -3.6 0.9 5.3 1997 5.8 15.5 27.1 28.5 28.0 13.5 3.6 -0.7 -1.1 -0.7 0.2 -3.1 1998 7.5 5.2 -1.0 3.5 9.7 9.1 12.7 12.8 7.3 9.4 12.3 14.5

208

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

High-pressure late cycle direct injection of natural gas in a rail medium speed diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The performance of an Electro-Motive Division (EMD) 567B, two-cylinder locomotive research engine, when operated on high-pressure/late-cycle injection of natural gas, is presented in this paper. A redesign and fabrication of the fuel system was undertaken to facilitate the consumption of natural gas. A small percentage of No.2 diesel fuel (DF-2) was used to ignite the natural gas. Engine performance, while running natural gas, resulted in matching rated speed and power with slightly lower thermal efficiency. Full power was achieved with a ratio of 99 percent natural gas and 1 percent diesel fuel. However, at high natural gas to diesel fuel ratios, audible knock was detected. The primary objective of the project was to establish technical feasibility of, and basic technology for, operating medium-speed rail diesel engines on high-pressure natural gas. Secondary objectives were to attain adequate engine performance levels for rail application, develop a system oriented toward retrofit of in-service locomotives, and realize any potential improvements in thermal efficiency due to use of the high-pressure/late-cycle approach.

Wakenell, J.F.; O'Neal, G.B.; Baker, Q.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -5.1 1.4 -20.3 -2.8 6.8 8.3 12.5 12.3 7.8 7.6 9.9 13.8 1992 -2.8 6.5 23.0 7.8 3.7 4.3 3.8 2.6 2.5 2.2 -0.2 -0.1 1993 5.3 -3.5 -16.4 -13.3 -4.7 -0.9 -2.8 -1.6 -1.6 -1.3 -2.5 -0.8 1994 -3.1 17.2 37.2 -28.6 -19.3 -6.9 -4.2 -4.1 -3.3 -3.3 0.7 -1.0 1995 7.9 12.0 16.0 64.0 35.0 10.4 5.7 6.0 8.2 7.0 6.1 2.2 1996 -7.8 0.0 -8.3 -8.9 0.0 0.0 6.6 0.0 1.6 2.5 -2.6 0.1 1997 4.1 6.0 -3.9 -0.6 -2.0 -3.7 -1.4 0.6 1.0 1.0 6.7 5.0 1998 14.2 10.6 23.2 23.5 10.9 7.6 2.1 0.1 2.0 1.8 1.8 -1.8 1999 1.3 -2.4 0.6 1.5 4.1 5.7 5.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.3 6.0

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon gas injection Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

power, Pe;ped does not decrease appreciably after argon injection (not shown). The energy loss per... an ELM. Although a strong H-mode transport barrier is maintained with ......

212

Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} < {approx}2 ms, all species provide fast (within {le} {approx}3 ms), more-or-less uniform radiative dissipation of the 0.7-MJ plasma thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Experimental investigation of a capacitive blind hollow cathode discharge with central gas injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The operating parameters and resulting plasma properties of a blind hollow cathode (BHC) discharge have been investigated. The hollow cathode was driven capacitively with a pulsed dc signal of 200 kHz in a power range between 50 and 100 W at an ambient pressure of about 10 Pa. The working gas was argon, which was introduced with a ceramic capillary at different positions of the longitudinal axis of the hollow cathode with flow rates of between 30 and 1000 sccm. The current–voltage characteristics were recorded.The pressure at the end of the BHC was measured with a miniaturized pressure transducer with varying volumetric flow rate and axial position of the capillary in the hollow cathode. To characterize the ignition behaviour of the system, the measured breakdown voltages were compared with phenomenological Paschen curves calculated from the pressure data.Optical emission spectroscopy was used to examine the origins of the light emission, comparing the glow mode and hollow cathode mode in particular.A high-speed camera recorded some plasma processes. A mounting with an indium tin oxide coated glass was used to observe the inner volume of the BHC along the longitudinal axis, while the plasma was operated with different parameters. The optical observations revealed an inhomogeneous plasma condition along the axis.

D Hoffmann; M Müller; D Petkow; G Herdrich; S Lein

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability and Instrumentation Working Group  

SciTech Connect

The facilities reported on are all in a fairly mature state of operation, as evidenced by the very detailed studies and correction schemes that all groups are working on. First- and higher-order aberrations are diagnosed and planned to be corrected. Very detailed beam measurements are done to get a global picture of the beam dynamics. More than other facilities the high-luminosity colliders are struggling with experimental background issues, mitigation of which is a permanent challenge. The working group dealt with a very wide rage of practical issues which limit performance of the machines and compared their techniques of operations and their performance. We anticipate this to be a first attempt. In a future workshop in this series, we propose to attempt more fundamental comparisons of each machine, including design parameters. For example, DAPHNE and KEKB employ a finite crossing angle. The minimum value of {beta}*{sub y} attainable at KEKB seems to relate to this scheme. Effectiveness of compensation solenoids and turn-by-turn BPMs etc. should be examined in more detail. In the near future, CESR-C and VEPP-2000 will start their operation. We expect to hear important new experiences from these machines; in particular VEPP-2000 will be the first machine to have adopted round beams. At SLAC and KEK, next generation B Factories are being considered. It will be worthwhile to discuss the design issues of these machines based on the experiences of the existing factory machines.

Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Funakoshi, Y.; /KEK, Tsukuba

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

216

Means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; an insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; an inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve, the piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inlet gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal. 3 figs.

Wright, K.E.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

Means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; an insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; an inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve, the piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inlet gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal.

Wright, Kenneth E. (Yardley, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

End of Month Working  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March 31, 2000) was 1,150 billion cubic feet (Bcf), just above the 1995-1999 average of 1,139 Bcf. Underground working gas storage levels are currently about 8-9 percent below year-ago levels. In large part, this is because injection rates since April 1 have been below average. Storage injections picked up recently due to warm weather in the last half of October. The month of November is generally the last month available in the year for injections into storage. A cold November would curtail net injections into storage. If net injections continue at average levels this winter, we project that storage levels will be low all winter, reaching a level of 818 Bcf at the end of March, the lowest level since 1996

219

Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas  

SciTech Connect

A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger, and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Improving gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine efficiency and emissions with hydrogen from exhaust gas fuel reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Exhaust gas fuel reforming has been identified as a thermochemical energy recovery technology with potential to improve gasoline engine efficiency, and thereby reduce CO2 in addition to other gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The principle relies on achieving energy recovery from the hot exhaust stream by endothermic catalytic reforming of gasoline and a fraction of the engine exhaust gas. The hydrogen-rich reformate has higher enthalpy than the gasoline fed to the reformer and is recirculated to the intake manifold, i.e. reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR). The REGR system was simulated by supplying hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO) into a conventional EGR system. The hydrogen and CO concentrations in the REGR stream were selected to be achievable in practice at typical gasoline exhaust temperatures. Emphasis was placed on comparing REGR to the baseline gasoline engine, and also to conventional EGR. The results demonstrate the potential of REGR to simultaneously increase thermal efficiency, reduce gaseous emissions and decrease PM formation.

Daniel Fennell; Jose Herreros; Athanasios Tsolakis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Alkali Separation in Steam Injected Cyclone Wood Powder Gasifier for Gas Turbine Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cyclone gasification of wood powder at atmospheric pressure has been studied. The cyclone gasifier works as a particle separator as well ... cyclone with air or air/steam as transport medium. The effects of stoch...

C. Fredriksson; B. Kjellström

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for Residential Consumers? Speaker(s): Catherine Waddams Date: April 15, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Retail gas and electricity prices were deregulated in the UK in April 2002, following introduction of retail choice for residential consumers between 1996 and 1999. We use information from consumer surveys, including a panel survey over three years, to analyse consumer attitudes and behaviour. In particular we explore how awareness changed, whether those who were actively considering switching in one wave of the survey had actually done so by the next round, whether individuals become willing to switch for smaller price gains as the markets matured, and how expectations

223

This work was supported by the USDepartment of Energy, UnconventionalGas Recovery Research Program.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;This work was supported by the USDepartment of Energy, UnconventionalGas Recovery Research the world's first Hot Dry Rock geothermalenergyextractionsystemat FentonHill,New Mexico. The system-specifiedtools should be capableof operatingfor sustained periodsin hot wells; have automaticgain controland

224

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant- and water-injected hydraulic fractures induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker

225

White Paper for Massive Gas Injection studies in NSTX-U in support of ITER research University of Washington (19 July 2012)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White Paper for Massive Gas Injection studies in NSTX-U in support of ITER research University of Washington (19 July 2012) 1/2 White Paper@aa.washington.edu , Jarboe@aa.washington.edu , dstotler@pppl.gov, tabrams@pppl.gov This white paper describes

226

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 9, July 1--September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions: gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions: tangentially and cyclone fired units. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}0 added for humidification. The calcium sulfate or sulfite products are collected together with unreacted sorbent fly ash by the electrostatic precipitator. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Environmental monitoring quarterly report No. 8, April 1--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Clean Coal Technology implies the use of coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. Coal combustion results in the emission of two types of acid rain precursors: oxides of sulfur (sox) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). This Clean Coal Technology project will demonstrate a combination of two developed technologies to reduce both NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. Gas reburning and calcium based dry sorbent injection. The demonstrations will be conducted on two pre-NSPS utility boilers representative of the US boilers which contribute significantly to the inventory of acid rain precursor emissions. Gas reburning is a combustion modification technique that consists of firing 80--85 percent of the fuel (corresponding to the total heat release) in the lower furnace. Reduction of NO{sub x} to molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) is accomplished via the downstream injection of the remaining fuel requirement in the form of natural gas (which also reduces the total SO{sub x} emissions). In a third stage, burnout air is injected at lower temperatures in the upper furnace to complete the combustion process without generating significant additional NO{sub x}. Dry sorbent injection consists of injecting calcium based sorbents (such as limestone, dolomite, or hydrated lime) into the combustion products. For sulfation of the sorbent to CaSO{sub 4}, an injection temperature of about 1230{degrees}C is optimum, but calcium-sulfur reactions can also take place at lower temperatures. Thus, the sorbent may be injected at different locations, such as with the burnout air, at the exit from the superheater, or into the ducting downstream of the air heater with H{sub 2}O added for humidification. The specific goal of this project is to demonstrate NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emission reductions of 60 percent and 50 percent, respectively, on two coal fired utility boilers having the design characteristics mentioned above.

Not Available

1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.

Mohr, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mines, Gregory L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bloomfield, K. Kit (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Work distribution of an expanding gas and transverse energy production in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work distribution of an expanding extreme relativistic gas is shown to be a gamma distribution with a different shape parameter as compared with its non-relativistic counterpart. This implies that the shape of the transverse energy distribution in relativistic heavy ion collisions depends on the particle contents during the evolution of the hot and dense matter. Therefore, transverse energy fluctuations provide additional insights into the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in these collisions.

Bin Zhang; Jay P. Mayfield

2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

230

Work distribution of an expanding gas and transverse energy production in relativistic heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work distribution of an expanding extreme relativistic gas is shown to be a gamma distribution with a different shape parameter as compared with its non-relativistic counterpart. This implies that the shape of the transverse energy distribution in relativistic heavy ion collisions depends on the particle contents during the evolution of the hot and dense matter. Therefore, transverse energy fluctuations provide additional insights into the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in these collisions.

Zhang, Bin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

232

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)" Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacwa_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacwa_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

233

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

234

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

235

Enhancing the use of coals by Gas Reburning: Sorbent injection. [Quarterly report], July 28--October 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has completed demonstrations of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) at two field sites. The discussions which follow pertain to measurements taken from the demonstration at City Water, Light and Power`s (CWLP) Lakeside Station Unit 7 in Springfield, Illinois. Environmental monitoring was conducted for two purposes, to satisfy the requirements of operating permits granted by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and to verify environmental acceptability of the GR-SI process. The GR-SI demonstration program at Lakeside Unit 7 was performed in three phases. Phase I -- Design and Permitting, entailed characterization of the host boiler, then finalization of process and engineering, design of the GR-SI system. Phase I was initiated in June 1987 and completed in March 1989. Phase II -- Construction and Startup, was initiated upon completion of design tasks and was completed in February 1993. Phase III -- Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition, was conducted from July 1993 to June 1994. In Phase III, the GR-SI system performance was evaluated initially through optimization tests, which are short-term tests in which specific operating parameters are varied to determine their impact on emissions and boiler performance. The optimization testing included GR only tests, SI only tests, and GR-SI tests. Results from these tests, carried out from July 28 to October 1, 1993, are presented in this report. Following Optimization testing, long-term GR-SI operation was initiated to demonstrate the combined technology over an extended period with the unit under dispatch load control. Long-term GR-SI testing was conducted from October 4, 1993 to June 3, 1994. The long-term environmental monitoring data are presented in a separate report.

NONE

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Rich catalytic injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

238

Low Prandtl number gas mixtures as a working fluid in a thermoacoustic refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prandtl number (Pr) is the dimensionless ratio of kinematicviscosity to thermal diffusivity and is about 0.7 for most ideal gases. This value can be lowered significantly by mixing two gas species having molecular weights that are very different resulting in a minimum Pr of 0.22 for He?Xe mixtures. This can be used to minimize the nuisance effect of viscous shear losses for a thermoacousticrefrigerator as well as for other types of heat engines. The principle of thermoacousticheat transport will be briefly discussed [J. Wheatley T. Hofler G. W. Swift and A. Migliori J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74 153–170 (1983)]. However changing the viscosity of the working fluid also changes the details of the acoustic velocity distribution thereby modifying the basic thermoacousticheat transport mechanism. Measurements indicate that this effect may be more important than the simple reduction of viscons shear losses. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Office of Naval Technology.

M. Suzalla; T. Hofler; S. L. Garrett

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Effect of Working Gas Admixture, Applied Voltage and Pressure on Focusing Time Parameter in the APF Plasma Focus Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present research the effects of key parameters, applied voltage, working gas composition and pressure, on the focusing time in the APF plasma focus device are investigated. Pure nitrogen (N2) and three vol...

A. Roomi; M. Habibi

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Porous plug gas injection systems for studies of hydrocarbon dissociation and transport in the DIII-D tokamak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A probe has been designed, constructed, and successfully used to inject methane into the DIII-D lower divertor in a manner imitating natural release by chemical erosion. This porous plug injector (PPI) probe consists of a ...

McLean, A. G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 156,161 158,351 126,677 101,609 72,294 83,427 33,855 -43,870 -34,609 -17,003 -75,285 -121,212 1996 -180,213 -191,939 -220,847 -233,967 -253,766 -260,320 -246,398 -159,895 -134,327 -127,911 -138,359 -86,091 1997 -55,406 -14,740 101,915 102,564 121,784 132,561 86,965 58,580 38,741 67,379 80,157 28,119 1998 77,255 135,784 65,355 130,979 148,718 138,540 205,160 215,060 166,834 187,302 246,104 273,754

243

work  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

THE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S WORKING CAPITAL FUND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDIT SERVICES OCTOBER 1998 AUDIT REPORT CR-B-99-01 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT STAFF FROM: William S. Maharay Acting Manager, Capital Regional Audit Office, Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION : Audit Report on the Department's Working Capital Fund BACKGROUND The Department established the Working Capital Fund (Fund) in January 1996 as a financial management tool for charging the costs of common services provided at Headquarters to Departmental program offices. The objectives in establishing the Fund were to increase efficiency of the Department's operations, improve management of administrative services

244

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.80 -42.10 -53.10 -51.10 -47.60 -43.40 -38.60 -25.20 -18.80 -16.70 -19.80 -15.60 1997 -15.00 -5.60 52.10 45.80 43.50 39.10 22.20 12.30 6.70 10.60 14.30 6.00 1998 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.30 55.40 1999 56.40 52.20 46.30 24.20 18.80 19.30 8.80 0.30 5.30 -3.80 0.00 0.00 2000 -14.80 -32.50 -28.30 -30.80 -35.70 -34.40 -30.70 -30.60 -28.40 -22.30 -28.90 -46.70 2001 -38.30 -35.20 -37.70 -12.80 9.80 25.20 31.70 43.40 46.40 30.90 52.60 127.30 2002 127.50 140.90 136.10 82.90 59.20 34.80 18.30 10.40 3.10 -0.50 -14.40 -23.90

245

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

246

Architecture, implementation, and testing of a multiple-shell gas injection system for high current implosions on the Z accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Tests are ongoing to conduct {approx}20 MA z-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratory using Ar, Kr, and D{sub 2} gas puffs as the imploding loads. The relatively high cost of operations on a machine of this scale imposes stringent requirements on the functionality, reliability, and safety of gas puff hardware. Here we describe the development of a prototype gas puff system including the multiple-shell nozzles, electromagnetic drivers for each nozzle's valve, a UV pre-ionizer, and an inductive isolator to isolate the {approx}2.4 MV machine voltage pulse present at the gas load from the necessary electrical and fluid connections made to the puff system from outside the Z vacuum chamber. This paper shows how the assembly couples to the overall Z system and presents data taken to validate the functionality of the overall system.

Krishnan, Mahadevan; Elliott, Kristi Wilson; Madden, Robert E. [Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation, San Leandro, California 94577 (United States); Coleman, P. L. [Evergreen Hill Sciences, Philomath, Oregon 97370 (United States); Thompson, John R. [812 Temple Street, San Diego, California 92106 (United States); Bixler, Alex [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Strizic, T.; Johnson, D.; Johns, O.; Vigil, M. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Savage, M. E.; Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, M. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Performance of the Gas Gain Monitoring system of the CMS RPC muon detector and effective working point fine tuning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

S. Colafranceschi; L. Benussi; S. Bianco; L. Passamonti; D. Piccolo; D. Pierluigi; A. Russo; G. Saviano; C. Vendittozzi; M. Abbrescia; A. Aleksandrov; U. Berzano; C. Calabria; C. Carrillo; A. Colaleo; V. Genchev; P. Iaydjiev; M. Kang; K. S. Lee; F. Loddo; S. K. Park; G. Pugliese; M. Maggi; S. Shin; M. Rodozov; M. Shopova; G. Sultanov; P. Verwillingen

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

248

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Impact of mine closure and access facilities on gas emissions from old mine workings to surface: examples of French iron and coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a vent to enable mine gas outflow in specific conditions. Measurements stations were installed on mine conditions. Some parts of the basin are under gas capture stations influence. This is not the case in "La1 Impact of mine closure and access facilities on gas emissions from old mine workings to surface

Boyer, Edmond

250

The goal of this work is to quantify the Van der Waals interactions in systems involving gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are crystalline com-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are crystalline com- pounds that are often encountered in oil and gas briefly present the hydrate crystalline structure and the role of hydrates in oil-and gas industry the industrial contexts where they appear, we shall cite : hydrate plugs obstructing oil- or gas

Boyer, Edmond

251

Project Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Provided (by each agency or organization) US DOT $37,874 Total Project Cost $37,874 Agency ID or ContractProject Information Form Project Title Working toward a policy framework for reducing greenhouse of Research Project This white paper is concerned with a preliminary investigation of the extent to which

California at Davis, University of

252

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Premixed direct injection disk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

‹ back to Natural Gas Weekly Update ‹ back to Natural Gas Weekly Update In the News continued - Natural Gas Year in Review: High natural gas inventory last spring limited injections during the 2012 storage injection season Working natural gas storage inventories entered the injection season on March 31, 2012 at 2,477 billion cubic feet (Bcf), following a winter that had a combination of high natural gas production and low heating degree days. This storage volume was the highest amount recorded for that date since the Natural Gas Monthly storage dataset began in 1976, and meant that only 1,762 Bcf of demonstrated peak storage capacity was available for additional injections, versus a five-year average of 2,354 Bcf. This limited the degree to which inventories could increase from April through

255

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

26, 2012 | Release Date: September 27, 26, 2012 | Release Date: September 27, 2012 | Next Release: October 4, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 01/19/2014 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Although Storage Injections Are Below Historical Levels, Inventories Remain High Working natural gas levels as of September 21 were at 3,576 Bcf, representing an implied net injection of 80 Bcf from the previous week, the highest storage build of the 2012 injection season. This injection season, additions to working natural gas inventories have been below the five-year (2007-2011) average injections as well as below last year's injection levels, for all but three weeks, including the most current week. Despite lower injections, overall inventory levels remain at

256

Base Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period:

257

Total Working Gas Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 4,211,193 4,327,844 4,410,224 4,483,650 4,576,356 2008-2012 Alabama 20,900 20,900 25,150 27,350 27,350 2008-2012 Arkansas 14,500 13,898 13,898 12,036 12,178 2008-2012 California 283,796 296,096 311,096 335,396 349,296 2008-2012 Colorado 42,579 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 2008-2012 Illinois 296,318 303,761 303,500 302,385 302,962 2008-2012 Indiana 32,769 32,157 32,982 33,024 33,024 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 119,260 119,339 123,190 123,225 123,343 2008-2012 Kentucky

258

Total Working Gas Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

12,178 2012-2014 California 374,296 374,296 374,296 374,296 374,296 374,296 2012-2014 Colorado 60,582 60,582 60,582 60,582 60,582 63,774 2012-2014 Illinois 303,312 303,312...

259

Framework and systematic functional criteria for integrated work processes in complex assets: a case study on integrated planning in offshore oil and gas production industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the oil and gas (O&G) production process is considered as a critical timely need. The core work processes in particular are targeted for considerable improvements. In this context, development related to integrated planning (IP) is seen as one of the major bases for developing collaborative work processes connecting offshore production and onshore support system. With feasible benefits, for instance, relating to reduction of non-working time, less work repetition, reduction of reduction in production losses, better resource utilisation, etc., a systematic and a complete IP system is today seen as an attractive solution for integrating complex operations and to work smarter. This paper, based on a case study from North Sea oil and gas production environment, describes the systematic functional criteria required as the basis for developing a fully functional IP system.

Yu Bai; Jayantha P. Liyanage

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Although natural gas storage inventories are currently below last year's levels, today's "In the news" features a look back at natural gas storage in 2012. This is a part of the new Natural Gas Year in Review series, which will be occasionally featured in the Natural Gas Weekly Update. Natural Gas Year-in-Review: High natural gas inventory last spring limited injections during the 2012 storage injection season Working natural gas storage inventories entered the injection season on March 31, 2012 at 2,477 billion cubic feet (Bcf), following a winter that had a combination of high natural gas production and low heating degree days. This storage volume was the highest amount recorded for that date

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Remote processing, delivery and injection of H2[15O] produced from a N2/H2 gas target using a simple and compact apparatus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report here a simple apparatus for remote trapping and processing of H2[15O] produced from the N2/H2 target. The system performs a three step operation for H2[15O] delivery at the PET imaging facility which includes the following: (i) collecting the radiotracer in sterile water; (ii) adjusting preparation pH through removal of radiolytically produced ammonia, while at the same time adjusting solution isotonicity; and (iii) delivery of the radiotracer preparation to the injection syringe in a sterile and pyrogen-free form suitable for human studies. The processing apparatus is simple, can be remotely operated and fits inside a Capintec Dose Monitoring Chamber for direct measurement of accumulated radioactivity. Using this system, 300 mCi of H2[15O] (15 ?A of 8 MeV D+ on target) is transferred from target through 120 m × 3.18 mm o.d. Impolene tubing to yield 100 mCi of H2[15O] which is isotonic, neutral and suitable for human studies. A remote hydraulically driven system for i.v. injection of the H2[15O] is also described. The device allows for direct measurement of syringe dose while filling, and for easy, as well as safe transport of the injection syringe assembly to the patient's bedside via a shielded delivery cart. This cart houses a hydraulic piston that allows the physician to “manually” inject the radiotracer without directly handling the syringe.

Richard A. Ferrieri; David L. Alexoff; David J. Schlyer; Alfred P. Wolf

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Burden distribution control for maintaining the central gas flow at No. 1 blast furnace in Pohang Works  

SciTech Connect

The causes for temperature lowering at the upper shaft center in Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were investigated. The test operation with charging notch change in the actual blast furnace and with a 1/12 scale model to Pohang No. 1 blast furnace were carried out in order to improve central gas flow in the shaft. Finally, rebuilding of the lower bunker interior was performed using the results of model experiments. It was confirmed that the main reason for the gas temperature lowering at the upper shaft center was the smaller particle size at center than the wall according to the discharging characteristics of center feed bunker with stone box. The central gas flow could be secured through modifying the stone box in the bunker.

Jung, S.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Suh, Y.K.; Ahn, T.J.; Kim, S.M. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities  

SciTech Connect

A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

MM Hall

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Natural Gas Withdrawals from Underground Storage (Annual Supply &  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

265

Investigations on emission characteristics of the pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled twin cylinder compression ignition direct injection engine using exhaust gas recirculation methodology and dimethyl carbonate as additive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were carried out on a twin cylinder direct injection compression ignition engine using pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend as fuel with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as additive. The experimental results showed that pongamia biodiesel–diesel blend fuelled engine with EGR and DMC can simultaneously reduce smoke and nitric oxide ( NO x ) emission. The NO x emission was reduced by about 17.68% for 10% of EGR introduction and about 13.55% increase in smoke emission. When dimethyl carbonate was added with EGR the engine emits lower smoke with lesser NO x emission and it showed that the smoke reduction rate had a linear relationship with DMC percentage. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions also decreased when DMC was added. However the addition of DMC with EGR caused an increase in both BSEC and BTE.

M. Pandian; S. P. Sivapirakasam; M. Udayakumar

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL IN PIPES THROUGH STRONG INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

normal-injection model. y Coal gasification gas mixture ,ZUSAMMENFASSUNG) In coal gasification, oxidation andthan that in the coal gasification mixture. Outside the

Yeung, William Chor Chun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target...

268

portation and Greenhouse Gas (MUNTAG) model is a macroscopic, highly aggregate model that works at the municipal level and solely  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

identifies the following four sectors: buildings; trans- portation and land use; energy supply; and municipal GHG inventory. This work is part of a project to write a guide called Getting to Car- bon Neutral

Illinois at Chicago, University of

269

Evaluation of gas-phase technetium decontamination and safety related experiments during FY 1994. A report of work in progress  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory activities for FY94 included: evaluation of decontamination of Tc by gas-phase techniques, evaluation of diluted ClF{sub 3} for removing U deposits, evaluation of potential hazard of wet air inlekage into a vessel containing ClF{sub 3}, planning and preparation for experiments to assess hazard of rapid reaction of ClF{sub 3} and hydrated UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} or powdered Al, and preliminary evaluation of compatibility of Tenic valve seat material.

Simmons, D.W.; Munday, E.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Injection of solids to lift coastal areas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...used to inject sand into oil or gas reservoirs because the...in sandstone (Western Missouri) at depths ranging from...Delavaud2006Use of vegetable oil and silica powder for scale...seismicity near the Lacq gas field southwestern FranceJ...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

274

Optimization of condensing gas drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- cal, undersaturated reservoir with gas being injected into the crest and oil being produced from the base of the structure. Fractional oil re- covery at gas breakthrough proved to be less sensitive to changes in oil withdrawal rates as the gas... injection pressure was increased. The validity of the model was established by accurately simulating several low pressure gas drives conducted in the laboratory. Oil recoveries at gas breakthrough using the model compared closely with those recoveries...

Lofton, Larry Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

275

Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH offers the convenience of receiving allergy injections at the OHC as a physician-prescribed service, reducing time away from work for many federal employees. Allergy Injection Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Physician Treatment Order Handicapped Parking Guidance

276

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, September 16, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 8, 2010) Price changes during the week were mixed, but in most areas, these changes were moderate. The Henry Hub price rose slightly from $3.73 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, September 1, to $3.81 per MMBtu yesterday. The report week was shortened due to the Labor Day holiday. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the October 2010 futures contract rose about 5 cents, from $3.762 per MMBtu on September 1 to $3.814 per MMBtu on September 8. Working natural gas in storage as of Friday, September 3, was 3,164 Bcf, following an implied net injection of 58 Bcf, according to EIAÂ’s

277

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

14, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 21, 2007) 14, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 21, 2007) Natural gas spot and futures prices decreased this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, June 6-13) as weather-related demand was limited amid close-to-normal temperatures for this time of year. Easing prices also likely resulted in part from reduced supply uncertainty in response to the amount of natural gas in underground storage (mostly for use during the winter heating season but also available for periods of hot weather in the summer). Supplies from international sources have grown considerably this spring, as imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) have increased markedly even as natural gas supplies from Canada (transported by pipeline) likely have decreased. On the week, the Henry Hub spot price decreased 23 cents per MMBtu, or 2.9 percent, to $7.60. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the contract for July delivery decreased 47.2 cents per MMBtu on the week to a daily settlement of $7.608 yesterday (June 13). EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report today reported natural gas storage supplies of 2,255 Bcf as of Friday, June 8, reflecting an implied net injection of 92 Bcf. This level of working gas in underground storage is 19.3 percent above the 5-year average inventory for this time of year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $0.20 per barrel on the week to $66.17 per barrel, or $11.41 per MMBtu.

282

Numerical simulations of the thermal impact of supercritical CO2 injection on chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology must make it possible to inject CO2 into deep saline aquifers or oil- and gas-depleted reservoirs by massive CO2 injection. If laboratory or field experiments can bring many details about gas behaviourNumerical simulations of the thermal impact of supercritical CO2 injection on chemical reactivity

Boyer, Edmond

283

Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 Alabama 0 2012-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 0 2009-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 244,900 252,344 216,132 215,017 215,594 2008-2012 Indiana 19,978 19,367 19,437 19,479 19,215 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 0 2012-2012 Kentucky 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 2008-2012 Louisiana 0 2012-2012 Michigan 0 2012-2012 Minnesota 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2008-2012 Mississippi 0 2012-2012 Missouri 11,276 3,040 3,656 6,000 6,000 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 0 2012-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 31 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 942 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 0 2012-2012 Utah 948 948 939 939 948 2008-2012

284

Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 Alabama 0 2012-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 0 2009-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 244,900 252,344 216,132 215,017 215,594 2008-2012 Indiana 19,978 19,367 19,437 19,479 19,215 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 0 2012-2012 Kentucky 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 2008-2012 Louisiana 0 2012-2012 Michigan 0 2012-2012 Minnesota 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2008-2012 Mississippi 0 2012-2012 Missouri 11,276 3,040 3,656 6,000 6,000 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 0 2012-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 31 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 942 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 0 2012-2012 Utah 948 948 939 939 948 2008-2012

285

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack...

Frederick, J. D.

286

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

288

Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

Zhang, Yannan

2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

289

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

291

NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy, coming from an electron source, are injected intodischarges. In an electron bombardment source electrons ofsimply called electron bombardment sources (Kaufman, 1974).

Kunkel, W.B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

293

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

294

Effect of stratified water injection on exhaust gases and fuel consumption of a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The direct injection Diesel engine with its specific fuel consumption of about 200 g/kWh is one of the most efficient thermal engines. However in case of relatively low CH...x...concentration in the exhaust gas t...

Rainer Pauls; Christof Simon

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on November 17) 0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on November 17) Natural gas spot prices decreased at almost all market locations since Wednesday, November 2, as above normal temperatures persisted throughout the country and working gas storage injections continued. For the week (Wednesday to Wednesday), the price at the Henry Hub decreased $1.53 per MMBtu, or about 14 percent, to $9.31 per MMBtu. The NYMEX futures contract for December delivery at the Henry Hub gained about 7 cents since last Wednesday to close yesterday (November 9) at $11.669 per MMBtu. Natural gas in storage as of Friday, November 4, was 3,229 Bcf, which is 4 percent above the 5 year average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil decreased 10 cents per barrel, or less than 1 percent, since last Wednesday to trade yesterday at $59.65 per barrel or $10.28 per MMBtu.

296

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

23, to Wednesday, April 30) 23, to Wednesday, April 30) Released: May 1, 2008 Next release: May 8, 2008 · Natural gas spot prices increased in all trading regions in the Lower 48 States this report week (Wednesday-Wednesday, April 23-30). During the report week, the Henry Hub spot price increased $0.48 per million Btu (MMBtu) to $10.81. During the month of April, the Henry Hub spot price increased $0.95 per MMBtu, or 9.6 percent. · At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), prices declined for the report week, after a string of price increases during the previous five report periods. The futures contract for June delivery declined 10.3 cents per MMBtu on the week to $10.843. · During the week ending Friday, April 25, estimated net injections of natural gas into underground storage totaled the largest volume to date this year at 86 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Working gas in underground storage as of April 25 was 1,371 Bcf, which is 0.2 percent below the 5-year (2003-2007) average.

297

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

13, 2012 | Release Date: June 14, 13, 2012 | Release Date: June 14, 2012 | Next Release: June 21, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 12/22/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Current Storage Injection Rate Is Lower than Last Year and the Five-Year Average. Since April 27, injections of working natural gas into underground storage have fallen short of both year-ago levels and the 5-year (2007-2011) average. A warmer than normal winter, particularly in March, positioned natural gas inventories 927 billion cubic feet (Bcf) above the 5-year average near the end of the natural gas storage withdrawal season (which traditionally ends on March 31). Since then, the slower pace of injections has narrowed the overhang. While still significantly high, the surplus

298

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2013 | Release Date: August 8, 7, 2013 | Release Date: August 8, 2013 | Next Release: August 15, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 01/19/2014 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Summer storage injections higher than last year, on par with five-year average Following last week's net storage injection of 96 billion cubic feet (Bcf), total natural gas working inventories in the Lower 48 states reached 2,941 Bcf, surpassing the five-year average from 2008 to 2012 for the first time since the week ending on March 22, 2013. Storage injections during the first four months of the 2013 summer injection season (April through July) totaled 1,254 Bcf. While this represents a 63% increase over cumulative storage injections for the same period last year, it is only 5% above

299

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on May 24, 2007) 7, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on May 24, 2007) Natural gas spot and futures prices increased slightly this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, May 9-16), despite the usual lull in demand during this shoulder period between the winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The upward price trend likely resulted from a variety of factors, including rising prices for competing petroleum products (as evidenced by an increase in the underlying crude oil price). Additionally, concerns over current and future supplies do not appear to have eased. The official start of the hurricane season is imminent, and the first named tropical storm appeared this week. However, imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) have increased markedly in the past few months. On the week, the Henry Hub spot price increased 16 cents per MMBtu, or 2 percent, to $7.62. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the contract for June delivery increased 17.0 cents per MMBtu on the week to a daily settlement of $7.890 yesterday (May 16). EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report today reported natural gas storage supplies of 1,842 Bcf as of Friday, May 11, reflecting an implied net injection of 95 Bcf. This level of working gas in underground storage is 20.6 percent above the 5-year average inventory for this time of year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $1.03 per barrel on the week to $62.57 per barrel, or $10.79 per MMBtu.

300

Supported-sorbent injection. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

Nelson, S. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

NOx formation by steam injection using detailed chemical kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to improve thermal efficiency of gas turbine system and better control NOx emission, the injection of steam into a gas turbine combustor has been employed. This study has used both chemical equilibrium calculations and the counterflow diffusion flame calculations of methane-air flame aiming at the elucidation of the NOx reduction mechanism due to the steam injection. The influence of the equivalence ratios, the amount of steam and method of injection, the influence of the temperature of the preheated air and fuel has been also investigated. In this study, the GRI-Mech was employed for modelling the chemical reactions.

H. Yamashita; D. Zhao; S.N. Danov; T. Furuhata; N. Arai

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Radiation Safety Work Control Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Safety Work Control Form Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-2) Rev July-2012 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely under an SSRL RSWCF. If the answer to either question is no, then the work must be performed under a SPEAR3 RSWCF. Section 1: Description of work to be done, including date and time. (Person Responsible completes section)

305

Method for estimation of the average local working temperatures and the residual resource of metal coatings of gas-turbine blades  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for estimation of the average local operating temperatures and the residual service life (resource) of protective MCrAlY metal coatings of gas-turbine blades after a certain time of opera...

P. G. Krukovskii; K. A. Tadlya

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A Coulomb stress model for induced seismicity distribution due to fluid injection and withdrawal in deep boreholes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......plane of maximum cumulative Coulomb stress...that used in the field injection experiments...equivalent manner, to oil/gas withdrawal...the injection and production wells (over 650...differences in the stress field changes for injection...the regional stress field, as the injection......

Antonio Troiano; Maria Giulia Di Giuseppe; Claudia Troise; Anna Tramelli; Giuseppe De Natale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...injected into the reservoir under high pressure...core samples of the reservoir rocks and in situ determination...fracture-dominated porosity of less than 6...Implications for reservoir fracture permeability . AAPG Bull. 93...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

308

Injection Laser System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time must be generated with a high degree of precision The energy delivered to the target must...

309

Tevatron injection timing  

SciTech Connect

Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

September 26th, 2006 The Use of Water Injection for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

September 26th, 2006 The Use of Water Injection for CO2 Sequestration in Coalbeds 23rd Dewatering a Coal Formation #12;Free methane Coal surface Desorption of Methane and Gas Production #12;Free methane Coal surface Desorption of Methane and Gas Production #12;Coal surface Abandoned CBM Well Depleted

Mohaghegh, Shahab

311

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures This program targets fundamental understanding of nanoscale charge transfer processes. The proposed work draws on the strengths of the Brookhaven Chemistry Department in the areas of electron transfer experiment and theory, and extends the area of inquiry to nanoscale processes. Electron/hole injection into a wire, a nanocrystal, a nanotube or other nanostructure in solution may be brought about by light absorption, by an electron pulse (pulse radiolysis, LEAF), by a chemical reagent, or through an electrode. These processes are being studied by transient methods by following conductivity, current, but most generally, spectroscopic changes in the solutions to determine the dynamics of charge injection. The observed transient spectra can also provide values for electron-transfer coupling elements and energetics. Theoretical/computational studies can help in materials design and in the interpretation of the experimental results. The experimental systems being examined include molecular wires and metal nanoclusters.

312

Scientific Visualization Applications in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scientific Visualization Applications in Oil & Gas Exploration and Production SIBGRAPI 2009 #12 Property cross plots #12;Oil and gas production analysis and optimization SIBGRAPI 2009 Structural maps with property distributions Well schematics Production network Gas injection optimization Reservoir slices #12

Lewiner, Thomas (Thomas Lewiner)

313

Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

31, 2012, Washington, DC Major assumption changes for AEO2013 Oil and Gas Working Group Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module DRAFT WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION DO NOT...

314

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on April 27, 2006) 0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on April 27, 2006) High crude oil prices and increasing cooling demand in some regions contributed to natural gas spot prices climbing more than 10 percent at trading locations in the Lower 48 States since Wednesday, April 12. On the week (Wednesday-Wednesday, April 12-19), the Henry Hub spot price rose 93 cents per MMBtu to $7.72. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the futures contract for May delivery rose in each trading session this week, gaining $1.384 per MMBtu to close at $8.192 per MMBtu yesterday (April 19). Net storage injections continued for the second week this refill season. Working gas in storage as of Friday, April 14, increased to 1,761 Bcf, which is 62.6 percent above the 5-year (2001-2005) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $3.54 per barrel on the week to $72.07, or $12.43 per MMBtu.

315

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Thursday June 20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) Thursday June 20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) Natural gas spot prices registered gains of a dime or less at most major trading locations this week (Wednesday-Wednesday) as weather-driven demand combined with increasing oil prices to reverse a declining trend in prices. The upward price movement followed 6 weeks of declining prices until a low last Thursday, June 12, when prices at some trading locations along the Gulf Coast dipped just below $3.00 per MMBtu. Futures prices rose late last week after reaching similar lows. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery settled Wednesday, June 19, at $3.314 per MMBtu, an increase of 26 cents for the week. EIA's estimate of total working gas inventories for the week ended June 14 was 2,096 Bcf with implied net injections of 81 Bcf. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil recovered this week to trade at close to $26 per barrel on Monday, June 17. On Wednesday, the WTI crude oil price closed at $25.57 per barrel, or $4.41 per MMBtu.

316

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

Stanford University

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated flow injection Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

output but also... Environment, and is an extension of the work by Hiller et al. 20. PROPANE enables the injection of faults... , as well as injection of software faults and...

318

Injection-Induced Earthquakes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sounds safe enough. But if the deep aquifer system was originally underpressured...directed toward protection of potable aquifers by requiring injection into formations...much smaller magnitudes. The largest fracking-induced earthquakes (24, 26) have all been below the damage...

William L. Ellsworth

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

319

Parallel Finite Element Simulation of Tracer Injection in Oil Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parallel Finite Element Simulation of Tracer Injection in Oil Reservoirs Alvaro L.G.A. Coutinho In this work, parallel finite element techniques for the simulation of tracer injection in oil reservoirs. Supercomputers have made it possible to consider global reservoir effects which can not be represented using

Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.

320

Iowa Natural Gas Summary  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.79 5.12 5.57 4.93 4.84 4.93 1989-2013 4.79 5.12 5.57 4.93 4.84 4.93 1989-2013 Residential 8.74 10.17 13.06 14.85 16.00 NA 1989-2013 Commercial 6.66 7.31 8.29 7.93 8.02 NA 1989-2013 Industrial 5.00 5.14 5.17 4.65 4.64 4.79 2001-2013 Electric Power 6.10 4.82 4.44 4.12 3.99 4.38 2002-2013 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Capacity 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 2002-2013 Gas in Storage 209,512 215,593 221,664 230,749 245,317 261,998 1990-2013 Base Gas 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 1990-2013 Working Gas 11,615 17,696 23,768 32,853 47,421 64,102 1990-2013 Injections 228 6,604 6,409 9,737 15,463 16,682 1990-2013 Withdrawals 1,655 523 337 651 895 1 1990-2013 Net Withdrawals 1,427 -6,081 -6,072 -9,085 -14,568 -16,681 1990-2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

23, 2001 23, 2001 Another mid-summer week of relatively mild temperatures in many of the nation's major gas consuming market regions and a large estimate of net injections of working gas into storage put downward pressure on spot and futures prices. Some parts of New England saw high temperatures only in the 70s for several days last week, while highs in the 80s stretched down the mid-Atlantic region as far as northern Georgia and well into the Midwest. On the West Coast, highs rarely exceeded 80 degrees, with a number of locations reporting highs in the 60s. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map). Spot prices declined for the week in nearly all markets, with spot gas at the Henry Hub trading at $2.95 per MMBtu on Friday, down $0.21 from the previous Friday. The NYMEX futures contract for August delivery fell even more, ending the week down $0.295 per MMBtu at $2.955-the first sub-$3 settlement for a near-month contract since April 11 of last year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell four days in a row and traded on Wednesday and Thursday below $25 per barrel before recovering Friday to $25.60 per barrel, or $4.41 per MMBtu. This, too, is the first time since last April that WTI has fallen below $25 per barrel, and is the second week in a row of losses of $1 or more per barrel.

322

Comprehensive Analysis of Enhanced CBM Production via CO2 Injection Using a Surrogate Reservoir Model Jalal Jalali, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Model Jalal Jalali, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia (net thickness, porosity, permeability, etc.) are generated by geo-statistical techniques using a small layer. Once the outputs are generated by the network and an error is generated by comparing the network

Mohaghegh, Shahab

323

Shale Gas and Hydrofracturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in horizontal drilling technology and hydrofracturing allow natural gas to escape from shale formations following high pressure treatment, i.e. “fracking” with sand, water and chemicals. ... With fracking, natural gas prices have remained low at less than $2.50 per million BTU. ... Fracking chemicals, petrochemicals, and metals and radionuclides from source rock cause major environmental burdens if not properly treated or deep-injected. ...

Jerald L. Schnoor

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

324

Injection-controlled laser resonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

Chang, J.J.

1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

325

Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

326

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

force majeure declared December 17 at its Totem storage field, Colorado Interstate Gas Pipeline (CIG) reported that it anticipates repair work to be complete around February 12,...

327

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Reversible Acid Gas Capture  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

Dave Heldebrant

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Experimental Target Injection and Tracking System  

SciTech Connect

Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant with an accuracy of and plusmn; 5 mm at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 each second. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy {+-}200{mu}m for indirect drive and {+-}20{mu}m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been designed and is being constructed at General Atomics to investigate injection and tracking of both direct drive and indirect drive targets. The design is modular to allow testing of alternate target acceleration and tracking methods. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feed back to the target designers. This 30 m long system will be the centerpiece of a Facility for developing IFE target fabrication and injection technologies. A high-speed high-flow gas valve (designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory) will provide helium propellant gas to the targets. To avoid target damage from excessive acceleration, an 8 m gun barrel is being built to achieve 400 m/s target speed while not exceeding 10,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Gas expansion chambers and orifices, keep propellant gas out of the target-tracking region. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line scan cameras. High-speed computations will calculate target position in less than 2 ms based on the output from the line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time to a plane in the reaction chamber center will be predicted in real-time based on early target position measurements. The system design, construction progress, and early testing results will be presented.

Petzoldt, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Alexander, N.B. [General Atomics (United States); Drake, T.J. [General Atomics (United States); Goodin, D.T. [General Atomics (United States); Stemke, R.W. [General Atomics (United States); Jonestrask, K

2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Work Permit # 51012MZ5 Work Order# '  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Confined Space· 0 Ergonomics· 0 Material Handling o ,Beryllium· 0 Electrical 0 Hydraulic o Safety Harness o Electrical Working Hot o Electrical Noise 0 Potential to Cause aFalse Alarm o QiCombustible Gas o IHSurvey Dosimeter o LockoutITagout o Spill potential o Self-reading Pencil Dosimeter o Impair Fire Protection

Homes, Christopher C.

331

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4, 2012 | Release Date: Apr. 5, 4, 2012 | Release Date: Apr. 5, 2012 | Next Release: Apr. 12, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 12/22/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices | Storage In the News: Working Natural Gas in Storage at All-Time High for March. Thursday's release of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR) represented the last full week of the winter heating season (November 1 - March 31). Although traditionally net withdrawals of working natural gas in storage occur during these months, this year net injections began the week ending March 16. Because the latest WNGSR represents inventory levels as of March 30, it excludes the last day of the winter heating season; official end-of-month levels will not be reported until the May Natural Gas Monthly is released.

332

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

injections typically continue beyond the end of October storage Natural gas, solar, and wind lead power plant capacity additions in first-half 2014 statescapacity and...

333

Proceedings of ICRC 2001: 2088 c Copernicus Gesellschaft 2001 Numerical studies of cosmic ray injection and acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal particles are injected into the CRs, roughly independent of Mach numbers. Due to severe ray injection and acceleration H. Kang1 , T. W. Jones2 , and U. D. J. Gieseler3 1 Pusan National hereafter) injection model into the combined gas dynamics and CR diffusion- convection code. Our hydro

Gieseler, Udo D. J.

334

Work Breakdown Structure and Plant/Equipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)  

SciTech Connect

This white paper investigates the potential integration of the CTC work breakdown structure numbering scheme with a plant/equipment numbering system (PNS), or alternatively referred to in industry as a reference designation system (RDS). Ideally, the goal of such integration would be a single, common referencing system for the life cycle of the CTC that supports all the various processes (e.g., information, execution, and control) that necessitate plant and equipment numbers be assigned. This white paper focuses on discovering the full scope of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) processes to which this goal might be applied as well as the factors likely to affect decisions about implementation. Later, a procedure for assigning these numbers will be developed using this white paper as a starting point and that reflects the resolved scope and outcome of associated decisions.

Jeffrey D Bryan

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impact of Interruptible Natural Gas Service A Snapshot of California Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook EIA's Testimony on Natural Gas Supply and Demand Residential Natural Gas Price Brochure Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Previous Issues of Natural Gas Weekly Update Natural Gas Homepage Overview: Monday, June 04, 2001 Stock builds slowed from their recent pace, even though spot prices continued their downward trend to end the week at the Henry Hub at $3.71 per MMBtu, which is a Friday-to-Friday decline of $0.14 per MMBtu. The NYMEX contract price for June delivery at the Henry Hub settled Tuesday at $3.738, the lowest close-out of a near month contract since the May 2000 contract. The July contract price was $3.930 per MMBtu on Friday, $0.103 lower than a week earlier. Mild weather in the Northeast and Midwest continued to suppress prices on the Eastern Seaboard, while a short burst of warm temperatures in southern California early in the week had the opposite effect on prices in that region. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) Net injections to storage for the week ended Friday, May 25 were 99 Bcf, breaking a 4-week string of 100-plus net injections.

336

Optimization of Micro Injection Molding of Polymeric Medical Devices Using Software Tools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Micro injection molding is a domain which implies challenges for both producers of moulds and technologists. Due to special conditions required by the process of micro injection molding, chemical, physical and thermal properties of the injected polymeric material are affected, material behaviour is different compared with that during the classical process of injection moulding and so, optimization of parameters of the injection process is needed. This work has shown the process of optimization of micro injection in template given a medical application. A numerical analysis has been performed using the Autodesk Moldflow Insight software given a “surgical micro-stitch” marker device.

Opran Constantin Gheorghe; Teodorescu Draghicescu Florin; Gheorghe Tudor Vlad; Dobrescu Tiberiu Gabriel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Gas-turbine power stations on associated gas by Motor Sich OJSC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wide introduction of gas-turbine power stations working on associated oil gas is topical for Russia. Designing and operational ... ) and EG-6000 (6.0 MW) gas-turbine power stations on associated oil gas manufactu...

P. A. Gorbachev; V. G. Mikhailutsa

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

19, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 26) 19, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 26) Spot and futures prices fell for the second straight week, as generally mild temperatures continued to prevail in most major market areas and storage injections exceeded 100 Bcf for a third straight week. At the Henry Hub, the spot price fell by 52 cents per MMBtu on the week (Wednesday to Wednesday, June 11-19), or almost 9 percent, to $5.54 per MMBtu. The settlement price for the NYMEX futures contract for July delivery declined by $0.632 on the week, closing yesterday (June 18) at $5.581 per MMBtu-a decline of 10 percent. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that working gas in storage was 1,438 Bcf as of Friday, June 13, which is about 22 percent below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average for the week. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell in 4 of 5 trading days, ending the week down by almost $2 per barrel, at $30.28, or $5.22 per MMBtu.

339

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

13, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 20) 13, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 20) Moderate price increases on Monday and Wednesday of this week could not offset declines during the other three trading days of the week (Wednesday to Wednesday, June 5-12), leaving spot prices lower at most locations for the sixth consecutive week. At the Henry Hub, the average spot price decreased by 13 cents to $3.15 per MMBtu. Six weeks ago, on Wednesday, May 1, the Henry Hub spot price stood at $3.79 per MMBtu. Futures prices also trended lower for the sixth consecutive week. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery at the Henry Hub declined by $0.203 per MMBtu for the week, settling Wednesday, June 12 at $3.057 per MMBtu-a decrease of a little over 6 percent from the previous Wednesday. EIA's estimate of net injections into storage for the week ended June 7 is 81 Bcf, bringing total working gas inventories to 1,974 Bcf, or about 20 percent above the previous 5-year (1997-2001) average. On Thursday, June 6, the spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell below $25 per barrel for the first time since April 16, and ended trading on Wednesday, June 12 at $24.79 per barrel, or $4.27 per MMBtu.

340

D/sub 2/ - pellet injection system  

SciTech Connect

For density build-up of a target plasma for neutral injection in the stellarator ''Wendelstein W VIIA''and for refuelling of the divertor tokamak ASSDEX, pellet light gas guns have been developed. In a continuous flow cryostat cooled by liquid helium with a comsumption of 2 - 3 liter liquid helium per hour deuterium was condensed and solidified. To prevent the propeller gas entering the torus was used. In one system a 3.6 mm guiding tube following the barrel was applied successfully. By optical diagnostics pellet velocity, pellet size and pellet trajectory is measured. For a pellet centrifuge system investigations of carbon fiber rotors were made up to surface velocities of 1500 m/s.

Buechl, K.; Andelfinger, C.; Kollotzek, H.; Lang, R.; Ulrich, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 0, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, June 17, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 9, 2010) Since Wednesday, June 2, natural gas prices rose at all market locations in the lower 48 States, with increases generally ranging between 30 and 40 cents per million Btu (MMBtu). At the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana, the spot price rose 43 cents during the week from $4.32 to $4.75 per MMBtu. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the July 2010 contract also rose over the week, increasing about 6 percent from $4.242 per MMBtu on June 2 to $4.677 on June 9. Working natural gas in storage increased to 2,456 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, June 4, following an implied net injection of 99 Bcf,

342

Beam-Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Gas and Thermal Photon Scattering in the NLC Main Linac as a Source of Beam Halo P. Tenenbaum LCC-Note-0051 12-JAN-2001 Abstract Scattering of primary beam electrons off of residual gas molecules or blackbody radiation photons in the NLC main linac has been identified as a potential source of beam haloes which must be collimated in the beam delivery system. We consider the contributions from four scat- tering mechanisms: inelastic thermal-photon scattering, elastic beam-gas (Coulomb) scattering inelastic beam-gas (Bremsstrahlung) scattering, and atomic-electron scattering. In each case we develop the formalism necessary to estimate the backgrounds generated in the main linac, and determine the expected number of off-energy or large-amplitude particles from each process, assuming a main linac injection energy of 8 GeV and extraction energy of 500 GeV. 1 Introduction The

343

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says August 31, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The feasibility of using carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for recovering between 250 million and 500 million additional barrels of oil from Kansas oilfields has been established in a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The University of Kansas Center for Research studied the possibility of near-miscible CO2 flooding for extending the life of mature oilfields in the Arbuckle Formation while simultaneously providing permanent geologic storage of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas.

345

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

346

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

347

Gas Permeability of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples under Variable Confining Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

argillite under con?nement: gas and water testing. Phys.Gascoyne, M. , Wuschke, D.M. : Gas migration through water-fractured rock: results of a gas injection test. J.

Liu, Weiqun; Li, Yushou; Wang, Bo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Two-phase viscoelastic damage theory, with applications to subsurface fluid injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......injection, surface tension can be extremely small (gamma-J2) due to, for example, chemical additives added into the fracking fluid during shale-gas extraction (Economides Nolte 2000). The constant alpha0 is inversely related to characteristic......

Zhengyu Cai; David Bercovici

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

350

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

351

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Injectivity Test Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Permeability of the well Thermal: Dictionary.png Injectivity Test: A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can

352

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the first Technical Progress Report covering the period from project execution through the end of December 1990. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Fuel Cells Work How Energy Works 30 likes How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells produce electrical power without any combustion and operate on fuels like hydrogen, natural gas and...

354

2. INVESTIGATION OF CO2 GRAVITY DRAINAGE AFTER WATER INJECTION IN FRACTURED SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using gas chromatography to aid in understanding the mechanism of CO2-improved oil production from tight and pressures above the MMP of Spraberry crude oil and CO2. The experiments were designed to simulate, pressure, injection rate, injection pattern, rock permeability and initial water saturation) on CO2 gravity

Schechter, David S.

355

Summary for Policymakers IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Working Group III  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this introduction: • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends •2. Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown sinceincrease in atmospheric GHG concentrations [1.3; Working

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

357

Recirculating rotary gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Avoca, New York Salt Cavern Gas Storage Facility  

SciTech Connect

The first salt cavern natural gas storage facility in the northeastern United States designed to serve the interstate gas market is being developed by J Makowski Associates and partners at Avoca in Steuben County, New York. Multiple caverns will be leached at a depth of about 3800 ft from an approximately 100 ft interval of salt within the F unit of the Syracuse Formation of the Upper Silurian Salina Group. The facility is designed to provide 5 Bcf of working gas capacity and 500 MMcfd of deliverability within an operating cavern pressure range between 760 psi and 2850 psi. Fresh water for leaching will be obtained from the Cohocton River aquifer at a maximum rate of 3 million gallons per day and produced brine will be injected into deep permeable Cambrian age sandstones and dolostones. Gas storage service is anticipated to commence in the Fall of 1997 with 2 Bcf of working gas capacity and the full 5 Bcf or storage service is scheduled to be available in the Fall of 1999.

Morrill, D.C. [J. Makowski and Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Changing Prospects for Natural Gas in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doubling ofoil life to 4000 hours...application of gas-fired combined-cycle...gas-fueled combustion turbine combined with...generation from the gas turbine part ofa facility...38, 39) and life cycle cost advantages...Steam-injected gas turbines represent a...

W. M. BURNET; T S. D. BAN

1989-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

360

Working Gas Volume Change from Year Ago  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

-753,656 -616,126 -473,386 -308,388 -195,536 -128,134 1973-2013 -753,656 -616,126 -473,386 -308,388 -195,536 -128,134 1973-2013 Alaska 14,007 15,277 16,187 17,087 18,569 20,455 2013-2013 Lower 48 States -767,663 -631,403 -489,573 -325,475 -214,105 -148,588 2011-2013 Alabama 131 998 -1,015 -975 -35 2,852 1996-2013 Arkansas -1,386 -1,403 -1,240 -1,239 -1,024 -1,050 1990-2013 California -6,702 -5,997 -10,684 274 24,044 28,854 1990-2013 Colorado -2,531 537 892 1,473 1,528 1,179 1990-2013 Illinois -11,767 -14,974 -8,820 -7,918 -12,002 -6,916 1990-2013 Indiana -4,126 -2,948 -2,927 -2,773 -1,025 -212 1990-2013 Iowa -6,614 -1,173 3,389 6,425 6,747 3,169 1991-2013 Kansas -38,081 -31,497 -26,449 -17,344 -10,369 -9,217 1990-2013 Kentucky -26,238 -26,922 -21,826 -15,927 -14,959 -12,801 1990-2013

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Working Gas % Change from Year Ago  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

21.3 -15.2 -9.5 -5.7 -3.5 -2.9 1973-2013 21.3 -15.2 -9.5 -5.7 -3.5 -2.9 1973-2013 Alaska NA NA NA NA NA NA 2013-2013 Lower 48 States -21.9 -15.7 -10.0 -6.3 -4.0 -3.5 2011-2013 Alabama 5.0 -4.8 -4.5 -0.2 15.5 -12.0 1996-2013 Arkansas -42.1 -34.7 -31.2 -24.4 -23.7 -23.0 1991-2013 California -2.0 -3.3 0.1 7.9 9.3 3.4 1991-2013 Colorado 2.8 3.6 4.7 3.9 2.6 3.0 1991-2013 Illinois -16.5 -7.4 -5.2 -6.3 -3.1 -3.2 1991-2013 Indiana -21.2 -17.8 -14.8 -5.0 -0.9 -5.2 1991-2013 Iowa -6.2 16.6 24.3 16.6 5.2 -1.8 1991-2013 Kansas -38.9 -29.7 -17.9 -10.2 -8.3 -7.6 1991-2013 Kentucky -30.6 -24.1 -17.7 -15.8 -12.7 -10.5 1991-2013 Louisiana -26.6 -21.0 -10.2 -4.3 -2.3 1.0 1991-2013 Maryland -40.2 -26.0 -17.1 -4.8 1.5 0.8 1991-2013 Michigan -35.7 -26.7 -19.2 -13.9 -9.7 -6.9 1991-2013

362

Working Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1,857,570 2,270,934 2,642,060 2,936,813 3,210,598 3,564,920 1,857,570 2,270,934 2,642,060 2,936,813 3,210,598 3,564,920 1973-2013 Alabama 20,405 20,908 20,110 20,532 19,968 21,262 1995-2013 Alaska 14,007 15,277 16,187 17,087 18,569 20,455 2013-2013 Arkansas 1,486 1,928 2,330 2,735 3,168 3,372 1990-2013 California 255,453 287,757 309,448 326,906 329,024 338,271 1990-2013 Colorado 15,625 19,489 25,833 32,642 40,240 46,136 1990-2013 Illinois 50,160 75,951 110,815 142,938 177,700 218,245 1990-2013 Indiana 8,965 10,955 13,533 15,951 19,622 22,817 1990-2013 Iowa 11,615 17,696 23,768 32,853 47,421 64,102 1990-2013 Kansas 35,397 49,412 62,747 79,590 91,430 101,169 1990-2013 Kentucky 52,985 61,078 68,847 74,285 79,656 88,369 1990-2013 Louisiana 212,975 235,835 263,701 296,375 315,517 342,981 1990-2013

363

Philadelphia Gas Works – Home Rebates Program (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

PGW’s Home Rebates program is available for residential customers within the PGW service territory. See the web site above for complete program details.

364

Working Gas % Change from Year Ago  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

-26.2 -21.7 -19.9 1991-2014 California -60.5 -48.4 -37.4 -28.5 -25.9 -19.7 1991-2014 Colorado 2.3 16.0 12.8 12.6 6.8 1.9 1991-2014 Illinois -6.9 -11.6 -4.6 -2.6 0.3 1.8...

365

Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

230,456 271,785 312,003 351,017 488,268 2008-2012 230,456 271,785 312,003 351,017 488,268 2008-2012 Alabama 11,900 11,900 16,150 16,150 16,150 2008-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 2012-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 0 2012-2012 Indiana 0 2012-2012 Kansas 375 375 375 375 375 2008-2012 Kentucky 0 2012-2012 Louisiana 57,630 84,487 100,320 111,849 200,702 2008-2012 Maryland 0 2012-2012 Michigan 2,154 2,150 2,159 2,159 2,159 2008-2012 Mississippi 43,292 43,758 56,928 62,932 100,443 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 Nebraska 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 1,450 1,450 1,450 1,450 0 2008-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 0 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 0 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 109,655 123,664 130,621 152,102 164,439 2008-2012 Utah 0 2012-2012 Virginia

366

Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

,583,786 3,659,968 3,733,993 3,769,113 3,720,980 2008-2012 ,583,786 3,659,968 3,733,993 3,769,113 3,720,980 2008-2012 Alabama 9,000 9,000 9,000 11,200 11,200 2008-2012 Arkansas 14,500 13,898 13,898 12,036 12,178 2008-2012 California 283,796 296,096 311,096 335,396 349,296 2008-2012 Colorado 42,579 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 2008-2012 Illinois 51,418 51,418 87,368 87,368 87,368 2008-2012 Indiana 12,791 12,791 13,545 13,545 13,809 2008-2012 Iowa 0 2012-2012 Kansas 118,885 118,964 122,814 122,850 122,968 2008-2012 Kentucky 94,598 96,855 100,971 100,971 100,971 2008-2012 Louisiana 284,544 284,544 284,544 285,779 211,780 2008-2012 Maryland 17,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 18,300 2008-2012 Michigan 660,693 664,486 664,906 670,473 671,041 2008-2012 Mississippi 53,140 65,220 70,320 68,159 68,159 2008-2012

367

Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

368

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia February 11, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) team of regional partners has begun injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The results of the study will be vital in assessing the potential of carbon storage in coal seams as a safe and permanent method to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions while enhancing production of natural gas. DOE's Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) began injecting CO2 at the test site in Russell County, Virginia, in mid January.

370

Nonreactive viscous solver for hypersonic flows over recessed cone with injection  

SciTech Connect

A nonreactive two-species flow in which the gas is injected from the downstream wall of the recess on a hypersonic sharp cone has been investigated by solving the steady full Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization methods have combined Roe`s scheme and multiblock grids for accurate calculations. The species equation has been included in order to simulate the flowfield by injecting different gases. The flow structure and cooling effect has been investigated at M(sub infinity) = 6.0. The flow structure of the recess has been shown by the perfect gas computational results to be significantly affected by injecting cool species gases. An optimal injection rate for the cooling effect has also been shown to exist on the downstream wall of the cone. The cooling effect of injecting helium has been shown to be better than nitrogen and air for both isothermal and adiabatic wall conditions. 18 refs.

Tai, C.H.; Lee, Y.K. [Chung Cheng Inst of Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Effect of steam injection location on syngas obtained from an air–steam gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For a fluidized-bed gasifier, reaction conditions vary along the height of the reactor. Hence, the steam injection location may have a considerable effect on the syngas quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of steam injection location and steam-to-biomass ratio (SBR) on the syngas quality generated from an air–steam gasification of switchgrass in a 2–5 kg/h autothermal fluidized-bed gasifier. Steam injection locations of 51, 152, and 254 mm above the distributor plate and \\{SBRs\\} of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 were selected. Results showed that the syngas H2 and CO yields were significantly influenced by the steam injection location (p gasifier efficiencies (cold gas efficiency of 67%, hot gas efficiency of 72%, and carbon conversion efficiency of 96%) were at the steam injection location of 254 mm and SBR of 0.2.

Ashokkumar M. Sharma; Ajay Kumar; Raymond L. Huhnke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report describing the evolution of the project ''Development and Optimization of Gas-Assisted Gravity Drainage (GAGD) Process for Improved Light Oil Recovery'' from its conceptual stage in 2002 to the field implementation of the developed technology in 2006. This comprehensive report includes all the experimental research, models developments, analyses of results, salient conclusions and the technology transfer efforts. As planned in the original proposal, the project has been conducted in three separate and concurrent tasks: Task 1 involved a physical model study of the new GAGD process, Task 2 was aimed at further developing the vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) technique for gas-oil miscibility determination, and Task 3 was directed at determining multiphase gas-oil drainage and displacement characteristics in reservoir rocks at realistic pressures and temperatures. The project started with the task of recruiting well-qualified graduate research assistants. After collecting and reviewing the literature on different aspects of the project such gas injection EOR, gravity drainage, miscibility characterization, and gas-oil displacement characteristics in porous media, research plans were developed for the experimental work to be conducted under each of the three tasks. Based on the literature review and dimensional analysis, preliminary criteria were developed for the design of the partially-scaled physical model. Additionally, the need for a separate transparent model for visual observation and verification of the displacement and drainage behavior under gas-assisted gravity drainage was identified. Various materials and methods (ceramic porous material, Stucco, Portland cement, sintered glass beads) were attempted in order to fabricate a satisfactory visual model. In addition to proving the effectiveness of the GAGD process (through measured oil recoveries in the range of 65 to 87% IOIP), the visual models demonstrated three possible multiphase mechanisms at work, namely, Darcy-type displacement until gas breakthrough, gravity drainage after breakthrough and film-drainage in gas-invaded zones throughout the duration of the process. The partially-scaled physical model was used in a series of experiments to study the effects of wettability, gas-oil miscibility, secondary versus tertiary mode gas injection, and the presence of fractures on GAGD oil recovery. In addition to yielding recoveries of up to 80% IOIP, even in the immiscible gas injection mode, the partially-scaled physical model confirmed the positive influence of fractures and oil-wet characteristics in enhancing oil recoveries over those measured in the homogeneous (unfractured) water-wet models. An interesting observation was that a single logarithmic relationship between the oil recovery and the gravity number was obeyed by the physical model, the high-pressure corefloods and the field data.

Dandina N. Rao; Subhash C. Ayirala; Madhav M. Kulkarni; Wagirin Ruiz Paidin; Thaer N. N. Mahmoud; Daryl S. Sequeira; Amit P. Sharma

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: Modelling and Experimental Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas;#12;Introduction - v - Summary CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3- NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to p

374

Pipeline gas pressure reduction with refrigeration generation  

SciTech Connect

The high pressure of pipeline gas is reduced to the low pressure of a distribution system with simultaneous generation of refrigeration by passing the gas through two successive centrifugal compressors driven by two turbo-expanders in which the compressed gas is expanded to successively lower pressures. Refrigeration is recovered from the gas as it leaves each turbo-expander. Methanol is injected into the pipeline gas before it is expanded to prevent ice formation. Aqueous methanol condensate separated from the expanded gas is distilled for the recovery and reuse of methanol.

Markbreiter, S. J.; Schorr, H. P.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

375

Effects of carbon dioxide injection on the displacement of methane and carbonate dissolution in sandstone cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous coreflood experiments show that CO2 sequestration in carbonate rocks is a win-win technology. Injecting CO2 into a depleted gas reservoir for storage also produces hitherto unrecoverable gas. This in turn helps to defray the cost of CO2...

Maduakor, Ekene Obioma

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A one-dimensional model of vertical gas plume migration through a heterogeneous porous medium and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

377

Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Category Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon Category:Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Injectivity Test page?...

378

Vermont Gas- Commercial Energy Efficiency Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Vermont Gas (VGS) offers two energy efficiency programs for commercial customers: the WorkPlace New Construction Program and the WorkPlace Equipment Replacement and Retrofit Program.

379

Evaluation of Natural Gas Pipeline Materials and Infrastructure for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

South Carolina Electric and Gas University of South Carolina Praxair Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group

380

Innovations in High-Pressure Liquid Injection Technique for Gas Chromatography: Pressurized Liquid Injection System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1 min and at the end of the run. Counts Time (min) Figure...Figure 13 shows a chromatogram of straight chain alkanes in hexane ranging...Retention time (min) of compounds Run/compound 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9...obtained for all compounds. Gasoline and diesel in hexane. Heavier......

Jim Luong; Gras Ronda; Richard Tymko

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, September 16, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 8, 2010) Price changes during the week were mixed, but in most areas, these changes were moderate. The Henry Hub price rose slightly from $3.73 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, September 1, to $3.81 per MMBtu yesterday. The report week was shortened due to the Labor Day holiday. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the October 2010 futures contract rose about 5 cents, from $3.762 per MMBtu on September 1 to $3.814 per MMBtu on September 8. Working natural gas in storage as of Friday, September 3, was 3,164 Bcf, following an implied net injection of 58 Bcf, according to EIAÂ’s

382

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) 20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) Natural gas spot prices registered gains of a dime or less at most major trading locations this week (Wednesday-Wednesday) as weather-driven demand combined with increasing oil prices to reverse a declining trend in prices. The upward price movement followed 6 weeks of declining prices until a low last Thursday, June 12, when prices at some trading locations along the Gulf Coast dipped just below $3.00 per MMBtu. Futures prices rose late last week after reaching similar lows. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery settled Wednesday, June 19, at $3.314 per MMBtu, an increase of 26 cents for the week. EIA's estimate of total working gas inventories for the week ended June 14 was 2,096 Bcf with implied net injections of 81 Bcf.

383

Alabama Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 8 12 26 71 106 95 103 93 85 55 25 14 1995 0 122 0 0 44 42 41 252 592 156 24 101 1996 231 185 141 192 390 670 318 395 440 166 63 160 1997 297 101 63 168 271 161 108 286 262 251 27 27 1998 26 0 81 245 188 623 25 203 139 613 76 0 1999 0 0 14 645 547 213 333 202 459 0 166 67 2000 48 534 44 51 232 606 166 0 0 42 12 286 2001 411 304 85 323 207 618 250 293 370 414 529 109 2002 711 278 182 349 240 54 357 139 106 318 515 536 2003 242 818 564 938 1,089 821 970 633 1,283 1,128 606 1,098 2004 201 619 736 845 1,429 1,595 571 894 1,718 3,022 636 468 2005 976 1,778 917 855 1,230 797 1,687 804 2,301 2,019 1,364 845

384

Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 466,852 440,062 373,435 371,989 420,828 339,960 1973-2013 Alaska 1,065 1,131 977 1,518 1,981 1,627 2013-2013 Lower 48 States 465,787 438,931 372,458 370,471 418,848 338,332 2011-2013 Alabama 2,058 1,226 2,464 1,142 1,743 896 1994-2013 Arkansas 515 402 406 433 204 110 1990-2013 California 36,229 28,781 15,933 13,891 20,028 14,296 1990-2013 Colorado 5,575 7,902 8,359 10,862 9,051 8,258 1990-2013 Illinois 28,662 35,608 33,014 36,051 39,558 35,792 1990-2013 Indiana 2,204 2,677 2,868 3,774 5,015 3,670 1990-2013

385

Colorado Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 538 235 252 265 1,274 4,266 6,279 5,212 5,012 1,957 1,734 650 1991 992 654 483 61 2,494 3,876 4,219 4,449 5,296 3,296 2,611 2,153 1992 0 301 61 53 158 2,168 4,187 6,308 5,942 2,708 395 779 1993 1,476 514 1,328 277 3,434 5,426 4,400 5,097 4,898 19,867 1,773 2,642 1994 349 561 1,525 594 6,187 1,887 5,096 5,311 5,305 1,318 1,652 1,401 1995 1,508 1,548 1,831 1,379 3,769 6,416 6,446 4,716 4,341 2,877 3,680 1,206 1996 1,050 3,496 1,026 1,484 3,363 5,288 5,602 4,106 4,955 2,693 2,316 2,429 1997 1,773 489 1,563 1,182 6,370 5,785 6,044 5,081 5,610 3,253 1,570 669 1998 884 80 2,100 615 6,732 4,651 4,354 6,274 6,162 3,100 3,713 1,125

386

Kentucky Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 3,591 7,852 5,644 4,269 4,991 5,462 7,829 7,379 7,268 5,324 3,591 2,996 1991 1,910 2,777 4,468 4,883 2,671 3,345 5,395 4,818 4,660 4,074 4,315 4,110 1992 5,509 3,635 2,314 2,151 1,697 2,787 4,724 4,202 5,539 10,882 3,272 2,656 1993 1,967 990 928 2,687 7,049 7,985 7,838 5,873 7,014 3,907 1,397 482 1994 431 928 1,526 6,100 10,571 9,346 9,742 7,138 4,696 4,684 3,438 1,230 1995 1,189 478 2,868 4,780 13,288 7,749 8,687 5,375 6,889 4,882 1,009 1,369 1996 625 2,061 2,137 2,635 6,489 14,262 13,389 10,275 8,975 4,913 1,788 1,948 1997 1,674 1,585 1,826 3,461 8,209 9,043 7,464 6,799 8,296 5,231 2,932 553

387

Ohio Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 2,095 2,783 8,487 12,731 23,624 20,221 19,895 19,615 18,355 13,780 9,089 3,777 1991 474 569 2,278 13,918 24,470 20,782 18,348 18,211 16,615 12,371 5,205 819 1992 46 383 775 11,319 27,233 30,305 29,147 24,617 16,672 14,358 4,364 790 1993 152 278 1,376 10,017 30,894 32,804 30,187 28,001 26,720 12,055 3,036 109 1994 1,075 1,772 2,164 19,428 30,107 32,303 33,898 27,173 22,437 13,196 7,269 837 1995 617 1,176 1,782 7,066 28,599 32,073 31,206 24,033 18,978 13,053 2,159 608 1996 826 2,927 1,712 16,095 30,586 37,488 36,425 29,901 24,140 15,350 2,100 1,091 1997 1,494 1,211 2,351 11,510 34,696 38,150 34,738 32,628 24,009 15,174 3,656 709

388

Utah Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 217 15 3 133 1,503 1,503 7,253 6,393 5,871 3,255 768 282 1991 85 0 2,099 2,224 2,645 5,554 6,015 3,813 3,940 2,080 1,316 2,475 1992 389 1,210 2,719 3,032 3,970 3,612 3,759 4,834 3,898 3,111 506 182 1993 0 6 93 168 6,607 6,471 5,034 5,017 4,968 5,083 501 541 1994 45 195 3,861 2,050 6,133 4,069 5,508 6,269 8,509 4,218 1,026 624 1995 71 1,029 918 1,645 4,350 6,226 7,254 3,681 2,323 1,721 2,729 256 1996 7 276 904 1,589 5,596 6,757 6,824 4,746 3,130 1,729 596 214 1997 319 928 4,246 3,658 4,481 8,422 8,176 5,300 3,235 2,823 1,129 86 1998 0 0 999 1,310 3,551 4,004 3,501 3,561 3,993 1,954 799 73

389

Indiana Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 997 821 771 1,207 1,916 1,673 2,268 3,772 4,202 2,896 1,993 539 1991 91 245 158 710 1,849 1,107 2,920 3,845 4,606 4,490 3,131 501 1992 98 349 429 1,076 1,611 2,638 5,174 4,168 5,309 3,579 926 413 1993 681 526 882 1,587 2,170 2,733 4,564 4,464 4,276 2,659 911 475 1994 328 565 519 609 934 2,541 5,229 4,565 4,175 3,340 1,546 305 1995 439 80 786 1,211 1,057 1,831 2,892 3,751 4,791 4,578 2,437 483 1996 262 870 948 968 1,028 2,560 4,317 6,153 3,943 3,112 2,407 696 1997 609 435 815 546 893 2,117 3,322 3,775 4,610 3,523 2,584 175 1998 648 87 86 508 1,235 1,495 2,999 4,082 4,578 3,026 2,710 581

390

Louisiana Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 17,712 15,346 15,364 11,228 15,333 18,647 19,527 17,703 19,665 19,333 15,705 14,621 1991 2,280 4,842 12,957 13,291 22,317 22,447 17,260 17,261 23,603 27,512 9,950 4,281 1992 7,699 4,109 13,109 16,478 29,243 21,440 20,695 21,713 23,276 24,685 7,374 3,230 1993 4,314 1,638 8,805 14,315 34,776 33,317 27,192 28,570 32,062 21,236 21,232 2,111 1994 3,737 9,288 9,922 26,592 34,270 23,811 30,757 28,317 24,211 15,673 13,387 4,560 1995 3,922 3,407 18,010 20,556 23,957 33,196 27,885 16,834 27,100 25,285 5,363 4,060 1996 7,445 9,971 7,106 16,287 22,178 26,529 35,343 38,303 39,009 27,599 10,386 8,996 1997 10,921 11,877 35,874 23,219 30,520 31,455 30,290 31,277 36,960 34,440 13,787 11,704

391

Wyoming Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 22 16 140 1,047 1,248 1,648 2,162 1,899 2,415 1,135 222 191 1991 56 467 479 368 908 1,922 2,233 1,628 1,090 1,135 423 164 1992 0 73 211 356 439 605 1,402 465 861 525 208 194 1993 8 15 557 1,247 1,443 2,426 2,423 1,875 1,433 1,533 482 163 1994 145 16 930 1,339 1,692 771 1,125 1,524 1,444 1,060 412 138 1995 17 76 89 67 863 1,452 1,588 1,896 1,849 1,265 236 52 1996 13 0 66 974 2,862 1,764 2,169 836 641 540 243 312 1997 157 0 47 372 1,205 2,308 3,418 2,734 2,461 986 222 170 1998 23 0 8 265 1,430 3,462 2,814 2,015 2,621 1,499 926 150 1999 0 0 573 1,322 2,151 1,668 2,300 1,377 1,064 519 360 124

392

Virginia Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 303 22 31 220 304 296 185 322 301 225 78 84 1999 326 59 50 220 278 267 249 236 414 109 45 125 2000 127 269 47 282 291 224 222 222 350 299 62 60 2001 83 244 244 434 532 402 274 322 362 275 242 25 2002 95 92 0 186 683 339 344 283 434 327 44 183 2003 51 220 70 276 458 504 482 823 671 147 102 203 2004 325 454 190 347 1,013 415 611 1,104 894 1,138 303 279 2005 599 566 319 458 699 560 923 747 783 834 2,614 595 2006 587 274 376 275 377 615 1,035 837 1,422 308 374 517 2007 202 314 1,140 800 1,090 647 863 556 1,213 1,125 115 729 2008 532 962 491 1,000 950 1,040 980 1,167 950 833 471 1,092

393

Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 272,001 466,852 440,062 373,435 371,989 420,828 1973-2013 Alaska 1,895 1,065 1,131 977 1,518 1,981 2013-2013 Lower 48 States 270,106 465,787 438,931 372,458 370,471 418,848 2011-2013 Alabama 2,934 2,058 1,226 2,464 1,142 1,743 1994-2013 Arkansas 213 515 402 406 433 204 1990-2013 California 21,631 36,229 28,781 15,933 13,891 20,028 1990-2013 Colorado 2,863 5,575 7,902 8,359 10,862 9,051 1990-2013 Illinois 15,713 28,662 35,608 33,014 36,051 39,558 1990-2013 Indiana 461 2,204 2,677 2,868 3,774 5,015 1990-2013

394

Oklahoma Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 4,366 3,193 6,903 5,872 11,548 13,440 11,689 10,380 8,709 8,453 8,353 2,367 1991 26 3,253 7,982 15,800 16,462 10,864 4,815 6,272 10,749 9,706 3,437 4,853 1992 1,358 3,452 5,980 8,163 10,270 11,596 17,116 11,326 13,627 11,199 2,570 812 1993 1,709 2,183 3,139 17,592 30,401 25,865 16,422 17,249 15,631 12,044 1,415 7,600 1994 692 1,521 7,130 20,751 26,772 15,711 17,419 13,891 9,370 6,950 2,330 1,038 1995 1,144 1,218 4,867 9,018 18,190 15,120 9,480 6,202 10,541 14,552 2,750 1,727 1996 871 3,814 4,043 9,051 19,783 12,404 11,191 17,682 19,846 13,803 1,849 2,730 1997 3,164 3,776 11,894 14,013 19,122 13,736 7,711 12,725 17,542 22,393 4,205 2,208

395

West Virginia Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 2,636 3,056 7,714 11,094 19,622 17,419 16,104 16,323 13,930 7,415 6,785 4,120 1991 843 2,207 5,193 12,543 15,471 16,359 15,601 10,248 9,551 8,573 5,375 2,288 1992 1,013 1,191 1,116 9,299 25,331 21,514 19,498 21,430 15,698 16,466 5,155 936 1993 467 42 1,620 11,145 39,477 28,118 20,621 18,991 20,910 11,087 7,110 863 1994 331 2,543 4,529 21,836 25,960 28,392 28,083 23,234 21,272 9,826 3,695 1,516 1995 1,637 1,663 6,487 10,136 25,124 25,049 23,910 12,599 18,493 16,438 2,473 1,948 1996 3,579 5,076 2,329 20,784 34,294 29,814 32,943 20,814 28,469 17,457 2,164 2,890 1997 1,987 2,401 2,869 6,756 25,269 32,158 27,135 24,684 20,412 14,862 4,930 836

396

Washington Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 929 289 499 863 0 2,707 2,937 2,937 1,101 622 906 507 1991 833 586 299 3,139 1,705 2,716 2,138 291 308 0 1,447 753 1992 436 149 945 1,205 1,824 1,543 1,336 1,618 1,578 979 785 895 1993 750 383 2,192 1,363 4,359 1,112 2,036 1,280 2,258 340 326 3,176 1994 1,579 318 1,268 3,455 2,882 2,005 1,945 965 1,330 503 1,263 1,192 1995 541 827 1,671 1,661 2,601 2,020 1,565 829 2,494 464 1,696 1,447 1996 808 2,027 1,081 1,609 2,176 3,349 1,470 2,279 1,441 655 1,978 1,252 1997 2,356 844 100 1,041 6,091 3,816 1,351 399 2,304 257 1,145 313 1998 2,718 32 296 937 4,485 3,086 967 3,957 1,836 722 1,817 2,284

397

Oregon Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 0 0 0 1,181 1,508 1,244 764 636 372 188 0 0 1991 0 0 0 0 713 1,554 1,458 1,092 674 339 23 0 1992 0 0 0 0 1,572 1,540 1,194 1,010 453 195 0 149 1993 0 0 0 0 1,636 1,291 1,175 1,036 575 487 0 0 1994 0 0 0 0 1,216 1,506 1,202 1,081 688 264 0 0 1995 0 182 0 867 1,179 1,034 695 0 490 0 0 0 1996 - - - - 841 1,365 1,318 509 121 262 - - 1997 0 24 0 0 1,300 1,681 1,301 1,178 411 97 267 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 1,968 1,188 1,143 1,141 28 0 205 1999 0 0 0 0 13 2,018 2,119 1,316 1,546 0 593 0 2000 0 0 0 0 894 2,101 2,270 2,074 720 720 103 11 2001 0 0 0 0 2,151 2,561 2,295 1,860 845 0 775 0

398

Colorado Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 6,391 6,849 8,663 1970's 8,757 5,839 8,502 10,673 11,444 13,420 16,987 21,717 20,630 25,334...

399

Colorado Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 538 235 252 265 1,274 4,266 6,279 5,212 5,012 1,957 1,734 650 1991 992 654 483 61 2,494 3,876 4,219 4,449 5,296 3,296...

400

Some Aspects of Injection of Large Samples in Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada This presentation reviews two aspects of...University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Abstract This presentation reviews two...This effect would be expected to always leed to lowering of the activity coefficient......

W. E. Harris

1973-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Arkansas Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2,218 1,783 1,555 1,033 1,462 1,572 2,081 1980's 1,107 1,690 1,854 241 1,817 4,359 1,871 398 1,522 1,299 1990's 1,938 1,044 2,461 272 3,249 5,368 7,152 6,665 6,951 5,784 2000's...

402

Oklahoma Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 47,438 46,871 53,945 1970's 57,142 66,666 59,061 88,000 70,076 87,459 88,577 104,347 109,076 110,354...

403

Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3,132,920 3,340,365 3,314,990 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 3,132,920 3,340,365 3,314,990 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 1935-2012 Alaska 1973-1975 Lower 48 States 3,421,813 2,825,427 2011-2012 Alabama 20,009 31,208 21,020 23,026 22,766 21,195 1968-2012 Arkansas 5,695 5,023 4,108 4,672 4,628 2,848 1967-2012 California 214,469 237,364 199,763 226,810 263,067 218,663 1967-2012 Colorado 38,619 39,034 45,861 43,250 51,469 59,096 1967-2012 Connecticut 1973-1996 Delaware 1967-1975 Georgia 1974-1975 Idaho 1974-1975 Illinois 243,789 260,333 259,421 247,458 258,690 249,953 1967-2012 Indiana 22,686 22,874 24,399 21,943 23,864 19,878 1967-2012 Iowa 70,329 70,022 79,012 76,407 77,783 66,774 1967-2012 Kansas 113,399 115,669 102,406 113,253 119,823 93,460 1967-2012 Kentucky 70,682 77,503 71,972 85,167 77,526 64,483 1967-2012

404

Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3,132,920 3,340,365 3,314,990 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 3,132,920 3,340,365 3,314,990 3,291,395 3,421,813 2,825,427 1935-2012 Alaska 1973-1975 Lower 48 States 3,421,813 2,825,427 2011-2012 Alabama 20,009 31,208 21,020 23,026 22,766 21,195 1968-2012 Arkansas 5,695 5,023 4,108 4,672 4,628 2,848 1967-2012 California 214,469 237,364 199,763 226,810 263,067 218,663 1967-2012 Colorado 38,619 39,034 45,861 43,250 51,469 59,096 1967-2012 Connecticut 1973-1996 Delaware 1967-1975 Georgia 1974-1975 Idaho 1974-1975 Illinois 243,789 260,333 259,421 247,458 258,690 249,953 1967-2012 Indiana 22,686 22,874 24,399 21,943 23,864 19,878 1967-2012 Iowa 70,329 70,022 79,012 76,407 77,783 66,774 1967-2012 Kansas 113,399 115,669 102,406 113,253 119,823 93,460 1967-2012 Kentucky 70,682 77,503 71,972 85,167 77,526 64,483 1967-2012

405

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Overview - May 21, 2001 Somewhat warmer temperatures early in the week, especially in the South, provided a lift to natural gas spot and futures prices. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) However, a report of another large stock build and a revised forecast for normal to below-normal temperatures over a larger area of the country turned the week's gains into losses. On a week-to-week basis, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped $0.10 to end Friday, May 18 at $4.15 per MMBtu, while the NYMEX price of natural gas for June delivery at the Henry Hub declined $0.013 to $4.291 per MMBtu. At 119 Bcf, net injections to storage for the week ended May 11, 2001, were the highest value for the 8-year period of weekly AGA data.

406

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4, 2008 4, 2008 Next Release: July 31, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, July 16, natural gas spot prices decreased at all markets in the Lower 48 States, with prices falling more than $1 per MMBtu at most locations during the period. Prices at the Henry Hub fell $1.26 per million Btu (MMBtu), or about 11 percent, to $9.89 per MMBtu. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the futures contract for August delivery at the Henry Hub settled yesterday at $9.788 per MMBtu, declining $1.61 or about 14 percent since Wednesday, July 16. Natural gas in storage was 2,396 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of July 18, which is about 1 percent below the 5-year average (2003-2007), following an implied net injection of 84 Bcf.

407

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5, 2008 5, 2008 Next Release: May 22, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Natural gas spot prices increased in a majority of regions of the Lower 48 States this report week (Wednesday–Wednesday, May 7-14).The Henry Hub spot price increased $0.43 per million Btu (MMBtu) to $11.51, the highest average price recorded at the Henry Hub in more than 2 years. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), prices also continued on an upward trend that has resulted in weekly price increases in 6 of the last 7 report weeks. The futures contract for June delivery increased 27.1 cents per MMBtu on the week to approximately $11.60. During the week ending Friday, May 9, estimated net injections of natural gas into underground storage totaled the largest volume to date

408

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

, 2008 , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices increased at most markets in the Lower 48 States, with prices rising up to 5 percent during the period. Prices at the Henry Hub increased 55 cents per million Btu (MMBtu), or about 4 percent, to $13.31 per MMBtu. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the futures contract for August delivery at the Henry Hub settled yesterdayat $13.389 per MMBtu, rising 52 cents or about 4 percent since Wednesday, June 25. Natural gas in storage was 2,118 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of June 27, which is about 3 percent below the 5-year average (2003-2007), following an implied net injection of 85 Bcf.

409

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3, 2009 3, 2009 Next Release: April 30, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 22, 2009) Since Wednesday, April 15, natural gas spot prices fell at most market locations in the Lower 48 States. Prices traded yesterday at or below $4 per million Btu (MMBtu) at all market locations. The Henry Hub spot market price fell by 12 cents, or 3 percent, over the week to $3.48 per MMBtu yesterday. The price for the May contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) fell by 4 percent to $3.532 per MMBtu, from $3.693. Natural gas in storage was 1,741 Bcf as of Friday, April 17, following a 46 Bcf injection. Inventories are now 23 percent higher than the 5-year average and 36 percent higher than the level 1 year ago.

410

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Spheromak injection into a tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results from the Caltech spheromak injection experiment [to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett.] are reported. First current drive by spheromak injection into the ENCORE tokamak as a result of the process of magnetic helicity injection is observed. An initial 30% increase in plasma current is observed followed by a drop by a factor of 3 because of sudden plasma cooling. Second spheromak injection results in an increase of tokamak central density by a factor of 6. The high?current/high?density discharge is terminated by a sharp peaking of the density profile followed by an interchange instability. In a second experiment the spheromak is injected into the magnetized toroidal vacuum vessel (with no tokamak plasma) fitted with magnetic probe arrays. An m=1 (nonaxisymmetric) magnetic structure forms in the vessel after the spheromak undergoes a double tilt; once in the cylindrical entrance between gun and tokamak then again in the tokamak vessel. In the absence of net toroidal flux the structure develops a helical pitch (the sense of pitch depends on the helicity sign). Experiments with a number of refractory metal electrode coatings have shown that tungsten and chrome coatings provide some improvement in spheromak parameters. Design details of a larger higher?current spheromak gun with a new accelerator section are also discussed.

M. R. Brown; P. M. Bellan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

MathematicalGeology, Vol. 11,No. I,1979 Modeling and Optimizing a Gas-Water Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of gas in psia pressure of gas in psia at time t constant production rate of gas in moles per year production rate at time t in moles per year ideal gas constant constant rate of water injection in cubic feet of the reservoir in cubic feet, below which gas production ceases initial reservoir volume in cubic feet reservoir

Waterman, Michael S.

413

EIA - All Natural Gas Analysis  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

All Natural Gas Analysis All Natural Gas Analysis 2010 Peaks, Plans and (Persnickety) Prices This presentation provides information about EIA's estimates of working gas peak storage capacity, and the development of the natural gas storage industry. Natural gas shale and the need for high deliverability storage are identified as key drivers in natural gas storage capacity development. The presentation also provides estimates of planned storage facilities through 2012. Categories: Prices, Storage (Released, 10/28/2010, ppt format) U.S Natural Gas Imports and Exports: 2009 This report provides an overview of U.S. international natural gas trade in 2009. Natural gas import and export data, including liquefied natural gas (LNG) data, are provided through the year 2009 in Tables SR1-SR9. Categories: Imports & Exports/Pipelines (Released, 9/28/2010, Html format)

414

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Strategies for Marine Hydrate Reservoirs Production Strategies for Marine Hydrate Reservoirs Production Strategies for Marine Hydrate Reservoirs Authors: J. Phirani. & K. K. Mohanty Venue: 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2008), Vancouver, British Columbia, CANADA, July 6-10, 2008. http://www.ichg.org/showcontent.aspx?MenuID=287 [external site]. Abstract: Large quantities of natural gas hydrate are present in marine sediments. This research is aimed at assessing production of natural gas from these deposits. We had developed a multiphase, multicomponent, thermal, 3D simulator in the past, which can simulate production of hydrates both in equilibrium and kinetic modes. Four components (hydrate, methane, water and salt) and five phases (hydrate, gas, aqueous-phase, ice and salt precipitate) are considered in the simulator. The intrinsic kinetics of hydrate formation or dissociation is considered using the Kim–Bishnoi model. Water freezing and ice melting are tracked with primary variable switch method (PVSM) by assuming equilibrium phase transition. In this work, we simulate depressurization and warm water flooding for hydrate production in a hydrate reservoir underlain by a water layer. Water flooding has been studied as a function of well spacing, well orientation, and injection temperature. Results show that depressurization is limited by the supply of heat of hydrate formation. Warm water flooding can supply this heat of formation. Gas production rate is higher for the water flooding than depressurization. Optimum configuration for wells and water temperature are identified.

415

Hydrothermal Injection Research Program. Annual progress report, FY 1983  

SciTech Connect

The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September of 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests followed by a long-term injection test were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow of the well. The test program was successful, resulting in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December of 1982 an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. Republic Geothermal, Inc. and the East Mesa Geothermal Field were selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August of 1983 aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique. This test program was also successfully completed. This report describes in detail the analysis conducted on the Raft River data, the supporting work at EG and G Idaho and at ESL/UURI, and gives an overview of the objectives and test program at East Mesa.

Blackett, R.E.; Kolesar, P.T.; Capuano, R.G.; Sill, W.R.; Allman, D.W.; Hull, L.C.; Large, R.M.; Miller, J.D.; Skiba, P.A.; Downs, W.F.; Koslow, K.N.; McAtee, R.E.; Russell, B.F.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 2, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, May 19, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, May 11, 2011) Natural gas prices fell across the board as oil prices dropped steeply along with most other major commodities. At the Henry Hub, the natural gas spot price fell 36 cents from $4.59 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, May 4, to $4.23 per MMBtu on Wednesday, May 11. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the near-month natural gas contract (June 2011) dropped almost 9 percent, falling from $4.577 per MMBtu last Wednesday to $4.181 yesterday. Working natural gas in storage rose by 70 billion cubic feet (Bcf) to 1,827 Bcf, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report.

417

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 2, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, July 29, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 21, 2010) Natural gas prices rose across market locations in the lower 48 States during the report week. The Henry Hub natural gas spot price rose 31 cents, or 7 percent, during the week, averaging $4.70 per million Btu (MMBtu) yesterday, July 21. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the price of the August 2010 natural gas futures contract for delivery at the Henry Hub rose about 21 cents, or 5 percent, ending the report week at $4.513 per MMBtu. Working natural gas in storage increased to 2,891 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, July 16, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas Storage

418

Natural Gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

30 May 1974 research-article Natural Gas C. P. Coppack This paper reviews the world's existing natural gas reserves and future expectations, together with natural gas consumption in 1972, by main geographic...

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Going To Work: Work Relationships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of a worker's top goals should be to develop good relationships with coworkers and supervisers. This publication discusses five general rules for building good relationships at work and offers advice on handling criticism....

Hoffman, Rosemarie

2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

420

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements. [Comparing steam injection and steam foam injection with nitrogen and without nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Evaluation of air injection and extraction tests in a landfill site in Korea: implications for landfill management  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air extraction and injection were evaluated for extracting hazardous landfill gas and enhancing degradation of organic materials in a landfill in Korea. From the pilot and full ... pressure radius of influence wa...

J. Lee; C. Lee; K. Lee

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 19) 2, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 19) Moderate temperatures across the country except in the Southwest contributed to natural gas spot prices easing 25 to 50 cents per MMBtu since Wednesday, June 4. On the week (Wednesday, June 4-Wednesday, June 11), the Henry Hub spot price dropped 35 cents per MMBtu to $6.06. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery at the Henry Hub fell about 16 cents per MMBtu to $6.213. Natural gas in storage as of Friday, June 6, increased to 1,324 Bcf, which is 25.2 percent below the 5-year average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil rose $2.36 per barrel on the week to yesterday's (June 11) closing price of $32.17 per barrel, or $5.55 per MMBtu. Prices: Natural gas spot prices at many market locations in the Lower 48 States have declined for three consecutive trading days from Friday peaks as key market areas in the Midwest and the Eastern seaboard have experienced unseasonably cool weather. Although prices remain elevated, the slackened demand for natural gas for electric generation has contributed to prices generally softening across the board. For the week, the spot price at the Henry Hub dropped about 6 percent to $6.06 per MMBtu, while other pricing points on the Gulf Coast showed slightly greater declines and fell below the $6-mark. The overall easing of prices may reflect also the slightly improving storage picture as injections in 7 of the past 8 weeks have exceeded the 5-year average with a record net addition reported last Thursday. Although the storage refill season started slowly, injections have increased considerably, with at least one major interstate pipeline serving the Northeast, Tennessee Gas Pipeline, announcing restrictions to shippers due to injection nominations exceeding capacity. The spot price at Tennessee Gas Pipeline's Zone 6, which serves major citygates in New York and other Northeastern states, this week fell 47 cents per MMBtu to $6.30. In contrast to the East, prices in the West moved higher early in the week, as maintenance on El Paso Natural Gas in the San Juan Basin restricted deliveries from the region and a heat wave sparked buying at pricing locations in California and New Mexico. The spot price at the Southern California border surged 61 cents per MMBtu on Monday to $5.78, but has since dropped to $5.51, which is a net decline of 51 cents since Wednesday, June 4.

423

Solar steam reforming of natural gas integrated with a gas turbine power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper shows a hybrid power plant wherein solar steam reforming of natural gas and a steam injected gas turbine power plant are integrated for solar syngas production and use. The gas turbine is fed by a mixture of natural gas and solar syngas (mainly composed of hydrogen and water steam) from mid-low temperature steam reforming reaction whose heat duty is supplied by a parabolic trough Concentrating Solar Power plant. A comparison is made between a traditional steam injected gas turbine and the proposed solution to underline the improvements introduced by the integration with solar steam reforming of the natural gas process. The paper also shows how solar syngas can be considered as an energy vector consequent to solar energy conversion effectiveness and the natural gas pipeline as a storage unit, thus accomplishing the idea of a smart energy grid.

Augusto Bianchini; Marco Pellegrini; Cesare Saccani

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalysts fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

Lee, Tonghun

425

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of a liquid metal ion source for external ion injection into electron-beam ion source A into electron-beam ion source EBIS . It does not use a buffer gas and therefore it provides only a very small types of low-charged ion sources have been used for external ion injection into BNL electron-beam ion

426

Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

70-108B One Cyclotron Road Berkeley, California 94720 December 2, 1997 Key Words: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells, humidification, gas distribution, direct liquid water injection, interdigitated flow fields. * Corresponding... of the catalyst layers were made of waterproof, carbon fiber cloths. Liquid water was injected by two metering pumps into two heated stainless steel coils, where it was preheated to the cell operating temperatures, and then directly into the gas streams...

Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Nguyen, Trung Van

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Linked Injectives and Ore Localizations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......injective right (Z?//)-module. By (a), L is ^-divisible and hence ^-divisible. Consider xeE and c e ^ such that xceL. Then xc = yc for some yeL, whence x = y and so xeL. Thus E/L is ^-torsion-free. In view of Lemma 1.1, we investigate......

K. R. Goodearl

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Self-truncated ionization injection and consequent monoenergetic electron bunches in laser wakefield acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The ionization-induced injection in laser wakefield acceleration has been recently demonstrated to be a promising injection scheme. However, the energy spread controlling in this mechanism remains a challenge because continuous injection in a mixed gas target is usually inevitable. Here, we propose that by use of certain initially unmatched laser pulses, the electron injection can be constrained to the very front region of the mixed gas target, typically in a length of a few hundreds micrometers determined by the laser self-focusing and the wake deformation. As a result, the produced electron beam has narrow energy spread and meanwhile contains tens of pC in charge. Both multidimensional simulations and theoretical analysis illustrate the effectiveness of this scheme.

Zeng, Ming; Zhang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mathematics, Institute of Natural Sciences, and MOE-LSC, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 20040 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Mori, Warren B. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2012 | Release Date: November 8, 7, 2012 | Release Date: November 8, 2012 | Next Release: November 15, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 12/22/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Natural Gas Inventories Finish 2012 Storage Injection Season at Record Levels Lower 48 working natural gas inventories as of October 31, 2012 were at an end-of-season record of 3,923 billion cubic feet (Bcf), based off an interpolation of the levels reported in the last two Weekly Natural Gas Storage Reports (which estimated stock levels for October 26 and November 2). This reflects a 3.0 percent year-over-year increase over inventories in 2011, and is 6.8 percent above the five-year average storage levels on October 31 for 2007-2011. The 264 heating degree-days recorded for October 2012 was the highest level

430

Working Copy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Effective Date: 11/05/13 WP 12-IS.01-6 Revision 10 Industrial Safety Program - Visitor, Vendor, User, Tenant, and Subcontractor Safety Controls Cognizant Section: Industrial Safety/Industrial Hygiene Approved By: Tom Ferguson Working Copy Industrial Safety Program - Visitor, Vendor, User, Tenant, and Subcontractor Safety Controls WP 12-IS.01-6, Rev. 10 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHANGE HISTORY SUMMARY ..................................................................................... 7 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................. 8 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 ............................................................................................... 10 2.0 VISITORS ........................................................................................................... 11

431

Working Copy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/WIPP-99-2286 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Notification or Reporting Implementation Plan Revision 7 U.S. Department of Energy December 2013 This document supersedes DOE/WIPP-99-2286, Rev. 6. Working Copy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Notification or Reporting Implementation Plan DOE/WIPP-99-2286, Rev. 7 2 TABLE OF CONTENTSCHANGE HISTORY SUMMARY .............................................. 3 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................ 4 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 6 2.0 NOTIFICATION OR REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND COMMITMENTS ..... 7

432

Gas jet disruption mitigation studies on Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-pressure noble gas jet injection is a mitigation technique which potentially satisfies the requirements of fast response time and reliability, without degrading subsequent discharges. Previously reported gas jet ...

Hollmann, E. M.

433

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

434

GRR/Section 14-CA-c - Underground Injection Control Permit | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

14-CA-c - Underground Injection Control Permit 14-CA-c - Underground Injection Control Permit < GRR Jump to: navigation, search GRR-logo.png GEOTHERMAL REGULATORY ROADMAP Roadmap Home Roadmap Help List of Sections Section 14-CA-c - Underground Injection Control Permit 14CACUndergroundInjectionControl.pdf Click to View Fullscreen Contact Agencies California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources Regulations & Policies Division 3, Chapter 4 of the California Public Resources Code Title 14, Division 2, Chapter 4 of the California Code of Regulations Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 144 Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 146 Triggers None specified Click "Edit With Form" above to add content 14CACUndergroundInjectionControl.pdf Error creating thumbnail: Page number not in range.

435

Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

Li, G.; Keener, T.C. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

UK Oil and Gas Collaborative Doctoral Training Centre (2014 start) Project Title: Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale (EARTH-15-CM1)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale (EARTH-15-CM1) Host institution: University of Oxford in extracting gas from these low-permeability rocks is hydraulic fracture. This involves injecting large of water and gas during hydraulic fracturing and subsequent gas recovery. This is essential in order

Henderson, Gideon

437

Water-saving liquid-gas conditioning system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises contacting a process gas with a hygroscopic working fluid in order to remove a constituent from the process gas. A system for treating a process gas with a liquid comprises a hygroscopic working fluid comprising a component adapted to absorb or react with a constituent of a process gas, and a liquid-gas contactor for contacting the working fluid and the process gas, wherein the constituent is removed from the process gas within the liquid-gas contactor.

Martin, Christopher; Zhuang, Ye

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

438

Work Address:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BO SAULSBURY BO SAULSBURY Work Address: Home Address: Oak Ridge National Laboratory 12952 Buckley Road National Transportation Research Center Knoxville, TN 37934 Building NTRC-2, Room 118 (865) 288-0750 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6479 (865) 574-4694 saulsburyjw@ornl.gov Technical Specialties: Land use planning Environmental and socioeconomic impact assessment National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) project management Vehicle fuel economy Education: 1986 B. A., History (minors in English and Business), The University of Tennessee 1989 M. S., Planning, The University of Tennessee (Thesis title: Land Use Compatibility Planning for Airfield Environs: Intergovernmental Cooperation to Protect Land Users From the Effects of Aircraft Operations)

439

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Header for SPIE use RAPID TOOLING USING SU-8 FOR INJECTION MOLDING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Campus Drive, Room 2202, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 ABSTRACT In this work we present an injection molding. Edwards*1 , Swomitra K. Mohanty1 , Russell K. Edwards2 , Charles Thomas2 , A. Bruno Frazier1 1 Georgia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Radial characterisation of the helium plasma produced by the axial injection torch (TIA) at atmospheric pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work presents the radial characterisation of a helium plasma produced by the “Torch à Injection Axiale ... using a collisional-radiative model for helium at atmospheric pressure, the electronic density and e...

R. Álvarez; A. Rodero; M. C. Quintero

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - air injection reactors Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the reactor, workers begin to inject concrete into the crack to try to seal it, but the patch does not work... , sparking a tsunami March 14th : Explosion reported by second...

443

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 1, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, April 28, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, April 20, 2011) Natural gas prices rose at most market locations during the week, as consumption increased. The Henry Hub spot price increased 19 cents from $4.14 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, April 13 to $4.33 per MMBtu on Wednesday, April 20. Futures prices behaved similar to spot prices; at the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the near-month natural gas contract (May 2011) rose from $4.141 per MMBtu to $4.310 per MMBtu. Working natural gas in storage rose to 1,654 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, April 15, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas

444

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5, 2009 5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas spot prices generally declined this report week (June 17-24), with the largest decreases generally occurring in the western half of the country. During the report week, the Henry Hub spot price decreased by $0.19 per million Btu (MMBtu) to $3.80. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), futures prices for natural gas decreased as prices for most energy products fell amid concerns over the economy. The natural gas futures contract for July delivery decreased by 49 cents per MMBtu on the week to $3.761. Working gas in underground storage as of last Friday, June 19, is

445

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 3, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, June 30, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 22, 2011) Natural gas prices fell slightly at most market locations from Wednesday, June 15 to Wednesday, June 22. The Henry Hub price fell 10 cents from $4.52 per million Btu (MMBtu) last Wednesday to $4.42 per MMBtu yesterday. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the July 2011 near-month futures contract fell by 26 cents, or about 6 percent, from $4.58 last Wednesday to $4.32 yesterday. Working natural gas in storage rose to 2,354 this week, according to EIAÂ’s Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR). The natural gas rotary rig count, as reported by Baker Hughes

446

Industrial Gas Turbines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air. This is why gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate, they are used widely in industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings. Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy from the fuel

447

Industrial Gas Turbines | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines Industrial Gas Turbines November 1, 2013 - 11:40am Addthis A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air. This is why gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate, they are used widely in industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings. Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy from the fuel

448

Injection Technology for Marine Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The introduction of new emission limits faces modern injection systems with new challenges. Increasing the system pressures puts higher loads on the injection components as regards stability, wear and temperature...

Dr. Rolf Leonhard; Dr.-Ing. Marcus Parche…

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

An environmental analysis of injection molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

Thiriez, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, 2 edition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." ¿¿Richard ...

Justin Clarke; Kevvie Fowler; Erlend Oftedal; Rodrigo Marcos Alvarez; Dave Hartley; Alexander Kornbrust; Gary O'Leary-Steele; Alberto Revelli; Sumit Siddharth; Marco Slaviero

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Natural Gas Summary from the Short-Term Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

this summer and continue at elevated levels through the rest of 2003 (Short-Term Energy Outlook, June 2003). Natural gas wellhead prices are expected to average $5.40 per MMBtu in June and remain above $5.13 through December 2003. Spot prices at the Henry Hub have stayed well above $5.00 per MMBtu on a monthly basis since the beginning of the year and have been above $6.00 for the first 10 days of June. The low level of underground storage is the principal reason for these unusually high prices. As of June 6, 2003, working gas stocks were 1,324 Bcf, which is about 35 percent below year-earlier levels and 25 percent below the 5-year average. Natural gas prices are likely to stay high as long as above-normal storage injection demand competes with industrial and power sector demand for gas. Overall in 2003, wellhead prices are projected to increase about $2.33 per MMBtu (the largest U.S. annual wellhead price increase on record) over the 2002 level to a record annual high of about $5.20 per MMBtu. For 2004, prices are projected to ease only moderately, as supplies are expected to remain tight.

452

Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturingassembly guidelines, maintenancerepair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as...

453

Feasibility of waterflooding Soku E7000 gas-condensate reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We performed a simple 3D compositional reservoir simulation study to examine the possibility of waterflooding the Soku E7 gas-condensate reservoir. This study shows that water injection results in higher condensate recovery than natural depletion...

Ajayi, Arashi

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

454

New Applications of an Expanded Gas Chromatography/Computer System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......in routine gas analyses. Instrument modifications...Applications include analyses of reactor feed, product...detectors. System reliability bas also been good...catalyst life study reactor for almost two...sample injection/analysis/cal- culation......

J. G. W. Price; J. C. Scott; L. O. Wheeler

1971-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELECTRON INJECTION INTO CYCLIC ACCELERATOR USING LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATION Ya. V. Getmanov, O. A acceleration #12;Storage ring with laser injection CYCLIC ACCELERATOR RF Electron injection The LWFA beam ­ accelerating light, 5 ­ accelerated electrons, 6 ­fast kicker - + accelerating laser pulse evaporatinglaser

456

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says August 31, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The feasibility of using carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for recovering between 250 million and 500 million additional barrels of oil from Kansas oilfields has been established in a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The University of Kansas Center for Research studied the possibility of near-miscible CO2 flooding for extending the life of mature oilfields in the Arbuckle Formation while simultaneously providing permanent geologic storage of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas.

457

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When the gas turbine generator was introduced to the power generation ... fossil-fueled power plant. Twenty years later, gas turbines were established as an important means of ... on utility systems. By the early...

Jeffrey M. Smith

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Gas Turbines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the time to separate out the essentials and the irrelevancies in a text-book. The gas ...gasturbine ...

H. CONSTANT

1950-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

459

Glass melter off-gas system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for melting glass in a glass melter in such a way as to reduce deposition of particulates in the off-gas duct. Deposit accumulation is reduced by achieving an off-gas velocity above approximately 15 meters/second and an off-gas temperature as close as possible to, but not higher than, the glass softening point. Because the deposits are largely water-soluble, those that do form on the interior surface of the duct can be readily removed by injecting water or steam directly into the off-gas duct from its entrance or exit.

Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Steam injection method and apparatus for recovery of oil  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for recovering oil from an oil bearing formation utilizing steam injected into the formation. A working fluid is heated at the surface to produce a reversible, chemical reaction, particularly a reforming reaction in a reforming/methanation reaction cycle. The products of the reforming reaction are transported at near ambient temperatures to a downhole heat exchanger through which water is circulated. There a catalyst triggers the methanation reaction, liberating heat energy to convert the water to steam. The products of the methanation reaction are recirculated to the surface to repeat the cycle. In one embodiment the products of the methanation reaction are injected into the formation along with the steam. Various catalysts, and various systems for heating the working fluid are disclosed.

Meeks, T.; Rhoades, C.A.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Overview Overview Lower prices and a report of another considerable net injection to stocks were featured in last week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped $0.24 from the previous Friday to $4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of natural gas for June delivery at the Henry Hub declined $0.212 for the week to $4.278 per MMBtu. A record-setting 108 Bcf was added to natural gas stocks for the week ended May 4, 2001. The demand for cooling is still somewhat limited as mild temperatures prevailed around most of the country. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) Prices Mid-week prices were at the lowest level since early August. Even with an end-of-the-week influence from the futures market that caused a slight upturn, spot prices at the major supply hubs were $0.25 to $0.65 cents per MMBtu lower on a week-to-week basis with Katy, Texas ending at $4.23; the Henry Hub, Louisiana at $4.25; Midcon, Oklahoma at $4.11; and Opal, Wyoming at $3.30. Prices at the Chicago and New York citygates were lower as well, registering $4.35 and $4.65 at week's end, off a respective $0.27 and $0.20 per MMBtu for the week. SoCal provided the only exception to the generally lower trend as demand increased because of warmer temperatures. Natural gas prices receded before temperatures did, though. The effect of unscheduled maintenance on the PG&E Gas Transmission system was imperceptible to PG&E's large-volume purchasers. By Friday, the PG&E customers were paying $3.51 less at $4.18 while SoCal's citygate price was only $0.47 lower at $11.92.

462

PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CO2 SEPARATION AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF COAL GAS RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

An attractive alternative of sequestering CO{sub 2} is to inject it into coalbed methane reservoirs, particularly since it has been shown to enhance the production of methane during near depletion stages. The basis for enhanced coalbed methane recovery and simultaneous sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep coals is the preferential sorption property of coal, with its affinity for carbon dioxide being significantly higher than that for methane. Yet, the sorption behavior of coal under competitive sorptive environment is not fully understood. Hence, the original objective of this research study was to carry out a laboratory study to investigate the effect of studying the sorption behavior of coal in the presence of multiple gases, primarily methane, CO{sub 2} and nitrogen, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in displacement of methane and its movement in coal. This had to be modified slightly since the PVT property of gas mixtures is still not well understood, and any laboratory work in the area of sorption of gases requires a definite equation of state to calculate the volumes of different gases in free and adsorbed forms. This research study started with establishing gas adsorption isotherms for pure methane and CO{sub 2}. The standard gas expansion technique based on volumetric analysis was used for the experimental work with the additional feature of incorporating a gas chromatograph for analysis of gas composition. The results were analyzed first using the Langmuir theory. As expected, the Langmuir analysis indicated that CO{sub 2} is more than three times as sorptive as methane. This was followed by carrying out a partial desorption isotherm for methane, and then injecting CO{sub 2} to displace methane. The results indicated that CO{sub 2} injection at low pressure displaced all of the sorbed methane, even when the total pressure continued to be high. However, the displacement appeared to be occurring due to a combination of the preferential sorption property of coal and reduction in the partial pressure of methane. As a final step, the Extended Langmuir (EL) model was used to model the coal-methane-CO{sub 2} binary adsorption system. The EL model was found to be very accurate in predicting adsorption of CO{sub 2}, but not so in predicting desorption of methane. The selectivity of CO{sub 2} over methane was calculated to be 4.3:1. This is, of course, not in very good agreement with the measured values which showed the ratio to be 3.5:1. However, the measured results are in good agreement with the field observation at one of the CO{sub 2} injection sites. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that low pressure injection of CO{sub 2} can be fairly effective in displacing methane in coalbed reservoirs although this might be difficult to achieve in field conditions. Furthermore, the displacement of methane appears to be not only due to the preferential sorption of methane, but reduction in partial pressure as well. Hence, using a highly adsorbing gas, such as CO{sub 2}, has the advantages of inert gas stripping and non-mixing since the injected gas does not mix with the recovered methane.

John Kemeny; Satya Harpalani

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Regional/State Underground Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Regional/State Underground Natural Gas Storage Table Regional/State Underground Natural Gas Storage Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Regional Underground Natural Gas Storage, Close of 2007 Depleted-Reservoir Storage Aquifer Storage Salt-Cavern Storage Total Region/ State # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) # of Sites Working Gas Capacity (Bcf) Daily Withdrawal Capability (MMcf) Central Region Colorado 8 42 1,088 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 42 1,088 Iowa 0 0 0 4 77 1,060 0 0 0 4 77 1,060

464

Gas from Veggies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas from Veggies Gas from Veggies Name: Julie Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Im doing my science experiment to see if the processing of food produces gas. I was told that you do this by getting the vegitables, grounding them up, mixing them with vinegar and putting it in a test tube and then place a balloon over it to see if gas is produced. First I tried mixing the foods (Im using canned, frozen and fresh broccoli first to see if it works) with the vinegar and put it in a test tube and I placed a balloon over it but no gas was produced. I then tried it again in heat and again in the cold and it still wouldnt work. I tried the experiment again and pureed the broccoli and mixed it with the vinegar, put the balloon over it and still no gas was produced. What could I be doing wrong? Im using 5% acidity vineger because that's the only kind I could find. Do I need a stronger one? Where can I get a stronger one? How much vinegar should I be using? How much of the broccoli should I be using? Do I have to do something to the broccoli first? Please try to answer my questions I really need help.

465

A method for direct, semi-quantitative analysis of gas phase samples using gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A new and complete GC–ICP-MS method is described for direct analysis of trace metals in a gas phase process stream. The proposed method is derived from standard analytical procedures developed for ICP-MS, which are regularly exercised in standard ICP-MS laboratories. In order to implement the method, a series of empirical factors were generated to calibrate detector response with respect to a known concentration of an internal standard analyte. Calibrated responses are ultimately used to determine the concentration of metal analytes in a gas stream using a semi-quantitative algorithm. The method was verified using a traditional gas injection from a GC sampling valve and a standard gas mixture containing either a 1 ppm Xe + Kr mix with helium balance or 100 ppm Xe with helium balance. Data collected for Xe and Kr gas analytes revealed that agreement of 6–20% with the actual concentration can be expected for various experimental conditions. To demonstrate the method using a relevant “unknown” gas mixture, experiments were performed for continuous 4 and 7 hour periods using a Hg-containing sample gas that was co-introduced into the GC sample loop with the xenon gas standard. System performance and detector response to the dilute concentration of the internal standard were pre-determined, which allowed semi-quantitative evaluation of the analyte. The calculated analyte concentrations varied during the course of the 4 hour experiment, particularly during the first hour of the analysis where the actual Hg concentration was under predicted by up to 72%. Calculated concentration improved to within 30–60% for data collected after the first hour of the experiment. Similar results were seen during the 7 hour test with the deviation from the actual concentration being 11–81% during the first hour and then decreasing for the remaining period. The method detection limit (MDL) was determined for the mercury by injecting the sample gas into the system following a period of equilibration. The MDL for Hg was calculated as 6.8 ?g · m{sup ? 3}. This work describes the first complete GC–ICP-MS method to directly analyze gas phase samples, and detailed sample calculations and comparisons to conventional ICP-MS methods are provided.

Carter, Kimberly E.; Gerdes, Kirk

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

467

California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

468

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

469

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

470

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

471

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

472

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

473

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

474

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

475

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

476

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

477

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

478

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

479

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

480

Natural gas monthly, August 1996  

SciTech Connect

This analysis presents the most recent data on natural gas prices, supply, and consumption from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The presentation of the latest monthly data is followed by an update on natural gas markets. The markets section examines the behavior of daily spot and futures prices based on information from trade press, as well as regional, weekly data on natural gas storage from the American Gas Association (AGA). This {open_quotes}Highlights{close_quotes} closes with a special section comparing and contrasting EIA and AGA storage data on a monthly and regional basis. The regions used are those defined by the AGA for their weekly data collection effort: the Producing Region, the Consuming Region East, and the Consuming Region West. While data on working gas levels have tracked fairly closely between the two data sources, differences have developed recently. The largest difference is in estimates of working gas levels in the East consuming region during the heating season.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6, 2009 6, 2009 Next Release: July 23, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, July 15, 2009) Natural gas spot prices rose during the week in all trading locations. Price increases ranged between 6 cents and 48 cents per million Btu (MMBtu), with the biggest increases occurring in the Rocky Mountain region. During the report week, the spot price at the Henry Hub increased 15 cents or 5 percent to $3.37 per MMBtu. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the natural gas near-month contract (August 2009) decreased 7 cents to $3.283 per MMBtu from $3.353 the previous week. During its tenure as the near-month contract, the August 2009 contract has lost 66 cents. As of Friday, July 10, 2009, working gas in storage rose to 2,886

482

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. 1, 2011 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, August 18, 2011 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, August 10, 2011) Natural gas prices fell across the board