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1

Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

2

New Jersey Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators New Jersey Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

3

South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators South Carolina Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

4

North Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators North Carolina Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

5

Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground...

6

End-of-Month Working Gas in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March 31, 2000) was 1,150 billion cubic feet (Bcf), just above the 1995-1999 average of 1,139 Bcf. However, according to American Gas Association data, injection rates since April 1 have been below average, resulting in a 10-percent shortfall compared to the 5-year average for total stocks as of September 1. Net injections in August have been 10 percent below average. If net injections continue at 10 percent below historically average rates through the remainder of the refill season, gas inventories would be 2,750 Bcf on November 1, which is 8 percent below the 5-year average of about 3,000 Bcf. We are currently projecting that working gas will be between 2,800 and 2,900 Bcf at the end of October, entering the heating season

7

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

8

Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

9

Alaska Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply &...

10

Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators Rhode Island Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply &...

11

Strong finish to 2011 natural gas storage injection season on Oct ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Working natural gas inventories as of October 31 were 3,810 billion cubic feet (Bcf), following exceptionally large storage builds at the end of the 2011 injection ...

12

New type gas-injection plant readied  

SciTech Connect

A unique gas-injection plant is about to go on stream in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo. The $10-million installation, designed for unattended operation, is a joint venture of Phillips Petroleum Co., as operator for itself, and Cia. Shell de Venezuela. The plant, housed on a 120 by 130-ft platform, will be the first in the world to use gas turbines to drive reciprocating compressors. The 130 MMscfd facility will use 2 General Electric 15,000-hp gas turbines with gear reducers to drive a pair of 4-stage Cooper- Bessemer LM-8 compressors. No previous attempt has ever been made to drive this type of unit by gas turbines. Phillips says the gas turbines were selected because of inherent flexibility reliability as prime movers, and lack of vibration--an important advantage in offshore gas plants.

Franco, A.

1967-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

13

Illinois Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct...

14

Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

15

Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

16

Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

17

Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

18

Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

19

Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

20

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injection ISX G Natural Gas Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fact sheet details work by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Not Available

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Low U.S. injections reflect already high natural gas storage ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The increase in U.S. working natural gas inventories nearly half way through the 2012 injection season—the period from April through October when most natural gas ...

24

Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Steam-injected gas turbines uneconomical with coal gasification equipment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Electric Power Research Institute conducted a series of engineering and economic studies to assess the possibility of substituting steam-injected gas (STIG) turbines for the gas turbines currently proposed for use in British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi coal gasification-combined cycle plants. The study sought to determine whether steam-injected gas turbines and intercooled steam-injected gas turbines, as proposed by General Electric would be economically competitive with conventional gas and steam turbines when integrated with coal gasification equipment. The results are tabulated in the paper.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... Demonstrated maximum working gas volume is the sum of the highest storage inventory levels of working gas observed in each facility over the previous 5-year ...

27

California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

28

Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

29

Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

30

Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

31

Alaska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9302013 Next Release Date: 10312013 Referring Pages: Underground Working Natural Gas in Storage - All Operators Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Working...

32

Modeling Injection and Ignition in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With increasing concerns about the harmful effects of conventional liquid fossil fuel emissions, natural gas has become a very attractive alternative fuel to power prime… (more)

Cheng, Xu Jr.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 12,862 9,993...

34

Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 234,149...

35

Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 100,467...

36

Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injected, Ultra Low-NOx Natural Gas Engine: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

Duggal, V. K.; Lyford-Pike, E. J.; Wright, J. F.; Dunn, M.; Goudie, D.; Munshi, S.

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Injection/withdrawal scheduling for natural gas storage facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control decisions for gas storage facilities are made in the face of extreme uncertainty over future natural gas prices on world markets. We examine the problem faced by owners of storage contracts of how to manage the injection/withdrawal schedule of ... Keywords: natural gas storage, optimization, scheduling

Alan Holland

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Note: 1) 'Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity' is the sum of the highest storage inventory level of working gas observed in each facility over the prior 5-year period as...

40

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Peak Working Natural Gas Capacity. Data and Analysis from the Energy Information Administration (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work How Gas Turbine Power Plants Work The combustion (gas) turbines being installed in many of today's natural-gas-fueled power plants are complex machines, but they basically involve three main sections: The compressor, which draws air into the engine, pressurizes it, and feeds it to the combustion chamber at speeds of hundreds of miles per hour. The combustion system, typically made up of a ring of fuel injectors that inject a steady stream of fuel into combustion chambers where it mixes with the air. The mixture is burned at temperatures of more than 2000 degrees F. The combustion produces a high temperature, high pressure gas stream that enters and expands through the turbine section. The turbine is an intricate array of alternate stationary and

42

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (see Table 1), and why any given week's storage ... Demonstrated maximum working gas volume is the sum of the highest storage inventory levels of ...

44

Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 48.7 19.2...

45

PHYSICS PROCESSES IN DISRUPTION MITIGATION USING MASSIVE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

SciTech Connect

Methods for detecting imminent disruptions and mitigating disruption effects using massive injection of noble gases (He, Ne, or Ar) have been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak [1]. A jet of high injected gas density (> 10{sup 24} m{sup -3}) and pressure (> 20 kPa) penetrates the target plasma at the gas sound speed ({approx}300-500 m/s) and increases the atom/ion content of the plasma by a factor of > 50 in several milliseconds. UV line radiation from the impurity species distributes the plasma energy uniformly on the first wall, reducing the thermal load to the divertor by a factor of 10. Runaway electrons are almost completely eliminated by the large density of free and bound electrons supplied by the gas injection. The small vertical plasma displacement before current quench and high ratio of current decay rate to vertical growth rate result in a 75% reduction in peak halo current amplitude and attendant forces.

D.A. HUMPHREYS; D.G. WHYTE; T.C. JERNIGAN; T.E.EVANS; D.S. GRAY; E.M. HOLLMANN; A.W. HYATT; A.G. KELLMAN; C.J. LASNIER; P.B. PARKS; P.L. TAYLOR

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

47

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 3 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit at Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the as found baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu and to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an SO{sub 2} limit of 1.8 lb/MBtu, the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with SO{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The system was designed to inject sorbent at a rate corresponding to a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 2.0. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 50,130 81,827 167,632 312,290 457,725 420,644 359,267 370,180 453,548 436,748 221,389 90,432 2012 74,854 56,243 240,351 263,896 357,965 323,026 263,910 299,798 357,109 327,767 155,554 104,953 2013 70,592 41,680 99,330 270,106 465,787 438,931 372,458 370,471 418,848 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators

49

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Methodology  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Summary Prices Exploration & Reserves Production Imports/Exports Pipelines Storage Consumption All Natural Gas Data Reports Analysis & Projections Most Requested Consumption Exploration & Reserves Imports/Exports & Pipelines Prices Production Projections Storage All Reports ‹ See All Natural Gas Reports Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity With Data for November 2012 | Release Date: July 24, 2013 | Next Release Date: Spring 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Go Methodology Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity Estimates: Estimates are based on aggregation of the noncoincident peak levels of working gas inventories at individual storage fields as reported monthly over a 60-month period ending in November 2012 on Form EIA-191, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage

50

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Definitions Definitions Definitions Since 2006, EIA has reported two measures of aggregate capacity, one based on demonstrated peak working gas storage, the other on working gas design capacity. Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity: This measure sums the highest storage inventory level of working gas observed in each facility over the 5-year range from May 2005 to April 2010, as reported by the operator on the Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Underground Gas Storage Report." This data-driven estimate reflects actual operator experience. However, the timing for peaks for different fields need not coincide. Also, actual available maximum capacity for any storage facility may exceed its reported maximum storage level over the last 5 years, and is virtually certain to do so in the case of newly commissioned or expanded facilities. Therefore, this measure provides a conservative indicator of capacity that may understate the amount that can actually be stored.

51

Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 7,862 17,834 34,190 160,946 247,849 262,039 269,285 244,910 208,853 134,234 47,094 16,471 1995 13,614 4,932 36,048 85,712 223,991 260,731 242,718 212,493 214,385 160,007 37,788 12,190 1996 12,276 39,022 32,753 130,232 233,717 285,798 303,416 270,223 247,897 166,356 39,330 28,875 1997 16,058 14,620 25,278 93,501 207,338 258,086 250,776 252,129 233,730 152,913 53,097 10,338 1998 21,908 13,334 48,068 139,412 254,837 234,427 234,269 207,026 178,129 144,203 52,518 28,342

53

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Methodology Methodology Methodology Demonstrated Peak Working Gas Capacity Estimates: Estimates are based on aggregation of the noncoincident peak levels of working gas inventories at individual storage fields as reported monthly over a 60-month period ending in April 2010 on Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage Report." The months of measurement for the peak storage volumes by facilities may differ; i.e., the months do not necessarily coincide. As such, the noncoincident peak for any region is at least as big as any monthly volume in the historical record. Data from Form EIA-191M, "Monthly Natural Gas Underground Storage Report," are collected from storage operators on a field-level basis. Operators can report field-level data either on a per reservoir basis or on an aggregated reservoir basis. It is possible that if all operators reported on a per reservoir basis that the demonstrated peak working gas capacity would be larger. Additionally, these data reflect inventory levels as of the last day of the report month, and a facility may have reached a higher inventory on a different day of the report month, which would not be recorded on Form EIA-191M.

55

Evaluating reservoir production strategies in miscible and immiscible gas-injection projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Miscible gas injection processes could be among the most widely used enhanced oil recovery processes. Successful design and implementation of a miscible gas injection project depends upon the accurate determination of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and other factors such as reservoir and fluid characterization. The MMP indicates the lowest pressure at which the displacement process becomes multicontact miscible. The experimental methods available for determining MMP are both costly and time consuming. Therefore, the use of correlations that prove to be reliable for a wide range of fluid types would likely be considered acceptable for preliminary screening studies. This work includes a comparative and critical evaluation of MMP correlations and thermodynamic models using an equation of state by PVTsim software. Application of gas injection usually entails substantial risk because of the technological sophistication and financial requirements to initiate the project. More detailed, comprehensive reservoir engineering and project monitoring are necessary for typical miscible flood projects than for other recovery methods. This project evaluated effects of important factors such as injection pressure, vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio, well completion, relative permeability, and permeability stratification on the recovery efficiency from the reservoir for both miscible and immiscible displacements. A three-dimensional, three-phase, Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) compositional simulator based on the implicit-pressure explicit-saturation (IMPES) technique was used to determine the sensitivity of miscible or immiscible oil recovery to suitable ranges of these reservoir parameters. Most of the MMP correlations evaluated in this study have proven not to consider the effect of fluid composition properly. In most cases, EOS-based models are more conservative in predicting MMP values. If screening methods identify a reservoir as a candidate for a miscible injection project, experimental MMP measurements should be conducted for specific gas-injection purposes. Simulation results indicated that injection pressure was a key parameter that influences oil recovery to a high degree. MMP appears to be the optimum injection pressure since the incremental oil recovery at pressures above the MMP is negligible and at pressures below the MMP recovery is substantially lower. Stratification, injection-well completion pattern, and vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratios could also affect the recovery efficiency of the reservoir in a variety of ways discussed in this work.

Farzad, Iman

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 48,055 33,801 35,146 27,858 45,903 22,113 5,766 6,401 1995 2,960 9,426 8,840 10,680 42,987 47,386 37,349 22,868 31,053 25,873 15,711 3,003 1996 2,819 8,696 9,595 20,495 41,216 36,086 25,987 20,787 24,773 17,795 13,530 9,122 1997 6,982 4,857 15,669 28,479 47,040 49,438 38,542 31,080 29,596 23,973 10,066 1,975 1998 5,540 1,847 14,429 21,380 49,816 48,423 30,073 34,243 31,710 34,744 26,456 6,404 1999 4,224 3,523 10,670 17,950 41,790 42,989 40,381 26,942 30,741 20,876 18,806 4,642

57

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 20,366 29,330 55,297 93,538 129,284 83,943 104,001 98,054 88,961 65,486 49,635 27,285 1995 24,645 25,960 57,833 78,043 101,019 100,926 77,411 54,611 94,759 84,671 40,182 33,836 1996 34,389 48,922 38,040 76,100 98,243 88,202 88,653 109,284 125,616 91,618 37,375 48,353 1997 45,327 35,394 89,625 83,137 107,821 99,742 71,360 95,278 116,634 117,497 49,750 33,170 1998 41,880 59,324 73,582 119,021 128,323 96,261 107,136 94,705 87,920 129,117 58,026 47,924 1999 35,830 50,772 49,673 80,879 110,064 100,132 72,348 67,286 103,587 79,714 66,465 32,984

58

Steam deflector assembly for a steam injected gas turbine engine  

SciTech Connect

A steam injected gas turbine engine is described having a combustor, a casing for the combustor and an annular manifold comprising a part of the casing, the annular manifold having an exterior port formed therein and a plurality of holes formed in the manifold leading to the interior of the combustor, the improvement comprising a steam carrying line connected to the port and a steam deflector means for protecting the casing from direct impingement by the steam from the steam line and for distributing the steam about the annular manifold, the steam deflector means being mounted adjacent the port and within the manifold.

Holt, G.A. III.

1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

59

Indiana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

60

Wyoming Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Louisiana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

62

Virginia Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

63

New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

64

Illinois Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

65

New York Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) New York Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

66

Maryland Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

67

Oklahoma Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

68

Alabama Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

69

Kansas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

70

Utah Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

71

Missouri Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

72

Oregon Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

73

Colorado Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

74

Montana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

75

Minnesota Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

76

Arkansas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

77

Iowa Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

78

Nebraska Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

79

Texas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

80

Kentucky Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Michigan Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

82

Ohio Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

83

Iowa Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,740 243 1,516 3,236 5,817 8,184 5,657 5,928 4,903 4,971 1,423 854 1991 1,166 155 231 1,829 4,897 8,985 6,518 8,058 11,039 10,758 2,782 860 1992 488 43 1,246 3,184 7,652 7,568 11,453 11,281 11,472 9,000 1,228 1,203 1993 0 0 733 5,547 6,489 7,776 10,550 10,150 12,351 8,152 2,437 0 1994 0 75 1,162 3,601 7,153 7,638 11,999 12,405 13,449 10,767 2,678 0 1995 0 0 251 1,041 5,294 9,889 12,219 17,805 13,756 8,855 1,283 391 1996 2 2 0 40 1,921 7,679 12,393 13,168 12,537 10,556 2,760 0

84

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 184,212 180,918 178,620 181,242 179,235 181,374 183,442 187,348 185,848 181,029 1991 179,697 178,285 176,975 176,918 178,145 179,386 181,094 182,534 182,653 181,271 178,539 174,986 1992 111,256 109,433 109,017 109,150 110,146 110,859 111,885 112,651 112,225 110,868 107,520 101,919 1993 96,819 92,399 89,640 87,930 86,773 86,048 87,257 87,558 88,012 87,924 85,137 81,930 1994 78,106 72,445 71,282 70,501 71,440 73,247 74,599 75,685 77,456 78,490 76,784 74,111 1995 70,612 68,618 67,929 68,727 70,007 72,146 75,063 78,268 79,364 78,810 75,764 70,513

85

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 22,371 18,661 17,042 17,387 20,796 23,060 26,751 30,924 33,456 34,200 30,588 1991 24,821 19,663 16,425 15,850 17,767 18,744 22,065 26,710 31,199 37,933 35,015 30,071 1992 23,328 18,843 14,762 14,340 15,414 17,948 23,103 27,216 32,427 35,283 32,732 29,149 1993 23,702 18,626 15,991 17,160 18,050 20,109 24,565 29,110 33,303 34,605 32,707 30,052 1994 23,623 20,052 18,102 17,396 17,194 19,647 24,780 29,088 33,077 35,877 36,408 33,424 1995 27,732 21,973 19,542 18,899 19,227 21,026 23,933 27,541 31,972 36,182 36,647 31,830

86

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 33,234 33,553 34,322 39,110 43,935 47,105 53,425 58,298 62,273 65,655 66,141 60,495 1991 43,838 39,280 39,196 45,157 48,814 50,833 52,841 54,954 60,062 64,120 56,034 50,591 1992 40,858 39,723 37,350 37,516 41,830 46,750 51,406 51,967 58,355 59,621 59,164 52,385 1993 46,427 38,859 32,754 35,256 42,524 46,737 51,884 55,215 61,028 60,752 38,314 31,086 1994 21,838 17,503 20,735 25,099 29,837 30,812 37,339 42,607 44,739 47,674 48,536 43,262 1995 32,938 27,069 23,018 27,735 34,699 36,337 40,488 41,240 47,530 50,166 40,729 32,224

87

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 65,683 55,509 49,604 47,540 48,128 53,233 64,817 76,933 92,574 99,253 115,704 93,290 1991 59,383 54,864 49,504 47,409 53,752 61,489 64,378 67,930 78,575 89,747 80,663 82,273 1992 76,311 63,152 53,718 48,998 51,053 53,700 57,987 69,653 79,756 82,541 73,094 61,456 1993 44,893 33,024 27,680 26,796 46,806 58,528 64,198 75,616 89,955 92,825 87,252 76,184 1994 52,998 41,644 39,796 40,779 49,519 55,059 64,664 77,229 86,820 91,309 84,568 74,364 1995 59,292 47,263 37,998 39,071 48,761 60,148 65,093 65,081 81,654 93,880 90,905 73,982

88

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1995 499 497 233 233 260 302 338 556 1,148 1,075 886 485 1996 431 364 202 356 493 971 1,164 1,553 1,891 2,008 1,879 1,119 1997 588 404 429 559 830 923 966 1,253 1,515 1,766 1,523 1,523 1998 773 585 337 582 727 1,350 1,341 1,540 1,139 1,752 1,753 1,615 1999 802 688 376 513 983 1,193 1,428 1,509 1,911 1,834 1,968 1,779 2000 865 863 1,178 1,112 1,202 1,809 1,890 1,890 1,780 1,638 1,434 1,349 2001 1,020 1,261 657 851 807 1,384 1,538 1,651 1,669 1,549 2,837 2,848 2002 2,435 2,119 1,849 2,106 2,206 2,076 2,326 2,423 2,423 1,863 2,259 2,117

89

California Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 125,898 106,575 111,248 132,203 157,569 170,689 174,950 177,753 182,291 196,681 196,382 153,841 1991 132,323 132,935 115,982 136,883 163,570 187,887 201,443 204,342 199,994 199,692 193,096 168,789 1992 125,777 109,000 93,277 107,330 134,128 156,158 170,112 182,680 197,049 207,253 197,696 140,662 1993 106,890 87,612 100,869 109,975 138,272 152,044 175,917 185,337 199,629 210,423 198,700 164,518 1994 121,221 77,055 76,162 95,079 123,190 143,437 161,081 170,434 191,319 203,562 186,826 161,202 1995 130,241 125,591 117,650 114,852 141,222 167,231 181,227 179,508 194,712 212,867 214,897 188,927

90

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 115,418 117,492 109,383 110,052 117,110 131,282 145,105 158,865 173,570 188,751 197,819 190,747 1991 141,417 109,568 96,781 103,300 122,648 146,143 159,533 169,329 190,953 211,395 197,661 165,940 1992 120,212 91,394 79,753 85,867 106,675 124,940 136,861 152,715 174,544 194,414 187,236 149,775 1993 103,287 66,616 47,157 49,577 86,976 120,891 149,120 176,316 212,046 227,566 213,581 170,503 1994 112,054 93,499 80,056 101,407 134,333 155,279 184,802 207,383 230,726 239,823 235,775 197,145 1995 145,373 106,289 97,677 107,610 126,266 154,036 174,808 175,953 199,358 213,417 188,967 141,572

91

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 53,604 51,563 52,120 53,225 54,581 56,980 58,990 61,428 62,487 60,867 1991 54,085 53,423 53,465 53,581 54,205 56,193 58,416 60,163 61,280 61,366 59,373 57,246 1992 30,371 28,356 27,542 27,461 27,843 28,422 29,588 29,692 30,555 29,505 27,746 23,929 1993 20,529 18,137 17,769 18,265 19,253 21,322 23,372 24,929 26,122 27,044 24,271 21,990 1994 21,363 18,661 19,224 20,115 21,689 22,447 23,568 25,072 26,511 27,440 26,978 25,065 1995 22,086 20,762 19,352 18,577 19,027 20,563 22,264 23,937 25,846 27,025 26,298 24,257

92

Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 459 343 283 199 199 199 333 467 579 682 786 787 1999 656 532 401 321 318 462 569 645 749 854 911 855 2000 691 515 452 389 371 371 371 371 371 420 534 619 2001 623 563 490 421 525 638 669 732 778 840 598 597 2002 647 648 650 650 625 622 609 605 602 600 512 512 2003 404 294 226 179 214 290 365 460 463 508 508 447 2004 344 293 281 312 345 391 454 509 514 539 527 486 2005 444 364 265 184 143 126 126 126 88 79 73 60 2006 52 52 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44

93

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 163,571 125,097 100,438 110,479 158,720 215,000 265,994 318,024 358,535 364,421 359,766 306,561 1991 194,349 153,061 137,579 147,399 174,145 196,678 219,025 254,779 297,531 315,601 305,179 272,103 1992 201,218 144,582 93,826 103,660 140,908 188,078 222,215 264,511 306,113 331,416 332,959 288,433 1993 217,967 120,711 66,484 89,931 133,866 187,940 233,308 272,685 320,921 334,285 328,073 278,791 1994 172,190 97,587 75,470 114,979 166,013 222,300 272,668 315,887 339,424 354,731 335,483 294,393 1995 232,561 139,624 111,977 124,790 168,112 221,731 253,442 290,185 338,021 355,887 311,749 236,656

94

Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 311,360 252,796 228,986 221,127 269,595 333,981 410,982 481,628 534,303 553,823 542,931 472,150 1991 348,875 285,217 262,424 287,946 315,457 372,989 431,607 478,293 498,086 539,454 481,257 405,327 1992 320,447 244,921 179,503 179,306 224,257 292,516 367,408 435,817 504,312 532,896 486,495 397,280 1993 296,403 194,201 133,273 148,416 222,106 303,407 386,359 468,790 534,882 568,552 516,491 426,536 1994 282,144 193,338 162,719 203,884 276,787 351,286 425,738 502,577 568,235 599,504 579,874 516,887 1995 410,946 298,325 247,016 245,903 299,050 364,569 438,995 492,773 545,157 577,585 511,573 392,896

95

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 27,491 22,694 17,504 13,313 17,552 23,767 28,965 33,972 35,196 34,955 34,660 1991 26,266 24,505 17,544 16,115 17,196 21,173 25,452 30,548 35,254 36,813 37,882 36,892 1992 33,082 29,651 22,962 18,793 18,448 20,445 24,593 30,858 36,770 38,897 35,804 33,066 1993 28,629 23,523 21,015 17,590 20,302 24,947 28,113 31,946 36,247 34,224 30,426 29,254 1994 24,249 19,331 16,598 11,485 16,989 18,501 23,590 28,893 34,044 34,298 32,687 29,307 1995 24,948 21,446 16,467 12,090 14,043 19,950 25,757 29,774 32,507 33,707 35,418 30,063

96

Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 129,245 118,053 119,532 116,520 130,817 139,698 150,336 158,048 165,206 171,008 180,706 154,515 1991 111,225 106,204 111,759 125,973 140,357 150,549 151,393 156,066 166,053 169,954 144,316 133,543 1992 115,658 107,281 103,919 109,690 117,435 128,505 145,962 153,948 166,637 174,182 154,096 123,225 1993 46,462 26,472 19,429 30,902 49,259 67,110 82,104 95,435 111,441 118,880 101,220 86,381 1994 56,024 35,272 32,781 49,507 73,474 86,632 102,758 115,789 124,652 129,107 126,148 109,979 1995 86,312 72,646 62,779 67,245 83,722 96,319 103,388 101,608 113,587 126,287 116,265 92,617

97

Stream-injected free-turbine-type gas turbine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a free turbine type gas turbine. The turbine comprises: compressor means; a core turbine mechanically coupled with the compressor means to power it; a power turbine which is independent from the core turbine; and a combustion chamber for providing a heated working fluid; means for adding steam to the working fluid; means for providing a single flow path for the working fluid, first through the core turbine and then through the power turbine. The improvement comprises: means for preventing mismatch between the core turbine and the compressor due to the addition of steam comprising coupling a variable output load to the compressor.

Cheng, D.Y.

1990-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

98

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas injection in oil reservoirs offers huge potential for improved oil recovery. However, successful design of a gas injection process requires a detailed understanding of a variety of different significant processes, including the phase behavior of multicomponent mixtures and the approach to multi-contact miscibility in the reservoir, the flow of oil, water and gas underground, and the interaction of phase behavior reservoir heterogeneity and gravity on overall performance at the field scale. This project attempts to tackle all these issues using a combination of theoretical, numerical and laboratory studies of gas injection. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) Theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of the development of a CT scanning technique which can measure compositions in a two-phase, three-component system in-situ.

Thomas A. Hewett; Franklin M. Orr Jr.

2000-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 55,226 54,179 53,869 54,783 56,160 57,690 56,165 56,611 57,708 58,012 57,606 54,005 1991 52,095 51,060 50,341 51,476 54,531 56,673 56,409 56,345 57,250 56,941 56,535 54,163 1992 52,576 51,568 51,525 52,136 53,768 56,396 58,446 59,656 60,842 60,541 57,948 54,512 1993 51,102 49,136 48,100 49,069 52,016 55,337 57,914 59,772 61,281 10,707 8,936 6,562 1994 3,476 743 886 1,845 3,983 4,882 6,505 6,852 8,978 9,908 10,078 8,075 1995 6,063 5,068 4,138 3,940 4,583 5,449 3,881 4,059 4,443 3,676 2,078 485 1996 - - - - - 806 1,938 3,215 3,960 3,389 2,932 1,949

100

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 8,882 5,257 3,304 2,365 1,893 5,005 7,942 10,880 11,949 12,154 12,235 9,008 1991 6,557 6,453 3,509 6,342 7,864 10,580 12,718 12,657 12,652 14,112 15,152 14,694 1992 12,765 9,785 9,204 8,327 9,679 10,854 11,879 13,337 14,533 13,974 13,312 9,515 1993 6,075 2,729 3,958 4,961 9,491 10,357 12,505 13,125 15,508 13,348 9,567 11,274 1994 9,672 5,199 4,765 6,867 9,471 11,236 13,045 13,496 14,629 14,846 14,458 12,884 1995 10,750 8,520 8,267 8,500 11,070 12,622 14,035 13,764 16,258 16,158 16,224 12,869 1996 6,547 5,488 4,672 4,780 6,742 10,060 11,344 15,100 14,244 12,391 11,634 9,724

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,708 1,141 1,211 1,688 2,017 2,129 2,261 2,309 2,370 2,397 2,395 2,007 1991 1,551 1,313 1,207 1,362 1,619 1,931 2,222 2,214 2,307 2,273 2,191 2,134 1992 1,685 1,556 1,228 1,019 1,409 1,716 2,013 2,193 2,319 2,315 2,307 2,104 1993 1,708 1,290 872 824 1,141 1,485 1,894 2,022 2,260 2,344 2,268 1,957 1994 1,430 1,235 1,045 888 1,237 1,642 2,011 2,213 2,362 2,360 2,356 2,284 1995 1,771 1,294 1,037 990 1,321 1,584 1,890 2,121 2,362 2,368 2,365 2,110 1996 1,329 1,069 847 935 1,301 1,596 1,883 2,093 2,295 2,328 2,297 2,070

102

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 8,081 5,796 6,047 7,156 7,151 7,146 7,140 7,421 7,927 8,148 8,157 7,869 1991 7,671 5,875 4,819 6,955 7,638 7,738 8,033 8,335 8,547 8,765 8,964 8,952 1992 7,454 6,256 5,927 7,497 7,924 8,071 8,337 8,555 8,763 8,954 8,946 8,939 1993 7,848 6,037 4,952 6,501 7,550 8,001 8,104 8,420 8,627 8,842 8,720 8,869 1994 7,602 7,073 6,794 4,640 6,094 7,449 7,765 8,072 8,341 8,548 8,778 8,783 1995 8,200 7,921 7,879 7,608 8,230 8,221 8,210 8,559 9,022 9,145 9,311 8,981 1996 7,558 7,658 7,225 6,931 8,250 8,511 8,751 8,958 9,162 9,372 9,067 8,993

103

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 1,309 844 534 742 1,055 1,364 1,553 1,894 2,218 2,349 2,255 1,897 1999 1,519 1,070 745 929 1,202 1,413 1,641 1,830 2,248 2,357 2,175 1,708 2000 998 843 814 1,063 1,642 1,848 2,066 2,215 2,223 2,594 2,242 1,529 2001 991 823 532 963 1,477 1,869 2,113 2,416 2,677 2,651 2,711 2,503 2002 2,029 1,356 968 1,090 1,627 1,899 2,181 2,322 2,631 2,838 2,559 2,065 2003 1,042 546 367 660 1,107 1,582 1,994 2,710 3,247 3,281 3,167 2,621 2004 1,570 1,195 865 1,024 1,706 1,990 2,188 2,925 3,253 4,115 4,082 3,077

104

Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 3,705 2,366 1,668 2,849 4,357 5,601 6,365 7,001 7,373 7,562 7,517 6,766 1991 5,691 4,726 2,959 1,980 2,694 4,248 5,706 6,798 7,472 7,811 7,834 7,347 1992 5,779 4,239 2,653 2,211 3,783 5,323 6,518 7,528 7,981 8,154 7,055 6,475 1993 4,557 3,161 2,433 2,007 3,651 4,949 6,130 7,172 7,750 8,240 7,509 6,406 1994 5,145 4,018 3,073 648 1,858 3,357 4,553 5,628 6,312 6,566 6,129 5,491 1995 3,814 3,429 2,989 3,856 5,035 6,069 6,765 6,765 7,251 7,251 7,193 6,371 1996 5,120 4,179 3,528 3,396 4,119 5,292 6,425 6,862 6,965 6,759 6,206 4,967

105

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 549,759 455,591 416,294 457,969 533,496 599,582 638,359 634,297 713,319 766,411 700,456 552,458 1996 369,545 263,652 195,447 224,002 279,731 339,263 391,961 474,402 578,991 638,500 562,097 466,366 1997 314,140 248,911 297,362 326,566 401,514 471,824 478,925 532,982 617,733 705,879 642,254 494,485 1998 391,395 384,696 362,717 457,545 550,232 610,363 684,086 748,042 784,567 893,181 888,358 768,239 1999 611,978 585,458 530,610 568,307 653,498 728,071 744,307 750,460 826,493 858,836 849,011 718,513

106

West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 95,718 84,444 80,152 86,360 105,201 122,470 139,486 155,506 168,801 172,513 172,198 155,477 1991 102,542 81,767 79,042 86,494 101,636 117,739 132,999 142,701 151,152 154,740 143,668 121,376 1992 87,088 60,200 32,379 33,725 57,641 75,309 97,090 115,537 128,969 141,790 135,853 143,960 1993 112,049 69,593 41,670 46,361 84,672 111,540 131,113 150,292 170,597 176,189 162,821 129,738 1994 71,547 38,973 20,662 41,766 67,235 97,887 125,442 147,683 168,538 174,514 166,920 140,377 1995 96,574 55,283 43,199 48,420 72,781 96,991 120,021 128,965 146,728 161,226 138,140 98,925

107

California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic...

108

Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States, 2009 Update The aggregate peak capacity for U.S. underground natural gas storage is ...

109

New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)...

110

Multiphase Mechanisms and Fluid Dynamics in Gas Injection Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently, the Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) process is the most widely practiced horizontal mode gas injection process in the industry. Although this process is conceptually sound, it… (more)

Kulkarni, Madhav M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge-Intensive Work in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Case Study Thesis for the degree collaborative work practices within a large international oil and gas company (OGC). The work is founded empirical findings, we argue that in knowledge-intensive, interdisciplinary work such as oil and gas

Langseth, Helge

112

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objectives of this study are to determine the most suitable type of gas for a water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection scheme, the WAG cycle time, and gas injection rate to increase oil production rate and recovery from the San Francisco field, Colombia. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted to achieve these objectives. The experimental study consisted of injecting reconstituted gas into a cell containing sand and "live" San Francisco oil. Experimental runs were made with injection of (i) the two field gases and their 50-50 mixture, (ii) the two field gases enriched with propane, and (iii) WAG with the two field gases enriched with propane. Produced oil volume, density, and viscosity; and produced gas volume and composition were measured and analyzed. A 1D 7-component compositional simulation model of the laboratory injection cell and its contents was developed. After a satisfactory history-match of the results of a WAG run, the prediction runs were made using the gas that gave the highest oil recovery in the experiments, (5:100 mass ratio of propane:Balcon gas). Oil production results from simulation were obtained for a range of WAG cycles and gas injection rate. The main results of the study may be summarized as follows. For all cases studied, the lowest oil recovery is obtained with injection of San Francisco gas, (60% of original oil-in-place OOIP), and the highest oil recovery (84% OOIP) is obtained with a WAG 7.5-7.5 (cycle of 7.5 minutes water injection followed by 7.5 minutes of gas injection at 872 ml/min). This approximately corresponds to WAG 20-20 in the field (20 days water injection followed by 20 days gas injection at 6.8 MMSCF/D). Results clearly indicate increase in oil recovery with volume of the gas injected. Lastly, of the three injection schemes studied, WAG injection with propane-enriched gas gives the highest oil recovery. This study is based on the one-dimensional displacement of oil. The three-dimensional aspects and other reservoir complexities that adversely affect oil recovery in reality have not been considered. A 3D reservoir simulation study is therefore recommended together with an economic evaluation of the cases before any decision can be made to implement any of the gas or WAG injection schemes.

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Working Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

114

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

115

Injection season forecast for natural gas storage - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This Week in Petroleum › Weekly Petroleum Status Report › Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report › Natural Gas Weekly Update ...

116

Estimates of Peak Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Administration report, The Basics of Underground Storage, http:www.eia.doe.govpuboilgasnaturalgasanalysispublicationsstoragebasicsstoragebasics.html. 2 Working gas is...

117

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -2,863 -1,902 -2,297 -1,134 -1,671 -1,997 -907 -144 629 992 2,290 1,354 1991 30,778 27,964 37,141 36,920 15,424 -18,322 -46,969 -63,245 -61,004 -48,820 -54,587 -34,458 1992 6,870 -8,479 -43,753 -43,739 -33,236 -8,601 3,190 9,732 8,583 15,815 27,780 16,330 1993 16,748 -23,871 -27,342 -13,729 -7,043 -138 11,093 8,174 14,808 2,868 -4,885 -9,642 1994 -45,776 -23,124 8,987 25,048 32,148 34,360 39,360 43,202 18,502 20,447 7,409 15,602 1995 60,371 42,037 36,507 9,811 2,098 -569 -19,226 -25,702 -1,403 1,156 -23,733 -57,737

118

HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report outlines progress in the second 3 months of the first year of the DOE project ''High Resolution Prediction of Gas Injection Process Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The development of an automatic technique for analytical solution of one-dimensional gas flow problems with volume change on mixing is described. The aim of this work is to develop a set of ultra-fast compositional simulation tools that can be used to make field-scale predictions of the performance of gas injection processes. To achieve the necessary accuracy, these tools must satisfy the fundamental physics and chemistry of the displacement from the pore to the reservoir scales. Thus this project focuses on four main research areas: (1) determination of the most appropriate methods of mapping multicomponent solutions to streamlines and streamtubes in 3D; (2) development of techniques for automatic generation of analytical solutions for one-dimensional flow along a streamline; (3) experimental investigations to improve the representation of physical mechanisms that govern displacement efficiency along a streamline; and (4) theoretical and experimental investigations to establish the limitations of the streamline/streamtube approach. In this report they briefly review the status of the research effort in each area. They then give a more in depth discussion of their development of techniques for analytic solutions along a streamline including volume change on mixing for arbitrary numbers of components.

Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply & Disposition...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Pennsylvania Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 18.8 22.4 37.0 33.4 9.7 -8.5 -17.7 -19.9 -17.0 -13.4 -15.2 -11.2 1992 3.5 -5.5 -31.8 -29.7 -19.1 -4.4 1.5 3.8 2.9 5.0 9.1 6.0 1993 8.3 -16.5 -29.1 -13.2 -5.0 -0.1 5.0 3.1 4.8 0.9 -1.5 -3.3 1994 -21.0 -19.2 13.5 27.9 24.0 18.3 16.9 15.8 5.8 6.1 2.3 5.6 1995 35.1 43.1 48.4 8.5 1.3 -0.3 -7.1 -8.1 -0.4 0.3 -7.1 -19.6 1996 -32.3 -32.6 -49.9 -39.0 -28.4 -18.3 -0.5 4.4 0.7 -0.2 3.9 26.8 1997 31.1 63.7 89.6 41.7 24.2 9.7 -4.5 -6.2 -2.2 -2.4 -0.3 -8.7 1998 5.7 9.8 22.4 52.3 49.3 32.7 23.0 11.1 3.1 4.1 12.5 17.6

122

Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically conducted to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection for the light Minas crude oil. The steam-propane experiments involved injecting steam or a mixture of steam and propane into a cell in which was tamped a mixture of sand, oil and water. The cell was placed inside a vacuum jacket set at a reservoir temperature of 200?F. Superheated steam at 490?F was injected at 4.5 ml/min (cold-water equivalent) while the cell outlet pressure was maintained at 450 psig. A total of four runs were successfully performed with two different propane:steam mass ratios, namely, 0:100 (pure steam) and 5:100 (steam-propane). Produced liquids were collected from the bottom of the cell and analyzed to determined oil and water volumes as well as oil density and viscosity after being treated to break the emulsion. The gas injection experiments involved injecting reconstituted Minas field production gas or Minas gas enriched with propane into a cell saturated with live Minas oil. The live oil was prepared in an oil-gas recombination apparatus, and closely replicated oil properties at current reservoir conditions (solution GOR of 134 SCF/STB, bubble-point pressure of 280 psig.) Minas gas was injected at 500 ml/min into the cell set at reservoir temperature of 200?F. A total of four runs were successfully performed with two different propane:gas mass ratios, namely, 0:100 (pure lean gas) and 5:100 (enriched gas). The main results of the study are as follows. First, with steam-propane injection, no improvement on production acceleration time, oil recovery or steam injectivity was observed compared with pure steam injection. Second, with enriched gas injection, oil recovery increased from 61% OOIP with lean gas injection up to 74% OOIP with enriched gas (5:100 propane:gas mass ratio). Analysis of produced oil gravity and viscosity indicate little change in values compared to that of the original oil. Of the processes investigated (pure steam, steam-propane, lean gas, and enriched gas injection), enriched gas injection appears to be technically the most feasible EOR method for Minas field. It is recommended therefore to conduct research on possible application of water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection with propane-enriched Minas gas to enhance production from the Minas field.

Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Peak Underground Working Natural Gas Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Related Links: Storage Basics: ... natural gas consumption declined roughly 2 percent from the previous year a reflection of 2009's mild temperatures and weak ...

124

Underground Natural Gas Storage  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Underground Natural Gas Storage. Measured By. Disseminated Through. Monthly Survey of Storage Field Operators -- asking injections, withdrawals, base gas, working gas.

125

Two-tank working gas storage system for heat engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-tank working gas supply and pump-down system is coupled to a hot gas engine, such as a Stirling engine. The system has a power control valve for admitting the working gas to the engine when increased power is needed, and for releasing the working gas from the engine when engine power is to be decreased. A compressor pumps the working gas that is released from the engine. Two storage vessels or tanks are provided, one for storing the working gas at a modest pressure (i.e., half maximum pressure), and another for storing the working gas at a higher pressure (i.e., about full engine pressure). Solenoid valves are associated with the gas line to each of the storage vessels, and are selectively actuated to couple the vessels one at a time to the compressor during pumpdown to fill the high-pressure vessel with working gas at high pressure and then to fill the low-pressure vessel with the gas at low pressure. When more power is needed, the solenoid valves first supply the low-pressure gas from the low-pressure vessel to the engine and then supply the high-pressure gas from the high-pressure vessel. The solenoid valves each act as a check-valve when unactuated, and as an open valve when actuated.

Hindes, Clyde J. (Troy, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Percent) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 5.1...

127

Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

128

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

129

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2 sequestration. In this thesis, I report my findings on the effect of flue gas ??impurities?? on the displacement of natural gas during CO2 sequestration, and results on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests to carbonate samples. In displacement experiments, corefloods were conducted at 1,500 psig and 70??C, in which flue gas was injected into an Austin chalk core containing initially methane. Two types of flue gases were injected: dehydrated flue gas with 13.574 mole% CO2 (Gas A), and treated flue gas (N2, O2 and water removed) with 99.433 mole% CO2 (Gas B). The main results of this study are as follows. First, the dispersion coefficient increases with concentration of ??impurities??. Gas A exhibits the largest dispersion coefficients, 0.18-0.25 cm2/min, compared to 0.13-0.15 cm2/min for Gas B, and 0.15 cm2/min for pure CO2. Second, recovery of methane at breakthrough is relatively high, ranging from 86% OGIP for pure CO2, 74-90% OGIP for Gas B, and 79-81% for Gas A. Lastly, injection of Gas A would sequester the least amount of CO2 as it contains about 80 mole% nitrogen. From the view point of sequestration, Gas A would be least desirable while Gas B appears to be the most desirable as separation cost would probably be cheaper than that for pure CO2 with similar gas recovery. For UCS tests, corefloods were conducted at 1,700 psig and 65??C in such a way that the cell throughput of CO2 simulates near-wellbore throughput. This was achieved through increasing the injection rate and time of injection. Corefloods were followed by porosity measurement and UCS tests. Main results are presented as follows. First, the UCS of the rock was reduced by approximately 30% of its original value as a result of the dissolution process. Second, porosity profiles of rock samples increased up to 2.5% after corefloods. UCS test results indicate that CO2 injection will cause weakening of near-wellbore formation rock.

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Figuring on energy: can gas discounts work  

SciTech Connect

A Pennsylvania lawsuit is examining the effects of price competition among gas utilities in their efforts to retain industrial customers and the extra burdens discounts place on other users. Because gas markets have not matched the fall in oil prices, gas utilities face the loss of their largest customers to residual oil unless small users are willing to accept a surcharge to cover a larger share of the utility's fixed prices. The dilemma of when to switch is causing uncertainty among dual-fuel users. (DCK)

Schaffer, P.

1983-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity - Energy Information  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity Underground Natural Gas Working Storage Capacity With Data for November 2012 | Release Date: July 24, 2013 | Next Release Date: Spring 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Go Overview Natural gas working storage capacity increased by about 2 percent in the Lower 48 states between November 2011 and November 2012. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) has two measures of working gas storage capacity, and both increased by similar amounts: Demonstrated maximum volume increased 1.8 percent to 4,265 billion cubic feet (Bcf) Design capacity increased 2.0 percent to 4,575 Bcf Maximum demonstrated working gas volume is an operational measure of the highest level of working gas reported at each storage facility at any time

132

The Design and Development of An Externally Fired Steam Injected Gas Turbine for Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the theoretical background and the design and development of a prototype externally fired steam injected (ECSI) gas turbine which has a potential to utilize lower grade fuels. The system is designed around a 2 shaft 360 HP gas turbine. Several modifications to the gas turbine (Brayton Cycle) and the effects of cycle parameters such as pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature are discussed. Steams injected cycles are examined and the concept of the ECSI gas turbine is introduced. The discussion includes criteria for selecting a suitable heat exchanger and considerations for start-up cycles. The feasibility of the concept and discussion of problem areas in the prototype are discussed.

Boyce, M. P.; Meher-Homji, C.; Ford, D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Commercial Construction Incentives Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Maximum Rebate Residential: $750 Commercial: $60,000 Program Info Start Date 9/1/2012 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount '''Residential''' Residential Construction: $750 '''Commercial/Industrial''' 10% to 20% to 30% above code, $40/MMBtu first-year savings Philadelphia Gas Works (PGW) provides incentives to developers, home

134

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States: 2007 Update This report provides an update to an estimate for U.S. aggregate ...

135

Intracluster gas pressure, entropy injection and redshift evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effect of entropy injection in the intracluster medium (ICM) in light of the recent observationally determined universal pressure profile of the ICM. Beginning with a power-law entropy profile that is expected in the absence of any feedback, we show that a simple universal prescription of entropy injection results in the final, observed universal pressure profile. This simple prescription has two components, one associated with an overall increase in entropy and another associated with injection in the central parts of the cluster. Importantly, both the components of entropy injection are needed to produce the final universal pressure profile. This is indicative of a need of both preheating the ICM as well {\\it in situ} AGN/SNe heating. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by extending the calculations to clusters at high redshift, and predict redshift evolution of cluster scaling relations that can be tested against data. We show that the self-similar evolution of the universal pressure p...

Nath, Biman B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Working on new gas turbine cycle for heat pump drive FILE COPY TAP By Irwin Stambler, Field Editor DO NOT 16 0 REMOVE 16 Small recuperated gas turbine engine, design rated at 13 hp and 27% efficiency of the cycle- as a heat pump drive for commercial installations. Company is testing prototype gas turbine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

137

Gas injection as an alternative option for handling associated gas produced from deepwater oil developments in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The shift of hydrocarbon exploration and production to deepwater has resulted in new opportunities for the petroleum industry(in this project, the deepwater depth greater than 1,000 ft) but also, it has introduced new challenges. In 2001,more than 999 Bcf of associated gas were produced from the Gulf of Mexico, with deepwater associated gas production accounting for 20% of this produced gas. Two important issues are the potential environmental impacts and the economic value of deepwater associated gas. This project was designed to test the viability of storing associated gas in a saline sandstone aquifer above the producing horizon. Saline aquifer storage would have the dual benefits of gas emissions reduction and gas storage for future use. To assess the viability of saline aquifer storage, a simulation study was conducted with a hypothetical sandstone aquifer in an anticlinal trap. Five years of injection were simulated followed by five years of production (stored gas recovery). Particular attention was given to the role of relative permeability hysteresis in determining trapped gas saturation, as it tends to control the efficiency of the storage process. Various cases were run to observe the effect of location of the injection/production well and formation dip angle. This study was made to: (1) conduct a simulation study to investigate the effects of reservoir and well parameters on gas storage performance; (2) assess the drainage and imbibition processes in aquifer gas storage; (3) evaluate methods used to determine relative permeability and gas residual saturation ; and (4) gain experience with, and confidence in, the hysteresis option in IMEX Simulator for determining the trapped gas saturation. The simulation results show that well location and dip angle have important effects on gas storage performance. In the test cases, the case with a higher dip angle favors gas trapping, and the best recovery is the top of the anticlinal structure. More than half of the stored gas is lost due to trapped gas saturations and high water saturation with corresponding low gas relative permeability. During the production (recovery) phase, it can be expected that water-gas production ratios will be high. The economic limit of the stored gas recovery will be greatly affected by producing water-gas ratio, especially for deep aquifers. The result indicates that it is technically feasible to recover gas injected into a saline aquifer, provided the aquifer exhibits the appropriate dip angle, size and permeability, and residual or trapped gas saturation is also important. The technical approach used in this study may be used to assess saline aquifer storage in other deepwater regions, and it may provide a preliminary framework for studies of the economic viability of deepwater saline aquifer gas storage.

Qian, Yanlin

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection A DOE Assessment January 2001 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 website: www.netl.doe.gov Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference therein to any specific commercial

139

Underground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies & Practicality.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environments and are very salty, like the Marcellus shale and other oil and gas formations underlying the areaUnderground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies), Region 3. Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar, February 18, 2010 (Answers provide below by Karen Johnson

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

140

Industrial Compositional Streamline Simulation for Efficient and Accurate Prediction of Gas Injection and WAG Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-injection processes are widely and increasingly used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In the United States, for example, EOR production by gas injection accounts for approximately 45% of total EOR production and has tripled since 1986. The understanding of the multiphase, multicomponent flow taking place in any displacement process is essential for successful design of gas-injection projects. Due to complex reservoir geometry, reservoir fluid properties and phase behavior, the design of accurate and efficient numerical simulations for the multiphase, multicomponent flow governing these processes is nontrivial. In this work, we developed, implemented and tested a streamline based solver for gas injection processes that is computationally very attractive: as compared to traditional Eulerian solvers in use by industry it computes solutions with a computational speed orders of magnitude higher and a comparable accuracy provided that cross-flow effects do not dominate. We contributed to the development of compositional streamline solvers in three significant ways: improvement of the overall framework allowing improved streamline coverage and partial streamline tracing, amongst others; parallelization of the streamline code, which significantly improves wall clock time; and development of new compositional solvers that can be implemented along streamlines as well as in existing Eulerian codes used by industry. We designed several novel ideas in the streamline framework. First, we developed an adaptive streamline coverage algorithm. Adding streamlines locally can reduce computational costs by concentrating computational efforts where needed, and reduce mapping errors. Adapting streamline coverage effectively controls mass balance errors that mostly result from the mapping from streamlines to pressure grid. We also introduced the concept of partial streamlines: streamlines that do not necessarily start and/or end at wells. This allows more efficient coverage and avoids the redundant work generally done in the near-well regions. We improved the accuracy of the streamline simulator with a higher order mapping from pressure grid to streamlines that significantly reduces smoothing errors, and a Kriging algorithm is used to map from the streamlines to the background grid. The higher accuracy of the Kriging mapping means that it is not essential for grid blocks to be crossed by one or more streamlines. The higher accuracy comes at the price of increased computational costs, but allows coarser coverage and so does not generally increase the overall costs of the computations. To reduce errors associated with fixing the pressure field between pressure updates, we developed a higher order global time-stepping method that allows the use of larger global time steps. Third-order ENO schemes are suggested to propagate components along streamlines. Both in the two-phase and three-phase experiments these ENO schemes outperform other (higher order) upwind schemes. Application of the third order ENO scheme leads to overall computational savings because the computational grid used can be coarsened. Grid adaptivity along streamlines is implemented to allow sharp but efficient resolution of solution fronts at reduced computational costs when displacement fronts are sufficiently separated. A correction for Volume Change On Mixing (VCOM) is implemented that is very effective at handling this effect. Finally, a specialized gravity operator splitting method is proposed for use in compositional streamline methods that gives an effective correction of gravity segregation. A significant part of our effort went into the development of a parallelization strategy for streamline solvers on the next generation shared memory machines. We found in this work that the built-in dynamic scheduling strategies of OpenMP lead to parallel efficiencies that are comparable to optimal schedules obtained with customized explicit load balancing strategies as long as the ratio of number of streamlines to number of threads is sufficiently high, which is the case in real-fie

Margot Gerritsen

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Analyses suggest that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be injected into depleted gas reservoirs to enhance methane (CH{sub 4}) recovery for periods on the order of 10 years, while simultaneously sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations applicable to the Rio Vista Gas Field in California show that mixing between CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is slow relative to repressurization, and that vertical density stratification favors enhanced gas recovery.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Sour gas injection for use with in situ heat treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing acidic gas to a subsurface formation is described herein. The method may include providing heat from one or more heaters to a portion of a subsurface formation; producing fluids that include one or more acidic gases from the formation using a heat treatment process. At least a portion of one of the acidic gases may be introduced into the formation, or into another formation, through one or more wellbores at a pressure below a lithostatic pressure of the formation in which the acidic gas is introduced.

Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

143

Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Impact of injecting inert cushion gas into a gas storage reservoir.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Underground natural gas storage is a process which ensures constant supply of natural gas by storing the excess gas produced and quickly supply when required.… (more)

Lekkala, Sudheer R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A simulation study to verify Stone's simultaneous water and gas injection performance in a 5-spot pattern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water alternating gas (WAG) injection is a proven technique to enhance oil recovery. It has been successfully implemented in the field since 1957 with recovery increase in the range of 5-10% of oil-initially-in-place (OIIP). In 2004, Herbert L. Stone presented a simultaneous water and gas injection technique. Gas is injected near the bottom of the reservoir and water is injected directly on top at high rates to prevent upward channeling of the gas. Stone's mathematical model indicated the new technique can increase vertical sweep efficiency by 3-4 folds over WAG. In this study, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to predict the performance of Stone's technique and compare it to WAG and other EOR injection strategies. Two sets of relative permeability data were considered. Multiple combinations of total injection rates (water plus gas) and water/gas ratios as well as injection schedules were investigated to find the optimum design parameters for an 80 acre 5-spot pattern unit. Results show that injecting water above gas may result in better oil recovery than WAG injection though not as indicated by Stone. Increase in oil recovery with SSWAG injection is a function of the gas critical saturation. The more gas is trapped in the formation, the higher oil recovery is obtained. This is probably due to the fact that areal sweep efficiency is a more dominant factor in a 5-spot pattern. Periodic shut-off of the water injector has little effect on oil recovery. Water/gas injection ratio optimization may result in a slight increase in oil recovery. SSWAG injection results in a steady injection pressure and less fluctuation in gas production rate compared to WAG injection.

Barnawi, Mazen Taher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Prototype demonstration of dual sorbent injection for acid gas control on municipal solid waste combustion units  

SciTech Connect

This report gathered and evaluated emissions and operations data associated with furnace injection of dry hydrated lime and duct injection of dry sodium bicarbonate at a commercial, 1500 ton per day, waste-to-energy facility. The information compiled during the project sheds light on these sorbents to affect acid gas emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. The information assesses the capability of these systems to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act and 1991 EPA Emission Guidelines.

None

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

,"Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050de2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050de2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

148

,"Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050id2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050id2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:51 PM"

149

,"South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050sc2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050sc2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:29:07 PM"

150

,"Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1973 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050wi2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050wi2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:29:12 PM"

151

,"Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ak2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ak2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:46 PM"

152

,"Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1996 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ct2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ct2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

153

,"Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Injections All Operators (MMcf)" Injections All Operators (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (MMcf)",1,"Annual",1975 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5050ga2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5050ga2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:28:50 PM"

154

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial EnergySense Retrofit Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Multi-Family Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Construction Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Manufacturing Insulation Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate $75,000 Program Info Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies Widely Philadelphia Gas Works' (PGW) Commercial and Industrial Retrofit Incentive Program is part of EnergySense, PGW's portfolio of energy efficiency

155

U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

156

U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Acquifers Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

157

Computational study of homogeneous and stratified combustion in a compressed natural gas direct injection engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, the type of combustion occurred within engine cylinder plays an important role determining the performance and emissions. In the present study, the computational investigation was performed in order to compare characteristics of homogeneous ... Keywords: compressed natural gas, direct injection, exhaust emissions, homogeneous combustion, stratified combustion

S. Abdullah; W. H. Kurniawan; M. A. Al-Rawi; Y. Ali; T. I. Mohamad

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

None

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

None

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Discussion of a New Exhausting Smoke Solution in Natural Draft Cooling Tower with Flue Gas Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

First, the three-dimensional model of NDCT with flue gas injection and the boundary conditions was established by GAMBIT2.3 on the basis of structural parameter. On theFLUENT6.3 technology platform with self-designed program, it was found that: The new ... Keywords: NDCT with flue gas injection, jet mechanics numerical simulation, natural draft cooling towers

Yang Shuo; Qing-Jie Qi; Xin-Le Yang; Shi Lei; Chun-Yang Li

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 341 1994-Jan 01/07 331 01/14 316 01/21 303 01/28 290 1994-Feb 02/04 266 02/11 246 02/18 228 02/25 212 1994-Mar 03/04 206 03/11 201 03/18 205 03/25 202 1994-Apr 04/01 201 04/08 201 04/15 202 04/22 210 04/29 215 1994-May 05/06 225 05/13 236 05/20 242 05/27 256

162

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program (Pennsylvania) Philadelphia Gas Works - Commercial and Industrial Equipment Rebate Program (Pennsylvania) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Appliances & Electronics Program Info Start Date 9/1/2012 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Boiler Size 300-500 (kBtu/h): $800; $2900 Boiler Size 500-700 (kBtu/h): $1400; $3600 Boiler Size 700-900 (kBtu/h): $2000; $4200 Boiler Size 900-1100 (kBtu/h): $2600; $4800 Boiler Size 1100-1300 (kBtu/h): $3200; $5400 Boiler Size 1300-1500 (kBtu/h): $3800; $6000 Boiler Size 1500-1700 (kBtu/h): $4400; $6600 Boiler Size 1700-2000 (kBtu/h): $5200; $7400

163

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Nonsalt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 841 2007-Jan 01/05 823 01/12 806 01/19 755 01/26 716 2007-Feb 02/02 666 02/09 613 02/16 564 02/23 538 2007-Mar 03/02 527 03/09 506 03/16 519 03/23 528 03/30 550 2007-Apr 04/06 560 04/13 556 04/20 568 04/27 590 2007-May 05/04 610 05/11 629 05/18 648 05/25 670

164

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 570 1994-Jan 01/07 532 01/14 504 01/21 440 01/28 414 1994-Feb 02/04 365 02/11 330 02/18 310 02/25 309 1994-Mar 03/04 281 03/11 271 03/18 284 03/25 303 1994-Apr 04/01 287 04/08 293 04/15 308 04/22 334 04/29 353 1994-May 05/06 376 05/13 399 05/20 429 05/27 443

165

Differences Between Monthly and Weekly Working Gas In Storage  

Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

December 19, 2013 December 19, 2013 Note: The weekly storage estimates are based on a survey sample that does not include all companies that operate underground storage facilities. The sample was selected from the list of storage operators to achieve a target standard error of the estimate of working gas in storage which was no greater than 5 percent for each region. Based on a comparison of weekly estimates and monthly data from May 2002 through September 2013, estimated total working gas stocks have exhibited an average absolute error of 16 billion cubic feet, or 0.6 percent. Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides weekly estimates of working gas volumes held in underground storage facilities at the national and regional levels. These are estimated from volume data provided by a

166

Differences Between Monthly and Weekly Working Gas In Storage  

Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (EIA)

November 7, 2013 November 7, 2013 Note: The weekly storage estimates are based on a survey sample that does not include all companies that operate underground storage facilities. The sample was selected from the list of storage operators to achieve a target standard error of the estimate of working gas in storage which was no greater than 5 percent for each region. Based on a comparison of weekly estimates and monthly data from May 2002 through August 2013, estimated total working gas stocks have exhibited an average absolute error of 16 billion cubic feet, or 0.6 percent. Background The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides weekly estimates of working gas volumes held in underground storage facilities at the national and regional levels. These are estimated from volume data provided by a

167

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program Philadelphia Gas Works - Residential and Small Business Equipment Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Low-Income Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info Start Date 4/1/2011 Expiration Date 8/31/2015 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Boiler (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $1000 Boiler (Purchase 02/17/12 or after): $2000 Furnace (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $250 Furnace (Purchase prior to 02/17/12): $500

168

Gas injection techniques for condensate recovery and remediation of liquid banking in gas-condensate reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In gas-condensate reservoirs, gas productivity declines due to the increasing accumulation of liquids in the near wellbore region as the bottom-hole pressure declines below the… (more)

Hwang, Jongsoo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage Comparison of Numerical Simulators for Greenhouse Gas Storage in Coalbeds, Part I: Pure Carbon Dioxide Injection David H.-S. Law (law@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5034) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 L.H.G. (Bert) van der Meer (l.vandermeer@nitg.tno.nl; +31-30-256-4635) Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO P.O. Box 80015, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands W.D. (Bill) Gunter (gunter@arc.ab.ca; 780-450-5467) Alberta Research Council (ARC) Inc. 250 Karl Clark Road, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1E4 Abstract The injection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in deep, unmineable coalbeds is a very attractive option for geologic CO 2 storage: the CO 2 is stored and at the same time the recovery of

170

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5540us2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5540us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:33 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" 34515,2654035 34880,2371697 35246,2647124 35611,2532986

171

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5440us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5440us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:30 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5440US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" 34349,10956 34380,12444

172

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Annual",2012 Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5440us2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5440us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:29 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5440US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" 34515,142243 34880,194185 35246,258468

173

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Monthly","9/2013" Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5540us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5540us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:33 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" "Date","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" 34349,23610 34380,37290 34408,91769

174

Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 280,414 208,968 200,997 216,283 261,894 293,909 326,049 349,274 387,670 405,477 381,931 342,394 1995 288,908 270,955 251,410 246,654 284,291 328,371 362,156 372,718 398,444 418,605 419,849 366,944 1996 280,620 236,878 221,371 232,189 268,812 299,619 312,736 313,747 330,116 333,134 322,501 282,392 1997 216,113 179,067 171,563 184,918 227,756 273,507 306,641 330,075 351,975 363,189 350,107 263,455 1998 211,982 163,084 150,923 155,766 206,048 254,643 281,422 305,746 346,135 379,917 388,380 330,906

176

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone; this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe; swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone; this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Fuel injection staged sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is described. The combustor comprises a plurality of individual combustor chambers. Each combustor chamber has a main burning zone and a pilot burning zone. A pipe for the low-BTU coal gas is connected to the upstream end of the pilot burning zone: this pipe surrounds a liquid fuel source and is in turn surrounded by an air supply pipe: swirling means are provided between the liquid fuel source and the coal gas pipe and between the gas pipe and the air pipe. Additional preheated air is provided by counter-current coolant air in passages formed by a double wall arrangement of the walls of the main burning zone communicating with passages of a double wall arrangement of the pilot burning zone: this preheated air is turned at the upstream end of the pilot burning zone through swirlers to mix with the original gas and air input (and the liquid fuel input when used) to provide more efficient combustion. One or more fuel injection stages (second stages) are provided for direct input of coal gas into the main burning zone. The countercurrent air coolant passages are connected to swirlers surrounding the input from each second stage to provide additional oxidant.

Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

178

,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (MMcf)" Working Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5410us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5410us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:28 PM"

179

,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (MMcf)" Working Gas (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (MMcf)",1,"Monthly","9/2013" ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","n5510us2m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n5510us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:30:32 PM"

180

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Salt Producing Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 2006-Dec 12/29 101 2007-Jan 01/05 109 01/12 107 01/19 96 01/26 91 2007-Feb 02/02 78 02/09 63 02/16 52 02/23 54 2007-Mar 03/02 59 03/09 58 03/16 64 03/23 70 03/30 78 2007-Apr 04/06 81 04/13 80 04/20 80 04/27 83 2007-May 05/04 85 05/11 88 05/18 92 05/25 97 2007-Jun 06/01 100 06/08 101 06/15 102 06/22 102 06/29 102

182

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 2,322 1994-Jan 01/07 2,186 01/14 2,019 01/21 1,782 01/28 1,662 1994-Feb 02/04 1,470 02/11 1,303 02/18 1,203 02/25 1,149 1994-Mar 03/04 1,015 03/11 1,004 03/18 952 03/25 965 1994-Apr 04/01 953 04/08 969 04/15 1,005 04/22 1,085 04/29 1,161 1994-May 05/06 1,237 05/13 1,325 05/20 1,403 05/27 1,494

183

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Working Underground Storage (Billion Cubic Feet) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value End Date Value 1993-Dec 12/31 1,411 1994-Jan 01/07 1,323 01/14 1,199 01/21 1,040 01/28 958 1994-Feb 02/04 838 02/11 728 02/18 665 02/25 627 1994-Mar 03/04 529 03/11 531 03/18 462 03/25 461 1994-Apr 04/01 465 04/08 475 04/15 494 04/22 541 04/29 593 1994-May 05/06 636 05/13 690 05/20 731 05/27 795

184

Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

Kar, Kenneth

185

Parametric performance analysis of steam-injected gas turbine with a thermionic-energy-converter-lined combustor  

SciTech Connect

The performance of steam-injected gas turbines having combustors lined with thermionic energy converters (STIG/TEC systems) was analyzed and compared with that of two baseline systems a steam-injected gas turbine (without a TEC-lined combustor) and a conventional combined gas turbine/steam turbine cycle. Common gas turbine parameters were assumed for all of the systems. Two configurations of the STIG/TEC system were investigated. In both cases, steam produced in an exhaust-heat-recovery boiler cools the TEC collectors. It is then injected into the gas combustion stream and expanded through the gas turbine. The STIG/TEC system combines the advantage of gas turbine steam injection with the conversion of high-temperature combustion heat by TEC's. The addition of TEC's to the baseline steam-injected gas turbine improves both its efficiency and specific power. Depending on system configuration and design parameters, the STIG/TEC system can also achieve higher efficiency and specific power than the baseline combined cycle.

Choo, Y.K.; Burns, R.K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Collection efficiency of photoelectrons injected into near- and supercritical argon gas  

SciTech Connect

Injection of photoelectrons into gaseous or liquid dielectrics is a widely used technique to produce cold plasmas in weakly ionized systems for investigating the transport properties of electrons. We report measurements of the collection efficiency of photoelectrons injected into dense argon gas for T= 152.7 K, close to the critical temperature T{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 150.9 K, and for T= 200.0 K. The high-field data agree with the Young-Bradbury model and with previous measurements below T{sub c} and at an intermediate temperature above T{sub c}. The effective, density-dependent electron-atom momentum transfer scattering cross section can be deduced. However, the weak-field data near T{sub c} show large deviations from the theoretical model. We show that the electron behavior at weak field is influenced by electrostriction effects that are only important near the critical point.

Borghesani, A. F. [CNISM-Unit, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padua, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Lamp, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik u. Astrophysik, Munich (Germany)

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

187

AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 905,018 584,386 467,210 599,207 831,273 1,086,355 1,342,894 1,578,648 1,775,994 1,885,465 1,819,517 1,589,500 1995 1,206,116 814,626 663,885 674,424 850,290 1,085,760 1,300,439 1,487,188 1,690,456 1,811,013 1,608,177 1,232,901 1996 812,303 520,053 341,177 397,770 612,572 890,243 1,192,952 1,456,355 1,695,873 1,838,842 1,664,539 1,423,793 1997 965,310 711,444 521,508 539,750 735,527 985,803 1,230,970 1,474,855 1,702,601 1,816,709 1,706,526 1,416,580 1998 1,108,737 878,420 669,205 772,790 1,017,260 1,248,564 1,462,360 1,644,247 1,797,048 1,918,157 1,878,225 1,630,559

188

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate the performance of low-cost activated carbon sorbents for removing mercury. In addition, the effects of the dual flue gas conditioning system on mercury removal performance were evaluated as part of short-term parametric tests on Unit 2. Based on the parametric test results, a single sorbent (e.g., RWE Super HOK) was selected for a 30-day continuous injection test on Unit 1 to observe long-term performance of the sorbent as well as its effects on ESP and FGD system operations as well as combustion byproduct properties. A series of parametric tests were also performed on Shawville Unit 3 over a three-week period in which several activated carbon sorbents were injected into the flue gas duct just upstream of either of the two Unit 3 ESP units. Three different sorbents were evaluated in the parametric test program for the combined ESP 1/ESP 2 system in which sorbents were injected upstream of ESP 1: RWE Super HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg, and a 62:38 wt% hydrated lime/DARCO Hg premixed reagent. Five different sorbents were evaluated for the ESP 2 system in which activated carbons were injected upstream of ESP 2: RWE Super HOK and coarse-ground HOK, Norit's DARCO Hg and DARCO Hg-LH, and DARCO Hg with lime injection upstream of ESP 1. The hydrated lime tests were conducted to reduce SO3 levels in an attempt to enhance the mercury removal performance of the activated carbon sorbents. The Plant Yates and Shawville studies provided data required for assessing carbon performance and long-term operational impacts for flue gas mercury control across small-sized ESPs, as well as for estimating the costs of full-scale sorbent injection processes.

Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

Yu Yaowei [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Zhuang Huidong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen Zhongyong [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy & Fuels, 17(super-cushion gas for natural gas storage (Oldenburg, 2003).

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Lower 48 States Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 1,985 38,541 -75,406 -222,622 -232,805 -210,409 -190,434 -133,607 -91,948 -46,812 73,978 350,936 2012 778,578 852,002 1,047,322 994,769 911,345 800,040 655,845 556,041 481,190 406,811 271,902 259,915 2013 -216,792 -360,517 -763,506 -767,663 -631,403 -489,573 -325,475 -214,105 -148,588 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

192

U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,034,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,403,000 NA 2,050,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2,468,000 2,599,000 2,541,000 2,212,000 1976 1,648,000 1,444,000 1,326,000 1,423,000 1,637,000 1,908,000 2,192,000 2,447,000 2,650,000 2,664,000 2,408,000 1,926,000 1977 1,287,000 1,163,000 1,215,000 1,427,000 1,731,000 2,030,000 2,348,000 2,599,000 2,824,000 2,929,000 2,821,000 2,475,000 1978 1,819,000 1,310,000 1,123,000 1,231,000 1,491,000 1,836,000 2,164,000 2,501,000 2,813,000 2,958,000 2,927,000 2,547,000

193

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 74,086 66,477 61,296 61,444 65,918 70,653 76,309 82,236 85,955 89,866 87,913 73,603 1991 71,390 60,921 57,278 59,014 63,510 74,146 79,723 86,294 97,761 109,281 101,166 86,996 1992 67,167 54,513 50,974 53,944 62,448 70,662 82,259 93,130 103,798 112,898 103,734 83,223 1993 18,126 8,099 5,896 10,189 16,993 25,093 35,988 46,332 58,949 64,538 57,880 40,257 1994 21,994 12,505 9,508 11,414 16,978 23,485 33,733 44,726 56,420 65,515 60,945 43,175 1995 22,656 11,780 7,447 6,865 10,632 18,717 28,858 43,748 55,435 62,560 51,890 36,857

194

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 321,678 314,918 308,955 347,344 357,995 370,534 383,549 377,753 378,495 396,071 402,265 365,396 1991 279,362 271,469 271,401 289,226 303,895 323,545 327,350 329,102 344,201 347,984 331,821 316,648 1992 284,571 270,262 264,884 267,778 286,318 298,901 320,885 338,320 341,156 345,459 324,873 288,098 1993 165,226 149,367 141,472 157,250 183,990 198,041 207,344 220,032 216,071 222,798 210,181 194,014 1994 143,701 103,889 111,945 135,634 168,679 181,683 207,232 226,641 248,857 261,209 266,958 235,718 1995 215,449 192,489 184,914 206,178 228,388 238,593 238,850 234,779 254,339 265,781 248,336 200,382

195

Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Total Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 2,305,843 1,721,875 1,577,007 1,788,480 2,186,855 2,529,647 2,775,346 3,019,155 3,415,698 3,803,828 3,842,882 3,462,021 2012 2,910,007 2,448,810 2,473,130 2,611,226 2,887,060 3,115,447 3,245,201 3,406,134 3,693,053 3,929,250 3,799,215 3,412,910 2013 2,693,215 2,088,293 1,709,624 1,843,563 2,255,657 2,625,874 2,919,726 3,192,029 3,544,465 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

196

Working natural gas inventories below last year's level at ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Despite inventory levels at the end of March above the 5-year average, cumulative net injections this year are over 20% lower than in 2010.

197

A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system  

SciTech Connect

An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

198

A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system  

SciTech Connect

An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the vicinity of the injection well. While a large injectionby pumping it down into an injection well. While the actuala small part of the injection well (typically, a few meters

Mukhopadhyay, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work?  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. Results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve (see Figure 1).

Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

Test results of a steam injected gas turbine to increase power and thermal efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The desire to increase both power and thermal efficiency of the gas turbine (Brayton cycle) engine has been pursued for a number of years and has involved many approaches. The use of steam in the cycle to improve performance has been proposed by various investigators. This was most recently proposed by International Power Technology, Inc. (IPT) and has been tested by Detroit Diesel Allison (DDA), Division of General Motors. This approach, identified as the Cheng dual-fluid cycle (Cheng/DFC), includes the generation of steam using heat from the exhaust, and injecting this steam into the engine combustion chamber. Test results on an Allison 501-KB engine have demonstrated that use of this concept will increase the thermal efficiency of the engine by 30% and the output power by 60% with no increase in turbine inlet temperature. These results will be discussed, as will the impact of steam rate, location of steam injection, turbine temperature, and engine operational characteristics on the performance of the Cheng/DFC.

Messerlie, R.L.; Tischler, A.O.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Effects of Macroscopic Heterogeneities of Pore Structure and Wettability on Residual Oil Recovery Using the Gravity-Assisted Inert Gas Injection (GAIGI) Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To recover oil remaining in petroleum reservoirs after waterflooding, the gravitationally stable mode of gas injection is recognized as a promising tertiary oil recovery process.… (more)

Parsaei, Rafat

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage - Working Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 47,455 36,864 41,979 49,646 58,678 56,813 63,882 64,460 70,583 72,447 73,277 69,641 1995 72,965 64,476 58,510 66,025 73,529 78,437 76,026 63,026 80,949 87,711 83,704 71,638 1996 58,880 47,581 37,918 56,995 62,439 71,476 70,906 75,927 84,962 88,061 87,029 85,140 1997 57,054 49,490 55,865 58,039 73,265 79,811 65,589 66,536 77,598 93,020 95,180 82,610 1998 69,390 68,851 63,549 80,476 82,711 83,080 90,544 92,319 83,365 115,709 118,521 104,104 1999 82,043 77,133 67,758 77,908 94,436 101,788 95,521 102,210 111,680 115,048 116,495 99,921

204

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 35,239 28,083 24,437 26,484 32,304 42,192 50,845 59,950 66,681 69,508 68,996 59,183 1991 38,557 30,227 25,695 29,076 35,780 43,534 51,822 60,564 69,005 73,760 68,941 61,246 1992 49,781 35,441 23,732 26,771 36,307 45,716 57,152 66,993 72,724 76,134 72,836 56,289 1993 43,019 26,790 16,578 20,740 30,875 41,858 51,917 54,363 63,952 65,899 62,563 53,140 1994 40,502 26,320 17,867 26,755 35,465 47,773 56,880 65,819 70,776 72,168 69,544 60,807 1995 46,883 32,592 26,685 27,192 35,773 47,125 54,358 62,641 71,561 73,249 63,560 45,810

205

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Working Gas) (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 12,085 11,213 10,893 12,718 8,903 13,496 17,077 20,270 21,829 24,996 26,006 23,472 1991 20,026 18,023 15,855 8,701 11,626 14,635 15,689 13,734 16,376 16,270 16,031 16,988 1992 14,969 14,258 13,522 11,923 11,828 12,369 10,270 12,215 13,412 15,976 14,938 15,350 1993 12,704 8,540 8,417 5,490 8,195 9,416 9,685 7,367 8,356 10,544 7,832 7,914 1994 4,952 3,973 3,588 3,256 4,025 4,716 5,087 5,306 8,708 10,826 10,274 9,735 1995 7,590 7,588 8,025 8,247 9,470 10,575 10,593 9,503 10,022 10,057 8,980 7,490 1996 6,178 4,942 4,250 3,871 4,212 4,219 4,193 4,308 5,444 5,866 5,030 4,605

206

Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy & Fuels, 17(super-cushion gas for natural gas storage (Oldenburg, 2003).storage of carbon dioxide in depleted natural gas reservoirs

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transportation sector accounts for approximately 65% of US petroleum consumption. Consumption for light-duty vehicles has stabilized in the last 10--15 years; however, consumption in the heavy-duty sector has continued to increase. For various reasons, the US must reduce its dependence on petroleum. One significant way is to substitute alternative fuels (natural gas, propane, alcohols, and others) in place of petroleum fuels in heavy-duty applications. Most alternative fuels have the additional benefit of reduced exhaust emissions relative to petroleum fuels, thus providing a cleaner environment. The best long-term technology for heavy-duty alternative fuel engines is the 4-stroke cycle, direct injected (DI) engine using a single fuel. This DI, single fuel approach maximizes the substitution of alternative fuel for diesel and retains the thermal efficiency and power density of the diesel engine. This report summarizes the results of the first year (Phase 1) of this contract. Phase 1 focused on developing a 4-stroke cycle, DI single fuel, alternative fuel technology that will duplicate or exceed diesel power density and thermal efficiency, while having exhaust emissions equal to or less than the diesel. Although the work is currently on a 3500 Series DING engine, the work is viewed as a basic technology development that can be applied to any engine. Phase 1 concentrated on DING engine component durability, exhaust emissions, and fuel handling system durability. Task 1 focused on identifying primary areas (e.g., ignition assist and gas injector systems) for future durability testing. In Task 2, eight mode-cycle-averaged NO{sub x} emissions were reduced from 11.8 gm/hp-hr (baseline conditions) to 2.5 gm/hp-hr (modified conditions) on a 3501 DING engine. In Task 3, a state-of-the-art fuel handling system was identified.

NONE

2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -114 -943 -336 775 774 774 773 -107 103 55 -146 1,291 1991 -410 79 -1,227 -201 487 592 893 913 620 617 807 1,083 1992 -216 381 1,107 542 286 333 304 220 216 189 -18 -13 1993 393 -220 -975 -996 -374 -69 -233 -135 -136 -112 -226 -70 1994 -245 1,036 1,842 -1,862 -1,456 -552 -338 -348 -285 -294 58 -85 1995 598 848 1,085 2,969 2,136 772 445 487 680 597 533 197 1996 -642 -262 -655 -677 21 290 541 398 140 226 -244 12 1997 309 461 -279 -42 -162 -311 -119 55 90 95 607 453

209

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as cushion gas for natural gas storage. Energy & Fuels,storage because of the potential to use CO 2 to extract additional oil or natural gas.

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (<10{sup 20}). When the cold front reaches q {approx} 2 surface, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are destabilized [2], mixing hot core plasma with edge impurities. Here, q is the safety factor. Most (>90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain from avalanching and the presence of a RE seed population due to Compton-scattered fast electrons, it is possible that a RE beam can be formed well into the CQ, after the flux surfaces initially destroyed by the TQ MHD have had time to heal. Crucial MGI issues to be studied in present devices are therefore the formation, amplification, and transport of RE and the transport of impurities into the core plasma (important because the presence of impurities can, via collisional drag, help suppress RE amplification). In the study of impurity transport, both neutral delivery (directly driven into the core by the jet pressure) and ion delivery (mixed into the core by MHD) are of interest, as both contribute to RE drag.

Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Huymphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

211

DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain from avalanching and the presence of a RE seed population due to Compton-scattered fast electrons, it is possible that a RE beam can be formed well into the CQ, after the flux surfaces initially destroyed by the TQ MHD have had time to heal. Crucial MGI issues to be studied in present devices are therefore the formation, amplification, and transport of RE and the transport of impurities into the core plasma (important because the presence of impurities can, via collisional drag, help suppress RE amplification). In the study of impurity transport, both neutral delivery (directly driven into the core by the jet pressure) and ion delivery (mixed into the core by MHD) are of interest, as both contribute to RE drag.

Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Huymphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

212

Withdrawals from Working Natural Gas Stocks During Summer 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

natural gas for air conditioning. According to the Edison Electric Institute, electricity consumption reached record highs during the week ended July ...

213

Huge natural gas reserves central to capacity work, construction plans in Iran  

SciTech Connect

Questions about oil production capacity in Iran tend to mask the country's huge potential as a producer of natural gas. Iran is second only to Russia in gas reserves, which National Iranian Gas Co. estimates at 20.7 trillion cu m. Among hurdles to Iran's making greater use of its rich endowment of natural gas are where and how to sell gas not used inside the country. The marketing logistics problem is common to other Middle East holders of gas reserves and a reason behind the recent proliferation of proposals for pipeline and liquefied natural gas schemes targeting Europe and India. But Iran's challenges are greater than most in the region. Political uncertainties and Islamic rules complicate long-term financing of transportation projects and raise questions about security of supply. As a result, Iran has remained mostly in the background of discussions about international trade of Middle Eastern gas. The country's huge gas reserves, strategic location, and existing transport infrastructure nevertheless give it the potential to be a major gas trader if the other issues can be resolved. The paper discusses oil capacity plans, gas development, gas injection for enhanced oil recovery, proposals for exports of gas, and gas pipeline plans.

Not Available

1994-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

214

Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection  

SciTech Connect

Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

Gutser, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wimmer, C. [Lst. f. Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lst. f. Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (<10{sup 20}). When the cold front reaches q {approx} 2 surface, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are destabilized [2], mixing hot core plasma with edge impurities. Here, q is the safety factor. Most (>90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain from avalanching and the presence of a RE seed population due to Compton-scattered fast electrons, it is possible that a RE beam can be formed well into the CQ, after the flux surfaces initially destroyed by the TQ MHD have had time to heal. Crucial MGI issues to be studied in present devices are therefore the formation, amplification, and transport of RE and the transport of impurities into the core plasma (important because the presence of impurities can, via collisional drag, help suppress RE amplification). In the study of impurity transport, both neutral delivery (directly driven into the core by the jet pressure) and ion delivery (mixed into the core by MHD) are of interest, as both contribute to RE drag. Here, three new results relevant to RE suppression from MGI are presented: (1) evidence is presented that neutral jet propagation is stopped by toroidal magnetic field pressure, (2) MGI appears to cause the CQ to begin before sufficient impurities have been injected for complete collisional suppression of RE, and (3) flux surface destruction over the region q {le} 2 occurs during the TQ. The first result suggests that neutrals cannot be delivered to the core of large tokamak discharges by MGI, even during the CQ. The second result indicates that (at least for argon MGI in DIII-D), insufficient impurities (either neutral or ion) are delivered for collisional suppression of RE at the start of the CQ. The last result suggests that the destruction of good field lines resulting from MGI is quite extensive and should be sufficient to prevent RE formation, at least at the start of the CQ.

Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

DIII-D Studies of Massive Gas Injection Fast Shutdowns for Disruption Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of massive quantities of gas is a promising technique for fast shutdown of ITER for the purpose of avoiding divertor and first wall damage from disruptions. Previous experiments using massive gas injection (MGI) to terminate discharges in the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated rapid shutdown with reduced wall heating and halo currents (relative to natural disruptions) and with very small runaway electron (RE) generation [1]. Figure 1 shows time traces which give an overview of shutdown time scales. Typically, of order 5 x 10{sup 22} Ar neutrals are fired over a pulse of 25 ms duration into stationary (non-disrupting) discharges. The observed results are consistent with the following scenario: within several ms of the jet trigger, sufficient Ar neutrals are delivered to the plasma to cause the edge temperature to collapse, initiating the inward propagation of a cold front. The exit flow of the jet [Fig. 1(a)] has a {approx} 9 ms rise time; so the quantity of neutrals which initiates the edge collapse is small (90%) of the plasma thermal energy is lost via impurity radiation during this thermal quench (TQ) phase. Conducted heat loads to the wall are low because of the cold edge temperature. After the TQ, the plasma is very cold (of order several eV), so conducted wall (halo) currents are low, even if the current channel contacts the wall. The plasma current profile broadens and begins decaying resistively. The decaying current generates a toroidal electric field which can accelerate REs; however, RE beam formation appears to be limited in MGI shutdowns. Presently, it is thought that the conducted heat flux and halo current mitigation qualities of the MGI shutdown technique will scale well to a reactor-sized tokamak. However, because of the larger RE gain from avalanching and the presence of a RE seed population due to Compton-scattered fast electrons, it is possible that a RE beam can be formed well into the CQ, after the flux surfaces initially destroyed by the TQ MHD have had time to heal. Crucial MGI issues to be studied in present devices are therefore the formation, amplification, and transport of RE and the transport of impurities into the core plasma (important because the presence of impurities can, via collisional drag, help suppress RE amplification). In the study of impurity transport, both neutral delivery (directly driven into the core by the jet pressure) and ion delivery (mixed into the core by MHD) are of interest, as both contribute to RE drag. Here, three new results relevant to RE suppression from MGI are presented: (1) evidence is presented that neutral jet propagation is stopped by toroidal magnetic field pressure, (2) MGI appears to cause the CQ to begin before sufficient impurities have been injected for complete collisional suppression of RE, and (3) flux surface destruction over the region q {le} 2 occurs during the TQ. The first result suggests that neutrals cannot be delivered to the core of large tokamak discharges by MGI, even during the CQ. The second result indicates that (at least for argon MGI in DIII-D), insufficient impurities (either neutral or ion) are delivered for collisional suppression of RE at the start of the CQ. The last result suggests that the destruction of good field lines resulting from MGI is quite extensive and should be sufficient to prevent RE formation, at least at the start of the CQ.

Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Antar, G; Bakhtiari, M; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Gray, D; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Lasnier, C; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wesley, J; West, W; Whyte, D; Yu, J

2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: Work...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Work Plans API has developed a work plan based on API's commitment letter and the Climate Challenge Program which addresses the overall elements of the Climate VISION program...

218

What is the total working gas capacity in underground natural gas ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

219

Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -30,641 13,186 6,384 -1,434 1,227 -3,129 3,399 2,573 2,606 1,953 968 1,423 1991 1,986 2,360 1,291 -869 -1,664 -1,353 -659 -203 99 250 317 582 1992 89 -487 -305 231 1,089 1,075 811 730 509 343 -779 -872 1993 -1,222 -1,079 -221 -204 -131 -374 -387 -356 -231 86 454 -69 1994 587 858 640 -1,359 -1,793 -1,593 -1,578 -1,544 -1,438 -1,674 -1,380 -915 1995 -1,331 -589 -83 3,208 3,177 2,713 2,212 1,136 939 685 1,065 880 1996 1,306 751 539 -460 -916 -777 -340 97 -286 -492 -987 -1,405

220

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -10,714 -2,484 2,221 9,026 9,501 3,159 1,926 1,511 539 1,182 1,803 9,892 1991 10,604 5,727 4,873 6,047 4,879 3,728 -584 -3,344 -2,211 -1,535 -10,107 -9,904 1992 -2,980 443 -1,846 -7,642 -6,984 -4,083 -1,435 -2,987 -1,706 -4,499 3,130 1,793 1993 5,569 -864 -4,596 -2,260 694 -12 478 3,249 2,672 1,131 -20,850 -21,299 1994 -24,589 -21,355 -12,019 -10,157 -12,687 -15,926 -14,545 -12,608 -16,289 -13,079 10,221 12,176 1995 11,100 9,566 2,283 2,636 4,862 5,526 3,149 -1,367 2,792 2,492 -7,807 -11,038

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221

Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 9,275 18,043 13,193 1,851 5,255 9,637 5,108 8,495 9,773 7,534 9,475 11,984 1991 -9,933 -7,259 454 6,145 6,270 3,648 2,744 1,010 -13 7,942 -12,681 -9,742 1992 -9,345 -8,466 -9,599 -19,126 -16,878 -15,372 -13,507 -9,010 -7,228 -7,653 -6,931 -18,707 1993 -51,572 -52,876 -51,081 -40,760 -41,229 -40,132 -39,867 -44,533 -43,110 -44,873 -36,080 -34,184 1994 -6,101 -1,289 8,929 5,795 -3,558 -6,807 -4,948 -4,181 -3,006 -678 -77 11,376 1995 20,962 7,104 -805 -3,970 -29,257 -30,038 -32,571 -35,022 -40,472 -36,406 -41,858 -53,433

222

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -3,295 -2,048 303 1,673 2,267 2,054 632 690 1,081 1,169 1,343 2,765 1991 2,450 1,002 -617 -1,537 -1,372 -2,052 -995 -41 274 4,477 815 -517 1992 -1,493 -820 -1,663 -1,510 -2,353 -796 1,038 506 1,229 -2,650 -2,283 -922 1993 374 -217 1,229 2,820 2,636 2,160 1,462 1,893 876 -679 -25 903 1994 -79 1,426 2,111 236 -856 -462 215 -22 -226 1,272 3,701 3,372 1995 4,108 1,921 1,440 1,503 2,033 1,379 -847 -1,547 -1,105 305 239 -1,594 1996 -2,809 -931 -2,059 -2,296 -2,608 -2,010 -508 2,016 1,499 -9 283 1,806

223

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -2,696 -5,556 -4,018 -2,430 -2,408 3,493 3,414 4,058 11,806 19,414 13,253 13,393 1992 -4,224 -6,407 -6,304 -5,070 -1,061 -3,484 2,536 6,836 6,037 3,618 2,568 -3,773 1993 -49,040 -46,415 -45,078 -43,755 -45,456 -45,569 -46,271 -46,798 -44,848 -48,360 -45,854 -42,967 1994 3,868 4,407 3,612 1,225 -15 -1,608 -2,255 -1,606 -2,529 977 3,064 2,918 1995 662 -725 -2,062 -4,549 -6,346 -4,768 -4,875 -978 -985 -2,955 -9,054 -6,318 1996 -2,596 -433 -1,982 -2,204 -5,609 -6,677 -4,290 -5,912 -4,983 -1,206 3,642 151

224

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 701 995 446 26 639 1,368 2,249 3,219 1,102 2,496 892 1991 -1,225 1,811 40 2,493 3,883 3,621 1,685 1,583 1,282 1,616 2,927 2,233 1992 6,816 5,146 5,417 2,679 1,253 -728 -859 310 1,516 2,085 -2,078 -3,827 1993 -4,453 -6,128 -1,947 -1,204 1,853 4,502 3,520 1,087 -522 -4,673 -5,378 -3,812 1994 -4,380 -4,192 -4,417 -6,105 -3,313 -6,446 -4,523 -3,052 -2,203 74 2,261 53 1995 699 2,115 -131 605 -2,947 1,448 2,167 881 -1,537 -592 2,731 756 1996 -3,583 -1,460 -1,587 1,297 1,828 892 223 -114 831 -332 -2,174 183

225

West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -1,093 -693 -375 128 493 786 2 -447 -512 -333 -99 1,138 1991 6,825 -2,677 -1,109 134 -3,564 -4,731 -6,487 -12,806 -17,650 -17,773 -28,530 -34,101 1992 -15,454 -21,567 -46,663 -52,768 -43,995 -42,430 -35,909 -27,164 -22,183 -12,950 -7,815 22,584 1993 24,960 9,394 9,292 12,636 27,031 36,232 34,023 34,755 41,628 34,399 26,968 -14,222 1994 -40,501 -30,621 -21,008 -4,595 -17,438 -13,653 -5,670 -2,609 -2,058 -1,674 4,099 10,639 1995 25,027 16,310 22,537 6,655 5,546 -896 -5,421 -18,718 -21,810 -13,288 -28,780 -41,453

226

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -4,944 -5,851 -5,300 -3,038 -4,576 -4,057 77 1,820 2,686 6,478 7,515 9,209 1991 7,941 6,810 4,962 -4,017 2,723 1,139 -1,388 -6,536 -5,453 -8,726 -9,976 -6,483 1992 -5,057 -3,765 -2,333 3,222 202 -2,266 -5,420 -1,519 -2,964 -294 -1,093 -1,638 1993 -2,265 -5,717 -5,105 -6,433 -3,632 -2,953 -584 -4,847 -5,056 -5,431 -7,107 -7,436 1994 -7,752 -4,567 -4,829 -2,234 -4,170 -4,700 -4,598 -2,062 352 281 2,443 1,820 1995 2,638 3,615 4,436 4,991 5,445 5,859 5,506 4,197 1,314 -768 -1,294 -2,244

227

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -16,163 -3,291 4,933 5,735 6,541 3,761 1,457 -2,718 333 6,361 22,218 1991 25,998 -7,924 -12,602 -6,752 5,539 14,861 14,428 10,464 17,383 22,644 -158 -24,807 1992 -21,205 -18,174 -17,028 -17,433 -15,973 -21,203 -22,672 -16,614 -16,409 -16,981 -10,425 -16,165 1993 -16,925 -24,778 -32,596 -36,290 -19,699 -4,049 12,259 23,601 37,502 33,152 26,345 20,728 1994 8,768 26,882 32,899 51,830 47,357 34,388 35,682 31,067 18,680 12,257 22,195 26,643 1995 33,319 12,790 17,621 6,203 -8,067 -1,243 -9,994 -31,430 -31,368 -26,406 -46,809 -55,574

228

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -525 -558 -653 -568 -437 -289 -114 76 566 493 1,000 1,188 1991 482 1,359 1,901 1,461 980 1,611 1,437 1,173 -147 -1,122 -1,494 -1,591 1992 -23,715 -25,067 -25,923 -26,121 -26,362 -27,771 -28,829 -30,471 -30,725 -31,860 -31,627 -33,317 1993 -9,841 -10,219 -9,773 -9,196 -8,590 -7,100 -6,215 -4,763 -4,433 -2,461 -3,475 -1,939 1994 834 524 1,455 1,850 2,436 1,126 195 143 389 396 2,707 3,074 1995 723 2,101 128 -1,538 -2,661 -1,884 -1,303 -1,135 -665 -416 -680 -807 1996 -1,225 -2,881 -2,568 -1,148 1,099 1,302 1,744 832 -482 -1,417 -3,593 -5,063

229

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -72 452 283 -1,858 -801 699 -1,353 41 108 1,167 -1,339 1991 -2,326 1,196 205 3,977 26,799 5,575 4,775 1,778 703 1,958 2,917 5,687 1992 6,208 3,332 5,695 1,986 1,815 275 -839 679 1,880 -138 -1,840 -5,179 1993 -6,689 -7,057 -5,245 -3,367 -188 -497 627 -212 975 -626 -3,745 1,760 1994 3,597 2,471 806 1,906 -20 879 539 371 -878 1,499 4,890 1,609 1995 1,078 3,321 3,503 1,633 1,599 1,386 990 268 1,628 1,312 1,767 -15 1996 -4,203 -3,033 -3,595 -3,720 -4,328 -2,562 -2,690 1,336 -2,014 -3,767 -4,591 -3,144

230

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 705 2,167 1,643 1,813 -2,403 355 272 -26 131 59 561 542 1991 -4,514 -2,633 -2,648 -1,702 -3,097 151 -280 -908 -3,437 -6,076 -7,308 -6,042 1992 -68,442 -68,852 -67,958 -67,769 -67,999 -68,527 -69,209 -69,883 -70,428 -70,404 -71,019 -73,067 1993 -14,437 -17,034 -19,377 -21,219 -23,373 -24,811 -24,628 -25,093 -24,213 -22,944 -22,384 -19,989 1994 -18,713 -19,954 -18,358 -17,429 -15,333 -12,802 -12,658 -11,874 -10,555 -9,434 -8,353 -7,819 1995 -7,494 -3,827 -3,353 -1,774 -1,433 -1,101 464 2,584 1,908 321 -1,020 -3,599

231

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 21,315 40,513 43,111 18,628 12,189 2,033 47 -10,549 -21,072 -9,288 -13,355 -8,946 1991 -42,316 -43,449 -37,554 -58,118 -54,100 -46,988 -56,199 -48,651 -34,294 -48,087 -70,444 -48,747 1992 5,209 -1,207 -6,517 -21,448 -17,577 -24,644 -6,465 9,218 -3,044 -2,525 -6,948 -28,550 1993 -119,345 -120,895 -123,412 -110,528 -102,328 -100,860 -113,541 -118,288 -125,086 -122,661 -114,692 -94,084 1994 -21,524 -45,478 -29,527 -21,615 -15,311 -16,358 -113 6,609 32,786 38,411 56,777 41,703 1995 71,748 88,600 72,969 70,544 59,709 56,910 31,618 8,138 5,482 4,572 -18,623 -35,336

232

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -10,362 -8,989 -8,480 -6,853 -3,138 -3,221 -2,686 -2,091 824 166 -307 3,561 1991 -6,300 -645 -100 -132 5,625 8,255 -439 -9,003 -13,999 -9,506 -35,041 -11,017 1992 16,928 8,288 4,215 1,589 -2,700 -7,788 -6,391 1,723 1,181 -7,206 -7,569 -20,817 1993 -31,418 -30,129 -26,038 -22,202 -4,247 4,828 6,211 5,963 10,199 10,284 14,158 14,727 1994 8,105 8,620 12,116 13,982 2,713 -3,469 465 1,613 -3,134 -1,516 -2,683 -1,820 1995 6,294 5,619 -1,798 -1,708 -758 5,090 429 -12,148 -5,167 2,571 6,337 -382

233

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,533 1999 210 227 211 187 147 49 88 -64 30 8 -80 -189 2000 -521 -228 69 134 440 435 425 385 -24 236 67 -179 2001 -7 -19 -282 -100 -165 21 46 202 453 58 469 975 2002 1,038 533 436 127 151 30 68 -94 -46 187 -153 -439 2003 -987 -810 -600 -430 -520 -317 -187 388 616 443 608 557 2004 528 649 498 364 599 408 194 216 6 834 916 456 2005 201 391 -60 22 -116 -186 -62 -780 -679 -910 1,097 1,608 2006 3,081 2,559 3,389 3,163 2,744 2,220 2,009 2,014 2,869 2,415 531 784

234

Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -862 -85 724 658 416 -1,091 -1,477 -807 2,724 -222 -1,505 5,333 1991 4,470 4,339 1,613 1,801 727 1,324 628 202 -123 -686 1,727 2,620 1992 900 -745 -1,784 -3,603 -1,779 -745 -328 -176 -219 356 579 -1,431 1993 153 742 1,488 1,891 777 -736 -1,464 -2,133 -1,700 -270 -379 -1,170 1994 -4,444 -2,565 -113 1,629 1,482 1,771 2,779 2,519 1,569 658 -517 1,249 1995 5,583 3,808 3,166 1,674 1,629 2,195 -93 -369 129 -488 -247 -2,056 1996 -3,630 -2,064 -3,459 -3,286 -3,097 -2,473 -372 315 -34 394 -346 1,808

235

U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 305,000 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 16,000 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 196,000 NA 162,000 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 182,000 65,000 -133,000 -286,000 1977 -361,000 -281,000 -111,000 4,000 94,000 122,000 156,000 152,000 174,000 265,000 413,000 549,000 1978 532,000 147,000 -92,000 -196,000 -240,000 -194,000 -184,000 -98,000 -11,000 29,000 106,000 72,000 1979 71,000 39,000 113,000 104,000 128,000 114,000 120,000 127,000 107,000 121,000 118,000 207,000

236

Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 1,596 507 381 -2,931 -46 -596 -311 -234 178 167 7,030 9,898 1991 19,571 17,816 10,871 17,001 13,713 16,734 12,252 11,416 8,857 5,742 -6,023 -8,607 1992 -14,527 -26,506 -45,308 -51,996 -46,282 -36,996 -26,224 -22,672 -22,086 -18,888 -11,177 -16,353 1993 -11,967 -21,375 -21,809 -21,634 -20,069 -20,488 -16,719 -11,806 -1,499 -5,717 -13,058 -21,422 1994 -39,036 -30,048 -9,070 4,162 7,033 5,081 8,939 7,976 3,961 7,543 16,019 30,397 1995 36,925 34,571 29,611 9,077 7,499 9,345 6,077 2,682 -942 -2,597 -22,632 -39,593

237

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -67 -133 -30 123 233 669 826 998 743 933 994 633 1997 156 40 226 203 337 -48 -197 -301 -376 -242 -356 405 1998 185 181 -92 24 -103 427 374 288 -376 -14 230 91 1999 29 103 39 -69 257 -156 88 -31 772 82 214 164 2000 63 175 802 599 219 615 462 381 -131 -196 -533 -430 2001 155 398 -521 -260 -395 -413 -352 -239 -111 -89 1,403 1,499 2002 1,415 858 1,192 1,255 1,399 692 788 772 755 314 -578 -731 2003 -2,107 -1,207 -476 304 1,194 2,067 2,346 2,392 3,132 4,421 4,005 3,823

238

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the middle Capay Shale (depleted gas) and McCormick Sand (depleted gas reservoir located within the Middle Capay shaleCO 2 gas will occur in the 2-3 m thick Capay Shale interval

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Mississippi Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 31.9 17.1 14.2 15.5 11.1 7.9 -1.1 -5.7 -3.6 -2.3 -15.3 -16.4 1992 -6.8 1.1 -4.7 -16.9 -14.3 -8.0 -2.7 -5.4 -2.8 -7.0 5.6 3.5 1993 13.6 -2.2 -12.3 -6.0 1.7 0.0 0.9 6.3 4.6 1.9 -35.2 -40.7 1994 -53.0 -55.0 -36.7 -28.8 -29.8 -34.1 -28.0 -22.8 -26.7 -21.5 26.7 39.2 1995 50.8 54.7 11.0 10.5 16.3 17.9 8.4 -3.2 6.2 5.2 -16.1 -25.5 1996 -25.7 -20.7 -31.6 -29.8 -36.9 -21.2 -9.3 8.1 9.4 9.4 21.0 38.5 1997 33.4 39.7 105.3 64.1 71.0 44.2 10.9 -1.2 -5.3 -6.4 1.9 -7.4 1998 6.1 2.0 -13.3 -3.6 -8.6 -10.1 5.8 7.1 -4.2 10.9 11.9 23.7

240

Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Indiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 11.0 5.4 -3.6 -8.8 -7.2 -9.9 -4.3 -0.2 0.9 13.4 2.4 -1.7 1992 -6.0 -4.2 -10.1 -9.5 -13.2 -4.2 4.7 1.9 3.9 -7.0 -6.5 -3.1 1993 1.6 -1.2 8.3 19.7 17.1 12.0 6.3 7.0 2.7 -1.9 -0.1 3.1 1994 -0.3 7.7 13.2 1.4 -4.7 -2.3 0.9 -0.1 -0.7 3.7 11.3 11.2 1995 17.4 9.6 8.0 8.6 11.8 7.0 -3.4 -5.3 -3.3 0.8 0.7 -4.8 1996 -10.1 -4.2 -10.5 -12.2 -13.6 -9.6 -2.1 7.3 4.7 0.0 0.8 5.7 1997 5.1 6.0 13.3 1.9 2.2 -0.6 -6.1 -12.4 -8.9 -7.0 -6.5 -9.3 1998 0.6 3.3 -5.1 6.1 8.3 -0.3 -0.9 -0.2 -0.4 -0.8 2.9 3.4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 13,690 18,121 8,849 5,853 7,132 14,219 18,130 10,561 13,390 31,974 19,181 9,703 1991 6,425 26,360 4,734 4,680 6,001 17,198 26,493 26,589 17,703 3,011 -3,286 14,947 1992 -6,546 -23,935 -22,706 -29,553 -29,442 -31,729 -31,331 -21,662 -2,945 7,561 4,600 -28,127 1993 -18,888 -21,388 7,592 2,646 4,145 -4,114 5,805 2,657 2,580 3,170 1,004 23,856 1994 14,332 -10,557 -24,707 -14,896 -15,082 -8,607 -14,837 -14,903 -8,310 -6,861 -11,874 -3,316 1995 9,020 48,536 41,487 19,773 18,032 23,794 20,147 9,074 3,393 9,305 28,072 27,725

242

Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Maryland Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 103.9 379.8 71.8 60.5 13.1 20.1 7.2 1.8 -0.9 -4.6 13.4 22.0 1992 10.3 -13.6 -46.2 -75.4 -28.4 -9.4 -3.5 -1.5 -1.6 2.5 4.0 -9.9 1993 1.6 15.7 71.7 160.6 17.3 -10.3 -16.3 -18.7 -12.6 -1.8 -2.5 -8.9 1994 -45.2 -46.8 -3.2 53.1 28.2 27.5 36.9 27.2 13.4 4.6 -3.5 10.5 1995 103.8 130.7 91.8 35.6 24.2 26.7 -0.9 -3.1 1.0 -3.2 -1.7 -15.6 1996 -33.1 -30.7 -52.3 -51.6 -37.0 -23.8 0.0 0.0 -0.3 2.7 -2.5 16.3 1997 -3.8 -5.7 -21.1 -23.6 -25.2 -29.3 -27.9 -19.8 -9.3 -3.7 4.9 1.1 1998 39.5 61.5 119.5 179.6 87.5 54.4 63.0 38.2 13.2 4.1 3.6 -1.8

243

U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) U.S. Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1973 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 17.6 1974 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.8 1975 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 8.2 NA 7.9 1976 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.4 2.5 -5.2 -12.9 1977 -21.9 -19.5 -8.4 0.3 5.7 6.4 7.1 6.2 6.6 9.9 17.2 28.5 1978 41.3 12.6 -7.6 -13.7 -13.9 -9.6 -7.8 -3.8 -0.4 1.0 3.8 2.9 1979 3.9 3.0 10.1 8.4 8.6 6.2 5.5 5.1 3.8 4.1 4.0 8.1 1980 23.0 37.3 29.0 26.7 23.4 17.9 13.3 8.6 6.1 3.5 -0.6 -3.6 1981 -7.4 -1.5 2.3 4.3 -1.1 -2.0 -1.1 1.0 1.7 1.9 5.8 6.1 1982 1.4 -2.0 -1.7 -5.0 2.9 5.2 5.7 4.0 3.1 3.6 3.4 9.0

244

Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Virginia Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1998 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1999 16.1 26.9 39.6 25.2 13.9 3.6 5.7 -3.4 1.3 0.3 -3.5 -10.0 2000 -34.3 -21.3 9.2 14.4 36.6 30.7 25.9 21.0 -1.1 10.0 3.1 -10.5 2001 -0.7 -2.3 -34.6 -9.4 -10.1 1.1 2.2 9.1 20.4 2.2 20.9 63.8 2002 104.8 64.7 81.8 13.2 10.2 1.6 3.2 -3.9 -1.7 7.0 -5.6 -17.5 2003 -48.6 -59.7 -62.0 -39.4 -32.0 -16.7 -8.6 16.7 23.4 15.6 23.8 27.0 2004 50.7 118.7 135.4 55.0 54.1 25.8 9.7 8.0 0.2 25.4 28.9 17.4

245

Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Minnesota Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -9.2 15.0 -0.3 -19.3 -19.7 -9.3 -1.7 -4.1 -2.7 -5.2 -8.5 6.3 1992 8.7 18.6 1.8 -25.1 -13.0 -11.2 -9.4 -1.0 0.5 1.8 5.3 -1.4 1993 1.3 -17.1 -29.0 -19.2 -19.0 -13.4 -5.9 -7.8 -2.5 1.2 -1.7 -7.0 1994 -16.3 -4.2 19.8 7.9 8.4 10.5 6.2 9.4 4.5 0.7 3.9 16.7 1995 23.8 4.8 -0.7 11.5 6.8 -3.5 -6.0 -4.1 0.0 0.3 0.4 -7.6 1996 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -2.8 -1.7 -2.9 -1.9 1997 11.5 27.8 39.0 29.2 13.8 12.4 12.3 7.6 3.7 2.3 3.5 14.6 1998 30.1 26.3 11.2 -4.8 -22.3 -26.4 -23.9 -19.0 -11.9 -4.1 -0.3 -18.6

246

Arkansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Arkansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.4 -8.3 -11.6 -14.2 -13.7 -14.5 -14.1 -18.0 -20.2 -20.4 -25.8 -30.6 1992 -22.4 -25.3 -26.8 -25.8 -27.1 -23.8 -18.0 -10.3 -5.1 -6.0 -1.3 1.0 1993 1.6 -2.9 -4.6 -5.4 -14.6 -17.3 -27.6 -34.0 -37.6 -37.9 -42.3 -48.2 1994 -63.6 -74.6 -86.5 -87.0 -71.6 -60.3 -47.2 -35.4 -31.0 -29.2 -21.3 -6.6 1995 17.7 53.9 163.4 177.6 64.0 80.9 96.0 105.5 99.3 96.9 80.2 20.9 1996 -23.6 -51.7 -97.8 -92.0 -31.2 -23.8 -31.6 -36.6 -21.2 -16.7 -17.7 8.9 1997 22.6 54.8 3,707.8 830.5 36.2 47.9 57.3 62.7 46.5 34.5 36.1 21.2

247

Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Wyoming Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 0.9 2.6 3.7 2.8 1.8 3.0 2.5 2.0 -0.2 -1.8 -2.5 -2.7 1992 -43.8 -46.9 -48.5 -48.7 -48.6 -49.4 -49.4 -50.6 -50.1 -51.9 -53.3 -58.2 1993 -32.4 -36.0 -35.5 -33.5 -30.9 -25.0 -21.0 -16.0 -14.5 -8.3 -12.5 -8.1 1994 4.1 2.9 8.2 10.1 12.7 5.3 0.8 0.6 1.5 1.5 11.2 14.0 1995 3.4 11.3 0.7 -7.6 -12.3 -8.4 -5.5 -4.5 -2.5 -1.5 -2.5 -3.2 1996 -5.5 -13.9 -13.3 -6.2 5.8 6.3 7.8 3.5 -1.9 -5.2 -13.7 -20.9 1997 -28.6 -33.1 -34.9 -38.1 -41.3 -35.8 -27.4 -18.7 -11.1 -9.6 -6.5 -5.2 1998 -4.6 1.6 0.9 -10.6 -7.1 2.5 -1.3 -4.6 -3.6 0.4 12.4 16.6

248

Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Texas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -13.2 -13.8 -12.2 -16.7 -15.1 -12.7 -14.7 -12.9 -9.1 -12.1 -17.5 -13.3 1992 1.9 -0.4 -2.4 -7.4 -5.8 -7.6 -2.0 2.8 -0.9 -0.7 -2.1 -9.0 1993 -41.9 -44.7 -46.6 -41.3 -35.7 -33.7 -35.4 -35.0 -36.7 -35.5 -35.3 -32.7 1994 -13.0 -30.4 -20.9 -13.7 -8.3 -8.3 -0.1 3.0 15.2 17.2 27.0 21.5 1995 49.9 85.3 65.2 52.0 35.4 31.3 15.3 3.6 2.2 1.8 -7.0 -15.0 1996 -39.6 -55.6 -63.2 -60.9 -56.4 -52.4 -54.0 -45.4 -36.2 -30.4 -29.0 -23.9 1997 -22.9 -11.1 43.9 42.6 36.6 44.1 39.4 29.5 14.7 19.6 15.0 -3.0 1998 10.4 54.6 29.7 45.6 40.4 30.3 52.1 51.3 37.5 31.2 44.1 72.7

249

Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Michigan Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 12.0 12.8 14.6 30.2 17.0 11.7 5.0 -0.7 -6.8 -2.6 -11.4 -14.2 1992 -8.1 -14.1 -31.6 -37.7 -28.9 -21.6 -14.9 -8.9 1.2 -1.2 1.1 -2.0 1993 -7.5 -20.7 -25.8 -17.2 -1.0 3.7 5.2 7.6 6.1 6.7 6.2 7.4 1994 -4.8 -0.4 22.1 37.4 24.6 15.8 10.2 7.2 6.2 5.4 12.3 21.2 1995 45.7 54.3 51.8 20.6 8.0 3.8 3.1 -2.0 -4.1 -3.7 -11.8 -24.0 1996 -36.3 -39.8 -47.6 -41.4 -32.3 -22.7 -17.5 -9.7 -4.1 -0.9 -0.2 9.0 1997 16.9 31.2 41.0 40.5 23.5 15.4 11.0 6.8 3.1 0.2 1.9 3.7 1998 17.4 33.0 41.3 43.7 44.2 36.0 22.0 14.2 6.0 4.5 11.4 17.1

250

Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Ohio Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 19.5 22.4 15.4 23.1 14.3 14.4 9.1 7.4 5.2 3.1 -3.3 -5.5 1992 -12.1 -27.3 -55.6 -57.4 -42.1 -27.9 -17.8 -13.7 -12.2 -10.0 -6.4 -11.0 1993 -11.3 -30.2 -60.3 -56.1 -31.6 -21.4 -13.8 -8.2 -0.9 -3.4 -7.9 -16.2 1994 -41.7 -61.0 -63.3 24.5 16.2 6.8 8.5 6.1 2.5 4.6 10.6 27.3 1995 67.7 179.6 562.8 43.0 14.8 11.6 5.3 1.9 -0.6 -1.5 -13.5 -28.0 1996 -36.6 -54.9 -83.2 -46.6 -20.6 -7.3 -0.6 4.2 6.7 8.8 9.2 20.8 1997 11.5 50.2 163.8 -2.8 8.0 4.9 2.0 2.8 2.3 -0.2 6.1 3.3 1998 43.1 60.2 92.8 193.9 65.5 24.3 15.1 8.6 5.6 7.5 12.7 20.9

251

Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Iowa Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -3.6 -8.4 -6.6 -4.0 -3.7 4.9 4.5 4.9 13.7 21.6 15.1 18.2 1992 -5.9 -10.5 -11.0 -8.6 -1.7 -4.7 3.2 7.9 6.2 3.3 2.5 -4.3 1993 -73.0 -85.1 -88.4 -81.1 -72.8 -64.5 -56.2 -50.3 -43.2 -42.8 -44.2 -51.6 1994 21.3 54.4 61.3 12.0 -0.1 -6.4 -6.3 -3.5 -4.3 1.5 5.3 7.2 1995 3.0 -5.8 -21.7 -39.9 -37.4 -20.3 -14.5 -2.2 -1.7 -4.5 -14.9 -14.6 1996 -11.5 0.0 -26.6 -32.1 -52.8 -35.7 -14.9 -13.5 -9.0 -1.9 7.0 0.4 1997 5.1 11.2 76.8 72.4 129.0 65.0 16.6 4.6 3.7 -1.1 8.3 16.8 1998 15.2 41.6 15.6 34.6 25.3 14.9 48.5 17.4 12.0 8.3 9.4 4.7

252

Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Oklahoma Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -13.9 -10.0 -6.5 8.1 7.3 7.8 0.7 -1.3 0.5 -0.6 -20.1 -13.6 1992 4.0 1.0 -7.0 -12.9 -16.3 -14.6 -3.6 -1.4 0.4 2.5 6.8 -7.7 1993 -59.8 -75.3 -81.3 -71.8 -58.1 -47.8 -43.7 -38.0 -33.1 -31.7 -34.3 -29.9 1994 20.6 33.2 68.7 60.2 49.2 29.1 25.2 21.3 11.9 8.6 24.6 27.3 1995 54.1 106.0 91.5 35.8 13.9 11.2 0.6 -12.2 -8.9 -2.2 -7.8 -15.8 1996 -31.5 -51.7 -63.0 -57.6 -49.9 -45.9 -42.1 -26.5 -18.0 -15.4 -23.0 -27.6 1997 -28.4 -3.5 62.3 59.0 49.7 32.7 17.2 5.5 0.1 6.6 12.9 11.8 1998 34.3 61.5 15.9 41.1 37.9 45.5 53.2 46.9 37.6 31.0 46.7 62.1

253

Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -9.6 -1.2 -0.2 -0.3 11.7 15.5 -0.7 -11.7 -15.1 -9.6 -30.3 -11.8 1992 28.5 15.1 8.5 3.4 -5.0 -12.7 -9.9 2.5 1.5 -8.0 -9.4 -25.3 1993 -41.2 -47.7 -48.5 -45.3 -8.3 9.0 10.7 8.6 12.8 12.5 19.4 24.0 1994 18.1 26.1 43.8 52.2 5.8 -5.9 0.7 2.1 -3.5 -1.6 -3.1 -2.4 1995 11.9 13.5 -4.5 -4.2 -1.5 9.2 0.7 -15.7 -6.0 2.8 7.5 -0.5 1996 -22.8 -19.2 -23.4 -13.2 -16.5 -13.8 -4.8 7.7 -4.5 -10.7 -22.9 -23.0 1997 -0.9 -1.0 19.1 6.4 12.1 9.5 -2.4 2.6 9.6 12.4 23.3 28.2 1998 26.0 30.6 4.0 18.0 34.9 19.3 33.7 29.6 20.8 18.7 25.3 28.3

254

Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Tennessee Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1998 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1999 43.0 55.3 41.7 61.2 59.6 131.5 70.6 38.1 29.2 25.1 16.0 8.6 2000 5.3 -3.2 12.8 21.0 16.7 -19.5 -34.7 -42.4 -50.4 -50.8 -41.4 -27.6 2001 -9.8 9.3 8.4 8.3 41.3 71.7 80.1 97.0 109.6 99.9 12.1 -3.5 2002 3.9 15.1 32.5 54.2 19.0 -2.5 -9.0 -17.3 -22.6 -28.6 -14.4 -14.2 2003 -37.6 -54.6 -65.2 -72.4 -65.7 -53.4 -40.1 -24.0 -23.2 -15.3 -0.8 -12.8 2004 -15.0 -0.5 24.1 74.4 61.1 82.6 24.4 10.6 11.2 6.1 3.7 8.9

255

Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Alabama Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 221.1 244.8 179.6 64.8 86.8 112.2 130.5 1997 36.2 10.9 111.7 57.1 68.4 -5.0 -17.0 -19.4 -19.9 -12.1 -19.0 36.2 1998 31.5 45.0 -21.4 4.3 -12.4 46.2 38.7 23.0 -24.8 -0.8 15.1 6.0 1999 3.8 17.6 11.5 -11.9 35.3 -11.6 6.5 -2.0 67.7 4.7 12.2 10.2 2000 7.9 25.4 213.4 116.8 22.2 51.5 32.4 25.3 -6.9 -10.7 -27.1 -24.2 2001 17.9 46.2 -44.2 -23.4 -32.8 -23.0 -18.6 -12.6 -6.3 -5.4 97.8 111.1 2002 138.8 68.1 181.5 147.4 173.3 50.0 51.2 46.8 45.2 20.3 -20.4 -25.7 2003 -86.5 -57.0 -25.7 14.4 54.1 99.5 100.8 98.7 129.2 237.3 177.3 180.6

256

Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Montana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -2.5 -1.5 -1.5 -1.0 -1.7 0.1 -0.2 -0.5 -1.8 -3.2 -3.9 -3.3 1992 -38.1 -38.6 -38.4 -38.3 -38.2 -38.2 -38.2 -38.3 -38.6 -38.8 -39.8 -41.8 1993 -13.0 -15.6 -17.8 -19.4 -21.2 -22.4 -22.0 -22.3 -21.6 -20.7 -20.8 -19.6 1994 -19.3 -21.6 -20.5 -19.8 -17.7 -14.9 -14.5 -13.6 -12.0 -10.7 -9.8 -9.5 1995 -9.6 -5.3 -4.7 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 0.6 3.4 2.5 0.4 -1.3 -4.9 1996 -9.0 -11.4 -16.2 -18.1 -20.7 -19.2 -18.0 -16.9 -13.6 -13.4 -16.2 -17.7 1997 -18.5 -20.5 -19.6 -21.9 -19.3 -20.3 -20.1 -20.8 -22.7 -23.8 -22.5 -20.6

257

Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 6,258 1,922 -2,167 -243 10 2,672 -2,738 -4,873 -6,032 -7,692 -923 338 1992 -6,698 -535 4,172 3,577 4,237 4,004 2,095 84 -3,541 -5,140 1,162 1,110 1993 -850 -4,870 -7,443 -9,206 -6,521 -660 270 742 2,661 8,010 4,211 6,489 1994 7,656 4,514 6,002 8,910 9,109 5,722 6,012 6,934 10,321 7,849 7,551 8,609 1995 5,458 10,271 8,870 8,362 6,546 8,164 11,552 10,230 4,613 2,012 5,484 -708 1996 -5,185 -10,201 -9,074 -10,256 -8,313 -7,322 -7,566 -7,192 -6,606 -8,327 -14,146 -13,483 1997 -10,123 -4,260 296 2,223 969 2,109 3,330 4,725 5,811 8,139 10,145 6,148

258

Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Colorado Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.5 8.0 0.2 18.3 29.2 20.6 7.1 5.5 3.8 4.6 8.4 6.4 1992 25.9 21.0 30.9 16.6 7.3 -3.4 -3.4 1.0 4.3 5.7 -5.5 -10.4 1993 -13.5 -20.7 -8.5 -6.4 10.0 22.0 14.3 3.5 -1.4 -12.0 -15.0 -11.5 1994 -15.3 -17.8 -21.0 -34.7 -16.3 -25.8 -16.1 -9.6 -6.1 0.2 7.4 0.2 1995 2.9 10.9 -0.8 5.3 -17.3 7.8 9.2 3.0 -4.5 -1.7 8.4 2.6 1996 -14.4 -6.8 -9.6 10.7 13.0 4.5 0.0 0.0 2.6 -1.0 -6.1 0.6 1997 15.7 -0.6 19.6 -8.7 10.6 9.4 9.1 10.7 13.9 12.4 3.0 -2.1 1998 1.5 1.9 -7.3 5.5 7.3 -0.1 -5.5 -0.6 1.5 8.0 23.7 18.0

259

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1990 -484 -13 300 294 -712 -349 -288 393 1,101 972 1,011 1,114 1991 3,318 2,144 1,258 2,592 3,476 1,343 977 614 2,324 4,252 -55 2,063 1992 11,224 5,214 -1,963 -2,306 527 2,182 5,330 6,430 3,719 2,374 3,894 -4,958 1993 -6,762 -8,650 -7,154 -6,031 -5,432 -3,859 -5,235 -12,631 -8,772 -10,235 -10,273 -3,149 1994 -2,517 -470 1,289 6,015 4,590 5,915 4,963 11,457 6,824 6,269 6,981 7,667 1995 6,381 6,272 8,818 437 309 -648 -2,521 -3,178 786 1,081 -5,984 -14,997 1996 -14,592 -13,733 -14,382 -13,026 -10,421 -9,742 -4,162 368 -1,791 -848 2,368 11,761

260

Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Illinois Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -4.2 -4.0 0.3 4.2 3.5 1.7 1.1 0.4 0.0 2.4 -3.8 -3.3 1992 -4.2 -4.8 -6.4 -12.6 -9.2 -7.2 -5.6 -3.3 -2.3 -2.3 -2.2 -6.6 1993 -24.0 -31.6 -36.3 -30.7 -24.7 -20.2 -17.4 -16.7 -14.3 -13.7 -11.6 -12.9 1994 -3.7 -1.1 10.0 6.3 -2.8 -4.3 -2.6 -1.9 -1.2 -0.2 0.0 4.9 1995 13.3 6.3 -0.8 -4.1 -24.0 -19.8 -17.7 -16.0 -15.8 -12.9 -15.3 -22.1 1996 -32.4 -34.1 -42.5 -37.1 -6.6 -2.1 2.0 3.5 5.3 3.1 3.2 8.3 1997 15.3 24.7 33.5 27.3 14.8 7.4 3.9 3.6 2.9 2.4 8.6 5.5 1998 12.9 22.3 23.5 24.2 18.8 14.7 8.2 4.3 2.2 2.3 -0.8 0.8

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Louisiana Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 22.5 -6.7 -11.5 -6.1 4.7 11.3 9.9 6.6 10.0 12.0 -0.1 -13.0 1992 -15.0 -16.6 -17.6 -16.9 -13.0 -14.5 -14.2 -9.8 -8.6 -8.0 -5.3 -9.7 1993 -14.1 -27.1 -40.9 -42.3 -18.5 -3.2 9.0 15.5 21.5 17.1 14.1 13.8 1994 8.5 40.4 69.8 104.5 54.4 28.4 23.9 17.6 8.8 5.4 10.4 15.6 1995 29.7 13.7 22.0 6.1 -6.0 -0.8 -5.4 -15.2 -13.6 -11.0 -19.9 -28.2 1996 -31.0 -28.8 -47.1 -50.7 -48.5 -47.6 -37.5 -19.6 -12.8 -11.9 -14.6 -6.4 1997 -14.5 -14.9 61.5 61.3 62.8 54.4 24.7 7.8 3.7 7.4 13.1 7.3 1998 40.7 86.3 35.5 55.9 46.9 35.0 42.0 40.1 22.5 26.5 40.7 56.9

262

New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) New Mexico Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 65.7 60.7 45.6 -31.6 30.6 8.4 -8.1 -32.2 -25.0 -34.9 -38.4 -27.6 1992 -25.3 -20.9 -14.7 37.0 1.7 -15.5 -34.5 -11.1 -18.1 -1.8 -6.8 -9.6 1993 -15.1 -40.1 -37.8 -54.0 -30.7 -23.9 -5.7 -39.7 -37.7 -34.0 -47.6 -48.4 1994 -61.0 -53.5 -57.4 -40.7 -50.9 -49.9 -47.5 -28.0 4.2 2.7 31.2 23.0 1995 53.3 91.0 123.6 153.3 135.3 124.2 108.2 79.1 15.1 -7.1 -12.6 -23.1 1996 -18.6 -34.9 -47.0 -53.1 -55.5 -60.1 -60.4 -54.7 -45.7 -41.7 -44.0 -38.5 1997 -33.5 -29.5 0.6 10.4 4.4 10.4 13.4 27.8 18.1 14.5 24.1 19.8

263

New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) New York Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 9.4 7.6 5.1 9.8 10.8 3.2 1.9 1.0 3.5 6.1 -0.1 3.5 1992 29.1 17.2 -7.6 -7.9 1.5 5.0 10.3 10.6 5.4 3.2 5.6 -8.1 1993 -13.6 -24.4 -30.1 -22.5 -15.0 -8.4 -9.2 -18.9 -12.1 -13.4 -14.1 -5.6 1994 -5.8 -1.8 7.8 29.0 14.9 14.1 9.6 21.1 10.7 9.5 11.2 14.4 1995 15.8 23.8 49.4 1.6 0.9 -1.4 -4.4 -4.8 1.1 1.5 -8.6 -24.7 1996 -31.2 -42.1 -53.7 -47.7 -29.0 -20.4 -7.4 0.8 -1.8 -1.2 3.8 25.9 1997 23.3 57.3 67.6 58.2 25.1 3.5 -0.3 -3.1 -5.1 -5.3 -2.6 -2.0 1998 13.7 23.0 38.5 46.2 37.9 33.6 18.6 6.4 6.6 9.4 15.5 25.9

264

Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Washington Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -26.2 22.8 6.2 168.1 -141.5 111.4 60.1 16.3 5.9 16.1 23.8 63.1 1992 94.7 51.6 162.3 31.3 23.1 2.6 -6.6 5.4 14.9 -1.0 -12.1 -35.2 1993 -52.4 -72.1 -57.0 -40.4 -1.9 -4.6 5.3 -1.6 6.7 -4.5 -28.1 18.5 1994 59.2 90.5 20.4 38.4 -0.2 8.5 4.3 2.8 -5.7 11.2 51.1 14.3 1995 11.1 63.9 73.5 23.8 16.9 12.3 7.6 2.0 11.1 8.8 12.2 -0.1 1996 -39.1 -35.6 -43.5 -43.8 -39.1 -20.3 -19.2 9.7 -12.4 -23.3 -28.3 -24.4 1997 25.9 17.4 -31.4 -31.5 35.7 28.4 19.3 -17.0 3.9 13.8 20.4 11.4 1998 30.6 2.6 2.4 -47.6 -38.3 -33.5 -34.2 0.1 -2.9 -3.1 3.0 3.4

265

Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Nebraska Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -5.7 -5.8 -6.6 -6.0 -2.9 -1.8 0.4 -0.5 -0.8 -1.8 -1.9 0.3 1992 0.9 1.0 2.4 1.3 -1.4 -0.5 3.6 5.9 6.3 6.3 2.5 0.6 1993 -2.8 -4.7 -6.6 -5.9 -3.3 -1.9 -0.9 0.2 0.7 -82.3 -84.6 -88.0 1994 -93.2 -98.5 -98.2 -96.2 -92.3 -91.2 -88.8 -88.5 -85.3 -7.5 12.8 23.1 1995 74.4 582.5 367.3 113.6 15.1 11.6 -40.3 -40.8 -50.5 -62.9 -79.4 -94.0 1996 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -100.0 -85.2 -50.1 -20.8 -10.9 -7.8 41.1 301.9 1997 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 193.8 26.0 6.0 13.6 34.7 51.4 79.3 1998 188.1 377.6 104.3 6.6 14.8 -1.5 28.0 9.9 2.4 8.9 -0.1 -7.9

266

Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Kentucky Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 36.3 23.0 19.6 25.2 19.8 15.5 10.9 5.6 1.2 -2.7 -5.1 -1.7 1992 5.7 8.9 7.7 -0.9 -5.4 -7.3 -8.9 -10.3 -9.2 2.6 8.5 8.4 1993 3.5 -8.1 -14.7 -13.7 -3.8 4.4 9.2 12.9 14.8 3.2 -1.2 -9.6 1994 -25.7 -31.2 -28.1 -20.1 -13.8 -10.6 -7.3 -4.7 -7.2 -4.8 1.4 4.5 1995 14.0 16.7 18.3 14.2 16.8 12.2 7.3 3.3 6.6 5.5 -4.6 -8.7 1996 -14.5 -16.8 -24.3 -29.4 -33.2 -22.0 -13.0 -5.9 -3.8 -3.6 0.9 5.3 1997 5.8 15.5 27.1 28.5 28.0 13.5 3.6 -0.7 -1.1 -0.7 0.2 -3.1 1998 7.5 5.2 -1.0 3.5 9.7 9.1 12.7 12.8 7.3 9.4 12.3 14.5

267

Pressure buildup during supercritical carbon dioxide injection from a partially penetrating borehole into gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface solution for carbon dioxide injection into porousJ.E. Fluid Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Disposal into SalineGeologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change

Mukhopadhyay, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cannot be produced because gas wells “water out,” a processcan be produced because there is no invading water to killwater flows into the reservoir from surrounding aquifers continuously while gas is produced.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alternating layers of sands and shales deposited in deltaiclens in the overlying Capay Shale (Figure 3). Figure 1. Gas-in the middle Capay Shale (depleted gas) and McCormick

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasfeasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gass WESTCARB, Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership. The

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

STAFFREPORT Prepared for the Bioenergy Interagency Working Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

............................................................................................................................. 14 INJECTION OF LANDFILL GAS INTO THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

272

Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} < {approx}2 ms, all species provide fast (within {le} {approx}3 ms), more-or-less uniform radiative dissipation of the 0.7-MJ plasma thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

274

Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) Missouri Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1991 -5.1 1.4 -20.3 -2.8 6.8 8.3 12.5 12.3 7.8 7.6 9.9 13.8 1992 -2.8 6.5 23.0 7.8 3.7 4.3 3.8 2.6 2.5 2.2 -0.2 -0.1 1993 5.3 -3.5 -16.4 -13.3 -4.7 -0.9 -2.8 -1.6 -1.6 -1.3 -2.5 -0.8 1994 -3.1 17.2 37.2 -28.6 -19.3 -6.9 -4.2 -4.1 -3.3 -3.3 0.7 -1.0 1995 7.9 12.0 16.0 64.0 35.0 10.4 5.7 6.0 8.2 7.0 6.1 2.2 1996 -7.8 0.0 -8.3 -8.9 0.0 0.0 6.6 0.0 1.6 2.5 -2.6 0.1 1997 4.1 6.0 -3.9 -0.6 -2.0 -3.7 -1.4 0.6 1.0 1.0 6.7 5.0 1998 14.2 10.6 23.2 23.5 10.9 7.6 2.1 0.1 2.0 1.8 1.8 -1.8 1999 1.3 -2.4 0.6 1.5 4.1 5.7 5.7 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.3 6.0

275

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Joule-Thomson Cooling Due to CO2 Injection into Natural Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasgas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gaspromising target for Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A means for positively seating a piezoceramic element in a piezoelectric valve during inlet gas injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a piezoelectric valve in a gas delivery system which includes a piezoceramic element bonded to a valve seal and disposed over a valve seat, and retained in position by an O-ring and a retainer; and insulating ball normally biased by a preload spring against the piezoceramic element; and inlet gas port positioned such that upon admission of inlet gas into the valve. The piezoceramic element is positively seated. The inelt gas port is located only on the side of the piezoceramic element opposite the seal.

Wright, K.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

279

Ecological Optimization Performance of An Irreversible Quantum Otto Cycle Working with an Ideal Fermi Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The model of an irreversible Otto cycle using an ideal Fermi gas as the working fluid, which is called as the irreversible Fermi Otto cycle, is established in this paper. Based on the equation of state of an ideal Fermi gas, the ecological optimization ...

Feng Wu; Lingen Chen; Fengrui Sun; Chih Wu; Fangzhong Guo; Qing Li

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Working natural gas storage capacity grows 3% year-over-year ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA estimates that the demonstrated peak working gas capacity for underground storage in the lower 48 states rose 3%, or 136 billion cubic feet (Bcf), to 4,239 Bcf in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Modular ultrahigh vacuum-compatible gas-injection system with an adjustable gas flow for focused particle beam-induced deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gas-injection system (GIS) heats up a powdery substance and transports the resulting gas through a capillary into a vacuum chamber. Such a system can be used to guide a (metal)organic precursor gas very close to the focal area of an electron or ion beam, where a permanent deposit is created and adheres to the substrate. This process is known as focused particle beam-induced deposition. The authors present design principles and give construction details of a GIS suitable for ultrahigh vacuum usage. The GIS is composed of several self-contained components which can be customized rather independently. It allows for a continuously adjustable gas-flow rate. The GIS was attached to a standard scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6100) and tested with the tungsten precursor W(CO){sub 6}. The analysis of the deposits by means of atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provides clear evidence that excellent gas-flow-rate stability and ensuing growth rate and metal-content reproducibility are experienced.

Klingenberger, D.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Vehicle tail pipe emissions. A comparison of natural gas and petrol injection  

SciTech Connect

Tests were undertaken with a Renault Express 1.4 litre converted to natural gas operation. The effect of cold starts at cold temperatures and vehicle weight on tail pipe emissions were investigated with petrol and natural gas operation over the FTP75 and the 91/441/EEC drive cycles. The results show that the emissions with natural gas are unaffected by cold temperature, unlike petrol emissions which are several times higher at -15{degree}-C than at 25{degree}-C. A crude simulation, accounting for the actual temperature, shows that the conversion of a significant quantity of light duty vehicles to natural gas operation could reduce the emissions of CO and HC by more than 90% in Switzerland. 15 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

Bates, G.J.; Germano, S.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Continuous injection of an inert gas through a drill rig for drilling into potentially hazardous areas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drill rig for drilling in potentially hazardous areas includes a drill having conventional features such as a frame, a gear motor, gear box, and a drive. A hollow rotating shaft projects through the drive and frame. An auger, connected to the shaft is provided with a multiplicity of holes. An inert gas is supplied to the hollow shaft and directed from the rotating shaft to the holes in the auger. The inert gas flows down the hollow shaft, and then down the hollow auger, and out through the holes in the bottom of the auger into the potentially hazardous area.

McCormick, S.H.; Pigott, W.R.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.

Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

End of Month Working  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March The level of gas in storage at the end of the last heating season (March 31, 2000) was 1,150 billion cubic feet (Bcf), just above the 1995-1999 average of 1,139 Bcf. Underground working gas storage levels are currently about 8-9 percent below year-ago levels. In large part, this is because injection rates since April 1 have been below average. Storage injections picked up recently due to warm weather in the last half of October. The month of November is generally the last month available in the year for injections into storage. A cold November would curtail net injections into storage. If net injections continue at average levels this winter, we project that storage levels will be low all winter, reaching a level of 818 Bcf at the end of March, the lowest level since 1996

286

Integrated gasification combined cycle and steam injection gas turbine powered by biomass joint-venture evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes the economic and environmental potential of biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine technology including its market applications. The mature technology promises to produce electricity at $55--60/MWh and to be competitive for market applications conservatively estimated at 2000 MW. The report reviews the competitiveness of the technology of a stand-alone, mature basis and finds it to be substantial and recognized by DOE, EPRI, and the World Bank Global Environmental Facility.

Sterzinger, G J [Economics, Environment and Regulation, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Experimental study of work exchange with a granular gas: the viewpoint of the Fluctuation Theorem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article reports on an experimental study of the fluctuations of energy flux between a granular gas and a small driven harmonic oscillator. The DC-motor driving this system is used simultaneously as actuator and probe. The statistics of work fluctuations at controlled forcing, between the motor and the gas are examined from the viewpoint of the Fluctuation Theorem. A characteristic energy $E_c$ of the granular gas, is obtained from this relation between the probabilities of an event and its reversal.

Antoine Naert

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

PLIF flow visualization of methane gas jet from spark plug fuel injector in a direct injection spark ignition engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Spark Plug Fuel Injection (SPFI), which is a combination of a fuel injector and a spark plug was developed with the aim to convert any gasoline port injection spark ignition engine to gaseous fuel direct injection [1]. A direct fuel injector is combined ... Keywords: air-fuel mixing, direct fuel injection, flow visualization, gaseous fuel, laser-induced fluorescent

Taib Iskandar Mohamad; How Heoy Geok

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for Deregulating UK Gas and Electricity Markets: How is Competition Working for Residential Consumers? Speaker(s): Catherine Waddams Date: April 15, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Retail gas and electricity prices were deregulated in the UK in April 2002, following introduction of retail choice for residential consumers between 1996 and 1999. We use information from consumer surveys, including a panel survey over three years, to analyse consumer attitudes and behaviour. In particular we explore how awareness changed, whether those who were actively considering switching in one wave of the survey had actually done so by the next round, whether individuals become willing to switch for smaller price gains as the markets matured, and how expectations

290

Gas Explosion Tests on East Jordan Iron Works Rectangular Composite Secondary Box Covers for Con Edison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an account of continuing research by Con Edison and EPRI to address issues related to manhole events caused by the accumulation of gases in underground structures. It summarizes the results of gas explosion tests performed in June 2008 on rectangular composite vented covers produced by East Jordan Iron Works Company.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

291

White Paper for Massive Gas Injection studies in NSTX-U in support of ITER research University of Washington (19 July 2012)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

White Paper for Massive Gas Injection studies in NSTX-U in support of ITER research University of Washington (19 July 2012) 1/2 White Paper@aa.washington.edu , Jarboe@aa.washington.edu , dstotler@pppl.gov, tabrams@pppl.gov This white paper describes

292

Method and apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid in a binary power system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for removing non-condensible gas from a working fluid utilized in a thermodynamic system comprises a membrane having an upstream side operatively connected to the thermodynamic system so that the upstream side of the membrane receives a portion of the working fluid. The first membrane separates the non-condensible gas from the working fluid. A pump operatively associated with the membrane causes the portion of the working fluid to contact the membrane and to be returned to the thermodynamic system.

Mohr, Charles M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mines, Gregory L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bloomfield, K. Kit (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Rich catalytic injection  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Salt Caverns Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacws_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

295

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

296

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)" Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Acquifers Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacwa_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacwa_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

297

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Total Underground Storage Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacw0_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

298

Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

will also be investigated with a targeted CO 2 injection test into a depleted shale gas well. Different reservoir models will be used before, during, and after injection...

299

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Natural gas storage working capacity grows 2% in 2012 - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This Week in Petroleum › Weekly Petroleum Status Report › Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report ... This lack of growth in natural gas storage capacity may be partly ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Non-isothermal, compressible gas flow for the simulation of an enhanced gas recovery application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we present a framework for numerical modeling of CO"2 injection into porous media for enhanced gas recovery (EGR) from depleted reservoirs. Physically, we have to deal with non-isothermal, compressible gas flows resulting in a system of ... Keywords: Carbon dioxide sequestration, Enhanced gas recovery, Equation of state, Finite element method, Numerical simulation, Real gas behavior

N. BöTtcher; A. -K. Singh; O. Kolditz; R. Liedl

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

work  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

THE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'S WORKING CAPITAL FUND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL OFFICE OF AUDIT SERVICES OCTOBER 1998 AUDIT REPORT CR-B-99-01 MEMORANDUM FOR THE DIRECTOR, BUSINESS MANAGEMENT STAFF FROM: William S. Maharay Acting Manager, Capital Regional Audit Office, Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION : Audit Report on the Department's Working Capital Fund BACKGROUND The Department established the Working Capital Fund (Fund) in January 1996 as a financial management tool for charging the costs of common services provided at Headquarters to Departmental program offices. The objectives in establishing the Fund were to increase efficiency of the Department's operations, improve management of administrative services

303

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Million Cubic Feet) Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 393,598 297,240 289,617 356,360 461,202 516,155 604,504 678,168 747,928 783,414 775,741 673,670 1995 156,161 158,351 126,677 101,609 72,294 83,427 33,855 -43,870 -34,609 -17,003 -75,285 -121,212 1996 -180,213 -191,939 -220,847 -233,967 -253,766 -260,320 -246,398 -159,895 -134,327 -127,911 -138,359 -86,091 1997 -55,406 -14,740 101,915 102,564 121,784 132,561 86,965 58,580 38,741 67,379 80,157 28,119 1998 77,255 135,784 65,355 130,979 148,718 138,540 205,160 215,060 166,834 187,302 246,104 273,754

304

AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Percent) Percent) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas in Underground Storage - Change in Working Gas from Same Month Previous Year (Percent) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1996 -32.80 -42.10 -53.10 -51.10 -47.60 -43.40 -38.60 -25.20 -18.80 -16.70 -19.80 -15.60 1997 -15.00 -5.60 52.10 45.80 43.50 39.10 22.20 12.30 6.70 10.60 14.30 6.00 1998 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.30 55.40 1999 56.40 52.20 46.30 24.20 18.80 19.30 8.80 0.30 5.30 -3.80 0.00 0.00 2000 -14.80 -32.50 -28.30 -30.80 -35.70 -34.40 -30.70 -30.60 -28.40 -22.30 -28.90 -46.70 2001 -38.30 -35.20 -37.70 -12.80 9.80 25.20 31.70 43.40 46.40 30.90 52.60 127.30 2002 127.50 140.90 136.10 82.90 59.20 34.80 18.30 10.40 3.10 -0.50 -14.40 -23.90

305

How the GAS Program Works with a Note on Simulating Turtles with Touch Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The GAS program is a display simulation of a 2 dimensional ideal gas. Barriers, or walls, are line segments, and molecules, alias particles or balls, are circles. Collisions occur between balls and other balls as well ...

Speciner, Michael

1972-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Elastic and elastoplastic finite element simulations of injection into porous reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Underground gas injection has attracted remarkable attention for natural gas storage and carbon dioxide (CO2) geologic sequestration applications. Injection of natural gas into depleted hydrocarbon… (more)

Chamani, Amin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Natural Gas Industrial Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

308

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States: 2007 Update  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report provides an update to an estimate for U.S. aggregate natural gas storage capacity that was released in 2006.

Information Center

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

309

Working natural gas storage capacity grows 3% year-over-year | U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

tags: natural gas storage. Email Updates. RSS Feeds. Facebook. Twitter. YouTube. Add us to your site. Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article?

310

Climate Change Standards Working Group, SUDS Policy and Planning Committee Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Transit Abstract: This Recommended Practice provides guidance to transit agencies for quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, including both emissions generated by transit and the potential reduction of emissions through efficiency and displacement by laying out a standard methodology for transit agencies to report their greenhouse gas emissions in a transparent, consistent and cost-effective manner.

unknown authors

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Geysers injection modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

Pruess, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

NSLS Work Planning & Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Work Planning & Controls NSLS Work Planning and Control Procedure Lead Working Guidelines Information on Working in Areas Subject to Radiation from VUV Injection Procedure for...

313

Gas dynamic aspects of silicon thin layers deposition using excitation of a free jet of the working gas mixture by an electron beam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A film of microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H) deposited at low temperature is a promising material for thin-film silicon solar cells with high efficiency and high stability. To deposit silicon thin films with high deposition rate and high quality, a novel gas-jet deposition method has been developed. The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the method from the gas dynamic point of view. A numerical model of the flow field of the working gas mixture in the device was developed that provides predictions of the film thickness distribution over the substrate surface and was found to describe the measured data satisfactory. The model may be used to optimize the operating parameters of the device.

Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.; Shchukin, V. G.; Konstantinov, V. O. [CJSC Institute of Plasma Chemical Technologies, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) and Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

314

Self-injection and acceleration of electrons during ionization of gas atoms by a short laser pulse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a relativistic three-dimensional single-particle code, acceleration of electrons created during the ionization of nitrogen and oxygen gas atoms by a laser pulse has been studied. Barrier suppression ionization model has been used to calculate ionization time of the bound electrons. The energy gained by the electrons peaks for an optimum value of laser spot size. The electrons created near the tail do not gain sufficient energy for a long duration laser pulse. The electrons created at the tail of pulse escape before fully interacting with the trailing part of the pulse for a short duration laser pulse, which causes electrons to retain sufficient energy. If a suitable frequency chirp is introduced then energy of the electrons created at the tail of the pulse further increases.

Singh, K.P. [Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by numerical simulation below. pipeline gas shalecushion gas sand shale CH4 working gas CH4 working gas sand

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacityseems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. Thereport presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

Information Center

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

318

-Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the injection well to^ production wells along high conductivity fractures. A powerful method for investigat- ing fields typically choose a configuration for injection wells after a number of development wells have of cooler injected fluids at producing wells. The goal of the current #12;- 10 - work is to provide

Stanford University

319

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

320

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the flue gas in a separate activation reactor, which increases SO 2 removal. An electrostatic precipitator downstream from the point of injection captures the reaction...

322

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at the Aidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling of mineral-water-gas Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

breakthrough observed in geothermal systems (e.g. , Shook,recharge project, Geysers geothermal field, California, USA,media: Applications to geothermal injectivity and CO 2

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Natural Gas Monthly  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas: Gas in place at the time that a reservoir was converted to use as an underground storage reservoir, as in contrast to injected gas volumes. Natural Gas: A gaseous mixture...

324

Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well Orlando SilvaOrlando Silva #12; The Problem CO2 or gas injection well Questions Injection of scCO2 vs. gaseous CO2. Other relevant examples: - gas and therefore the CO2 injection rate. caprock reservoir geothermal gradient hydrostatic gradient well CO2 bubble

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

325

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-precision location technique to improve the image resolution of a hydraulic fracture treatment in a tight gas sand, another thick (~ 450-600 m) interval of productive, tight-gas sands interbedded with mudstones (Dutton in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of east Texas. Gas is produced from multiple, low-permeability sands

326

Please cite this article in press as: Preisig, M., Prvost, J.H., Coupled multi-phase thermo-poromechanical effects. Case study: CO2 injection at In Salah, Algeria. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.12.006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-poromechanical effects. Case study: CO2 injection at In Salah, Algeria. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10 of Greenhouse Gas Control xxx (2011) xxx­xxx Contents lists available at ScienceDirect International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc Coupled multi-phase thermo

Prevost, Jean-Herve

327

Total Working Gas Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Monthly Annual Monthly Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 View History U.S. 4,211,193 4,327,844 4,410,224 4,483,650 4,576,356 2008-2012 Alabama 20,900 20,900 25,150 27,350 27,350 2008-2012 Arkansas 14,500 13,898 13,898 12,036 12,178 2008-2012 California 283,796 296,096 311,096 335,396 349,296 2008-2012 Colorado 42,579 48,129 49,119 48,709 60,582 2008-2012 Illinois 296,318 303,761 303,500 302,385 302,962 2008-2012 Indiana 32,769 32,157 32,982 33,024 33,024 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 119,260 119,339 123,190 123,225 123,343 2008-2012 Kentucky

328

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

‹ back to Natural Gas Weekly Update ‹ back to Natural Gas Weekly Update In the News continued - Natural Gas Year in Review: High natural gas inventory last spring limited injections during the 2012 storage injection season Working natural gas storage inventories entered the injection season on March 31, 2012 at 2,477 billion cubic feet (Bcf), following a winter that had a combination of high natural gas production and low heating degree days. This storage volume was the highest amount recorded for that date since the Natural Gas Monthly storage dataset began in 1976, and meant that only 1,762 Bcf of demonstrated peak storage capacity was available for additional injections, versus a five-year average of 2,354 Bcf. This limited the degree to which inventories could increase from April through

329

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

26, 2012 | Release Date: September 27, 26, 2012 | Release Date: September 27, 2012 | Next Release: October 4, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 01/19/2014 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Although Storage Injections Are Below Historical Levels, Inventories Remain High Working natural gas levels as of September 21 were at 3,576 Bcf, representing an implied net injection of 80 Bcf from the previous week, the highest storage build of the 2012 injection season. This injection season, additions to working natural gas inventories have been below the five-year (2007-2011) average injections as well as below last year's injection levels, for all but three weeks, including the most current week. Despite lower injections, overall inventory levels remain at

330

Base Natural Gas in Underground Storage (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period:

331

Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a method whereby oil may be completely displaced from the reservoir, leaving no residual volume. Field results have demonstrated that solvent floods suffer from early solvent breakthrough and considerable oil by-passing owing to high solvent mobility. The injection of both water and solvent has been demonstrated to offer advantages. Water partially mitigates both the adverse mobility and high cost of solvent floods, while solvent mobilizes oil which would be left in the reservoir by water alone. The process is equally applicable to reservoirs currently at residual oil saturation (tertiary floods) and to reservoirs at maximum oil saturation (secondary floods). In stratified reservoirs high permeability layers may be preferentially swept by solvent floods, while low permeability layers may be scarcely swept at all. Presence or absence of transverse communication between layers can modify overall sweep efficiency. This work is a study of water-solvent injection in stratified reservoirs based on computer simulation results. Fractional oil recovery as a function of injected solvent fraction, permeability contrast between layers, initial oil saturation, and presence or absence of transverse communication between strata has been determined. Results are presented as a series of optimization curves. Permeability contrast between layers is shown to be the dominant control on fractional oil recovery. Transverse communicating reservoirs are shown to require a higher solvent-water ratio in order to attain recoveries comparable to transverse noncommunicating reservoirs. In actual field projects, water and solvent are injected alternately as discrete slugs. This process is known as "WAG" for "water-alternating-gas". In the simulations used in this study, continuous water-solvent injection at a fixed fraction rather than true WAG was employed. It is demonstrated that the two methods give equivalent results. In summary, this work is the first comprehensive study of the behavior of stratified reservoirs undergoing water-solvent injection.

Moon, Gary Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Although natural gas storage inventories are currently below last year's levels, today's "In the news" features a look back at natural gas storage in 2012. This is a part of the new Natural Gas Year in Review series, which will be occasionally featured in the Natural Gas Weekly Update. Natural Gas Year-in-Review: High natural gas inventory last spring limited injections during the 2012 storage injection season Working natural gas storage inventories entered the injection season on March 31, 2012 at 2,477 billion cubic feet (Bcf), following a winter that had a combination of high natural gas production and low heating degree days. This storage volume was the highest amount recorded for that date

333

Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage  

Carbon dioxide injection during carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery can be carried out to produce the methane while

334

Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent pollution control requirements for new power plants have nearly doubled the cost of producing electricity. The capital, operating and maintenance costs of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are major, and considerable interest is currently being given to less expensive dry systems. One attractive alternative to wet scrubbing for FGD is to inject a dry, powdered reagent into the duct work between a coal-fired boiler and a FF (baghouse). The reagent (and fly ash) are collected on the fabric surface where the SO/sub 2//reagent contact occurs. The technical aspects of SO/sub 2/ removal using nahcolite and trona as sorbents have been investigated at laboratory-scale, demonstrated at full-scale, and are reported on briefly. These results indicate that injection of sodium based reagents is technically an attractive alternative to the many steps and processes involved in wet scrubbing. This paper summarizes a project to examine the economics of nahcolite/trona and furnace limestone injection FGD and compare them to those of the more advanced spray dryer FGD systems. Uncertainties in material handling, pulverization, and waste disposal were investigated and designs were produced as a basis for cost estimating.

Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.; Keeth, R.J.; McDowell, D.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Scheck, R.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuel/air mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust gas on quantitative PLIF  

SciTech Connect

A study of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing distributions in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine is reported using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. A multi-component fuel synthesised from three pairs of components chosen to simulate light, medium and heavy fractions was seeded with one of three tracers, each chosen to co-evaporate with and thus follow one of the fractions, in order to account for differential volatility of such components in typical gasoline fuels. In order to make quantitative measurements of fuel-air ratio from PLIF images, initial calibration was by recording PLIF images of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures under similar conditions of in-cylinder temperature and pressure using a re-circulation loop and a motored engine. This calibration method was found to be affected by two significant factors. Firstly, calibration was affected by variation of signal collection efficiency arising from build-up of absorbing deposits on the windows during firing cycles, which are not present under motored conditions. Secondly, the effects of residual exhaust gas present in the firing engine were not accounted for using a calibration loop with a motored engine. In order to account for these factors a novel method of PLIF calibration is presented whereby 'bookend' calibration measurements for each tracer separately are performed under firing conditions, utilising injection into a large upstream heated plenum to promote the formation of homogeneous in-cylinder mixtures. These calibration datasets contain sufficient information to not only characterise the quantum efficiency of each tracer during a typical engine cycle, but also monitor imaging efficiency, and, importantly, account for the impact of exhaust gas residuals (EGR). By use of this method EGR is identified as a significant factor in quantitative PLIF for fuel mixing diagnostics in firing engines. The effects of cyclic variation in fuel concentration on burn rate are analysed for different fuel injection strategies. Finally, mixture distributions for late injection obtained using quantitative PLIF are compared to predictions of computational fluid dynamics calculations. (author)

Williams, Ben; Ewart, Paul [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Wang, Xiaowei; Stone, Richard [Department of Engineering Science, Oxford University, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ (United Kingdom); Ma, Hongrui; Walmsley, Harold; Cracknell, Roger [Shell Global Solutions (UK), Shell Research Centre Thornton, P. O. Box 1, Chester, CH1 3SH (United Kingdom); Stevens, Robert; Richardson, David; Fu, Huiyu; Wallace, Stan [Jaguar Cars, Engineering Centre, Abbey Road, Whitley, Coventry, CV3 4LF (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Common Rail Injection System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

338

Single Well Injection Withdrawl Tracer Tests for Proppant ...  

A large question preventing optimal natural gas production from "hydrofracked" shales is how far proppants, injected to keep shale fractures open, ...

339

NETL: News Release - DOE Technology Monitors CO2 Injection in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3, 2008 DOE Technology Monitors CO2 Injection in Australian Gas Field CSLF Project Demonstrates Unique Carbon Sequestration Technologies WASHINGTON, D.C. - Australia has launched...

340

Natural Gas Withdrawals from Underground Storage (Annual Supply &  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground Storage Base Gas in Underground Storage Working Gas in Underground Storage Underground Storage Injections Underground Storage Withdrawals Underground Storage Net Withdrawals Total Consumption Lease and Plant Fuel Consumption Pipeline & Distribution Use Delivered to Consumers Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Power Period: Monthly Annual

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

342

The 'Supply-of-Storage' for Natural Gas in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

95616 Abstract: Do natural gas storage decisions inCHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE FACILITIES Apart fromofficial seasons in natural gas storage, one for injection

Uria, Rocio; Williams, Jeffrey

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Underwater robotic work systems for Russian arctic offshore oil/gas industry: Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study was performed in association with Rosshelf, a shelf developing company located in Moscow. This volume involves developing an underwater robotic work system for oil exploration in Russia`s Arctic waters, Sea of Okhotsk and the Caspian Sea. The contents include: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Study Background; (3) Study Outline and Results; (4) Conclusions; (5) Separately Published Elements; (6) List of Subcontractors.

NONE

1997-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

8 GeV H- ions: Transport and injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fermilab is working on the design of an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac called the Proton Driver. The energy of H{sup -} beam will be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This brings up a number of technical challenges to transport and injection of H{sup -} ions. This paper will focus on the subjects of stripping losses (including stripping by blackbody radiation, field and residual gas) and carbon foil stripping efficiency, along with a brief discussion on other issues such as Stark states lifetime of hydrogen atoms, single and multiple Coulomb scattering, foil heating and stress, radiation activation, collimation and jitter correction, etc.

Chou, W.; Bryant, H.; Drozhdin, A.; Hill, C.; Kostin, M.; Macek, R.; Ostiguy, J.-F.; Rees, G.H.; Tang, Z.; Yoon, P.; /Fermilab /New Mexico U. /Los Alamos /Rutherford

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH offers the convenience of receiving allergy injections at the OHC as a physician-prescribed service, reducing time away from work for many federal employees. Allergy Injection Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Physician Treatment Order Handicapped Parking Guidance

346

An immiscible WAG injection project in the Kuparuk River Unit  

SciTech Connect

Immiscible water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection has been successfully used in the Kuparuk River Unit as a means of controlling excess gas production. Additionally, simulation results have indicated that WAG injection can increase economic oil recovery by improving waterflood conformance. WAG recovery mechanisms, simulation results, field performance, and field surveillance are discussed.

Champion, J.H.; Sheldon, J.B.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the WES, which involves injection into the flue gas duct upstream of the existing electrostatic 11 precipitator (ESP). The hot flue gas evaporates the water and the...

348

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

349

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Total Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields Total Number of Existing Fields Number of Existing Salt...

351

Natural Gas Underground Storage Capacity (Summary)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Salt Caverns Storage Capacity Aquifers Storage Capacity Depleted Fields Storage Capacity Total Working Gas Capacity Working Gas Capacity of Salt Caverns Working Gas Capacity of...

352

IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

Jason M. Keith

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Reservoir response to injection in the Southeast Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 20 megawatt (MW) increase in steam flow potential resulted within five months of the start-up of new injection wells in the Southeast Geysers. Flow rate increases were observed in 25 wells offset to the injectors, C-11 and 956A-1. This increased flowrate was sustained during nine months of continuous injection with no measurable decrease in offset well temperature until C-11 was shut-in due to wellbore bridging. The responding steam wells are located in an area of reduced reservoir steam pressure known as the Low Pressure Area (LPA). The cause of the flowrate increases was twofold (1) an increase in static reservoir pressure and (2) a decrease in interwell communication. Thermodynamic and microseismic evidence suggests that most of the water is boiling near the injector and migrating to offset wells located ''down'' the static pressure gradient. However, wells showing the largest increase in steam flowrate are not located at the heart of the pressure sink. This indicates that localized fracture distribution controls the preferred path of fluid migration from the injection well. A decrease in non-condensible gas concentrations was also observed in certain wells producing injection derived steam within the LPA. The LPA project has proven that steam suppliers can work together and benefit economically from joint efforts with the goal of optimizing the use of heat from The Geysers reservoir. The sharing of costs and information led directly to the success of the project and introduces a new era of increased cooperation at The Geysers.

Enedy, Steve; Enedy, Kathy; Maney, John

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radial lean direct injection burner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

Slit injection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

Alger, Terry W. (Livermore, CA); Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA); Bradley, Laird P. (Livermore, CA)

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

Radiation Safety Work Control Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-2) Rev July-2012 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

357

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Injection of CO2 with H2S and SO2 and Subsequent Mineral Trapping in Sandstone-Shale Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these injected acid gases with shale-confining layers of ato illustrate effects of shale on acid-gas sequestration andusing a sandstone-shale sequence under acid-gas injection

Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten; Yamamoto, Hajime

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 9, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, September 16, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, September 8, 2010) Price changes during the week were mixed, but in most areas, these changes were moderate. The Henry Hub price rose slightly from $3.73 per million Btu (MMBtu) on Wednesday, September 1, to $3.81 per MMBtu yesterday. The report week was shortened due to the Labor Day holiday. At the New York Mercantile Exchange, the price of the October 2010 futures contract rose about 5 cents, from $3.762 per MMBtu on September 1 to $3.814 per MMBtu on September 8. Working natural gas in storage as of Friday, September 3, was 3,164 Bcf, following an implied net injection of 58 Bcf, according to EIAÂ’s

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Geothermal injection monitoring project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

Younker, L.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Beam injection into RHIC  

SciTech Connect

During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

Folta, J.A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas reservoirs are obvious targets for carbon sequestration by direct carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection by virtue of their proven record of gas production and integrity against gas escape. Carbon sequestration in depleted natural gas reservoirs can be coupled with enhanced gas production by injecting CO{sub 2} into the reservoir as it is being produced, a process called Carbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery (CSEGR). In this process, supercritical CO{sub 2} is injected deep in the reservoir while methane (CH{sub 4}) is produced at wells some distance away. The active injection of CO{sub 2} causes repressurization and CH{sub 4} displacement to allow the control and enhancement of gas recovery relative to water-drive or depletion-drive reservoir operations. Carbon dioxide undergoes a large change in density as CO{sub 2} gas passes through the critical pressure at temperatures near the critical temperature. This feature makes CO{sub 2} a potentially effective cushion gas for gas storage reservoirs. Thus at the end of the CSEGR process when the reservoir is filled with CO{sub 2}, additional benefit of the reservoir may be obtained through its operation as a natural gas storage reservoir. In this paper, we present discussion and simulation results from TOUGH2/EOS7C of gas mixture property prediction, gas injection, repressurization, migration, and mixing processes that occur in gas reservoirs under active CO{sub 2} injection.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injected oil, gas and water, produced/injected produced/injected oil, gas and water, produced oil, gas (at welland cyclically produced oil/water/steam (at well head) Steam

Jordan, Preston D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 Alabama 0 2012-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 0 2009-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 244,900 252,344 216,132 215,017 215,594 2008-2012 Indiana 19,978 19,367 19,437 19,479 19,215 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 0 2012-2012 Kentucky 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 2008-2012 Louisiana 0 2012-2012 Michigan 0 2012-2012 Minnesota 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2008-2012 Mississippi 0 2012-2012 Missouri 11,276 3,040 3,656 6,000 6,000 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 0 2012-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 31 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 942 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 0 2012-2012 Utah 948 948 939 939 948 2008-2012

370

Working Gas Capacity of Aquifers  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 96,950 396,092 364,228 363,521 367,108 2008-2012 Alabama 0 2012-2012 Arkansas 0 2012-2012 California 0 0 2009-2012 Colorado 0 2012-2012 Illinois 244,900 252,344 216,132 215,017 215,594 2008-2012 Indiana 19,978 19,367 19,437 19,479 19,215 2008-2012 Iowa 87,350 87,414 90,613 91,113 90,313 2008-2012 Kansas 0 2012-2012 Kentucky 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 6,629 2008-2012 Louisiana 0 2012-2012 Michigan 0 2012-2012 Minnesota 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2008-2012 Mississippi 0 2012-2012 Missouri 11,276 3,040 3,656 6,000 6,000 2008-2012 Montana 0 2012-2012 New Mexico 0 2012-2012 New York 0 2012-2012 Ohio 0 2012-2012 Oklahoma 31 2012-2012 Oregon 0 2012-2012 Pennsylvania 942 2012-2012 Tennessee 0 2012-2012 Texas 0 2012-2012 Utah 948 948 939 939 948 2008-2012

371

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

372

Design and characterization of a compact voice coil for a needle-free injection device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional needle-free injection (NFI) devices are driven by a pressure source generated by either a compressed spring mechanism or compressed inert gas, which have fixed injection (pressure versus time) profiles. The ...

Lui, Diana, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Controllable needle-free injection : development and verification of a novel device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current needle-free injection technology is based on actuation via compressed springs or gas. These devices are not easy to modify for different depths of injections. This thesis describes the design and verification of a ...

Wendell, Dawn M. (Dawn Marie), 1983-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Late - Cycle Injection of Air/Oxygen - Enriched Air for Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reduce the ''Engine Out'' particulates using the ''In Cylinder'' technique of late cycle auxiliary gas injection (AGI). Reduce the ''Engine Out'' NOx by combining AGI with optimization of fuel injection parameters. Maintain or Improve the Fuel Efficiency.

Mather, Daniel

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

14, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 21, 2007) 14, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 21, 2007) Natural gas spot and futures prices decreased this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, June 6-13) as weather-related demand was limited amid close-to-normal temperatures for this time of year. Easing prices also likely resulted in part from reduced supply uncertainty in response to the amount of natural gas in underground storage (mostly for use during the winter heating season but also available for periods of hot weather in the summer). Supplies from international sources have grown considerably this spring, as imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) have increased markedly even as natural gas supplies from Canada (transported by pipeline) likely have decreased. On the week, the Henry Hub spot price decreased 23 cents per MMBtu, or 2.9 percent, to $7.60. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the contract for July delivery decreased 47.2 cents per MMBtu on the week to a daily settlement of $7.608 yesterday (June 13). EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report today reported natural gas storage supplies of 2,255 Bcf as of Friday, June 8, reflecting an implied net injection of 92 Bcf. This level of working gas in underground storage is 19.3 percent above the 5-year average inventory for this time of year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $0.20 per barrel on the week to $66.17 per barrel, or $11.41 per MMBtu.

376

Underground natural gas storage reservoir management: Phase 2. Final report, June 1, 1995--March 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Gas storage operators are facing increased and more complex responsibilities for managing storage operations under Order 636 which requires unbundling of storage from other pipeline services. Low cost methods that improve the accuracy of inventory verification are needed to optimally manage this stored natural gas. Migration of injected gas out of the storage reservoir has not been well documented by industry. The first portion of this study addressed the scope of unaccounted for gas which may have been due to migration. The volume range was estimated from available databases and reported on an aggregate basis. Information on working gas, base gas, operating capacity, injection and withdrawal volumes, current and non-current revenues, gas losses, storage field demographics and reservoir types is contained among the FERC Form 2, EIA Form 191, AGA and FERC Jurisdictional databases. The key elements of this study show that gas migration can result if reservoir limits have not been properly identified, gas migration can occur in formation with extremely low permeability (0.001 md), horizontal wellbores can reduce gas migration losses and over-pressuring (unintentionally) storage reservoirs by reinjecting working gas over a shorter time period may increase gas migration effects.

Ortiz, I.; Anthony, R.V.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

377

A study of steam injection in fractured media  

SciTech Connect

Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Improving the gas-chromatographic determination of the composition of the gas liberated from a battery  

SciTech Connect

Normally, gas chromatography is used for analyzing the gas composition that is liberated when batteries operate. Earlier work describes a gas-chromatographic technique for determining the composition of gas liberated from a battery. According to this reference, the gas is collected in an inverted burette over water. The gas is either sampled with a batching valve or with a medical syringe, which pierces the connecting vacuum hoses. The gas sample is injected into the chromatographic evaporator, and is separated on the chromatographic column into its individual components, each of which is analyzed on the detector. The method described was used to study gas liberation during the storage of charged nickel-zinc batteries. In the method described above, a high proportion of the gas specimen that accumulates and is collected in the measuring system occurs in the dead space volume. In this situation, it is very difficult to determine the liberated gas composition with a high degree of accuracy when the gas is liberated at low rates. Moreover, this method does not provide reliable system air tightness during long term operation of the batteries. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Dmitriev, V.V.; Zubov, M.S.; Baulov, V.I.; Toguzov, B.M.

1992-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

379

A high sensitivity fiber optic macro-bend based gas flow rate transducer for low flow rates: Theory, working principle, and static calibration  

SciTech Connect

A novel fiber optic macro-bend based gas flowmeter for low flow rates is presented. Theoretical analysis of the sensor working principle, design, and static calibration were performed. The measuring system consists of: an optical fiber, a light emitting diode (LED), a Quadrant position sensitive Detector (QD), and an analog electronic circuit for signal processing. The fiber tip undergoes a deflection in the flow, acting like a cantilever. The consequent displacement of light spot center is monitored by the QD generating four unbalanced photocurrents which are function of fiber tip position. The analog electronic circuit processes the photocurrents providing voltage signal proportional to light spot position. A circular target was placed on the fiber in order to increase the sensing surface. Sensor, tested in the measurement range up to 10 l min{sup -1}, shows a discrimination threshold of 2 l min{sup -1}, extremely low fluid dynamic resistance (0.17 Pa min l{sup -1}), and high sensitivity, also at low flow rates (i.e., 33 mV min l{sup -1} up to 4 l min{sup -1} and 98 mV min l{sup -1} from 4 l min{sup -1} up to 10 l min{sup -1}). Experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions. The high sensitivity, along with the reduced dimension and negligible pressure drop, makes the proposed transducer suitable for medical applications in neonatal ventilation.

Schena, Emiliano; Saccomandi, Paola; Silvestri, Sergio [Center for Integrated Research, Unit of Measurements and Biomedical Instrumentation, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Rome (Italy)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Yet Another Fault Injection Technique : by Forward Body Biasing Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

expensive fault injection tech- niques, like clock or voltage glitches, are well taken into accountYet Another Fault Injection Technique : by Forward Body Biasing Injection K. TOBICH1,2, P. MAURINE1 Injection, Electromag- netic Attacks, RSA, Chinese Remainder Theorem 1 Introduction Fault injection

382

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to provide lean injection gas for reservoir energy, to provide fuel for potential viscous oil thermal recovery, or to supplement future export gas. The associated fresh water...

383

Supported-sorbent injection. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

Nelson, S. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

385

A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operationaway from the injection well. This modeling work iswithin 200 m of an injection well that had been in operation

Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures This program targets fundamental understanding of nanoscale charge transfer processes. The proposed work draws on the strengths of the Brookhaven Chemistry Department in the areas of electron transfer experiment and theory, and extends the area of inquiry to nanoscale processes. Electron/hole injection into a wire, a nanocrystal, a nanotube or other nanostructure in solution may be brought about by light absorption, by an electron pulse (pulse radiolysis, LEAF), by a chemical reagent, or through an electrode. These processes are being studied by transient methods by following conductivity, current, but most generally, spectroscopic changes in the solutions to determine the dynamics of charge injection. The observed transient spectra can also provide values for electron-transfer coupling elements and energetics. Theoretical/computational studies can help in materials design and in the interpretation of the experimental results. The experimental systems being examined include molecular wires and metal nanoclusters.

387

Radiation Safety Work Control Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Safety Work Control Form Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-2) Rev July-2012 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely under an SSRL RSWCF. If the answer to either question is no, then the work must be performed under a SPEAR3 RSWCF. Section 1: Description of work to be done, including date and time. (Person Responsible completes section)

388

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

13, 2012 | Release Date: June 14, 13, 2012 | Release Date: June 14, 2012 | Next Release: June 21, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 12/22/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Current Storage Injection Rate Is Lower than Last Year and the Five-Year Average. Since April 27, injections of working natural gas into underground storage have fallen short of both year-ago levels and the 5-year (2007-2011) average. A warmer than normal winter, particularly in March, positioned natural gas inventories 927 billion cubic feet (Bcf) above the 5-year average near the end of the natural gas storage withdrawal season (which traditionally ends on March 31). Since then, the slower pace of injections has narrowed the overhang. While still significantly high, the surplus

389

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on November 17) 0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on November 17) Natural gas spot prices decreased at almost all market locations since Wednesday, November 2, as above normal temperatures persisted throughout the country and working gas storage injections continued. For the week (Wednesday to Wednesday), the price at the Henry Hub decreased $1.53 per MMBtu, or about 14 percent, to $9.31 per MMBtu. The NYMEX futures contract for December delivery at the Henry Hub gained about 7 cents since last Wednesday to close yesterday (November 9) at $11.669 per MMBtu. Natural gas in storage as of Friday, November 4, was 3,229 Bcf, which is 4 percent above the 5 year average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil decreased 10 cents per barrel, or less than 1 percent, since last Wednesday to trade yesterday at $59.65 per barrel or $10.28 per MMBtu.

390

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

23, to Wednesday, April 30) 23, to Wednesday, April 30) Released: May 1, 2008 Next release: May 8, 2008 · Natural gas spot prices increased in all trading regions in the Lower 48 States this report week (Wednesday-Wednesday, April 23-30). During the report week, the Henry Hub spot price increased $0.48 per million Btu (MMBtu) to $10.81. During the month of April, the Henry Hub spot price increased $0.95 per MMBtu, or 9.6 percent. · At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), prices declined for the report week, after a string of price increases during the previous five report periods. The futures contract for June delivery declined 10.3 cents per MMBtu on the week to $10.843. · During the week ending Friday, April 25, estimated net injections of natural gas into underground storage totaled the largest volume to date this year at 86 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Working gas in underground storage as of April 25 was 1,371 Bcf, which is 0.2 percent below the 5-year (2003-2007) average.

391

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2013 | Release Date: August 8, 7, 2013 | Release Date: August 8, 2013 | Next Release: August 15, 2013 Previous Issues Week: 01/19/2014 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices/Demand/Supply | Storage In the News: Summer storage injections higher than last year, on par with five-year average Following last week's net storage injection of 96 billion cubic feet (Bcf), total natural gas working inventories in the Lower 48 states reached 2,941 Bcf, surpassing the five-year average from 2008 to 2012 for the first time since the week ending on March 22, 2013. Storage injections during the first four months of the 2013 summer injection season (April through July) totaled 1,254 Bcf. While this represents a 63% increase over cumulative storage injections for the same period last year, it is only 5% above

392

Combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustor assembly in a gas turbine engine. The combustor assembly includes a combustor device coupled to a main engine casing, a first fuel injection system, a transition duct, and an intermediate duct. The combustor device includes a flow sleeve for receiving pressurized air and a liner disposed radially inwardly from the flow sleeve. The first fuel injection system provides fuel that is ignited with the pressurized air creating first working gases. The intermediate duct is disposed between the liner and the transition duct and defines a path for the first working gases to flow from the liner to the transition duct. An intermediate duct inlet portion is associated with a liner outlet and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the liner. An intermediate duct outlet portion is associated with a transition duct inlet section and allows movement between the intermediate duct and the transition duct.

Wiebe, David J; Fox, Timothy A

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Comprehensive Analysis of Enhanced CBM Production via CO2 Injection Using a Surrogate Reservoir Model Jalal Jalali, Shahab D. Mohaghegh, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, West Virginia University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a Response Surface Model using Experimental Design technique or using Reduced Models. Once trained, SRMs canComprehensive Analysis of Enhanced CBM Production via CO2 Injection Using a Surrogate Reservoir Reservoir simulation is the industry standard for reservoir management. Complex reservoir models usually

Mohaghegh, Shahab

394

Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

395

The application of high frequency seismic monitoring methods for the mapping of fluid injections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes experimental work using seismic methods for monitoring the path of fluid injections. The most obvious application is the high pressure fluid injections for the purpose of hydrofracturing. Other applications are the injection of grout into shallow subsurface structures and the disposal of fluids in the geothermal and toxic waste industries. In this paper hydrofracture monitoring and grout injections will be discussed.

Majer, E.L.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on May 24, 2007) 7, 2007 (next release 2:00 p.m. on May 24, 2007) Natural gas spot and futures prices increased slightly this week (Wednesday-Wednesday, May 9-16), despite the usual lull in demand during this shoulder period between the winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The upward price trend likely resulted from a variety of factors, including rising prices for competing petroleum products (as evidenced by an increase in the underlying crude oil price). Additionally, concerns over current and future supplies do not appear to have eased. The official start of the hurricane season is imminent, and the first named tropical storm appeared this week. However, imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) have increased markedly in the past few months. On the week, the Henry Hub spot price increased 16 cents per MMBtu, or 2 percent, to $7.62. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the contract for June delivery increased 17.0 cents per MMBtu on the week to a daily settlement of $7.890 yesterday (May 16). EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report today reported natural gas storage supplies of 1,842 Bcf as of Friday, May 11, reflecting an implied net injection of 95 Bcf. This level of working gas in underground storage is 20.6 percent above the 5-year average inventory for this time of year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $1.03 per barrel on the week to $62.57 per barrel, or $10.79 per MMBtu.

397

Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection  

SciTech Connect

A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diedgo, CA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- of wells,and (2) allocating a total speci6cd injection rate among chosen injectors. The alloca- tion is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells questions: (1) Which wells should be made injectors? (2) How should the total nquired injection rate

Stanford University

399

Exhaust gas provides alternative gas source for cyclic EOR  

SciTech Connect

Injected exhaust gas from a natural gas or propane engine enhanced oil recovery from several Nebraska and Kansas wells. The gas, containing nitrogen and carbon dioxide, is processed through a catalytic converted and neutralized as necessary before being injected in a cyclic (huff and puff) operation. The process equipment is skid or trailer mounted. The engine in these units drives the gas-injection compressor. The gas after passing through the converter and neutralizers is approximately 13% CO[sub 2] and 87% N[sub 2]. The pH is above 6.0 and dew point is near 0 F at atmospheric pressure. Water content is 0.0078 gal/Mscf. This composition is less corrosive than pure CO[sub 2] and reduces oil viscosity by 30% at 1,500 psi. The nitrogen supplies reservoir energy and occupies pore space. The paper describes gas permeability, applications, and field examples.

Stoeppelwerth, G.P.

1993-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

400

Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

Brucker, J.P.

1988-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Carbon dioxide laser with an e-beam-initiated discharge produced in the working gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure CO{sub 2} laser with a discharge initiated by an electron beam of sub-nanosecond duration in the laser gas mixture at a pressure up to 5 atm is fabricated. For the 20-ns pulses the energy from the active volume {approx} 4 cm{sup 3} amounted to 40 mJ. The laser operation at a pulse repetition rate up to 5 Hz is demonstrated. In the gas mixture CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:He = 1:1:6 at a pressure 5 atm, the specific energy deposition of {approx} 0.07 J cm{sup -3} atm{sup -1} is obtained in the process of a non-self-sustained discharge with ionisation amplification.

Orlovskii, Viktor M; Alekseev, S B; Tarasenko, Viktor F [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Pilot plant testing of Illinois coal for blast furnace injection. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of Illinois coal in the blast furnace injection process in a new and unique pilot plant test facility. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. This study is unique in that it is the first North American effort to directly determine the nature of the combustion of coal injected into a blast furnace. It is intended to complete the study already underway with the Armco and Inland steel companies and to demonstrate quantitatively the suitability of both the Herrin No. 6 and Springfield No. 5 coals for blast furnace injection. The main feature of the current work is the testing of Illinois coals at CANMET`s (Canadian Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) pilot plant coal combustion facility. This facility simulates blowpipe-tuyere conditions in an operating blast furnace, including blast temperature (900 C), flow pattern (hot velocity 200 m/s), geometry, gas composition, coal injection velocity (34 m/s) and residence time (20 ms). The facility is fully instrumented to measure air flow rate, air temperature, temperature in the reactor, wall temperature, preheater coil temperature and flue gas analysis. During this quarter a sample of the Herrin No. 6 coal (IBCSP 112) was delivered to the CANMET facility and testing is scheduled for the week of 11 December 1994. Also at this time, all of the IBCSP samples are being evaluated for blast furnace injection using the CANMET computer model.

Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on April 27, 2006) 0 (next release 2:00 p.m. on April 27, 2006) High crude oil prices and increasing cooling demand in some regions contributed to natural gas spot prices climbing more than 10 percent at trading locations in the Lower 48 States since Wednesday, April 12. On the week (Wednesday-Wednesday, April 12-19), the Henry Hub spot price rose 93 cents per MMBtu to $7.72. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the futures contract for May delivery rose in each trading session this week, gaining $1.384 per MMBtu to close at $8.192 per MMBtu yesterday (April 19). Net storage injections continued for the second week this refill season. Working gas in storage as of Friday, April 14, increased to 1,761 Bcf, which is 62.6 percent above the 5-year (2001-2005) average. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil increased $3.54 per barrel on the week to $72.07, or $12.43 per MMBtu.

405

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Thursday June 20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) Thursday June 20, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 27) Natural gas spot prices registered gains of a dime or less at most major trading locations this week (Wednesday-Wednesday) as weather-driven demand combined with increasing oil prices to reverse a declining trend in prices. The upward price movement followed 6 weeks of declining prices until a low last Thursday, June 12, when prices at some trading locations along the Gulf Coast dipped just below $3.00 per MMBtu. Futures prices rose late last week after reaching similar lows. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery settled Wednesday, June 19, at $3.314 per MMBtu, an increase of 26 cents for the week. EIA's estimate of total working gas inventories for the week ended June 14 was 2,096 Bcf with implied net injections of 81 Bcf. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil recovered this week to trade at close to $26 per barrel on Monday, June 17. On Wednesday, the WTI crude oil price closed at $25.57 per barrel, or $4.41 per MMBtu.

406

Compendium of Regulatory Requirements Governing Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies.

Puder, Markus G.; Bryson, Bill; Veil, John A.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

407

Flue gas desulfurization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Fundamentals of Discharge Initiation in Gas-Fed Pulsed Plasma Thrusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. A GFPPT is a pulsed electromagnetic accelerator in which small puffs of gas are injected between two

Choueiri, Edgar

409

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

410

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

411

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

natural gas futures also reversed gains made in the previous week. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working natural gas in storage increased by 63 Bcf...

412

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

413

Recent Natural Gas Market Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

sectors U.S. Natural Gas Imports and Exports - Volumes and prices for pipeline and LNG imports and exports Underground Natural Gas Storage - Stocks of working and base gas...

414

10 Solar powerplants. gas turbines packaged for offshore gas platform  

SciTech Connect

Weatherby Engineering Co. neared completion recently of 8 modules mounting a total of 9 gas turbine engines, all destined for an offshore gas injection platform. The platform capacity is 80 MMcfd. The inlet pressure on the platform is 45 psig and the discharge pressure is 3,410 psig. The system constitutes a complete gas dehydration and compressor station and the modules house the gas turbines which drive the centrifugal and reciprocating compressors for gas injection service, and 2 gas turbine-powered generating units to supply electric power for the platform complex. The gas turbines and compressors are installed in sound attenuated enclosures. These complete power packages are built up by Solar and supplied to Weatherby for the project. The complete module is described.

Alberte, T.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Spring 2002 ASME/API Gas Lift Workshop, February 5-6, 2002, Houston, Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The use of pressure pulse technology for flow condition analysis in production and injection wells in gas lift wells to identify point(s) of gas injection. Pressure pulse tests and measurements have been. Gas injection changes the fluid and flow properties in the well and in turn, the propagation

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

416

Pilot-scale HCl control by dry alkaline injection for emissions from refuse incinerators. Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One method of removing the HCl in an exhaust-gas stream is to directly inject finely divided sorbent particles into the gas stream upstream from particulate collection equipment, allowing enough time for the HCl to react with the sorbent in the duct. The study proposed to provide data on HCl removal from a simulated incinerator exhaust stream as a function of the in-duct reaction/residence time, the reaction temperature, and the sorbent-to-gas ratio. A 500-acfm pilot-scale HCl control system utilizing dry powdered sorbent was tested at the University of Washington. Powdered alkaline reagents including sodium bicarbonate and calcium hydroxide were injected into boiler flue gas spiked with hydrogen chloride gas. The acid gas reacts with the injected sorbent in a 20-inch diameter by 26-foot high vertical, down-flow vessel. HCl removal efficiency was measured as a function of sorbent stoichiometry, gas residence time in reactor, and reaction temperature.

Moore, D.; Pilat, M.

1988-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

417

An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Iowa Natural Gas Summary  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

4.79 5.12 5.57 4.93 4.84 4.93 1989-2013 4.79 5.12 5.57 4.93 4.84 4.93 1989-2013 Residential 8.74 10.17 13.06 14.85 16.00 NA 1989-2013 Commercial 6.66 7.31 8.29 7.93 8.02 NA 1989-2013 Industrial 5.00 5.14 5.17 4.65 4.64 4.79 2001-2013 Electric Power 6.10 4.82 4.44 4.12 3.99 4.38 2002-2013 Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Total Capacity 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 288,210 2002-2013 Gas in Storage 209,512 215,593 221,664 230,749 245,317 261,998 1990-2013 Base Gas 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 197,897 1990-2013 Working Gas 11,615 17,696 23,768 32,853 47,421 64,102 1990-2013 Injections 228 6,604 6,409 9,737 15,463 16,682 1990-2013 Withdrawals 1,655 523 337 651 895 1 1990-2013 Net Withdrawals 1,427 -6,081 -6,072 -9,085 -14,568 -16,681 1990-2013

419

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

23, 2001 23, 2001 Another mid-summer week of relatively mild temperatures in many of the nation's major gas consuming market regions and a large estimate of net injections of working gas into storage put downward pressure on spot and futures prices. Some parts of New England saw high temperatures only in the 70s for several days last week, while highs in the 80s stretched down the mid-Atlantic region as far as northern Georgia and well into the Midwest. On the West Coast, highs rarely exceeded 80 degrees, with a number of locations reporting highs in the 60s. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map). Spot prices declined for the week in nearly all markets, with spot gas at the Henry Hub trading at $2.95 per MMBtu on Friday, down $0.21 from the previous Friday. The NYMEX futures contract for August delivery fell even more, ending the week down $0.295 per MMBtu at $2.955-the first sub-$3 settlement for a near-month contract since April 11 of last year. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell four days in a row and traded on Wednesday and Thursday below $25 per barrel before recovering Friday to $25.60 per barrel, or $4.41 per MMBtu. This, too, is the first time since last April that WTI has fallen below $25 per barrel, and is the second week in a row of losses of $1 or more per barrel.

420

Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology  

SciTech Connect

Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE's Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.

Gooch, J.P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Dahlin, R.S.; Faulkner, M.G. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Klett, M.G.; Buchanan, T.L.; Hunt, J.E. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Particle beam injection system  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Easing the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices through  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-56756 Easing the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices through Increased Deployment the Natural Gas Crisis: Reducing Natural Gas Prices through Increased Deployment of Renewable Energy-AC03-76SF00098. #12;#12;Easing the Natural Gas Crisis Acknowledgments The work described in this report

423

Breathable gas distribution apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for safely supplying breathable gas or air through individual respirators to personnel working in a contaminated area.

Garcia, Elmer D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

425

Closed Dual Fluid Gas Turbine Power Plant Without Emission Of Co  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. This paper describes a construction and characteristics of a coal-gas-burning high eciency power plant which emits no carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into the atmosphere. In the plant, CO 2 gas and superheated steam are used as the main and sub working uid, respectively, of a closed dual uid gas turbine power generation system. It is assumed that a coal gas whose principal compositions are CO, H2 , CO2 and CH4 is burnt in a combustor using oxygen, and that CO 2 gas and superheated steam are used as the main and sub working uid of a turbine, respectively. Consequently, the constituent gases of the combustion gas become CO2 and H2O. Thus, CO2 gas included in the exhaust gas can be easily separated at the condenser outlet from the condensate (H2O). Most of recovered CO 2 is recycled as the main working uid of the turbine. In the plant, high-temperature turbine exhaust gas is utilized in a waste heat boiler to produce superheated steam which is injected into the combustor in order to improve...

Into The Atmosphere; P. S. Pak; K. Nakamura; Y. Suzuki

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

D/sub 2/ - pellet injection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For density build-up of a target plasma for neutral injection in the stellarator ''Wendelstein W VIIA''and for refuelling of the divertor tokamak ASSDEX, pellet light gas guns have been developed. In a continuous flow cryostat cooled by liquid helium with a comsumption of 2 - 3 liter liquid helium per hour deuterium was condensed and solidified. To prevent the propeller gas entering the torus was used. In one system a 3.6 mm guiding tube following the barrel was applied successfully. By optical diagnostics pellet velocity, pellet size and pellet trajectory is measured. For a pellet centrifuge system investigations of carbon fiber rotors were made up to surface velocities of 1500 m/s.

Buechl, K.; Andelfinger, C.; Kollotzek, H.; Lang, R.; Ulrich, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Waste heat steams ahead with injection technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Owners of Commercial-Industrial-Institutional buildings whose thermal usage is too variable to implement cogeneration are looking to a gasturbine steam-injection technology, called the Cheng Cycle, to reduce their energy costs. The Cheng Cycle uses industrial components-a gas-turbine generating set, a waste-heat recovery steam generator and system controls-in a thermodynamically optimized mode. In the process, steam produced from waste heat can be used for space or process heating or to increase the electrical output of a gas turbine. The process was patented in 1974 by Dr. Dah Yu Cheng, of the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. When a plant's thermal needs fall because of production or temperature changes, unused steam is directed back to the turbine to increase electrical output. As thermal requirements rise, the process is reversed and needed steam is channeled to plant uses.

Shepherd, S.; Koloseus, C.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

430

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

431

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Injectivity Test Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Permeability of the well Thermal: Dictionary.png Injectivity Test: A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can

432

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

433

Work Breakdown Structure and Plant/Equipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)  

SciTech Connect

This white paper investigates the potential integration of the CTC work breakdown structure numbering scheme with a plant/equipment numbering system (PNS), or alternatively referred to in industry as a reference designation system (RDS). Ideally, the goal of such integration would be a single, common referencing system for the life cycle of the CTC that supports all the various processes (e.g., information, execution, and control) that necessitate plant and equipment numbers be assigned. This white paper focuses on discovering the full scope of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) processes to which this goal might be applied as well as the factors likely to affect decisions about implementation. Later, a procedure for assigning these numbers will be developed using this white paper as a starting point and that reflects the resolved scope and outcome of associated decisions.

Jeffrey D Bryan

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says August 31, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The feasibility of using carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for recovering between 250 million and 500 million additional barrels of oil from Kansas oilfields has been established in a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The University of Kansas Center for Research studied the possibility of near-miscible CO2 flooding for extending the life of mature oilfields in the Arbuckle Formation while simultaneously providing permanent geologic storage of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas.

435

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

436

Unusual plant features gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Gas turbines were chosen by Phillips Petroleum Co. to operate the first gas-injection plant in the world to use gas-type turbines to drive reciprocating compressors. The plant is located in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Gas turbines were chosen because of their inherent reliability as prime movers and for their lack of vibration. Reciprocating compressors were decided upon because of their great flexibility. Now, for the first time, the advantages of both gas turbines and reciprocating compressors are coupled on a very large scale. In this installation, the turbines will operate at about 5,000 rpm, while the compressors will run at only 270 rpm. Speed will be reduced through the giant gear boxes. The compressor platform rests on seventy- eight 36-in. piles in 100 ft of water. Piles were driven 180 ft below water level. To dehydrate the gas, Phillips will install a triethylene glycol unit. Two nearby flow stations will gather associated gas produced at the field and will pipe the gas underwater to the gas injection platform. Lamar Field is in the S. central area of Lake Maracaibo. To date, it has produced a 150 million bbl in 10 yr. Studies have indicated that a combination of waterflooding and repressuring by gas injection could double final recovery. Waterflooding began in 1963.

Franco, A.

1967-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

NETL: Methane Hydrates - 2012 Ignik Sikumi gas hydrate field...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fluid, by flowmeters in the Low-flow Gas Measurement Skid. Compositional analysis of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and tracers pumped during injection are being monitored...

438

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and possible industrial demand destruction owing to the elevated level of natural gas prices likely contributed to the increased level of injections for the week. The...

439

Natural gas storage withdrawal season review - Today in Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The natural gas industry considers two seasons in storage operation–the withdrawal season, from November 1 through March 31; and the injection season, from April 1 ...

440

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPA's Proposed Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule for Carbon Dioxide Injection and Geologic Sequestration Mark de Figueiredo U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RCSP Annual Review...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

442

The evaporative gas turbine (EGT) cycle  

SciTech Connect

Humidification of the flow through a gas turbine has been proposed in a variety of forms. The STIG plant involves the generation of steam by the gas turbine exhaust in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and its injection into or downstream of the combustion chamber. This increases the mass flow through the turbine and the power output from the plant, with a small increase in efficiency. In the evaporative gas turbine (or EGT) cycle, water is injected in the compressor discharge in a regenerative gas turbine cycle (a so-called CBTX plant--compressor [C], burner [B], turbine [T], heat exchanger [X]); the air is evaporatively cooled before it enters the heat exchanger. While the addition of water increases the turbine mass flow and power output, there is also apparent benefit in reducing the temperature drop in the exhaust stack. In one variation of the basic EGT cycle, water is also added downstream of the evaporative aftercooler, even continuously in the heat exchanger. There are several other variations on the basic cycle (e.g., the cascaded humidified advanced turbine [CHAT]). The present paper analyzes the performance of the EGT cycle. The basic thermodynamics are first discussed, and related to the cycle analysis of a dry regenerative gas turbine plant. Subsequently some detailed calculations of EGT cycles are presented. The main purpose of the work is to seek the optimum pressure ratio in the EGT cycle for given constraints (e.g., fixed maximum to minimum temperature). It is argued that this optimum has a relatively low value.

Horlock, J.H. [Whittle Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Natural Gas - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4, 2012 | Release Date: Apr. 5, 4, 2012 | Release Date: Apr. 5, 2012 | Next Release: Apr. 12, 2012 Previous Issues Week: 12/22/2013 (View Archive) JUMP TO: In The News | Overview | Prices | Storage In the News: Working Natural Gas in Storage at All-Time High for March. Thursday's release of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR) represented the last full week of the winter heating season (November 1 - March 31). Although traditionally net withdrawals of working natural gas in storage occur during these months, this year net injections began the week ending March 16. Because the latest WNGSR represents inventory levels as of March 30, it excludes the last day of the winter heating season; official end-of-month levels will not be reported until the May Natural Gas Monthly is released.

444

Energy recovery by water injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several analytical and numerical studies that address injection and thermal breakthrough in fractured geothermal reservoirs are described. The results show that excellent thermal sweeps can be achieved in fractured reservoirs, and that premature cold water breakthrough can be avoided if the injection wells are appropriately located.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Tsang, C.F.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Historically, preliminary design information regarding gas turbine emissions has been unreliable, particularly for facilities using steam injection and other forms of Best Available Control Technology (BACT). This was probably attributed to the lack of regulatory interest in the 'real world' test results coupled with the difficulties of gathering analogous bench test data for systems employing gas turbines with Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) and steam injection. It appears that the agencies are getting a better grasp of emissions, but there are still problem areas, particularly CO and unburned hydrocarbon emissions. The lag in data has resulted in the imposition of a CO reactor as BACT for the gas turbine. With the renewed concern about the environment, air permits will have a high profile with offsets being the next fix beyond BACT. 'The manner in which technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry....' (1) Therefore, it becomes increasingly important that the proponents of gas turbine-based facilities establish more reliable data on their proposed emissions. This paper addresses the gas turbine emissions experiences of eight cogeneration plants utilizing: 1) steam injection for both NOx control and power augmentation, 2) CO reactors, 3) selective catalytic reduction units. It also looks at possible regulatory actions.

Frederick, J. D.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Imaging of CO2 injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection of CO 2 into a hydrofracture zone, using P- and S-of CO 2 within the hydrofracture. During the pre-injectionand the gas-filled hydrofracture. Seismic Data Acquisition

Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The Climate Response to Stratospheric Sulfate Injections and Implications for Addressing Climate Emergencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection has been proposed to counteract anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming and prevent regional climate emergencies. Global warming is projected to be largest in the polar regions, where consequences to climate ...

Kelly E. McCusker; David S. Battisti; Cecilia M. Bitz

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood optimization process, including optimization on more complex situations e.g., time effects on revenue and water injection and disposal costs. (2) Completion of the spectral-based analysis and determination of the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. (3) Revision of the capacitance model procedures to provide more robust results which are insensitive to the initial estimates of {tau} needed in the nonlinear regression.

Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

449

Study on Zero CO2 Emission SOFC Hybrid Power System with Steam Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on a traditional SOFC hybrid power system, a zero CO2 emission SOFC hybrid power system with steam injection is proposed in this paper and its performance is analyzed. Oxy-fuel combustion can burn the fuel gas from anode thoroughly, and increases ... Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell, Aspen Plus, hybrid power system, zero CO2 emission, steam injection

Liqiang Duan; Xiaoyuan Zhang; Yongping Yang; Gang Xu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report  

SciTech Connect

In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impact of Interruptible Natural Gas Service A Snapshot of California Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook EIA's Testimony on Natural Gas Supply and Demand Residential Natural Gas Price Brochure Status of Natural Gas Pipeline System Capacity Previous Issues of Natural Gas Weekly Update Natural Gas Homepage Overview: Monday, June 04, 2001 Stock builds slowed from their recent pace, even though spot prices continued their downward trend to end the week at the Henry Hub at $3.71 per MMBtu, which is a Friday-to-Friday decline of $0.14 per MMBtu. The NYMEX contract price for June delivery at the Henry Hub settled Tuesday at $3.738, the lowest close-out of a near month contract since the May 2000 contract. The July contract price was $3.930 per MMBtu on Friday, $0.103 lower than a week earlier. Mild weather in the Northeast and Midwest continued to suppress prices on the Eastern Seaboard, while a short burst of warm temperatures in southern California early in the week had the opposite effect on prices in that region. (See Temperature Map) (See Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map) Net injections to storage for the week ended Friday, May 25 were 99 Bcf, breaking a 4-week string of 100-plus net injections.

452

Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

1979-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

19, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 26) 19, 2003 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 26) Spot and futures prices fell for the second straight week, as generally mild temperatures continued to prevail in most major market areas and storage injections exceeded 100 Bcf for a third straight week. At the Henry Hub, the spot price fell by 52 cents per MMBtu on the week (Wednesday to Wednesday, June 11-19), or almost 9 percent, to $5.54 per MMBtu. The settlement price for the NYMEX futures contract for July delivery declined by $0.632 on the week, closing yesterday (June 18) at $5.581 per MMBtu-a decline of 10 percent. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported that working gas in storage was 1,438 Bcf as of Friday, June 13, which is about 22 percent below the previous 5-year (1998-2002) average for the week. The spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell in 4 of 5 trading days, ending the week down by almost $2 per barrel, at $30.28, or $5.22 per MMBtu.

454

Natural Gas Weekly Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

13, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 20) 13, 2002 (next release 2:00 p.m. on June 20) Moderate price increases on Monday and Wednesday of this week could not offset declines during the other three trading days of the week (Wednesday to Wednesday, June 5-12), leaving spot prices lower at most locations for the sixth consecutive week. At the Henry Hub, the average spot price decreased by 13 cents to $3.15 per MMBtu. Six weeks ago, on Wednesday, May 1, the Henry Hub spot price stood at $3.79 per MMBtu. Futures prices also trended lower for the sixth consecutive week. The NYMEX futures contract for July delivery at the Henry Hub declined by $0.203 per MMBtu for the week, settling Wednesday, June 12 at $3.057 per MMBtu-a decrease of a little over 6 percent from the previous Wednesday. EIA's estimate of net injections into storage for the week ended June 7 is 81 Bcf, bringing total working gas inventories to 1,974 Bcf, or about 20 percent above the previous 5-year (1997-2001) average. On Thursday, June 6, the spot price for West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil fell below $25 per barrel for the first time since April 16, and ended trading on Wednesday, June 12 at $24.79 per barrel, or $4.27 per MMBtu.

455

NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION  

SciTech Connect

The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in their physics and their technology, or in any case they are considered to be adequately covered by these other authors.

Kunkel, W.B.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Natural Gas Weekly Update, Printer-Friendly Version  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. 0, 2010 at 2:00 P.M. Next Release: Thursday, June 17, 2010 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 9, 2010) Since Wednesday, June 2, natural gas prices rose at all market locations in the lower 48 States, with increases generally ranging between 30 and 40 cents per million Btu (MMBtu). At the Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana, the spot price rose 43 cents during the week from $4.32 to $4.75 per MMBtu. At the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the July 2010 contract also rose over the week, increasing about 6 percent from $4.242 per MMBtu on June 2 to $4.677 on June 9. Working natural gas in storage increased to 2,456 billion cubic feet (Bcf) as of Friday, June 4, following an implied net injection of 99 Bcf,

457

Beam-Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Gas and Thermal Photon Scattering in the NLC Main Linac as a Source of Beam Halo P. Tenenbaum LCC-Note-0051 12-JAN-2001 Abstract Scattering of primary beam electrons off of residual gas molecules or blackbody radiation photons in the NLC main linac has been identified as a potential source of beam haloes which must be collimated in the beam delivery system. We consider the contributions from four scat- tering mechanisms: inelastic thermal-photon scattering, elastic beam-gas (Coulomb) scattering inelastic beam-gas (Bremsstrahlung) scattering, and atomic-electron scattering. In each case we develop the formalism necessary to estimate the backgrounds generated in the main linac, and determine the expected number of off-energy or large-amplitude particles from each process, assuming a main linac injection energy of 8 GeV and extraction energy of 500 GeV. 1 Introduction The

458

Compendium of regulatory requirements governing underground injection of drilling waste.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large quantities of waste are produced when oil and gas wells are drilled. The two primary types of drilling wastes include used drilling fluids (commonly referred to as muds), which serve a variety of functions when wells are drilled, and drill cuttings (rock particles ground up by the drill bit). Some oil-based and synthetic-based muds are recycled; other such muds, however, and nearly all water-based muds, are disposed of. Numerous methods are employed to manage drilling wastes, including burial of drilling pit contents, land spreading, thermal processes, bioremediation, treatment and reuse, and several types of injection processes. This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies. The material included in the report was derived primarily from a review of state regulations and from interviews with state oil and gas regulatory officials.

Puder, M. G.; Bryson, B.; Veil, J. A.

2002-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

459

Impact of injection on reservoir performance in the NCPA steam field at The Geysers  

SciTech Connect

A managed injection program implemented by the NCPA in The Southeast Geysers reservoir continues to positively impact reservoir performance. Injection effects are determined by the application of geochemical and geophysical techniques to track the movement of injectate. This information, when integrated with reservoir pressure, flowrate, and thermodynamic data, is used to quantify the overall performance and efficiency of the injection program. Data analysis indicates that injected water is boiling near the injection wells, without deeper migration, and is recovered as superheated steam from nearby production wells. Injection derived steam (IDS) currently accounts for 25 to 35 percent of total production in the NCPA steamfield. Most importantly, 80 to 100% of the injectate is flashing and being recovered as steam. The amount of IDS has increased since 1988 due to both a change in injection strategy and a drying out of the reservoir. However, significant areas of the reservoir still remain relatively unaffected by injection because of the limited amount of injectate presently available. That the reservoir has been positively impacted in the injection areas is evidenced by a decrease in the rate of pressure decline from 1989 through 1992. Correspondingly, there has been a reduction in the rate of steam flow decline in the areas' production wells. Conversely, little evidence of reservoir cooling or thermal breakthrough is shown even in areas where IDS accounts for 80 percent or more of production. Finally, since injection water is a relatively low-gas source of steam, noncondensible gas concentrations have been reduced in some steam wells located within the injection dominated areas.

Enedy, S.L.; Smith, J.L.; Yarter, R.E.; Jones, S.M.; Cavote, P.E.

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

460

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "working gas injections" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

-OGP 04 (1) -Predicting Injectivity Decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- OGP 04 (1) - Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells by Upscaling On-Site Core, resulting in injectivity decline of injection wells. Particles such as biomass, corrosion products, silt on permeability. These data were then processed, upscaled to model injection wells and, finally, history matched

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

462

WNGSR provides insight into natural gas markets and the broader ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR) measures how much natural gas is available for withdrawal–working natural gas–in the Nation's underground storage ...

463

Gas Permeability of Fractured Sandstone/Coal Samples under Variable Confining Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

argillite under con?nement: gas and water testing. Phys.Gascoyne, M. , Wuschke, D.M. : Gas migration through water-fractured rock: results of a gas injection test. J.

Liu, Weiqun; Li, Yushou; Wang, Bo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z