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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... waste solids), wood waste liquids (red liquor, sludge wood, spent sulfite liquor, and other wood-based liquids), and black liquor. ...

2

Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

Vivak M. Malhotra

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

NETL: Utilization Projects - Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material Value Added Products from FGD Sulfite rich Scrubber Material In pursuit of developing value added products from sulfite-rich scrubber material, e.g., low-density panels, carpet underlayment, siding, pre-cast building material, lumber panels, particle and wafer type boards, the following four experimental tasks are proposed: A comprehensive characterization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials produced by power plant generation. Specifically, the mercury, selenium, arsenic, boron, and organic content will be monitored The sulfite-rich scrubber material will be combined with cheap but renewable agricultural byproducts like micronized core fibers and/or micronized wheat straw, and the composites will be formulated by exploiting the natural polymers of the byproducts. The conditions under which structural composites can be formulated using injection molding and compressive molding will be evaluated.

4

The octaheme SirA catalyses dissimilatory sulfite reduction in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal reducer that uses a large number of electron acceptors that include thiosulfate, polysulfide, and sulfite. The enzyme required for thiosulfate and polysulfide respiration has been recently identified, but the mechanisms of sulfite reduction remained unexplored. Analysis of MR-1 cultures grown anaerobically with sulfite suggested that the dissimilatory sulfite reductase catalyzes six-electron reduction of sulfite to sulfide. Reduction of sulfite required menaquinones and c cytochromes but appeared to be independent of the intermediate electron carrier CymA. Furthermore, the terminal sulfite reductase, SirA, was identified as an octaheme c cytochrome with an atypical heme binding site that represents a new class of sulfite reductases. The sirA locus was identified in the genomes of several sequenced Shewanella genomes, and its presence appears to be linked to the ability of these organisms to reduce sulfite under anaerobic conditions.

Shirodkar, Sheetal; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting, electrochemical reactions, and the basis of operation of mechanical deaeration are discussed. Estimating techniques for the amount of steam required and a deaerator troubleshooting guide are included. The chemistry of sulfites is covered in detail. Also included are a functional definition of chemical oxygen scavengers and a general discussion of their various types.

Cotton, I.J.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Jordan Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jordan Woods Windows and Envelope Materials Group Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road MS 90R2000 Berkeley CA 94720 Office Location: 90-2052C (510) 486-4931...

7

Drew Wood  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Indoor Air Quality Research Collaborative drew@iaqrc.org This speaker was a visiting speaker who delivered a talk or talks on the date(s) shown at the links below. This...

8

STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

Davis, Hubert G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Value-Added Products from FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials  

SciTech Connect

According to the American Coal Ash Association, about 29.25 million tons of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts were produced in the USA in 2003. Out of 29.25 million tons, 17.35 million tons were sulfite-rich scrubber materials. At present, unlike its cousin FGD gypsum, the prospect for effective utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber materials is not bright. In fact, almost 16.9 million tons are leftover every year. In our pursuit to mitigate the liability of sulfite-rich FGD scrubber materials' disposal, we are attempting to develop value-added products that can commercially compete. More specifically, for this Innovative Concept Phase I project, we have the following objectives: to characterize the sulfite-rich scrubber material for toxic metals; to optimize the co-blending and processing of scrubber material and natural byproducts; to formulate and develop structural composites from sulfite-rich scrubber material; and to evaluate the composites' mechanical properties and compare them with current products on the market. After successfully demonstrating the viability of our research, a more comprehensive approach will be proposed to take these value-added materials to fruition.

Vivak Malhotra

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Wood Use Across Time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?Forest products history and use ?Forest resource- the big picture ?Consumption- the big picture ?Trends forest products industry ? pulp & paper ? solid woodBack in Time ?1492 ? Columbus sailed the ocean blue! ? wood use- fuelwood American Indians ?1634: Jean Nicolet

Scott Bowe; United States Wood Use

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

12

STEO October 2012 - wood  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most households using wood as their primary space heating fuel, followed by the Midwest, South and Northeast regions of the United States. Wood is also the second most common backup fuel, after electricity, that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this

13

Use of Spray Dryer Absorber Product in Agriculture – Sulfite Oxidation Kinetics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A laboratory study evaluated the rate of sulfite oxidation and the chemical quality of water extracts when spray dryer absorber (SDA) material was added to soil at rates of 0, 100, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 lb acre-1.* Water was then added to the soil on 10 occasions beginning at day 0 and ending at day 98 after the addition of ...

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

14

Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

Wiltsee, G.

1998-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

15

Wood pellet production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

Moore, J.W.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

Wrathall, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

18

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Gregory H. Woods was sworn in as the General Counsel of the Department of Energy on April 16, 2012, following the unanimous confirmation of his appointment by the United States Senate.  Mr....

19

Gregory H. Woods  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

H. Woods H. Woods Department· of Energy Fermi Site Office Post Office Box 2000 Batavia, Illinois 60510 JAN 1 1 2DD Office of the General Counsel GC-1, FORS SUBJECT: FERMI SITE OFFICE (FSO) 2013 ANNUAL NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) PLANNING SUMMARY Section 5(a) (7) of Department Of Energy Order 451.1 B Change 2, NEPA Compliance Program, requires each Secretarial Officer and Head of Field Organization to submit an annual NEPA

20

Finishing Wood Decks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction in recent years. However, there is considerable confusion regarding how these structures should be protected with finish. This paper summarizes the types, application techniques, and expected service lives of various finishes on both preservative treated and untreated lumber. Recommendations are made on the basis of decades of research on various wood species using a wide variety of finishes.

R. Sam Williams; et al.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Treated Wood Pole Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document characterizes similarities and differences in international wood pole and wood pole preservative management. The research team identified practices for selection, regulation, and disposition of utility poles outside the United States. Most information is based on interviews and website and published literature searches. Additional research will clarify regulatory positions in other countries and generate improved understanding, which will support strategic planning for U.S. utilities. Utili...

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

Principle Wood Scientist  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood, bark, and the wax-coated seeds from Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) Small), an invasive tree species in the southeastern United States, were subjected to extractions and degradative chemical analyses in an effort to better understand the mechanism(s) by which this tree species aggressively competes against native vegetation, and also to facilitate utilization efforts. Analysis of the wood extractives by FTIR spectroscopy showed functionalities analogous to those in hydrolyzable tannins, which appeared to be abundant in the bark; as expected, the seeds had a high wax/oil content (43.1%). Compared to other fast-growing hardwoods, the holocellulose content for the Chinese tallow tree wood was somewhat higher (83.3%). The alpha-cellulose (48.3%) and Klason lignin (20.3%) contents were found to be similar to those for most native North American hardwoods. Results suggest that Chinese tallow tree wood utilization along with commercial wood species should not present any significant processing problems related to the extractives or cell-wall chemistry. Keywords: Cellulose, Chinese tallow tree, extractives, Klason lignin, utilization.

Thomas L. Eberhardt; Usda Forest Service; Xiaobo Li; Chung Y. Hse; Usda Forest Service

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

Robinson, William I.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Burls and Other Unusual Woods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BURLS AND OTHER UNUSUAL WOODS Wood worked by the hands of skilled craftsmen puts a wealth of quiet beauty into our daily...

26

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. 25 p. This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea, South Korea is striving to increase its per- centage of renewable energy, which could benefit the wood pellets industry. We found that China, the largest energy consumer in Asia, has an established wood pellet

27

China: Changing Wood Products Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;China: Changing Wood Products Markets less is probably known about the forestry and wood products market in China than most other U.S. trading partners. In the 1980s China emerged as the world,11,12). However, U.S. wood products exports to China declined nearly 93 percent from 1988 to 1996, from $-I%3

Zhang, Daowei

28

The Wood Duck  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood Duck Wood Duck Nature Bulletin No. 502-A October 13, 1973 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE WOOD DUCK Of all the fowl that swim, the Wood Duck is a most unusual bird. They perch in trees like jaybirds, and nest in tree holes like woodpeckers. The hens do not quack like the females of most ducks, and the drakes are dressed in a riot of gaudy colors. Each summer we see dozens of them -- more than any other kind of wild duck -- rear their families of ducklings on and around the streams, ponds, lakes and sloughs of Cook County's forest preserves. Words can scarcely describe the brilliance of the drake's plumage. The head, crest and back glint with iridescent greens, purples and blues. The eyes are red, the throat white, and the bill orange-red. The breast is wine-colored flecked with white, the belly is white, and the sides are buff. The woodie is about midway in size between the mallard and the blue-winged teal. The drakes weigh about a pound and a half. The hen is smaller and plainer, with a gray-brown head and body, a white throat, and a conspicuous white ring around the eye. Her voice is a shrill, squealing "whoo-eek", while the male's is a mere squeak.

29

Wood Inspection by Infrared Thermography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is used everywhere and for everything. With times, this material presents many adulterations, witch degrade his physical properties. This work present a study of infrared thermography NDT for wood decay detection. The study is based on the difference of moisture content between sound wood and decay. In the first part, moisture content influence on response signal is determine. The second part define the limits of infrared thermography for wood decay detection. Results show that this method could be used, but with many cautions on depth and size of wood defects.

A. Wyckhuyse; X. Maldague; X. Maldague Corresponding

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

WOOD FLOORING 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD FLOORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood flooring beginning at the waste generation reference point. 1 The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood flooring in the following three waste management alternatives: source reduction, combustion, and landfilling.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

WOOD PRODUCTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO WARM AND WOOD PRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This chapter describes the methodology used in EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) to estimate streamlined life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors for wood products beginning at the point of waste generation. The WARM GHG emission factors are used to compare the net emissions associated with wood products in the following four materials management alternatives: source

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning...

34

Energy Basics: Wood and Pellet Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Heating & Cooling Systems Water Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood-...

35

CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

V. , Anderson, Carry, Academic, New York. Pyrolysis of WoodT.J. Elder, E.J. Soltes, Wood and Fiber, 12(4), 1980, "Phenolic Constituents of a Wood Pyrolytic Oil." J.A. Knight,

Davis, H.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Intermodal transportation of spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

Elder, H.K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Increasing demand for wood through population and economic growth · More expensive wood · Where should America Expansion potential USA Deficit Canada Deficit #12;RUSSIA Advantages: Raw Materials Source LEAVED ­ EASTERN USA Source: http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/biohires/ecoregions/h50404bottomland

38

Management of HFIR spent fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel off-site for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up by the end of 1994. If a management alternative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented by that time, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study identified and investigated five alternatives to managing the HFIR spent fuel, to determine the feasibility of implementing each in time to prevent shutdown of the HFIR: (1) increasing HFIR pool storage capacity, (2) storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, (3) storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, (4) shipping the spent fuel off-site for reprocessing or storage elsewhere, and (5) installing a dedicated dry storage facility at ORNL. Of the alternatives investigated, only two could prevent the shutdown of the HFIR in the near term: increasing HFIR pool storage capacity or shipping the spent fuel off-site. Both options have been vigorously pursued because neither is assured of success, and at least one of the options must be successfully implemented if the HFIR is to continue operation. In addition, a third option was selected for implementation as an intermediate-term storage solution: installing a dedicated dry storage facility for the HFIR. An intermediate-term storage solution is needed because neither of the short-term solutions could ensure long-term continued operation of the HFIR.

Green, V.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Flanagan, G.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lotts, A.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Integration Specialist Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development and technical project management. Daniel is a graduate of Boston University but a true Philadelphian at heart. On his off days you are likely to find him exploring new neighborhoods on his bike or hanging out with the awesome kids over at Little Lights Urban Ministries. Most Recent The History of the Light Bulb November 22

40

Weathering and Protection of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction When wood is exposed outdoors, above ground, a complex combination of chemical, mechanical, and light energy factors contribute to what is described as weathering (38). Weathering is not to be confused with decay, which results from decay organisms (fungi) acting in the presence of excess moisture and air for an extended period of time (34). Under conditions suitable for the development of decay, wood can deteriorate rapidly and the result is far different than that observed for natural outdoor weathering, Outdoor Weathering Process In outdoor weathering of smooth wood, original surfaces become rough as grain raises and the wood checks, and the checks grow into large cracks; grain may loosen, boards cup and warp and pull away from fasteners (Figs. 1 and 2), The roughened surface changes color, gathers dirt and mildew, and may become unsightly; the wood loses its surface coherence and becomes friable, splinters, and frag ments come off. All these e

William C. Feist

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Intermodal transfer of spent fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel.

Neuhauser, K.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Weiner, R.F. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Wood Handbook Wood as an Engineering Material Centennial EditionCentennial Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

United States; Forest Service; Wood Handbook; Wood As An Engineering Material

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Wood and energy in connecticut. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of Connecticut households conducted in 1979 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. Connecticut households consumed 668,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, but may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.; Lenz, M.I.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

1983-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

45

Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to reduce capital cost by extending life expectancy of overhead transmission wood structures through inspection and assessment procedures and through aging mitigation techniques and tools.

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

47

Spent graphite fuel element processing  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Spent-fuel-storage alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Industry Spent Fuel Storage Handbook (8220the Handbook8221) addresses the relevant aspects of at-reactor spent (or used) nuclear fuel (SNF) storage in the United States. With the prospect of SNF being stored at reactor sites for the foreseeable future, it is expected that all U.S. nuclear power plants will have to implement at-reactor dry storage by 2025 or shortly thereafter. The Handbook provides a broad overview of recent developments for storing SNF at U.S. reactor sites, focusing primarily on at...

2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Treated Wood Planted Post Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the interim results of a planted post study currently under way at the Austin Cary Memorial Forest (ACMF), operated by The University of Florida, in Gainesville. The purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of commercially available prevention methods to reduce preservative migration from treated wood poles, compare the migration of constituents of various wood treatments, and assess the environmental impacts and performance of untreated chestnut.

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

51

Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives...

52

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table F24: Wood and Biomass Waste Consumption Estimates, 2011 State Wood Wood and Biomass Waste a Residential Commercial Industrial Electric Power ...

53

Chromoblastomycosis associated with in a carpenter handling exotic woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a carpenter handling exotic woods Nuno Menezes 1 , Pauloas saprophytes in the soil, wood and vegetation [ 3 ]. Theyare normally made of tropical wood [ 9 ]. The inoculation

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating November 25, 2013 - 2:24pm Addthis A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie What does this mean for me? Wood or pellets may be an economical and environmentally sound heating fuel choice. If you live in an area where you can cut your own wood for heating, your fuel will be local and inexpensive. Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length. Choosing and Installing Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances

55

Spent fuel characteristics & disposal considerations  

SciTech Connect

The fuel used in commercial nuclear power reactors is uranium, generally in the form of an oxide. The gas-cooled reactors developed in England use metallic uranium enclosed in a thin layer of Magnox. Since this fuel must be processed into a more stable form before disposal, we will not consider the characteristics of the Magnox spent fuel. The vast majority of the remaining power reactors in the world use uranium dioxide pellets in Zircaloy cladding as the fuel material. Reactors that are fueled with uranium dioxide generally use water as the moderator. If ordinary water is used, the reactors are called Light Water Reactors (LWR), while if water enriched in the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used, the reactors are called Heavy Water reactors. The LWRs can be either pressurized reactors (PWR) or boiling water reactors (BWR). Both of these reactor types use uranium that has been enriched in the 235 isotope to about 3.5 to 4% total abundance. There may be minor differences in the details of the spent fuel characteristics for PWRs and BWRs, but for simplicity we will not consider these second-order effects. The Canadian designed reactor (CANDU) that is moderated by heavy water uses natural uranium without enrichment of the 235 isotope as the fuel. These reactors run at higher linear power density than LWRs and produce spent fuel with lower total burn-up than LWRs. Where these difference are important with respect to spent fuel management, we will discuss them. Otherwise, we will concentrate on spent fuel from LWRs.

Oversby, V.M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Environmental Statements, Availability, Etc., Programmatic Spent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Environmental Statements, Availability, Etc.; Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste...

57

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0 312 Beverage and Tobacco Products 0 1 0 0 1 0 321 Wood Products 0 218 * 13 199 6 321113 Sawmills 0 100 * 5 94 1 3212 Veneer, Plywood, and Engineered Woods 0 95 * 6 87 2 321219 Reconstituted Wood Products 0 52 0 6 46 1 3219 Other Wood Products

58

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Print Thursday, 25 October 2012 10:44 paris-wood composites Wood scientist...

59

Categorical Exclusion for Wood Pole  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Pole Wood Pole Replacement at two structures (11/6 & 11/9) located along the Oracle-Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line, in Oro Valley, Pima County, Arizona. RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western plans to replace deteriorated wood poles, cross arms and X-braces at two existing H-frame structures (11/6 & 1119) located along the Oracle Tucson 115-kV Transmission Line in Pima, Arizona (Figure 1). Built in 1943, its aging components are beyond repair and require replacement. These poles performed poorly during structural tests, and we consider them unstable. This replacement project will ensure the safety of Western's workers and the public as well as reliability of the bulk electric system. Western will accomplish the work by clearing vegetation and blading a level pad at

60

Metals removal from spent salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Actinide removal from spent salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Spent fuel integrity during transportation  

SciTech Connect

The conditions of recent shipments of light water reactor spent fuel were surveyed. The radioactivity level of cask coolant was examined in an attempt to find the effects of transportation on LWR fuel assemblies. Discussion included potential cladding integrity loss mechanisms, canning requirements, changes of radioactivity levels, and comparison of transportation in wet or dry media. Although integrity loss or degradation has not been identified, radioactivity levels usually increase during transportation, especially for leaking assemblies.

Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Spent Fuel Pool Accident Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent fuel pools (SFPs) at nuclear reactor sites contain used fuel assemblies, control rods, used radioactive sources, and used instrumentation. Cooling of the used fuel is required to remove the decay heat generated by radioactive decay.BackgroundThe SFPs include heat removal systems to provide methods to cool the used fuel and inventory makeup systems as backup methods to preserve water inventory if the SFP cooling system is ineffective. These two methods ...

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

64

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

65

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others.

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

66

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

67

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" 6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

68

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" 2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " "," ","Pulping Liquor"," "," ","Wood","Byproducts","and","RSE",," " "NAICS"," ","or","Biomass","Agricultural","Harvested Directly","from Mill","Paper-Related","Row"

69

Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States underwater vehicles to perform ocean surveys. With these vehicles it is now possible for the scientist substances in the ocean such as chemicals from an underwater vent or toxic algae such as red tide

Wood, Stephen L.

70

James F. Wood | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

James F. Wood James F. Wood About Us James F. Wood - Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal Photo of James Wood Photo of James Wood James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's clean coal research and development programs. Chief among these is the Carbon Sequestration program, the Clean Coal Power Initiative, and FE's $3.4 billion portfolio of Recovery Act projects. Wood has over 30 years of experience in the power industry. Most recently, he was president and CEO of Babcock Power Inc. (BPI), one of the major US-based designer/manufacturers of environmental, pressure part, heat exchanger, combustion equipment and after-market

71

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate 500 Program Info Start Date 1/1/1994 State Arizona Program Type Personal Deduction Rebate Amount Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Provider Arizona Department of Revenue This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove. The cost to purchase and install all necessary equipment is tax deductible, up to a maximum $500 deduction. Qualifying wood stoves must meet the standards of performance for new wood heaters manufactured after July 1990, or sold after July 1992 pursuant to [http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/resources/policies/monitoring/caa/woodstover...

72

Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment (SFTRA) Draft NUREG-2125 Overview for National Transportation Stakeholders Forum John Cook Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation 1 SFTRA Overview Contents * Project and review teams * Purpose and goals * Basic methodology * Improvements relative to previous studies * Draft NUREG structure and format * Routine shipment analysis and results * Accident condition analysis and results * Findings and conclusions * Schedule 2 SFTRA Research and Review Teams * Sandia National Laboratory Research Team [$1.8M; 9/06-9/12] - Doug Ammerman - principal investigator - Carlos Lopez - thermal - Ruth Weiner - RADTRAN * NRC's SFTRA Technical Review Team - Gordon Bjorkman - structural

73

HTGR spent fuel storage study  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification.

Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Transportation of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. industrys limited efforts at licensing transportation packages characterized as high-capacity, or containing high-burnup (>45 GWd/MTU) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), or both, have not been successful considering existing spent-fuel inventories that will have to be eventually transported. A holistic framework is proposed for resolving several CSNF transportation issues. The framework considers transportation risks, spent-fuel and cask-design features, and defense-in-depth in context of pre...

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

75

Behavior of spent fuel under unsaturated conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To evaluate the performance of spent fuel in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, spent fuel fragments are being exposed to small and intermittent amounts of simulated groundwater under unsaturated conditions. Both the leachate and the visual appearance of the spent fuel have been characterized for 581 days of testing. The amount of Am and Cm measured in the leachates was one to two orders of magnitude greater than that released from spent fuel under saturated conditions. The cause of this difference has not been firmly identified but may be attributable to the presence of large amounts of actinide-containing colloids in the leachate of the unsaturated tests.

Finn, P.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Wolf, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. , "Investigations on hydraulic cement from spent oilCO, April 16-18, 1980 HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROMUniversity of California. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

showing potential for subsidence and spent shale leaching.cracking and ground subsidence, and low leaving largeto 210 m overburden), and subsidence. These problems may be

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation: An Overview  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuel comprises a fraction of the hazardous materials packages shipped annually in the United States. In fact, at the present time, fewer than 100 packages of spent nuclear fuel are shipped annually. At the onset of spent fuel shipments to the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada, repository, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) expects to ship 400 - 500 spent fuel transport casks per year over the life of the facility. This study summarizes work on transportation cask design and testing, regulato...

2004-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

79

Managing Transmission Line Wood Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission and distribution infrastructures throughout the world are aging. As such, inspection, assessment, and maintenance of existing facilities have become increasingly important topics. This valuable reference provides an in-depth look at all facets of an inspection, assessment, and maintenance program for transmission line wood structures to help utilities develop and refine individual maintenance programs. The report is part of a broader multi-year effort by EPRI to develop a comprehensive handb...

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Distribution Library--Wood Poles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has sponsored research and published information on a wide variety of topics related to wood poles for overhead lines. Many of these resources, particularly older publications, are difficult for EPRI members to find and use. To help ensure retention of this valuable knowledge base, EPRI sponsored the project reported herein to capture this information and make it accessible in an easy-to-use electronic media (E-Media) repository.

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Wood Poles Population with Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's asset management research focuses on developing a rational basis for selecting repair or replacement options for specific classes of equipment by balancing the risks of equipment failure against the costs of continued maintenance or capital replacement. This Model User Guide is a companion to Guidelines for Intelligent Asset Replacement: Volume 4Wood Poles (Expanded Edition), EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2006. 1012500, the fourth report on guidelines for asset replacement, which discusses methods for maki...

2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

82

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

LEROY, P.G.

2000-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

83

TEPP - Spent Nuclear Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Spent Nuclear Fuel - Spent Nuclear Fuel TEPP - Spent Nuclear Fuel This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of spent nuclear fuel. This exercise manual is one in a series of five scenarios developed by the Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program. Responding agencies may include several or more of the following: local municipal and county fire, police, sheriff, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel; state, local, and federal emergency response teams; emergency response contractors;and other emergency response resources that could potentially be provided by the carrier and the originating facility (shipper). Spent Nuclear Fuel.docx More Documents & Publications

84

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL- Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel withSwinhoe. “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelS. Tobin, “Measurement of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay Brian J. Quiter ?of Pu isotopes in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Given the lowU and 239 Pu in spent nuclear fuel using NRF. II. PERFORMING

Quiter, Brian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by Self-Induced X-ray,”Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facility –Content in PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel,” European Safeguards R&D

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

EIA Energy Kids - Wood - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

1860: Wood was the primary fuel for heating and cooking in homes and businesses, and was used for steam in industries, trains, and boats.

88

The Bending of Wood With Steam.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Based on experimentation with the steam bending of wood to curved shapes, this thesis describes my involvement with three basic aspects of the process. First… (more)

Cottey Jr., James H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local in Estonia in 1995 - 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia http://www.managenergy.net/conference/biomass

90

Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Pellet.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The primary purpose of this project is to assess the environmental impacts associated with the wood pellet production. The study has extended to the entire… (more)

Chen, Siyu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of producing methanol from wood is demonstrated and sufficient cost data is provided to allow an assessment of the economic viability.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlem...

93

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for extension of wood pellet production is lack of appropriate technology in Slovakia. Several typesOverview 1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK systems. · Co-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;Overview 3

94

Mathematical simulation of temperature profiles within microwave heated wood made for wood-based nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High intensive microwave pretreatment is a new method to modify wood for the fabrication of wood-based nanocomposites. Based on the physical law on heat transfer, a mathematical model to describe the temperature profiles within wood heated by high intensive ...

Xianjun Li, Yongfeng Luo, Hongbin Chen, Xia He, Jianxiong Lv, Yiqiang Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent...

96

Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition Strategy Lessons Learned Report, NNSA, Feb 2010 Idaho Spent Fuel Facility (ISFF) Project, Appropriate Acquisition...

97

Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment SFTRA Overview Contents Project and review teams Purpose and goals Basic methodology...

98

Nondestructive Spent Fuel Assay Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

09-01188, ANS Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management IV, Hiltonanalysis of spent nuclear fuel via nuclear resonanceNondestructive Spent Fuel Assay Using Nuclear Resonance

Quiter, Brian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million Btu/hr pilot plant produced clean burning gas which appeared viable for drying textiles. The gasifier was coupled to a modified textile drying oven and a series of tests were carried out to assess product degradation of white, colored, and chemically treated fabrics.

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric evaporation was one possible means of treatment which had not been studied to any great degree. Two bench scale evaporation units were employed to determine the fundamental relationships affecting wastewater quality during such treatment. In batch evaporation tests, it was repeatedly demonstrated that a constant rate of total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewater was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant. From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design considerations such as the input data, modifications to the design procedure, solids accumulation, and miscellaneous design aspects are discussed. A treatment scheme incorporating atmospheric evaporation ponds after chemical coagulation and settling is proposed.

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Management Practices for Used Treated Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pentachlorophenol, creosote, and other chemicals are used to preserve poles, crossarms, and railroad ties for the electric, telecommunications, and railroad industries. Each year, millions of pieces of treated wood are retired. This report provides information on current and potential options for management of used treated wood.

1995-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

102

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes extensions to existing methods for rendering of the effects of combustion on a wood object, adding considerations for wood grain and moisture content.

Riensche, Roderick M.; Lewis, Robert R.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration...

104

Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984.

Not Available

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood3 Resources Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name Wood3 Resources Place Houston, Texas Zip 77056-2409 Product Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chairman Pat Wood. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

106

Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit Wood Energy Production Credit < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate Credit may be claimed for a period of five years Program Info Start Date 12/30/1998 (most recent revision) State Missouri Program Type Corporate Tax Credit Rebate Amount $5 per ton of processed materials Provider Missouri Department of Natural Resources Note: No new credits are being issued, effective July 1, 2013. This entry is for informational purposes only. The Wood Energy Tax Credit, as effective January 1, 1997, allows individuals or businesses processing Missouri forestry industry residues into fuels an income tax credit of $5.00 per ton of processed material (e.g., wood pellets). A multiplier of 4 applies to charcoal, based on the

107

Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

Jonathan Bolling

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

108

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalJ. B. , "Simulated effects of oil-shale development on the

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p. 54S,Colorado's primary oil shale resource for vertical modifiedSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

Rubinstein, Herbert J. (Los Gatos, CA); Clark, Philip M. (San Jose, CA); Gilcrest, James D. (San Jose, CA)

1978-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

Wheaton, Felicia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Batch slurry photocatalytic reactors for the generation of hydrogen from sulfide and sulfite waste streams under solar irradiation  

SciTech Connect

In this study, two solar slurry photocatalytic reactors i.e., batch reactor (BR) and batch recycle reactor with continuous supply of inert gas (BRRwCG) were developed for comparing their performance. The performance of the photocatalytic reactors were evaluated based on the generation of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from water containing sodium sulfide (Na{sub 2}S) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) ions. The photoreactor of capacity 300 mL was developed with UV-vis transparent walls. The catalytic powders ((CdS/ZnS)/Ag{sub 2}S + (RuO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2})) were kept suspended by means of magnetic stirrer in the BR and gas bubbling and recycling of the suspension in the BRRwCG. The rate constant was found to be 120.86 (einstein{sup -1}) for the BRRwCG whereas, for the BR it was found to be only 10.92 (einstein{sup -1}). The higher rate constant was due to the fast desorption of products and suppression of e{sup -}/h{sup +} recombination. (author)

Priya, R.; Kanmani, S. [Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai (India)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Supporting rural wood industry through timber utilization research. Research paper  

SciTech Connect

The report evaluates the potential impact of USDA Forest Service wood utilization and wood energy research on rural employment and income. Recent projections suggest employment will decrease in many forest products industries, such as softwood sawmilling, but will eventually increase in softwood plywood and reconstituated panel mills. Forest products industries expected to provide wages exceeding the average manufacturing production wage include logging, softwood sawmills, millwork, softwood plywood--veneer, structural wood members, particle-board, wood partitions, pulp mills, paper mills, and paperboard mills. Industries expected to pay 90 percent of the average manufacturing production wage include wood kitchen cabinets, mobile homes, prefabricated wood buildings, and wood preservatives.

Skog, K.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermal reclamation of spent blasting abrasive  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abrasive blasting media is used to remove anticorrosive and antifoulant coatings from the hulls and tanks of US Navy ships. The total production of paint-contaminated spent abrasives from the eight US. Navy shipyards ranges from 75,000 to 100,000 tons per year. Most of this spent abrasive is disposed in landfills. Organic paint binders and heavy metals are present in the spent abrasives in concentrations sufficient to classify them as hazardous wastes in some states. In an effort to avoid the rising costs an long-term environmental liability associated with landfilling this waste, the US Navy has investigated various methods of reclaiming spent abrasives for reuse in hull- and tank-blasting operations. This paper discusses the results of a research and development project conducted under the Navy's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program to test a fluidized-bed sloped-grid (FBSG) reclaimer to determine if it could be used to recycle spent abrasive. Thirty tons of abrasive were processed and a product meeting military specifications for new abrasives was reclaimed. Blasting performance was also comparable to new abrasives. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Bryan, B.G. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA)); Thomas, W.; Adema, C. (David Taylor Research Center, Annapolis, MD (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T (2009) Non-native suckermouth armored catWshes in Florida:Loricariidae), wood-eating armored catWshes from Tropical

German, Donovan P.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Biomass Energy - Focus on Wood Waste  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

application for wood waste as a fuel is in the co-firing of conventional coal-fired boilers, which means using biomass as a supplementary energy source in high- efficiency...

120

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd Place Kincardineshire, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip AB30 1PA Product Wood pellet producer. Coordinates 56.932781°, -2.42531° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":56.932781,"lon":-2.42531,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas turbine combined cycle system that obtains its heat input from a high temperature, high pressure ceramic air heater burning wood waste products as a fuel. This paper presents the results of the design study including the cycle evaluation and a description of the major components of the power plant. The cycle configuration is based on maximum fuel efficiency with minimum capital equipment risk. The cycle discussion includes design point performance of the power plant. The design represents a significant step forward in wood-fueled power plants.

Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

123

The Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a former wood-treating site located in Texas that treated various wood products with chemical preservatives. These activities left behind contaminated soil and sludge, that led to contaminated groundwater. In 1990 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) selected incineration as the means to clean up contaminated soil at this site. In 1994 Congressman Jim Chapman (D-Texas) asked the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to review alternative technologies that might be used instead of incineration at the Texarkana site. A second, separate study to assess the safety of incineration was also requested by Representative Chapman. This report reviews technologies available for hazardous waste cleanup at wood-treating sites throughout the United States. OTA found that there are many Superfund wood-treatment sites located in this country that are very similar in terms of the contaminants

Roger C. Herdman; Frank Avvisato

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Chemistry and stoichiometry of wood liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approximate stoichiometry of liquefaction, from data of two PDU runs and a laboratory run is Wood (100 g) + CO (0.1 - 0.4 Mol) ..-->.. CO/sub 2/ (0.5 - 1.0 Mol) + H/sub 2/O (0.4 - 0.8 Mol) + Product (55 - 64 g). Product includes wood oil, water soluble organics and residues. Water is formed by decomposition, carbon dioxide by decomposition and reduction of wood oxygen by CO. Aqueous products include many carboxylic acids plus a roughly equal percentage of non-acids. The wood oil is divided into a neutral fraction and three phenolic fractions of varying molecular weight. Some specific compounds found in water and oil phases are listed.

Davis, H.G.; Kloden, D.J.; Schaleger, L.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

Shedrow, C.B.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

126

Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic repository and the decision to phase out reprocessing of production fuels are extending the need for interim storage. The report describes the basic storage conditions and the general SNF inventory at individual DOE facilities.

Abbott, D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing.

Weil, Bradley S. (Knoxville, TN); Metz, III, Curtis F. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly.

Weil, Bradley S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Watson, Clyde D. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Short rotation Wood Crops Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Characterization of Spent Shale s . , , . • • . . • ,4. Preparation of Spent Shale Samples and Procedure forof Particular Types of Spent Shale References • Appendix A.

Amy, Gary L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Effects of humidity and temperature on the conversion of SO/sub 2/ to particulate sulfate and sulfite. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Effects of humidity and temperature on SO/sub 2/ conversion to particulate sulfate and sulfite in relation to heterogeneous conversion in droplets and on particle surfaces; homogeneous conversion in the gas phase; and gas-to-particle conversion are discussed. Theoretical quantitative expressions for some effects are derived and order-of-magnitude calculations are given. Detailed conclusions and comparisons regarding the effects of temperature and humidity on specific oxidation paths. Major conclusions documented are: rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ converison in aqueous droplets are generally negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with relative humidity (particularly at high relative humidity); the rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ conversion on reactive surfaces can be either positively correlated with relative humidity or unaffected by relative humidity, and can have a negative, a positive, or a zero correlation with temperture; the homogeneous photooxidation is considerably less sensitive to temperature than is the heterogeneous conversion. (The photooxidation of SO/sub 2/ is expected to be positively correlated with temperature, but the correlation will be weaker in clean air than in polluted air, the positive dependence of SO/sub 2/ photooxidation on humidity will be weaker in polluted air containing NMHC than in clean air); the specific conversion paths have rates with highly different sensitivities to relative humidity and temperature. Thus, a given conversion path can become more or less significant relative to other paths as relative humidity and temperature vary. This suggests that temperature and relative humidity variations can be major causes of the temporal and spatial variations in the rate and yield of conversion and in the type of sulfate produced, which in turn determine the extent of adverse environmental effects. 228 references, 1 figure, 28 tables.

Freiberg, J.E.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

Rosenberg, S. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Use of Wood Energy in the United States –  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood for energy – including the burning of solid wood and black liquor from pulping – has been growing at a rate significantly greater than that for all other uses such as lumber, pulp, or particleboard. in the United States, the end of most wood is not lumber or pulp and paper but feed for energy. In 1983, 155. 5 M Mg of wood were used for energy. This could threaten to increase the price of wood for those other uses, or it can stimulate us to seek more creative ways of using untapped wood resources for fuel. on the basis of estimates of heavy wood energy use relative to other uses for wood, and estimates of continuing high costs for fossil fuels, we suggest here the feasibility of meeting the demand for fuelwood through small-scale cooperatives. Such an approach can improve forestry practices and can avoid unduly increasing the cost of wood for other end uses.

John W. Koning; Kenneth E. Skog

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Perils of plutonium [spent nuclear fuel storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the security of the ponds at reactor sites where radioactive spent fuel are being stored. A recent report by a panel of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC, said that attacks by knowledgeable terrorists with access ...

P. P. Predd

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Safeguards Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

during shipping off- site. A third case involves the use of a spent fuel conditioning hot cell or facility. In this case, the spent fuel would be reduced in volume by removing...

138

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P, K, Mehta Civil Engineering

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dependence of transuranic content in spent fuel on fuel burnup  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the increasing demand for nuclear energy results in larger spent fuel volume, implementation of longer fuel cycles incorporating higher burnup are becoming common. Understanding the effect of higher burnup on the spent ...

Reese, Drew A. (Drew Amelia)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for safeguards of LEU and MOX spent fuel,” Internationalsystems in use today (Safeguards Mox Python Detector, 1 Fork

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fuel LP Fuel LP Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Wood Fuel LP Name Wood Fuel LP Address 5900 Haynesworth Lane Place Houston, Texas Zip 77034 Sector Biomass Product Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website http://www.woodfuel.com/ Coordinates 29.6221328°, -95.1872605° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.6221328,"lon":-95.1872605,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

143

Wood and Derived Fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

1 1 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142288361 Varnish cache server Wood and Derived Fuels Dataset Summary Description Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels. Source UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) Date Released July 29th, 2010 (4 years ago)

144

OpenEI - Wood and Derived Fuels  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UK Energy Statistics: UK Energy Statistics: Renewables and Waste, Commodity Balances (2010) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/82 Annual commodity balances (supply, consumption) for renewables and waste in the UK from 1998 to 2009. Published as part of the Digest of UK energy statistics (DUKES), by the UK Department of Energy & Climate Change (DECC). Waste includes: wood waste, farm waste, sewage gas, landfill gas, waste and tyres. Renewables includes: wood, plant-based biomass, geothermal and active solar heat, hydro, wind, wave and tidal, and liquid biofuels.

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145

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Marin County - Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program (California...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DSIRE1 Summary The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and...

147

A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

Squires, K.G.

1995-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

149

Integrated process for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process for recovering nuclear fuel from spent fuel assemblies that employs a single canister process container. The cladding and fuel are oxidized in the container, the fuel is dissolved and removed from the container for separation from the aqueous phase, the aqueous phase containing radioactive waste is returned to the container. This container is also the disposal vessel. Add solidification agents and compress container for long term storage.

Forsberg, C.W.

1991-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

150

The potential of wood residue streams for industrial wood pellet production in the Baltic Countries and Poland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Currently most solid biomass in the European Union (EU-27) is made from high grade secondary wood residues, e.g. clean saw dust and wood chips. The… (more)

Jong, B. de

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Availability of wood as a heating fuel for Colorado  

SciTech Connect

As Colorado homeowners turn to wood as an alternative space-heating fuel, supplies--particularly along the heavily populated Front Range--dwindle. The report reexamines the resource base and presents alternatives to wood in the event of a shortage (for instance, many wood stoves can burn coal as well).

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and power, the wood products industry and major independent power producers also have significant production of heat and power. Table 3.1 Canadian Wood Residue Heat & Power Generation - 2003 13 Forest Products SAWMILLS LTD LACRETE 50,000 TONNE WOOD PELLET PRODUCTION IN WESTERN CANADA 2004 / 2005 PINNACLE PEL LET INC

153

Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code  

SciTech Connect

The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S. [Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Universitat Politenica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46021, Valencia (Spain)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

O`Toole, T.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The ambient wood journals: replaying the experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Ambient Wood project aims to facilitate a learning experience using an adaptive infrastructure in an outdoor environment. This involves sensor technology, virtual world orchestration, and a wide range of devices ranging from hand-held computers to ... Keywords: adaptive infrastructure, consolidation, record and replay, storytelling

Mark J. Weal; Danius T. Michaelides; Mark K. Thompson; David C. DeRoure

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS-WOOD Power plant LIENZ Austria By the year 2010, 12% of the gross inland this goal, intensified use needs to be made of biomass, both for heating purposes and for power generation to this rule. Thus, for instance, the town of Lienz started up the largest biomass facility of Austria

157

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

158

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regional Energy centres in Estonia This presentation will cover Regional Energy Centres in Estonia ! Supply Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Supply of primary energy in Estonia Regional Energy Centres in Estonia of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East

159

Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Near-term potential of wood as a fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of near-term conversion technologies, which could be used to expand utilization of wood residues and standing forests, is presented. The forest products industry is identified as a principal candidate for expanded wood-fuel use. Sources of wood-fuel are identified and conversion technologies and costs are discussed. Possible near-term incentives to encourage the use of wood as a fuel are examined. These incentives include a retirement tax credit and an investment tax credit. Suppliers of commercial wood conversion systems are identified.

Salo, D.; Gsellman, L.; Medville, D.; Price, G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Wood and energy in New Hampshire. Staff report  

SciTech Connect

Telephone surveys of New Hampshire households conducted in 1979 and 1980 indicate a transition to wood heating in response to a series of conventional energy price increases and uncertainty in conventional energy supplies. New Hampshire households consumed 394,000 cords of wood in the winter of 1978-79; 504,000 cords were burnt during the next winter. The airtight wood stove has become the most commonly used wood-burning apparatus. Survey data of residential wood cutting, purchasing, and burning were analyzed by household tenure, wood-burning apparatus, and county. Residential use of wood for energy constitutes a new demand on the forest resource, increases local income and employment, displaces fuel oil and electricity, and may compromise household safety.

Bailey, M.R.; Wheeling, P.R.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Wood power - its potential in our energy crisis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood is meeting about 2% of total U.S. energy needs and may eventually supply up to 7% of our nation's energy. Many forms of direct combustion equipment are available for residential heating and range from supplemental wood-burning stoves to complete house-heating multi-fuel furnaces. A recent survey conducted in New York indicated that one-third of the people contacted used wood for home heating. The total amount of fuelwood used in New York State in 1978 amounted to 1,716,000 standard cords. A Wisconsin study indicates that more than 1.2 million cords of firewood were burned by Wisconsin households during the 1979-80 heating season. A Pennsylvania survey indicated that 22% of single family households used wood for home heating. Corning Glass Works recently conducted a wood-burning stove market survey and found that 18% of all U.S. households own wood-burning stoves. On the basis of cost per unit of heat, wood heat is cheaper than its next closest commonly available rival (fuel oil) and is also cheaper than anthracite coal and electricity. Industrial wood-burning furnaces are commonly incorporated into boiler systems. Nearly 1700 wood-fired boiler systems are in operation in the United States. The economic value of a wood fuel will depend on its heating value and moisture content. For an indsutry considering use of densified wood for fuel, there is a question of whether the added expense is justified by increased ease of handling and improved burning efficiency. Where high sulfur emissions from coal are a problem, burning sulfur-free pellets in combination with coal may be a solution. In Maine a $3 million pellet-making plant is producing 600 tons of pellets per day. Nationally, the overall generating capacity of all known electrical generating plants using wood and wood derived fuels is about 4500 megawatts. Wood can be processed to produce liquid fuels and other chemicals.

Johnson, W.W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

Tatano, Fabio [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)], E-mail: fabio.tatano@uniurb.it; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo [Faculty of Sciences and Technologies, University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo', Campus Scientifico - Sogesta, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs EIS-0203: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs SUMMARY This EIS considers programmatic (DOE-wide) alternative approaches to safely, efficiently, and responsibly manage existing and projected quantities of spent nuclear fuel until the year 2035. This amount of time may be required to make and implement a decision on the ultimate disposition of spent nuclear fuel. DOE's spent nuclear fuel responsibilities include fuel generated by DOE production, research, and development reactors; naval reactors; university and foreign research reactors; domestic non-DOE reactors such as those at the National Institute

167

Microsoft Word - spent nuclear fuel report.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Savannah River Site DOE/IG-0727 May 2006 REPORT ON MANAGEMENT OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TABLE OF CONTENTS Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Details of Finding 1 Recommendations 2 Comments 3 Appendices 1. Objective, Scope, and Methodology 4 2. Prior Audit Reports 5 3. Management Comments 6 SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL MANGEMENT Page 1 Details of Finding H-Canyon The Department of Energy's (Department) spent nuclear fuel Operations program at the Savannah River Site (Site) will likely require Extended H-Canyon to be maintained at least two years beyond defined operational needs. The Department committed to maintain H-Canyon operational readiness to provide a disposal path for

168

EIS-0279: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management, Aiken, South Carolina | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

79: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management, Aiken, South Carolina 79: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management, Aiken, South Carolina EIS-0279: Spent Nuclear Fuel Management, Aiken, South Carolina SUMMARY The proposed DOE action considered in this environmental impact statement (EIS) is to implement appropriate processes for the safe and efficient management of spent nuclear fuel and targets at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken County, South Carolina, including placing these materials in forms suitable for ultimate disposition. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 5, 2013 EIS-0279: Amended Record of Decision Spent Nuclear Fuel Management at the Savannah River Site April 1, 2013 EIS-0279-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (DOE/EIS-0279-SA-01 and

169

Naval Spent Fuel Rail Shipment Accident Exercise Objectives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NAVAL SPENT FUEL RAIL SHIPMENT NAVAL SPENT FUEL RAIL SHIPMENT ACCIDENT EXERCISE OBJECTIVES * Familiarize stakeholders with the Naval spent fuel ACCIDENT EXERCISE OBJECTIVES Familiarize stakeholders with the Naval spent fuel shipping container characteristics and shipping practices * Gain understanding of how the NNPP escorts who accompany the spent fuel shipments will interact with civilian emergency services representatives g y p * Allow civilian emergency services agencies the opportunity to evaluate their response to a pp y p simulated accident * Gain understanding of how the communications links that would be activated in an accident involving a Naval spent fuel shipment would work 1 NTSF May 11 ACCIDENT EXERCISE TYPICAL TIMELINE * Conceptual/Organizational Meeting - April 6 E R T i d it t t d TYPICAL TIMELINE

170

Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels  

SciTech Connect

This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West  

SciTech Connect

At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.

Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Pyrochemical Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 10 years, pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel has progressed from demonstration activities to engineering-scale production operations. As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, pyrochemical treatment operations are being performed as part of the treatment of fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II at the Idaho National Laboratory. Integral to these treatment operations are research and development activities that are focused on scaling further the technology, developing and implementing process improvements, qualifying the resulting high-level waste forms, and demonstrating the overall pyrochemical fuel cycle.

K. M. Goff; K. L. Howden; G. M. Teske; T. A. Johnson

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Spent fuel handling and packaging program. Management summary report  

SciTech Connect

Objective is to design, develop, and demonstrate a spent fuel package for geologic storage and disposal; to design, license, and construct the facilities to produce this package; and to develop and demonstrate technology for the dry, passive surface storage of spent fuel. Progress is reported on engineering and system studies, technical R and D studies, demonstrations, project support studies, spent fuel facility project, and program management.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nuclear Fuel Assembly and Related Methods for Spent Nuclear ...  

Nuclear Fuel Assembly and Related Methods for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Management Note: The technology described above is an early stage ...

177

President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility The Reagan Administration announces a nuclear energy policy that anticipates the establishment of a facility for the storage of...

178

Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Down Spectroscopy for Direct Pu Mass Measurements,” 8thof reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel suchas independently verifying the Pu content declared by a

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Spent Fuel Disposal Trust Fund (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Type Safety and Operational Guidelines Any licensee operating a nuclear power plant in this State shall establish a segregated Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Trust Fund...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Anode Materials for Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to consume current stockpiles, uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be .... and Synthesis of Intermetallic Clathrates for Energy Storage and Recovery.

182

Bioremediation of Diesel Contaminated Soil Using Spent Mushroom Compost.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Composting has been shown to be an effective bioremediation technique for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. In this research, spent mushroom compost (SMC), a sustainable,… (more)

Eramo, Alessia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Record of Decision for the Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management Final Environmental Impact Statement, Aiken, SC AGENCY: Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel...

184

Preparation of Nickel Sulfate from Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... Preparation of Nickel Sulfate from Spent Nickel-Cadmium Batteries ... process could remove other impurities such as zinc and manganese.

185

Spent Nuclear Fuel project integrated safety management plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is being revised in its entirety and the document title is being revised to ``Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Safety Management Plan.

Daschke, K.D.

1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

Chloride Leaching of Spent Lead-Acid Battery Paste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, In this study leaching of spent lead acid-battery paste in sodium ... Cost, Energy, Emissions, and Resource Assessment of the Production of ...

187

Pellet stoves wood energy for all  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While it`s true that specialized pellet stoves, capable of burning fuels as diverse as reprocessed paper waste and feed corn, are expensive and occasionally clunky, they also represent one of the best hopes for introducing clean burning, reliable renewable energy to those now heating with gas and oil. This article explores the benefits and operation of the stoves including discussions of the following: ecological benefits, combustion, stove venting, ashes, costs, fuels, and the future of wood heat. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

Not Available

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This is a pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is chopped into pieces and placed in a basket which is lowered in to a liquid salt solution. The salt is rich in ZrF.sub.4 and containing alkali or alkaline earth fluorides, and in particular, the salt chosen was LiF-50 mol % ZrF.sub.4 with a eutectic melting point of 500.degree. C. Prior to lowering the basket, the salt is heated to a temperature of between 550.degree. C. and 700.degree. C. in order to obtain a molten solution. After dissolution the oxides of U, Th, rare earth and other like oxides, the salt bath solution is subject to hydro-fluorination to remove the oxygen and then to a fluorination step to remove U as gaseous UF.sub.6. In addition, after dissolution, the basket contains PuO.sub.2 and undissolved parts of the fuel rods, and the basket and its contents are processed to remove the Pu.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Inexpensive solar-wood water heating combinations  

SciTech Connect

A promising batch heater recently built and now being tested consists of lengths of eight-inch galvanized culvert pipe painted with semiselective black coating, hooked in series and tied in as part of a passive closed loop, unpressurized solar-wood water heating combination. One 10-foot length of eight-inch culvert contains 14.6 gallons of water. Eight-inch culvert provides a near optimum surface area per unit volume ratio, resulting in quicker, more efficient solar water heating. Moreover, the proposed arrangement minimizes the mixing of hot with cold water as warm water is used, often a problem with many types of batch heaters. Details for constructing this type of batch heater are provided. The system is an unpressurized, closed loop set-up, which means that the same liquid circulates continually from solar heater to wood heater to storage tank heat exchanger. The collector design is a variation on the inverted batch heater which takes its inspiration from a number of solar designers of similar units and introduces several additional measures to take advantage of the wood heating connection and to improve the design based on operating experience.

Poitras, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Leonard Wood and the American Empire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire and the age in which he served. He had the distinction of directing civil and military government in Cuba and the Philippines where he implemented the imperial policies given to him by the administrations of William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. In Cuba, he labored to rebuild a state and a civil society crippled by decades of revolutionary ferment and guided the administration's policy through the dangerous channels of Cuban politics in a way that satisfied – at least to the point of avoiding another revolution – both the Cubans and the United States. In the Philippines, Wood took control of the Moro Province and attempted to smash the tribal-religious leadership of Moro society in order to bring it under direct American rule. His personal ideology, the imperial policies he shepherded, and the guidance he provided to fellow military officers and the administrations he served in matters of colonial administration and defense shaped the American Empire and endowed it with his personal stamp.

Pruitt, James Herman

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL- Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel withSwinhoe. “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelS. Tobin, “Measurement of Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices. Traditional fireplaces draw in as much as 300 cubic feet per minute of heated room air for combustion, then send it straight up the chimney. Fireplaces also produce significant air pollution. Although some fireplace designs seek to address these issues with dedicated air supplies, glass doors, and heat recovery systems, fireplaces are still

194

Wood as a fuel. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the availability, combustion aspects, economics, and feasibility of using wood as fuel. Topics include wood-fuel power plants, wood waste fuels, district heating systems, wood burning furnaces and appliances, and wood waste generators. (Contains a minimum of 128 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Testing of the CANDU Spent Fuel Storage Basket Package  

SciTech Connect

The paper described the results of testing for a CANDU Spent Fuel Storage Basket Package Prototype intended to be used for transport and storage of the CANDU spent fuel bundles within NPP CANDU Cernavoda, Romania. The results obtained proved that the objectives of those tests were achieved

Vieru, G.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Regeneração de Floresta Secundária Eric A. Davidson Woods...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

299 a 309. 1 Limitaes de Nutrientes para a Regenerao de Floresta Secundria Eric A. Davidson Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA Luiz A. Martinelli...

197

Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

198

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place Texas Utility Id 20927 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes...

199

Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

200

Graphite/Copper Composites from Natural Wood Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphite derived from natural wood precursors provides a uniquely anisotropic porous scaffold for the fabrication of graphite/copper composites. The wettability ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Viscoelastic Properties of Wood Cell Walls after Minimally ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples were prepared on dried wood with no embedding resin within the cellular structure. Four types of analysis methods were used; the standard method, ...

202

City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Wood River Place Nebraska Utility Id 20945 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC SPP Yes...

203

Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Spent nuclear fuel project detonation phenomena of hydrogen/oxygen in spent fuel containers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Movement of Spent N Reactor fuels from the Hanford K Basins near the Columbia River to Dry interim storage facility on the Hanford plateau will require repackaging the fuel in the basins into multi-canister overpacks (MCOs), drying of the fuel, transporting the contained fuel, hot conditioning, and finally interim storage. Each of these functions will be accomplished while the fuel is contained in the MCOs by several mechanisms. The principal source of hydrogenand oxygen within the MCOs is residual water from the vacuum drying and hot conditioning operations. This document assesses the detonation phenomena of hydrogen and oxygen in the spent fuel containers. Several process scenarios have been identified that could generate detonation pressures that exceed the nominal 10 atmosphere design limit ofthe MCOS. Only 42 grams of radiolized water are required to establish this condition.

Cooper, T.D.

1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

205

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and S.J. Thompson,“Determining Plutonium in Spent Fuel withTobin, “Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent FuelFluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Examining 239Pu and 240Pu Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on Spent Fuel for Nuclear Safeguards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay,” Inst. of Nucl.239 Pu content in spent nuclear fuel [4, 5]. Development ofin the context of spent nuclear fuel, summarizes the results

Quiter, Brian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

Giles, GE

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

209

Section 7.1.3 Wood Products: Greening Federal Facilities; Second...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wood is being used in a building, there is an opportunity to advance good forest management by specifying certified wood products. When wood is be- ing used for framing-more...

210

How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inParameters employed for heating of wood chips employed inW.T. , 2006. Estimating heating times of wood boards, square

Tam, Jerry

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Wood Pellet Heating Systems: The Earthscan Expert Handbook of Planning, Design and Installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood Pellet Heating Systems is a comprehensive handbook covering all aspects of wood pellet heating technology. The use of wood pellets as an alternative heating fuel is already well established in several countries and is becoming widespread as fossil ...

Dilwyn Jenkins

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

My voice shall fill the woods : Lydgate, poetic authority, and the canonization of Philomela  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,My Voice Shall Fill the Woods: Lydgate, Poetic Authority,the nightingale fills the woods with song, beautiful and

Gillespie, Mary Elizabeth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

our data on wild-caught wood-eating catWshes appear to bein the Amazo- nian basin, and the wood-eating species likelyby reducing the particle size of wood from coarse debris to

German, Donovan P.; Bittong, Rosalie A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upper Midwest History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: North Woods River: The St. Croix River in Upperand Karamanski, Theodore J. North Woods River: The St. Croixbeauty and splendor. In North Woods River, Eileen M. McMahon

Karalus, Daniel E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and western branches of the Wood/Ljungdahl pathway: how the1993). 55. Wood, T. Preparation of crystalline,of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite Falk

Warnecke, Falk

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Daughters of Dissent: Women as Warriors in Sembene Ousmane's God's Bits of Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sembene. Gods Bits of Wood. Heinemann, Soyinka, Wole. Myth,novel, God's Bits of Wood, with particular reference to theOusmane's novel, God's Bits of Wood. It is important to note

Abdurrahman, Umar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Save the tree of life or get lost in the woods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of life or get lost in the woods Biology Direct 2010, 5:44of life or get lost in the woods Ruben E Valas* 1 and PhilipOtherwise one gets lost in the woods of neutral evolution.

Valas, Ruben E; Bourne, Philip E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Content Measurements of Wood Chips * P. J. Barale, C.measures the water content of wood chips, pulp and brownwater content measurements in wood chips in a magnetic field

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the 1970's, Georgia industry experienced problems obtaining fuel for operations on several occasions. In particular, the very cold winter of 1976-77 resulted in natural gas curtailments which virtually shut down many of Georgia's industries. Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis on three demonstration plants that were built with partial financing by state and federal government.

Bulpitt, W. S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Spent Shale Grouting of Abandoned In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface spent shale, and grout production from treateda grout from spent shale--grout production fromraw shale, grout production from as-

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Decommissioned Reactors Report to Congress on Plan for Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from...

223

Spent Fuel Transportation Package Performance Study - Experimental Design Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous studies of spent nuclear fuel transportation accident risks have been performed since the late seventies that considered shipping container design and performance. Based in part on these studies, NRC has concluded that the level of protection provided by spent nuclear fuel transportation package designs under accident conditions is adequate. [1] Furthermore, actual spent nuclear fuel transport experience showcase a safety record that is exceptional and unparalleled when compared to other hazardous materials transportation shipments. There has never been a known or suspected release of the radioactive contents from an NRC-certified spent nuclear fuel cask as a result of a transportation accident. In 1999 the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a study, the Package Performance Study, to demonstrate the performance of spent fuel and spent fuel packages during severe transportation accidents. NRC is not studying or testing its current regulations, a s the rigorous regulatory accident conditions specified in 10 CFR Part 71 are adequate to ensure safe packaging and use. As part of this study, NRC currently plans on using detailed modeling followed by experimental testing to increase public confidence in the safety of spent nuclear fuel shipments. One of the aspects of this confirmatory research study is the commitment to solicit and consider public comment during the scoping phase and experimental design planning phase of this research.

Snyder, A. M.; Murphy, A. J.; Sprung, J. L.; Ammerman, D. J.; Lopez, C.

2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

224

Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 501-k). A Westinghouse 3,000-kW generator is used on the prototype facility with a Philadelphia gear system reducing the 14,000-rpm turbine output speed to the 3,600-rpm generator operating speed. Fuel is fed into the combustor by a rotary valve system. The swirling effect of the cyclone combustor ensures that residence time is adequate to completely burn all solid particles in the combustor ahead of the cyclone filter. Burning of particles on the metal walls of the cyclone filter could cause overheating and deterioration of the walls. This wood-fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems.

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Silviculture: growing more wood on less land  

SciTech Connect

Maximizing the production of a concentrated, homogeneous wood supply virtually dictates intensively managed plantations. This management system implies: (1) improving the composite genotype of plantation trees; (2) optimizing their morphological and physiological condition prior to and at planting time; (3) improving the physiological environment of the crop at all stages of development; (4) protecting the plantation from pests and catastrophic events; and (5) modifying the shapes, dimensions, and qualities of crop trees to enhance the utility and value of harvested timber. Beneficiation of forest residuals for fiber and fuel is pushing forest industry relentlessly toward total stand utilization. Relative to the productivity of undisturbed or partially logged humid tropical forests, plantation growth rates represent four-fold to ten-fold increases in volume production. Displacement of some proportion of shifting agriculture and natural forest management systems by intensively managed plantations is desirable and biologically feasible. A key to successful tropical forest management and preservation is population stability, a condition toward which integrated wood conversion facilities supplied by a reliable plantation system can make a major contribution. There are some pressing and many esoteric reasons for conserving forest resources but pressures for utilizing and renewing these resources are immediate and unavoidable.

Gladstone, W.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different the plans to increase #12;#12;Energy Sector Waste Sector Recovered Wood Sawdust Logging Residues Forest

229

Modeling and Rendering Physically-Based Wood Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rendering of wood combustion has received some attention recently, but prior work has not incorporated effects of internal wood properties such as density variation (i.e. "grain") and pre-combustion processes such as drying. In this paper we present ...

Roderick M. Riensche; Robert R. Lewis

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

SciTech Connect

A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint.

Ramspott, L.D.

1980-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

232

NREL: News Feature - Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers Wood-Boring Gribbles Intrigue Researchers July 24, 2013 This is a light-enhanced close-up of a tiny crustacean's head and torso, with what looks like fluorescent-blue antennae. Three of its legs are showing. Enlarge image A gribble is a tiny wood borer that produces its own enzyme that can devastate wood efficiently. Researchers hope that by studying gribbles they can learn ways to improve the process of turning biomass into liquid fuels. Courtesy Laura Michie, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom Tiny wood borers known colloquially as gribbles make their own enzymes and use them to eat through docks in harbor towns, earning enmity from fishermen all around the world. Now, researchers from the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and elsewhere are exploring whether that curse can be

233

Steam gasification of wood in the presence of catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic steam gasification of wood, including sawdust, chipped forest slash, and mill shavings, is being investigated. Results of laboratory, process development unit (PDU), and feasibility studies illustrate attractive processes for conversion of wood to methanol and a substitute natural gas (SNG). Recent laboratory studies developed a long-lived alloy catalyst for generation of a methanol synthesis gas by steam gasification of wood. Modification of the PDU for operation at 10 atm (150 psia) is nearly complete. The modified PDU will be operated at the elevated pressure to confirm yields and design parameters used in process feasibility studies. Feasibility studies were completed on wood-to-methane (SNG) and wood-to-methanol plants with capacities of 2000 and 200 oven dried tons (1800 and 180 metric t) per day using catalytic gasification. The results showed that generation of methanol on the large scale is economically viable today while SNG generation is competitive with future prices.

Mitchell, D.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Effects of wood fuel use on plant management  

SciTech Connect

During the winter of 1979-80, about 20% of homeowners in the New England region relied on wood fuel as their primary source of heat; an additional 30% used wood heat on a supplementary basis. The demand for wood put a great strain on the New England forests. However, experts in forest management believe that with proper management and utilization, national forest growth could replace as much as four billion gpy of oil by 2023. Implications for the forests of the Upper Great Lakes region of increased use of public and private woodlands for fuel are examined. Conflicts that could arise with the tourist and recreation industry, and with wilderness preservation interests, and discussed. Wood wastes generated by timber harvesting, sawmills, and lumber manufacturing could be collected and used as fuel, thus reducing the amount of raw wood resources needed to fill the increasing demand. (6 photos)

Harris, M.; Buckmann, C.A.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect shear walls to the masonry or concrete foundation. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the performance of bolted wood connections at the yield and ultimate limit states during monotonic and incremental quasi-static reversed cyclic loading and suggests possible retrofit strategies for their improved seismic performance. Proposed retrofit strategies are based on providing confinement to the bolted wood member using metal reinforcing ;traps and reinforcing clamps to increase the deformation capability and energy dissipation capacity of the connection, while maintaining substantial levels of connection strength. Connection types included in the investigation are: (1) double shear wood-to-wood connections; and (2) single shear simulated sill plate-to-concrete foundation connections.

Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project operational staffing plan  

SciTech Connect

Using the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project`s current process flow concepts and knowledge from cognizant engineering and operational personnel, an initial assessment of the SNF Project radiological exposure and resource requirements was completed. A small project team completed a step by step analysis of fuel movement in the K Basins to the new interim storage location, the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This analysis looked at fuel retrieval, conditioning of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel. This plan describes the staffing structure for fuel processing, fuel movement, and the maintenance and operation (M&O) staffing requirements of the facilities. This initial draft does not identify the support function resources required for M&O, i.e., administrative and engineering (technical support). These will be included in future revisions to the plan. This plan looks at the resource requirements for the SNF subprojects, specifically, the operations of the facilities, balances resources where applicable, rotates crews where applicable, and attempts to use individuals in multi-task assignments. This plan does not apply to the construction phase of planned projects that affect staffing levels of K Basins.

Debban, B.L.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H{sub 2}) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical H{sub 2} storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3}, AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of H{sub 2} (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol{sup -1}). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H{sub 2} can be readily released in contrast to the loss of H{sub 2} from C{sub 2}H{sub 6} which is substantially endothermic. As such, a number of publications have described H{sub 2} release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. The viability of any chemical H{sub 2} storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, but reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. Our group is currently engaged in trying to find and fully demonstrate an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H{sub 2} depleted AB with a minimum number of steps. Although spent fuel composition depends on the dehydrogenation method, we have focused our efforts on the spent fuel resulting from metal-based catalysis, which has thus far shown the most promise. Metal-based catalysts have produced the fastest rates for a single equivalent of H{sub 2} released from AB and up to 2.5 equiv. of H{sub 2} can be produced within 2 hours. While ongoing work is being carried out to tailor the composition of spent AB fuel, a method has been developed for regenerating the predominant product, polyborazylene (PB) which can be obtained readily from the decomposition of borazine or from nickel carbene catalyst dehydrogenation. In this cycle, the PB is digested with benzenedithiol to yield two products which can both be converted to AB using Bu{sub 3}SnH and BU{sub 2}SnH{sub 2} as reductants. However, in a real world situation the process becomes more complicated for several reasons. Bu{sub 2}SnH{sub 2} is thermally unstable and therefore not viable in a process scale operation. This has led to the development of Bu{sub 3}SnH as the sole reductant although this requires an additional amine exchange step in order to facilitate the reduction to an amine-borane which can then be converted to AB. The tin by-products also need to be recycled in order to maximize the overall energy efficiency and therefore minimize the overall cost of the process. In addition, on an industrial scale, the mass of the tin reductant generates significant cost due to the manipulation of the relatively large quantities involved so reducing the mass at this stage would be of vast significance. We will discuss further developments made to the tin recycle component of the cycle (including methods to minimize tin usage) and investigate new methods of reduction of the digested products, primarily focusing on lighter reductants, including lighter analogs of Bu{sub 2}SnH{sub 2} and Bu{sub 3}SnH. These advances will have a significant impact on the cost of production and therefore the viability of AB as a fuel. Minimization of tin reagents and their recycle will contribute to reduction of the overall cost of AB regeneration and all stages of AB regeneration have been demonstrated.

Sutton, Andrew David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, Benjamin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gordon, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

239

Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Extraction of nanosized cobalt sulfide from spent hydrocracking catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The processes used for the extraction of metals (Co, Mo, and Al) from spent hydrotreating catalysts were investigated in this study. A detailed mechanism of the metal extraction process is described. Additionally, a simulation study was performed to ...

Samia A. Kosa, Eman Z. Hegazy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Experience in Using Fills for Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fills for SNF Waste Packages Experience in Using Fills for Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages The use of other fill materials in waste packages has been investigated by several...

242

December 28, 2000, DOE letter regarding the removal of spent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office (RL) associated with removing spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site as part of its Recommendation 94-1, which was recently combined into...

243

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P.Cement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,203 (1974), E. D. York, Amoco Oil Co. , letter to J, P. Fox,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

20 to 40% of the oil shale, and explosively rubblizing andCEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE P.K. Mehta and P. Persoff AprilCement Manufacture from Oil Shale, U.S. Patent 2,904,445,

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

EIS-0250: Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EIS-0250: Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada EIS-0250: Geologic Repository for the...

246

Risk and Responsibility Sharing in Nuclear Spent Fuel Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the responsibility of American utilities in the long-term management of spent nuclear fuel was limited to the payment of a fee. This narrow involvement did not result in faster ...

De Roo, Guillaume

247

Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

Schweitzer, Donald G. (Bayport, NY); Sastre, Cesar (Shoreham, NY); Winsche, Warren (Bellport, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Handbook on Neutron Absorber Materials for Spent Nuclear Fuel Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook is intended to become a single source of information regarding technical characteristics of neutron absorber materials that have been used for storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel as well as to provide a summary of users' experience.

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

249

President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility | Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > President Reagan Calls for a National Spent ... President Reagan Calls for a National Spent Fuel Storage Facility October 08, 1981

250

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

251

Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels. Technical appendixes  

SciTech Connect

Six technical appendixes are presented that provide important supporting technical information for the study of the application of nondestructive measurements to spent-fuel storage. Each appendix addresses a particular technical subject in a reasonably self-contained fashion. Appendix A is a comparison of spent-fuel data predicted by reactor operators with measured data from reprocessors. This comparison indicates a rather high level of uncertainty in previous burnup calculations. Appendix B describes a series of nondestructive measurements at the GE-Morris Operation Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. This series of experiments successfully demonstrated a technique for reproducible positioning of fuel assemblies for nondestructive measurement. The experimental results indicate the importance of measuring the axial and angular burnup profiles of irradiated fuel assemblies for quantitative determination of spent-fuel parameters. Appendix C is a reasonably comprehensive bibliography of reports and symposia papers on spent-fuel nondestructive measurements to April 1981. Appendix D is a compendium of spent-fuel calculations that includes isotope production and depletion calculations using the EPRI-CINDER code, calculations of neutron and gamma-ray source terms, and correlations of these sources with burnup and plutonium content. Appendix E describes the pulsed-neutron technique and its potential application to spent-fuel measurements. Although not yet developed, the technique holds the promise of providing separate measurements of the uranium and plutonium fissile isotopes. Appendix F describes the experimental program and facilities at Los Alamos for the development of spent-fuel nondestructive measurement systems. Measurements are reported showing that the active neutron method is sensitive to the replacement of a single fuel rod with a dummy rod in an unirradiated uranium fuel assembly.

Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Baker, M.P.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report  

SciTech Connect

The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

Dana, W.P.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Cold Demonstration of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Transfer System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a spent nuclear fuel dry transfer system (DTS) has moved from the design phase to demonstration of major components. Use of an on-site DTS allows utilities with limited crane capacities or other plant restrictions to take advantage of large efficient storage systems. This system also permits utilities to transfer spent fuel from loaded storage casks to transport casks without returning to their fuel storage pool, a circumstance that may arise during the decommissioning process.

1999-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

255

West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

SciTech Connect

Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

257

Homeowners energy conservation and consumption behavior: wood users and non/low wood users  

SciTech Connect

Relationships among energy expenditure, energy consumption, energy-budget share, energy managerial practices, housing, and household-membership factors for non/low wood-user and high wood-user households were examined to explain substitution of fuelwood for primary fuels. Data were from a nationwide representative sample of 1599 homeowners collected by the Department of Energy in 1982-1983 Residential Energy Conservation Survey. In three multivariate regression models, different dependent variables - energy expenditure, energy consumption, and energy budget share, were used. The same independent variables - housing factors, household energy managerial practices, and household membership factors, were used in the three models. Finally, in a fourth model, discriminant analysis with the dichotomous criterion variable of non/low or high wood users and significant variables from the multivariate regressions models were used to explain 34% of the variance. The amount of space heated, their appliance use, whether they had teenage children, and if they were single-earner households were significant explanatory variables in all four models.

Urich, J.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay  

SciTech Connect

The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

259

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models  

SciTech Connect

A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed. (DLC)

Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L.; Rolland, C.W.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Prioritizing wood energy crop feedstock qualities for biofuel systems improvement  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge engineering or expert systems is needed in biofuel systems to adequately prioritize wood energy crop traits on which research and development should focus. Objectives at the various stages of the total biofuel process are clarifying the demands that will be placed on feedstock qualities. These objectives are forming more clearly from developments in the growing, handling, and conversion of wood under operational and regulatory circumstances. A process for systematic prioritization of wood qualities for possible improvement is presented in the content of the entire biofuel process.

Ranney, J.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

Gago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Av. Tupac Amaru 210, Lima 25 (Peru); Santiago, J. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470 Lima 41 (Peru); Facultad de Quimica e Ing. Quimica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima 1 (Peru); Acevedo, M. [Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima 12 (Peru)

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

263

Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

Process Control Solutions, Inc.

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

264

An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Uses and Desirable Properties of Wood in the 21st Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of commercial de- velopment is use of wood pellet fuel to pro- duce heat or electric power. Wood pellets for the pellet Figure 2. Global production of paper and paperboard and wood panels by principal (continental, and production of nano-enabled materials and products are expected to increasingly shape wood use as the 21st

266

Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

268

International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WoodFuels LLC WoodFuels LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name International WoodFuels LLC Place Portland, Maine Zip 4101 Product Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates 45.511795°, -122.675629° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":45.511795,"lon":-122.675629,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

269

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Address 473 Via Ortega Place Stanford, California Zip 94305 Region Bay Area Coordinates 37.427774°, -122.175672° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.427774,"lon":-122.175672,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

270

Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York) < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Maximum Rebate None Program Info State New York Program Type Sales Tax Incentive Rebate Amount 100% exemption Provider New York State Department of Taxation and Finance New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from local sales taxes. If a city with a population of 1 million or more chooses to grant the local exemption, it must enact a specific resolution that appears in the state law. Local sales tax rates in New York range from 1.5% to more than 4% in

271

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction (Idaho) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. Jump...

272

John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios The Future Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert John H. Wood Gary R. Long David F. Morehouse Energy Information Administration

273

Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept  

SciTech Connect

Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

Faddoul, J.R.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

DOE Joint Genome Institute: Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

February 5, 2009 Rot's Unique Wood Degrading Machinery to be Harnessed for Better Biofuels Production WALNUT CREEK, CA-An international team led by scientists from the U.S....

275

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opportunities -MDF- Market Opportunities -MDF- The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 the substrate of choice for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect

276

Signatures of surface bundles and Milnor Wood inequalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let E be a surface bundle over a surface. We use a variant of the Milnor Wood inequality to show that $|3\\sigma(E)|\\leq \\chi(E)$.

Hamenstaedt, Ursula

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Methanol synthesis gas from catalytic steam reforming of wood  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory studies were successful in developing catalyst systems and operating conditions for generation of a methanol synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Some methane remained in the gas mixture. Wood was reacted with steam at a steam-to-wood weight ratio of about 0.9 and a temperature of 750/sup 0/C (1380/sup 0/F) in the presence of several catalysts. Results are presented for two different catalyst systems.

Mudge, L.K.; Mitchell, D.H.; Robertus, R.J.; Weber, S.L.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The adoption of e-commerce for wood enterprises  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lately, the internet has become a major means in electronic commerce (e-commerce), as it offers various advantages and benefits. In Greece, there are many Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the context of the timber ... Keywords: Greece, ICT adoption, PROMETHEE II method, SMEs, e-commerce, electronic commerce, multi-criteria analysis, small and medium-sized enterprises, timber trade, web content, website ranking, wood processing, wood products

Z. S. Andreopoulou; T. Koutroumanidis; B. Manos

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Demonstration of a transportable storage system for spent nuclear fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the joint demonstration project between the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the use of a transportable storage system for the long-term storage and subsequent transport of spent nuclear fuel. SMUD's Rancho Seco nuclear generating station was shut down permanently in June 1989. After the shutdown, SMUD began planning the decommissioning process, including the disposition of the spent nuclear fuel. Concurrently, Congress had directed the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for the use of dual-purpose casks. Licensing and demonstrating a dual-purpose cask, or transportable storage system, would be a step toward achieving Congress's goal of demonstrating a technology that can be used to minimize the handling of spent nuclear fuel from the time the fuel is permanently removed from the reactor through to its ultimate disposal at a DOE facility. For SMUD, using a transportable storage system at the Rancho Seco Independent Spent-Fuel Storage Installation supports the goal of abandoning Rancho Seco's spent-fuel pool as decommissioning proceeds.

Shetler, J.R.; Miller, K.R.; Jones, R.E. (Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

The impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several utilities have made decisions to decommission nuclear plants. Other utilities are currently investigating the economic and technical feasibility of decommissioning versus continued operations. As a result, assessments are being made to determine the impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning. This assessment is being made on a comparison of wet and dry storage (including modifications to current wet storage systems). Not only are the capital and operating costs of the equipment or modifications being evaluated, but staffing levels, interference with other decommissioning activities, and the ability to eventually transfer the fuel to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all factor into the assessments. In the case of the Rancho Seco nuclear generating station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) developed three objectives related to spent-fuel disposition to support the safe and economical closure of the plant. These objectives are as follows: 1. Minimize occupational and public radiation exposure. 2. Minimize decommissioning costs, including the need to maintain the spent-fuel pool. 3. Prepare the fuel for DOE acceptance. These rather universal goals are being met for Rancho Seco through the use of a canister-based spent-fuel storage and transportation system, the NUHOMS system. This paper discusses the economic and technical impacts of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning, more specifically as it relates to the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco plant.

Bowser, R.C.; Taylor, M. Jr. (Pacific Nuclear, San Jose, CA (United States)); Miller, K.R. (Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Herald, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

CASMO-2 spent-fuel-rack criticality analysis  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, utilities have needed to increase their spent-fuel storage capacity. Both Maine Yankee pressurized water reactor (PWR) and Vermont Yankee boiling water reactor (BWR) have increased their spent-fuel rack capacity by decreasing the canister center-to-center spacing while adding fixed poison. Licensing criticality analysis of such changes in spent-fuel rack design have been performed at Yankee Atomic Electric Co. (YAEC) using NITAWL-KENO-IV and the 123-group XSDRN library. However, KENO/Monte Carlo analysis has inherent drawbacks when applied to spent-fuel rack design and modification. These include statistical uncertainty and long computer time. In contrast, the transport theory code, CASMO-2, provides deterministic and fast criticality analysis. Also, since collapsed and transport-corrected cross sections are generated, PDQ can be used to analyze large array problems which are prohibitively expensive using KENO. In this work, the authors apply the CASMO-PDQ methodology to the Maine Yankee and Vermont Yankee high-density spent-fuel rack designs, and compare the final results against KENO.

Napolitano, D.G.; Heinrichs, D.P.; Gorski, J.P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

Daniel Cullen

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

283

Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Integrated Strategy for Spent Fuel Management  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NRC's NRC's Integrated Strategy for NRC s Integrated Strategy for Spent Fuel Management Earl Easton 1 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission May 25, 2010 Road to Yucca Mountain * 20+ years of preparation for the licensing i review * DOE application received in June 2008 and accepted for review in September 2008 * President Obama pursues alternatives to Yucca Mountain * DOE motion to withdraw in March 2010 2 * DOE motion to withdraw in March 2010 * Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future 2 Growing Spent Fuel Inventory Cumulative Used Nuclear Fuel Scenarios 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Metric Tons 3 - 50,000 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Year Reference: Crozat, March 2010 Integrated Strategy * In response to the evolving national debate on spent fuel management strategy, NRC initiated a number of actions:

284

Elements present in leach solutions from unsaturated spent fuel tests  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results for the composition of the leachate from unsaturated tests at 90{degrees}C with spent fuel for 55--134 days with J-13 groundwater are reported. The pH of the leachate solutions was found to be acidic, ranging from 4 to 7. The actinide concentrations were 10{sup 5} greater than those reported for saturated spent fuel tests in which the leachate pH was 8. We also found that most species in the leachate were present as colloids containing both americium and curium. The presence of actinides in a form not currently included in repository radionuclide transport models provides information that can be used in spent fuel reaction modeling, the performance assessment of the repository and the design of the engineering barrier system. This report was prepared as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

Finn, P.A.; Bates, J.K.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W.; Hafenrichter, L.D.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

Ferrada, J.J.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

287

SEU43 fuel bundle shielding analysis during spent fuel transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The basic task accomplished by the shielding calculations in a nuclear safety analysis consist in radiation doses calculation, in order to prevent any risks both for personnel protection and impact on the environment during the spent fuel manipulation, transport and storage. The paper investigates the effects induced by fuel bundle geometry modifications on the CANDU SEU spent fuel shielding analysis during transport. For this study, different CANDU-SEU43 fuel bundle projects, developed in INR Pitesti, have been considered. The spent fuel characteristics will be obtained by means of ORIGEN-S code. In order to estimate the corresponding radiation doses for different measuring points the Monte Carlo MORSE-SGC code will be used. Both codes are included in ORNL's SCALE 5 programs package. A comparison between the considered SEU43 fuel bundle projects will be also provided, with CANDU standard fuel bundle taken as reference. (authors)

Margeanu, C. A.; Ilie, P.; Olteanu, G. [Inst. for Nuclear Research Pitesti, No. 1 Campului Street, Mioveni 115400, Arges County (Romania)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

Barbara Beller

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

Not Available

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Mission Need Statement: Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project  

SciTech Connect

Approval is requested based on the information in this Mission Need Statement for The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to develop a project in support of the mission established by the Office of Environmental Management to "complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research". DOE-ID requests approval to develop the Idaho Spent Fuel Facility Project that is required to implement the Department of Energy's decision for final disposition of spent nuclear fuel in the Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain. The capability that is required to prepare Spent Nuclear Fuel for transportation and disposal outside the State of Idaho includes characterization, conditioning, packaging, onsite interim storage, and shipping cask loading to complete shipments by January 1,2035. These capabilities do not currently exist in Idaho.

Barbara Beller

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Contesting Governance in the Global Marketplace: A Sociological Assessment of British Efforts to Build New Markets for NGO-Certified Sustainable Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towards Environmentally Sound Wood Products In the Britishof the Earth. 1995. “The Good Wood Guide. ” Friends of theRamachandra. 1990. The Unquiet Woods: Ecological Change and

McNichol, Jason

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Remote Inspection Devices for Spent Reactor Enriched Uranium Fuel Elements  

SciTech Connect

A remote video inspection was developed and deployed in Argentina for the detailed inspection of highly radioactive spent reactor fuel (SNF) as a prerequisite to its shipment to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the United States for long-term storage and disposition. The fuel is highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent assemblies dating from 1967 to 1989 and aluminum clad uranium-aluminum alloy of a typical material test reactor design. The specialized video system was designed for low cost, high portability, easy setup, and ease of usage, while accommodating the differing electrical systems (i.e. 110/60 Hz, 220/50 Hz) between the United States and Argentina.

Heckendorn, F.M.

2001-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

294

The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation  

SciTech Connect

Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies associated with spent fuel oxidation (Section 5).

Hanson, B.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA); Rosenhoover, William A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Application of Neutron-Absorbing Structural-Amorphous metal (SAM) Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance Criticality Safety Controls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal Coatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Containers: UseCoatings for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Container to Enhance2006 ABSTRACT Spent nuclear fuel contains fissionable

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Economic Analysis on Direct Use of Spent Pressurized Water Reactor Fuel in CANDU Reactors - III: Spent DUPIC Fuel Disposal Cost  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal costs of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and DUPIC fuels have been estimated based on available literature data and the engineering design of a spent CANDU fuel disposal facility by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The cost estimation was carried out by the normalization concept of total electricity generation. Therefore, the future electricity generation scale was analyzed to evaluate the appropriate capacity of the high-level waste disposal facility in Korea, which is a key parameter of the disposal cost estimation. Based on the total electricity generation scale, it is concluded that the disposal unit costs for spent CANDU natural uranium, CANDU-DUPIC, and PWR fuels are 192.3, 388.5, and 696.5 $/kg heavy element, respectively.

Ko, Won Il; Choi, Hangbok; Roh, Gyuhong; Yang, Myung Seung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

A distributed approach to accounting for carbon in wood products  

SciTech Connect

With an evolving political environment of commitments to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, and of markets to trade in emissions permits, there is growing scientific, political, and economic need to accurately evaluate carbon (C) stocks and flows especially those related to human activities. One component of the global carbon cycle that has been contentious is the stock of carbon that is physically held in harvested wood products. The carbon stored in wood products has been sometimes overlooked, but the amount of carbon contained in wood products is not trivial, it is increasing with time, and it is significant to some Parties. This paper is concerned with accurate treatment of harvested wood products in inventories of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The methodologies outlined demonstrate a flexible way to expand current methods beyond the assumption of a simple, first-order decay to include the use of more accurate and detailed data while retaining the simplicity of simple formulas. The paper demonstrates that a more accurate representation of decay time can have significant economic implications in a system where emissions are taxed or emissions permits are traded. The method can be easily applied using only data on annual production of wood products and two parameters to characterize their expected lifetime. These methods are not specific to wood products but can be applied to long-lived, carbon-containing products from sources other than wood, e.g. long-lived petrochemical products. A single unifying approach that is both simple and flexible has the potential to be both more accurate in its results, more efficient in its implementation, and economically important to some Parties.

Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Stellar, Kirk [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques NGSI Research Overview and Update on NDA Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Non-CN-184/137 Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel withthe Direct Measurement of Plutonium in Spent LWR Fuels by

A., V. Mozin, S.J. Tobin, L.W. Cambell, J.R. Cheatham, C.R. Freeman, C.J. Gesh,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Content in PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel,” European Safeguards R&Dof Plutonium in Spent Nuclear Fuel by Self-Induced X- ray,”high fissile content spent fuel. ” Nuclear Technology, 140,

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Criticality Risks During Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a best-estimate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to quantify the frequency of criticality accidents during railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel casks. The assessment is of sufficient detail to enable full scrutiny of the model logic and the basis for each quantitative parameter contributing to criticality accident scenario frequencies.

2006-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

303

Methane Recovery and Energy Generation in Spent Wash Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wastewater from distillation process has high organic content, which has to be treated to bring down the levels of COD and BOD to prescribed standards of environmental authorities. In this study, the organic wastewater from distillery also known ... Keywords: Methane recovery, spent wash, Greenhouse gases (GHG), upflow anaerobic slduge blanket (UASB), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

Wei-hua Yang; Li Wei; Sheng-nan Zhao; Jiang Dong

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Recycling and Disposal of Spent Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology has become widespread within the utility industry as a means of controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The technology uses a solid catalyst that deactivates over time; and thus significant volumes of catalyst will need regeneration, recycle, or disposal. This study examined issues related to spent catalyst recycle and disposal.

2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

305

Separator assembly for use in spent nuclear fuel shipping cask  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separator assembly for use in a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

Bucholz, James A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) Design Report Project W-518  

SciTech Connect

The SSFC Design Report Describes A spent fuel canister for Shippingport Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies. The design of the SSFC is a minor modification of the MCO. The modification is limited to the Shield Plug which remains unchanged with regard to interfaces with the canister shell. The performance characteristics remain those for the MCO, which bounds the payload of the SSFC.

JOHNSON, D.M.

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

307

Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary concepts for detecting national diversion of LWR spent fuel during storage, handling and transportation are presented. Principal emphasis is placed on means to achieve timely detection by an international authority. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security (DOE/OSS) as part of the overall Sandia Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program.

Sonnier, C.S.; Cravens, M.N.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence to Measure Plutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

09-01188, ANS Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management IV, HiltonParameter Library Spent Nuclear Fuel Transmission detector (Pu) mass in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies and to

Ludewigt, Bernhard A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

EA-0912: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent 2: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel EA-0912: Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to accept 409 spent fuel elements from eight foreign research reactors in seven European countries. The spent fuel would be shipped across the ocean in spent fuel transportation casks from the country of origin to one or more United States eastern seaboard ports. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 22, 1994 EA-0912: Finding of No Significant Impact Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel April 22, 1994 EA-0912: Final Environmental Assessment Urgent-Relief Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

311

The evolution and ecology of interspecific territoriality: Studies of Anolis lizards and North American wood-warblers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and E. Bermingham. 2002. What is a wood-warbler? Molecularmultilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revisedplayback experiments with wood warblers. Ecology 82:207-218.

Losin, Neil

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

ENERGY BUDGETS AND MASONRY HOUSES: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARATIVE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B.PERFORMANCE OF MASONRY AND WOOD-FRAME HOUSES David B. Goldsfor those studies used wood- frame construction, The energy

Goldstein, David B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

Church, Tamara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

Promnitz, Sarah

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Performance of a Treatment Loop for Recycling Spent Rinse Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of a treatment loop designed to upgrade the quality of spent rinse waters discharged from 10 wet benches located in the fab at Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory (MDL). The goal of the treatment loop is to make these waters, presently being discharged to the fab's acid waste neutralization (AWN) station, suitable for recycling as feed water back into the fab's ultrapure water (UPW) plant. The MDL typically operates 2 shifts per day, 5 days per week. Without any treatment, the properties of the spent rinse waters now being collected have been shown to be compatible with recycling about 30% (50/168) of the time (weekends primarily, when the fab is idling) which corresponds to about 12% of the present water discharged from the fab to the AWN. The primary goal of adding a treatment loop is to increase the percentage of recyclable water from these 10 wet benches to near 100%, increasing the percentage of total recyclable water to near 40% of the total present fab discharge to the AWN. A second goal is to demonstrate compatibility with recycling this treated spent rinse water to the present R/O product water tank, reducing both the present volume of R/O reject water and the present load on the R/O. The approach taken to demonstrate achieving these goals is to compare all the common metrics of water quality for the treated spent rinse waters with those of the present R/O product water. Showing that the treated rinse water is equal or superior in quality to the water presently stored in the R/O tank by every metric all the time is assumed to be sufficient argument for proceeding with plans to incorporate recycling of these spent rinse waters back into MDL's R/O tank.

DONOVAN,ROBERT PATRICK; TIMON,ROBERT P.; DEBUSK,MICHAEL JOHN; JONES,RONALD V.; ROGERS,DARELL M.

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Overview of the spent nuclear fuel project at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project`s mission at Hanford is to {open_quotes}Provide safe, economic and environmentally sound management of Hanford spent nuclear fuel in a manner which stages it to final disposition.{close_quotes} The inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site covers a wide variety of fuel types (production reactor to space reactor) in many facilities (reactor fuel basins to hot cells) at locations all over the Site. The 2,129 metric tons of Hanford SNF represents about 80% of the total US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. About 98.5% of the Hanford SNF is 2,100 metric tons of metallic uranium production reactor fuel currently stored in the 1950s vintage K Basins in the 100 Area. This fuel has been slowly corroding, generating sludge and contaminating the basin water. This condition, coupled with aging facilities with seismic vulnerabilities, has been identified by several groups, including stakeholders, as being one of the most urgent safety and environmental concerns at the Hanford Site. As a direct result of these concerns, the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project was recently formed to address spent fuel issues at Hanford. The Project has developed the K Basins Path Forward to remove fuel from the basins and place it in dry interim storage. Alternatives that addressed the requirements were developed and analyzed. The result is a two-phased approach allowing the early removal of fuel from the K Basins followed by its stabilization and interim storage consistent with the national program.

Daily, J.L. [Dept. of Energy, Richland, WA (United States). Richland Operations Office; Fulton, J.C.; Gerber, E.W.; Culley, G.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia  

SciTech Connect

Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Locations of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Map of the United States of America showing the locations of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

320

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc Place Ohio Utility Id 8034 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Farm Service-R-107 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207 Commercial Farm Sevice R-207(Transformer Capacity in Excess of 25kVA) Commercial LPS Rate 12 (Mainland) Industrial LPS Rate 12KI (Kelleys Island) Industrial NR Rate GS-8KI (Kelleys Island) Commercial NR Rate GS-8M (Mainland) Commercial NR Rate GS-9KI - Kelleys Island Over 25 kW Commercial

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area New Zealand (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location International Geothermal Area New Zealand Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley

322

Hogged Wood Fuel Supply and Price Analysis : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study discusses the factors that determine the supply and demand for hogged wood in the Pacific Northwest, with particular emphasis on the role of the regional pulp and paper industry and lumber industry. Because hogged wood is often a substitute for conventional fuels, the consumption and price of natural gas, electricity, fuel oil and coal are also addressed. A detailed and comprehensive examination of the indicies relating to the hogged wood market is provided, including analysis and graphing of all time series variables. A spreadsheet- based forecasting model is developed and presented with an emphasis on explaining the process used to arrive at the final model. 42 refs., 46 figs., 14 tabs. (MHB)

Biederman, Richard T.; Blazek, Christopher F.

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Wood for energy and rural development: the Philippine experience  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Philippine wood energy programme (dendro-thermal system) was originally developed as a source of energy independent of imported oil, and at a lower cost than oil. It has social benefits: new jobs, land distribution, rural income increment, and reforestation by tree farmers. Tree farming, its administration and organization of farmer institutions are essential to the programme, as are the development of farming techniques to produce energy, trees (growth of ipil-ipil), and an improved tree growth rate. An analysis of the economics of wood energy led to the conclusion that raw wood fuel can be cheaper than oil. In estimated costs of electricity, the dendro-thermal plants can produce power at competitive rates. 36 references.

Denton, F.H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area Exploration Technique Water Sampling Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geothermal fluids from hot springs and wells have been sampled from a number of locations, including: 1) the North Island of New Zealand (three sets of samples from three different years) and the South Island of New Zealand (1 set of samples); 2) the Cascades of Oregon; 3) the Harney, Alvord Desert and Owyhee geothermal areas of Oregon; 4) the Dixie Valley and Beowawe fields in Nevada; 5) Palinpiiion, the Philippines; 6) the Salton Sea and Heber geothermal fields of southern California; and 7) the

325

Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

326

Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air  

SciTech Connect

The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland) < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Bioenergy Program Info Start Date 09/07/2012 State Maryland Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Stick Burning Stove: $500 Pellet Burning Stove: $700 The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program offers a flat grant award of $500 for stick burning wood stoves and $700 for pellet burning wood stoves that meet program eligibility requirements. Basic requirements for grant funding include: *The property must serve as primary residence *Clean burning wood stove must replace existing electric or non-natural gas

328

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program Eligibility Multi-Family Residential...

329

Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department: School of Renewable Natural Resources Mailing Address: 107 Renewable-Natural-Resources Building Louisiana Forest Products Development Center (LFPDC) School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite

330

Assessment of existing feuds data base for identification of potential industrial wood users in North Carolina  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The North Carolina Wood Assistance Team's evaluation of the Ultrasystems' computerized methodology for identifying high potential wood conversion facilities is presented. The analysis, methodology, and data are found to be inadequate for the intended use.

Gustashaw, D.H.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid...

332

EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Summary This...

333

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment VIII. The wood-fueled gasification system, Evergreen Energy Corporation's final engineering report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evergreen Energy Corporation provided projected cost and operating data on the Evergreen/Texaco entrained-bed wood gasification system currently under development as an alternative to the state-of-the-art fixed-bed wood gasification system proposed by Davy McKee. Overall capital costs for the total plant remain about the same at approx. $250 million. The Evergreen/Texaco system will provide significant capital cost savings in the gasifiers, gas cleanup, and waste water treatment sections, and eliminate the need for a large off-site wood-fired power boiler. These reductions are offset by higher investments in the feedstock preparation, drying, and feeding section plus the need for a larger air separation plant and compressor to supply oxygen at high pressure to the gasifier.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures (Optimized for Electronic Viewing)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Field Guide: Visual Inspection of Wood Structures is a catalog of photographs illustrating various conditions and factors that commonly affect transmission line wood structures, along with their likely causes, a Maintenance Priority Rating, and suggested actions to be taken by utility personnel. Poles, cross-arms, cross-arm braces, X-braces, brackets, anchor rods, guy wires, and direct imbedded foundations are covered. Other sections include types of wood structures, the anatomy of wood ...

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

335

Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania International Wood Energy Market Developments Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva #12;Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania Subjects I

337

Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is supported by the Danish Government. One of the main barriers for extension of wood pellet production is lack1 Development of Wood Chips and Pellets market in Slovakia Jozef Viglasky, SK-BIOM, Slovakia-combustion of wood residues in existing coal fired power systems. #12;3 · Implementation of low cost anaerobic

338

Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.S. Geological Survey #12;Front Cover: Aerial view of the lower Wood River Valley showing the Wood River Wetland.S. Geological Survey, January 2003. #12;Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood­5004 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey #12;U.S. Department of the Interior KEN

339

Discrimination of bark from wood chips through texture analysis by image processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilization of wood chips for bioenergy requires classification and segregation of the constituents of the chipped mass to help optimize energy conversion. Wood chips obtained from processes such as forest thinning can contain a considerable amount of ... Keywords: Bark, Biomass, Image processing, Texture analysis, Wood chip

James R. Wooten; S. D. Filip To; C. Igathinathane; L. O. Pordesimo

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Spent fuel utilization in a compact traveling wave reactor  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, several innovative designs of nuclear reactors are proposed. One of them is Traveling Wave Reactor (TWR). The unique characteristic of a TWR is the capability of breeding its own fuel in the reactor. The reactor is fueled by mostly depleted, natural uranium or spent nuclear fuel and a small amount of enriched uranium to initiate the fission process. Later on in the core, the reactor gradually converts the non-fissile material into the fissile in a process like a traveling wave. In this work, a TWR with spent nuclear fuel blanket was studied. Several parameters such as reactivity coefficients, delayed neutron fraction, prompt neutron generation lifetime, and fission power, were analyzed. The discharge burnup composition was also analyzed. The calculation is performed by a continuous energy Monte Carlo code McCARD.

Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yonghee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 373-1 Kusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

342

Removal of arsenic compounds from spent catecholated polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on nuclear waste and the contents of Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy.

Jonkmans, G; Jewett, C; Thompson, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

Heckman, Richard A. (Castro Valley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Microscopic Examination of a Corrosion Front in Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent uranium oxide nuclear fuel hosts a variety of trace chemical constituents, many of which must be sequestered from the biosphere during fuel storage and disposal. In this paper we present synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and microscopy findings that illuminate the resultant local chemistry of neptunium and plutonium within spent uranium oxide nuclear fuel before and after corrosive alteration in an air-saturated aqueous environment. We find the plutonium and neptunium in unaltered spent fuel to have a +4 oxidation state and an environment consistent with solid-solution in the UO{sub 2} matrix. During corrosion in an air-saturated aqueous environment, the uranium matrix is converted to uranyl U(VI)O{sub 2}{sup 2+} mineral assemblage that is depleted in plutonium and neptunium relative to the parent fuel. At the corrosion front interface between intact fuel and the uranyl-mineral corrosion layer, we find evidence of a thin ({approx}20 micrometer) layer that is enriched in plutonium and neptunium within a predominantly U{sup 4+} environment. Available data for the standard reduction potentials for NpO{sup 2+}/Np{sup 4+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/U{sup 4+} couples indicate that Np(IV) may not be effectively oxidized to Np(V) at the corrosion potentials of uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel in air-saturated aqueous solutions. Neptunium is an important radionuclide in dose contribution according to performance assessment models of the proposed U. S. repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A scientific understanding of how the UO{sub 2} matrix of spent nuclear fuel impacts the oxidative dissolution and reductive precipitation of neptunium is needed to predict its behavior at the fuel surface during aqueous corrosion. Neptunium would most likely be transported as aqueous Np(V) species, but for this to occur it must first be oxidized from the Np(IV) state found within the parent spent nuclear fuel [1]. In the immediate vicinity of the spent fuel's surface the redox and nucleation behavior is likely to promote/enhance nucleation of NpO{sub 2} and Np{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Alternatively, Np may be incorporated into uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) alteration phases [2]. In some cases, less-soluble elements such as plutonium will be enriched near the surface of the corroding fuel [3]. We have used focused synchrotron x-rays from the MRCAT beam line at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Lab to examine a specimen of spent nuclear fuel that had been subject to 10 years of corrosion testing in an environment of humid air and dripping groundwater at 90 C [4]. We find evidence of a region, approximately 20 microns in thickness, enriched in plutonium and neptunium at the corrosion front that exists between the uranyl silicate alteration mineral rind and the unaltered uranium oxide fuel (Figures 1 and 2). The uranyl silicate is itself found to be depleted in these transuranic elements relative to their abundance relative to uranium in the parent fuel. This suggests a low mobility of these components owing to a resistance to oxidize further in the presence of a UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}/U{sup 4+} couple [5].

J.A> Fortner; A.J. Kropf; R.J. Finch; J.C. Cunnane

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

346

Prototype spent-fuel canister design, analysis, and test  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories was asked by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (now US Department of Energy) to design the spent fuel shipping cask system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). As a part of this task, a canister which holds liquid sodium and the spent fuel assembly was designed, analyzed, and tested. The canister body survived the regulatory Type-B 9.1-m (30-ft) drop test with no apparent leakage. However, the commercially available metal seal used in this design leaked after the tests. This report describes the design approach, analysis, and prototype canister testing. Recommended work for completing the design, when funding is available, is included.

Leisher, W.B.; Eakes, R.G.; Duffey, T.A.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

Lee, S.Y.

1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

348

Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear 306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 19, 2000 EIS-0306: Record of Decision Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 2000 EIS-0306: Final Environmental Impact Statement Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 1999 EIS-0306: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Treatment of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

350

Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel disposal Container System Description Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers/waste packages are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred underground through the access drifts using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides long term confinement of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) placed within the disposal containers, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval operations. The Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time and limits radionuclide release thereafter. The waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum credible handling and rockfall loads, limits the waste form temperature after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Each naval SNF disposal container will hold a single naval SNF canister. There will be approximately 300 naval SNF canisters, composed of long and short canisters. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinder walls and lids. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify a disposal container and its contents. Different materials will be selected for the waste package inner and outer cylinders. The two metal cylinders, in combination with the Emplacement Drift System, drip shield, and the natural barrier will support the design philosophy of defense-in-depth. The use of materials with different properties prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The inner cylinder and inner cylinder lids will be constructed of stainless steel while the outer cylinder and outer cylinder lids will be made of high-nickel alloy.

N. E. Pettit

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Time to 4% hydrogen within the Shippingport spent fuel canisters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A calculation was performed to determine the time necessary for the hydrogen concentration within the Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) to reach 4%. The SSFC was assumed to be loaded with 4 fuel assemblies, each irradiated to 24,600 Mwd/MTU, and containing 2.49 L of water (conservative calculation of water remaining after one hour of drip drying). The time was found to range from 1386 days to 3540 days.

MARUSICH, R.M.; RITTMANN, P.D.

2001-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

352

Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements  

SciTech Connect

In 1998, a major change in the technical strategy for managing Multi Canister Overpacks (MCO) while stored within the Canister Storage Building (CSB) occurred. The technical strategy is documented in Baseline Change Request (BCR) No. SNF-98-006, Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing) (FDH 1998). This BCR deleted the hot conditioning process initially adopted for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) as documented in WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel (WHC 199.5). In summary, MCOs containing Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from K Basins would be placed in interim storage following processing through the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) facility. With this change, the needs for the Hot Conditioning System (HCS) and inerting/pressure retaining capabilities of the CSB storage tubes and the MCO Handling Machine (MHM) were eliminated. Mechanical seals will be used on the MCOs prior to transport to the CSB. Covers will be welded on the MCOs for the final seal at the CSB. Approval of BCR No. SNF-98-006, imposed the need to review and update the CSB functions and requirements baseline documented herein including changing the document title to ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Canister Storage Building Functions and Requirements.'' This revision aligns the functions and requirements baseline with the CSB Simplified SNF Project Baseline (MCO Sealing). This document represents the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Subproject technical baseline. It establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the CSB Subproject. The document is organized in eight sections. Sections 1.0 Introduction and 2.0 Overview provide brief introductions to the document and the CSB Subproject. Sections 3.0 Functions, 4.0 Requirements, 5.0 Architecture, and 6.0 Interfaces provide the data described by their titles. Section 7.0 Glossary lists the acronyms and defines the terms used in this document. Section 8.0 References lists the references used for this document.

KLEM, M.J.

2000-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

SPENT FUEL TRANSFER, STORAGE AND SHIPMENT FOR PL-3  

SciTech Connect

In refueling development studies performed on PL-3 Phase I design, several methods of fuel transfer, storage, and shipment were investigated. An evaluation of the relative merits of the systems and designs under study, as applied to either the BWR or PWR concepts, is made and optimum designs are selected. An analysis of spent fuel shipping cask shielding requirements is presented, along with recommendations for future study in this area. (auth)

Hauenstein, G.C.; Pomeroy, D.L.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Criticality Risks During Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a best-estimate probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to quantify the frequency of criticality accidents during railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel casks. The assessment is of sufficient detail to enable full scrutiny of the model logic and the basis for each quantitative parameter contributing to criticality accident scenario frequencies. The report takes into account the results of a 2007 peer review of the initial version of this probabilistic risk assessment, which was pu...

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

355

Baseline descriptions for LWR spent fuel storage, handling, and transportation  

SciTech Connect

Baseline descriptions for the storage, handling, and transportation of reactor spent fuel are provided. The storage modes described include light water reactor (LWR) pools, away-from-reactor basins, dry surface storage, reprocessing-facility interim storage pools, and deep geologic storage. Land and water transportation are also discussed. This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Office of Safeguards and Security as part of the Sandia Laboratories Fixed Facility Physical Protection Program. 45 figs, 4 tables.

Moyer, J.W.; Sonnier, C.S.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Burnup Credit — Technical Basis for Spent-Fuel Burnup Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present regulatory practices provide as much burnup credit flexibility as can be currently expected. Further progress is achievable by incorporating the negative reactivity effects of a subset of neutron-absorbing fission-product isotopes, and by optimizing the procedural approach for establishing the burnup characteristics of the spent fuel to be loaded in burnup-credit-designed storage and transportation systems. This report describes progress toward developing a technical basis for a cost-effective bu...

2003-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

357

Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Woods Hole Research Center Developer Sustainable Energy Developments Energy Purchaser Woods Hole Research Center Location Falmouth MA Coordinates 41.548637°, -70.64326° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.548637,"lon":-70.64326,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

358

Wood Waste -A Modern Fuel M. A. SERRELL, P. E.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, designed like the vanes of a fan WOOD BO'LER SACK r-v'"",", __--J DAMF[R · I ... .... .... .... ... ... FAN and provides automatic steam generation on an unattended basis. A flyash arrestor with induced draft fan fashioned boiler design where the boiler shell is pierced by a number of longitudinal fire tubes which run

Columbia University

359

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Short rotation wood crops program: Annual progress report for 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes accomplishments in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) for the year ending September 30, 1986. The program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division and consists of research projects at 29 institutions and corporations. The SRWCP is an integrated program of research and development devoted to a single objective: improving the productivity, cost efficiency, and fuel quality of wood energy crops as feedstocks for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels. SRWCP directives have shifted from species-screening and productivity evaluations to large-scale viability trials of model species selected for their productivity potential and environmental compatibility. Populus was chosen the lead genera of five model species, and initial steps were taken toward organizing a Populus Research Consortium. Production yields from SRWCP research plots and coppice studies are discussed along with new efforts to model growth results and characteristics on a tree and stand basis. Structural and chemical properties of short-rotation intensive culture wood have been evaluated to determine the desirability of species traits and the potential for genetic improvements. Innovative wood energy crop handling techniques are presented as significant cost reduction measures. The conclusion is that new specialized wood energy crops can be feasible with the advances that appear technically possible over the next 10 years. 34 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.; Layton, P.A.; McNabb, W.A.; Wenzel, C.R.; Curtin, D.T.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Point, NC, 27261, USA Tel.: (336) 841 8535 Fax.: (336) 841 5435 151 Randall St. Oakville, ON Canada, L6J SituationThe Situation As global populations continue to grow, the demand for wood products will increase in: Cultures Technology Infrastructure #12;Demand: Overall ClimateDemand: Overal

362

Temperature Measurements in Full-Scale Wood Stud Shear Walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 10 full-scale fire resistance tests conducted at the National Fire Laboratory on load-bearing gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies with and without resilient channels on the fire-exposed side. The two assembly arrangements studied were: symmetrical installation 1x1 (one layer of gypsum board on each of the exposed and unexposed sides) and asymmetrical installation of the shear membrane (one layer of gypsum board on both the exposed and unexposed sides and a shear wall membrane as a base layer alternating between the exposed (2x1) and unexposed sides (1x2)) on a wood stud frame. The gypsum board was 12.7 mm thick Type X. The insulations used were glass and rock fibres. The shear membranes used were plywood and oriented strand board (OSB). Tests were conducted to determine the effects of the placement of the shear membrane on the exposed/unexposed face, type of shear membrane, insulation type, load intensity and resilient channel installations on the fire resistance of gypsum board protected, wood stud shear wall assemblies. Details of the results, including the temperatures and deflections measured during the fire tests, are presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research is part of a consortium project on the fire resistance and sound performance of wall assemblies - Phase II, among the following partners: . Canadian Wood Council . Canadian Home Builders Association . Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute . Gypsum Manufacturers of Canada . Owens-Corning Canada . Roxul Inc.

V. K. R. Sultan; M. A. Denham; V. K. R. Kodur; M. A. Sultan; E. M. A. Denham; Canadian Wood Council; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls; Shear Walls

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the State of Louisiana. In addition, because the origin of material purchased from in-state suppliers cannot of the development of buying or manufacturing cooperatives that could create purchasing and sales/marketing leverage Secondary Wood Product Manufacturers Number of Employees by Establishment (Percent of respondent companies

364

Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective  

SciTech Connect

This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood Conference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, For decades chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was the primary preservative for treated wood used in residential construction. However, recent label changes submitted by CCA registrants will withdraw CCA from most residential applications. This action has increased interest in arsenic-free preservative systems that have been standardized by the American Wood Preservers ’ Association. These include acid copper chromate (ACC), alkaline copper quat (ACQ), copper azole (CBA-A and CA-B), copper citrate (CC), copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC), and copper HDO (CX-A). All of these CCA alternatives rely on copper as their primary biocide, although some have co-biocides to help prevent attack by copper-tolerant fungi. They have appearance and handling properties similar to CCA and are likely to be readily accepted by consumers. Prior studies indicate that these CCA alternatives release preservative components into the environment at a rate greater than or equal to that of CCA, but because these components have lower mammalian toxicity they are less likely to cause concern in residential applications. As the treated wood industry evolves it is probable that a wider range of types and retentions of wood preservatives will become available, with the treatment more closely tailored to a specific type of construction application.

Stan Lebow

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; Vlosky 2002 #12;s The first MDF plant started up four years ago and now there are 3 or 4, so furniture for exotic wood veneer layup. Pressing veneer on MDF will give the most defect-free, flat and smooth surface

370

Scattering of Woods-Saxon Potential in Schrodinger Equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The scattering solutions of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation for the Woods-Saxon potential are obtained within the position-dependent mass formalism. The wave functions, transmission and reflection coefficients are calculated in terms of Heun's function. These results are also studied for the constant mass case in detail.

Altug Arda; Oktay Aydogdu; Ramazan Sever

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

Mitigation for the Endangered Wood Stork on Savannah River Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The wood stork is a recently classified federally endangered species. The species forages throughout the facility. The facility impact was mitigated by replacing the affected area with artificially created impoundment. Studies conducted in conjunction with the mitigation have assisted with the recovery effort for this species.

Bryan, A.L.; Coulter, M.C.; Brisbin, I.L.

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Management of Spent and Disused Radiation Sources - The Zambian Experience  

SciTech Connect

Zambia like all other countries in the world is faced with environmental problems brought about by a variety of human activities. In Zambia the major environmental issues as identified by Nation Environmental Action Plan (NEAP) of 1994 are water pollution, poor sanitation, land degradation, air pollution, poor waste management, misuse of chemicals, wildlife depletion and deforestation. Zambian has been using a lot of radioactive materials in its various industries. The country has taken several projects with help of external partners. These partners however left these projects in the hands of the Zambians without developing their capacities to manage these radioactive sources. The Government recognized the need to manage these sources and passed legislation governing the management of radioactive materials. The first act of Parliament on Radiation Protection work was passed in 1975 to legislate the use of ionizing radiation. However, because of financial constraints the Country is facing, these regulations have remained unimplemented. Fortunately the international Community has been working in partnership with the Zambian Government in the Management of Radioactive Material. Therefore this paper will present the following aspects of radioactive waste management in Zambia: review Existing Legislation in Zambia regarding management of spent/radioactive sources; capacity building in the field of management of radioactive waste; management of spent and disused radiation sources; existing disposal systems in Zambia regarding spent/orphaned sources; existing stocks of radioactive sources in the Zambian industries.

Chabala, F.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

373

Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material: ATM-106  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material (ATM)-106 spent fuel from Assembly BT03 of pressurized-water reactor Calvert Cliffs No. 1. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well- characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCWRM) program. ATM-106 consists of 20 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 3700 GJ/kgM (43 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of /approximately/10%. Characterization data include (1) as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (6) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel rod are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report. 12 refs., 110 figs., 81 tabs.

Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104  

SciTech Connect

The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

377

Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent  

SciTech Connect

The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B. [Grupo de Polimeros, Dpto. de Fisica, E.U.P. Ferrol, Universidad de A Coruna, Avda. 19 de Febrero s/n, 15405 Ferrol (Spain)

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

378

Feasibility of x ray fluorescence for spent fuel safeguards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantifying the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel is necessary for many reasons, in particular to verify that diversion or other illicit activities have not occurred. Therefore, safeguarding the world's nuclear fuel is paramount to responsible nuclear regulation and public acceptance, but achieving this goal presents many difficulties from both a technical and economic perspective. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of NA-24 is funding a large collaborative effort between multiple laboratories and universities to improve spent nuclear fuel safeguards methods and equipment. This effort involves the current work of modeling several different nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques. Several are being researched, because no single NDA technique, in isolation, has the potential to properly characterize fuel assemblies and offer a robust safeguards measure. The insights gained from this research, will be used to down-select from the original set a few of the most promising techniques that complement each other. The goal is to integrate the selected instruments to create an accurate measurement system for fuel verification that is also robust enough to detect diversions. These instruments will be fabricated and tested under realistic conditions. This work examines one of the NDA techniques; the feasibility of using x ray emission peaks from Pu and U to gather information about their relative quantities in the spent fuel. X Ray Fluorescence (XRF), is unique compared to the investigated techniques in that it is the only one able to give the elemental ratio of Pu to U, allowing the possibility of a Pu gram quantity for the assembly to be calculated. XRF also presents many challenges, mainly its low penetration, since the low energy x rays of interest are effectively shielded by the first few millimeters of a fuel pin. This paper will explore the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code calculations of spent fuel x ray peaks. The MCNPX simulations will be benchmarked against measurements taken at Oak Ridge. Analysis of the feasibility of XRFs role in spent nuclear fuel safeguards efforts, particularly in the context of the overall NGSI effort will be discussed.

Freeman, Corey Ross [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, Julia M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, Alissa [TAMU; Charlton, William [TAMU

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Spent fuel assembly hardware: Characterization and 10 CFR 61 classification for waste disposal: Volume 1, Activation measurements and comparison with calculations for spent fuel assembly hardware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consolidation of spent fuel is under active consideration as the US Department of Energy plans to dispose of spent fuel. During consolidation, the fuel pins are removed from an intact fuel assembly and repackaged into a more compact configuration. After repackaging, approximately 30 kg of residual spent fuel assembly hardware per assembly remains that is also radioactive and requires disposal. Understanding the nature of this secondary waste stream is critical to designing a system that will properly handle, package, store, and dispose of the waste. This report presents a methodology for estimating the radionuclide inventory in irradiated spent fuel hardware. Ratios are developed that allow the use of ORIGEN2 computer code calculations to be applied to regions that are outside the fueled region. The ratios are based on the analysis of samples of irradiated hardware from spent fuel assemblies. The results of this research are presented in three volumes. In Volume 1, the development of scaling factors that can be used with ORIGEN2 calculations to estimate activation of spent fuel assembly hardware is documented. The results from laboratory analysis of irradiated spent-fuel hardware samples are also presented in Volume 1. In Volumes 2 and 3, the calculated flux profiles of spent nuclear fuel assemblies are presented for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors, respectively. The results presented in Volumes 2 and 3 were used to develop the scaling factors documented in Volume 1. 5 refs., 4 figs., 21 tabs.

Luksic, A.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Technical and economic review of wood energy systems for military bases  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report combines two reports dealing with industrial-sized wood combustion technology. As part of its industrial wood combustion effort, SERI's former Industrial Applications and Analysis Branch (IAAB) contracted with the Air Force through the Department of Energy (DOE) to review wood fuels and equipment and to perform an economic sensitivity analysis of small-scale industrial-sized wood combustion investments that might be considered for steam and/or electricity generation at Air Force Bases. Additionally, in 1979, SERI's IAAB contracted with North Carolina State University to produce the Decision Makers' Guide to Wood Fuel for Small Industrial Energy Use. These two reports have been combined to provide the Air Force with a comprehensive guide to wood energy combustion. Discussion is presented under the headings: comparison of wood fuels with conventional boiler fuels; densified biomass; fuel storage; fuel handling and preparation; wood-fired equipment; gasification of wood; retrofitting fossil-fuel boilers; cogeneration; pollution abatement; wood energy system economics and procurement of wood fuels. (DMC)

Flowers, L.; Junge, D.; Levi, M.; O'Grady, M.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip November 3, 2011 - 11:19am Addthis This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School Alice Dasek Project Officer, Department of Energy State Energy Program

382

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip November 3, 2011 - 11:19am Addthis This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School This is the North Country School's 32,000-square-foot main building. Aligning with the school's commitment to a simple, sustainable lifestyle, the school is heated with a wood chip boiler that uses wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests. | Courtesy of North Country School Alice Dasek Project Officer, Department of Energy State Energy Program

383

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

James T. Cobb Jr.

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

sup_elec.xls  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

gas, and blast furnace gas for utilities; and hydrogen, sulfur, batteries, chemicals, fish oil, and spent sulfite liquor. 4 Includes conventional hydroelectric, geothermal,...

385

Waste management plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel characterization activities  

SciTech Connect

A joint project was initiated between Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to address critical issues associated with the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) stored at the Hanford Site. Recently, particular attention has been given to remediation of the SNF stored in the K Basins. A waste management plan (WMP) acceptable to both parties is required prior to the movement of selected material to the PNL facilities for examination. N Reactor and Single Pass Reactor (SPR) fuel has been stored for an extended period of time in the N Reactor, PUREX, K-East, and K-West Basins. Characterization plans call for transport of fuel material form the K Basins to the 327 Building Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL) in the 300 Area for examination. However, PNL received a directive stating that no examination work will be started in PNL hot cell laboratories without an approved disposal route for all waste generated related to the activity. Thus, as part of the Characterization Program Management Plan for Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel, a waste management plan which will ensure that wastes generated as a result of characterization activities conducted at PNL will be accepted by WHC for disposition is required. This document contains the details of the waste handling plan that utilizes, to the greatest extent possible, established waste handling and disposal practices at Hanford between PNL and WHC. Standard practices are sufficient to provides for disposal of most of the waste materials, however, special consideration must be given to the remnants of spent nuclear fuel elements following examination. Fuel element remnants will be repackaged in an acceptable container such as the single element canister and returned to the K Basins for storage.

Chastain, S.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Spinks, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

386

National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This is the first National Report prepared under the terms of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Managementi hereafter referred to as the "Joint Convention". This report satisfies the requirements of the Joint Convention for reporting on the status of safety at spent fuel and radioactive waste management facilities within the United States of America (U.S.). National Report Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management - May 2003

387

EIS-0245: Management of Spent Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site -  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

245: Management of Spent Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford 245: Management of Spent Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site - Supplement Analysis, Richland, Washington EIS-0245: Management of Spent Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site - Supplement Analysis, Richland, Washington Overview Overview to be provided. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download August 15, 2011 EIS-0245-SA-03: Supplement Analysis Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington August 1, 2001 EIS-0245-SA-02: Supplement Analysis Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington August 1, 1998 EIS-0245-SA-01: Supplement Analysis Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel from the K Basins at the Hanford Site,

388

EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Services » Waste Management » Nuclear Materials & Waste » EM Services » Waste Management » Nuclear Materials & Waste » EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel EM Safely and Efficiently Manages Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry storage casks at Idaho National Laboratory can safely house spent nuclear fuel for decades. Dry storage casks at Idaho National Laboratory can safely house spent nuclear fuel for decades. EM's mission is to safely and efficiently manage its spent nuclear fuel and prepare it for disposal in a geologic repository. Previously, the Office of Environmental Management's (EM) mission had included the safe and efficient management of its spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and preparation for its disposal in a geologic repository. However, in May 2009, the planned geologic repository at Yucca Mountain was cancelled. The

389

Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.4805913°, -83.1668713° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.4805913,"lon":-83.1668713,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

390

Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555°, -74.0879195° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.8456555,"lon":-74.0879195,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

391

Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Woods, Florida: Energy Resources Woods, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 28.3855632°, -81.366459° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":28.3855632,"lon":-81.366459,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

392

Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 39.0350053°, -94.6085677° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.0350053,"lon":-94.6085677,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

393

Spent nuclear fuel storage -- Performance tests and demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of heat transfer and shielding performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1992 by or in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loadings, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. A description of the test plan, spent fuel load patterns, results from temperature and dose rate measurements, and fuel integrity evaluations are contained within the report.

McKinnon, M.A.; DeLoach, V.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

TRAWINSKI, B.J.

2000-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and non-volatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in a separation vessel made of a carbon-containing material. A first catalyst, which promotes the solubility and permeability of carbon in the metal solvent, is included. By increasing the solubility and permeability of the carbon in the solvent, the rate at which actinide oxides are reduced (carbothermic reduction) is greatly increased. A second catalyst, included to increase the affinity for nitrogen in the metal solvent, is added to increase the rate at which actinide nitrides form after carbothermic reduction is complete.

Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Grens, John Z. (Livermore, CA); Parrish, Sr., William H. (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method for reprocessing and separating spent nuclear fuels. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuels, including actinide fuels, volatile and nonvolatile fission products, are reprocessed and separated in a molten metal solvent housed in a separation vessel made of a carbon-containing material. A first catalyst, which promotes the solubility and permeability of carbon in the metal solvent, is included. By increasing the solubility and permeability of the carbon in the solvent, the rate at which actinide oxides are reduced (carbothermic reduction) is greatly increased. A second catalyst, included to increase the affinity for nitrogen in the metal solvent, is added to increase the rate at which actinide nitrides form after carbothermic reduction is complete.

Krikorian, O.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Parrish, W.H. Sr.

1982-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

397

Closure Mechanism and Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel Canisters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A canister is provided for storing, transporting, and/or disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The canister includes a canister shell, a top shield plug disposed within the canister, and a leak-tight closure arrangement. The closure arrangement includes a shear ring which forms a containment boundary of the canister, and which is welded to the canister shell and top shield plug. An outer seal plate, forming an outer seal, is disposed above the shear ring and is welded to the shield plug and the canister.

Doman, Marvin J.

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

398

APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF SPENT FUEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advancements in technology have opened many opportunities to improve upon the current infrastructure surrounding the nuclear fuel cycle. Embedded devices, very small sensors, and wireless technology can be applied to Security, Safety, and Nonproliferation of Spent Nuclear Fuel. Security, separate of current video monitoring systems, can be improved by integrating current wireless technology with a variety of sensors including motion detection, altimeter, accelerometer, and a tagging system. By continually monitoring these sensors, thresholds can be set to sense deviations from nominal values. Then alarms or notifications can be activated as needed. Safety can be improved in several ways. First, human exposure to ionizing radiation can be reduced by using a wireless sensor package on each spent fuel cask to monitor radiation, temperature, humidity, etc. Since the sensor data is monitored remotely operator stay-time is decreased and distance from the spent fuel increased, so the overall radiation exposure is reduced as compared to visual inspections. The second improvement is the ability to monitor continuously rather than periodically. If changes occur to the material, alarm thresholds could be set and notifications made to provide advanced notice of negative data trends. These sensor packages could also record data to be used for scientific evaluation and studies to improve transportation and storage safety. Nonproliferation can be improved for spent fuel transportation and storage by designing an integrated tag that uses current infrastructure for reporting and in an event; tracking can be accomplished using the Iridium satellite system. This technology is similar to GPS but with higher signal strength and penetration power, but lower accuracy. A sensor package can integrate all or some of the above depending on the transportation and storage requirements and regulations. A sensor package can be developed using off the shelf technology and applying it to each specific need. There are products on the market for smart meters, industrial lighting control and home automation that can be applied to the Back End Fuel Cycle. With a little integration and innovation a cost effective solution is achievable.

Drayer, R.

2013-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evaluation of a Spent Fuel Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submitted a license application to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the construction of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The license application was accepted for formal NRC review in September 2008. Throughout the more than 20-year history of the Yucca Mountain project, EPRI has performed independent assessments of key technical and scientific issues t...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

400

Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spent nuclear fuel, essentially U{sub 2}, accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity of all of the radioactive wastes in the United States that require disposal, disposition or remediation. The UO{sub 2} in SNF is not stable under oxiding conditions and may also be altered under reducing conditions. The alteration of SNF results in the formation of new uranium phases that can cause the release or retardation of actinide and fission product radionuclides. Over the long term, and depending on the extent to which the secondary uranium phases incorporate fission products and actinides, these alteration phases become the near-field source term.

Rodney C. Ewing

2004-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Closure mechanism and method for spent nuclear fuel canisters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A canister is provided for storing, transporting, and/or disposing of spent nuclear fuel. The canister includes a canister shell, a top shield plug disposed within the canister, and a leak-tight closure arrangement. The closure arrangement includes a shear ring which forms a containment boundary of the canister, and which is welded to the canister shell and top shield plug. An outer seal plate, forming an outer seal, is disposed above the shear ring and is welded to the shield plug and the canister.

Doman, Marvin J. (Monroeville, PA)

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

403

Compact approach to monitored retrievable storage of spent fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent federal waste-management legislation has raised national interest in monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of unprocessed spent fuel from civilian nuclear power plants. We have reviewed the current MRS design approaches, and we have examined an alternative concept that is extremely compact in terms of total land use. This approach may offer substantial advantages in the areas of monitoring and in safeguards against theft, as well as in reducing the chances of groundwater contamination. Total facility costs are roughly estimated and found to be generally competitive with other MRS concepts. 4 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Muir, D.W.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluation of Hydrogen Generation from Radiolysis from Breached Spent Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ionizing radiation from spent nuclear fuel (SNF) can cause radiolytic decomposition of water and generation of hydrogen. Factors affecting hydrogen production include the type of radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the radiation (alpha, gamma, and neutron), the linear energy transfer (LET) rates from the radiation, the water chemistry and dissolved gases, and physical conditions such as temperature and pressure. A review of the mechanisms for the radiolytic generation of hydrogen applicable to breached SNF has been performed. A qualitative evaluation of the potential for generation of hydrogen in the pure water used in water-filled shipping casks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is made.

Vinson, D.W.

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

405

MEMORANDUM TO: F ROM: GREGORY H. WOODS GENERAL COUNSEL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

February 4, 2013 February 4, 2013 MEMORANDUM TO: F ROM: GREGORY H. WOODS GENERAL COUNSEL CHRISTOPHER A.SMITH �|=K= ACTING ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR FOSSIL ENERGY SUBJECT: Annual National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Planning Summaries for 2013 ISSUE: DOE Order 451.1B, Section 4.d, requires that an annual planning summary be prepared that briefly describes: {1) any Environmental Assessments (EAs) ongoing or expected to be

406

The morphological development of a wood burl shader  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the field of computer graphics, shaders provide an interface between lights and surfaces, giving the appearance of metal, plastic, wood, etc. As the field progresses, more and more shaders are required to simulate a wider and wider variety of materials. We present a new shader for the simulation of wood burl, a complex material used in furniture, art, car interiors, and a host of other luxury items. This shader was developed through a morphological approach - a study of the original material, its structure, and growth. Consequently, research began with a thorough look at wood burl, polished and unpolished, in an assortment of different species. We discovered the appearance can be broken into three sub-appearances - knots, curl, and a subtle undergrain. These three sub-appearances interact to create the characteristic swirls and whorls of burl. For the subtle undergrain, we used a common oak shader, added noise, and faded it into the background. We then developed a system of randomly placing points through the material to act as knots. Since the knots grow and distort the surrounding grain, we used distance-scaled forces to push the surface coordinates around and between all the knots. When the oak shader is applied, it appears to swirl and curl around the knots, much like a stream between rocks. This created the first level of curl or swirly grained wood, but one level alone appeared flat. To solve this, we procedurally blended levels of curl to give a look of increased depth. Finally, we added reflection, gloss, and other surface properties to give a look of warmth and polish. All of these properties are controlled by a set of parameters in the shader's interface. By adjusting these parameters, the user can emulate a variety of different burl types.

Moyer, Robert Simms

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized bed, defines the basic characteristics of each and their advantages and di advantages. The economics of using one type of system - a fluid bed gasifier, on an oil fired boiler is presented to depict a representative, if not conservative, payback time for such an investment.

Murphy, M. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Report on Wood Pole and Crossarm Degradation Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report covers the typical types of wood used in transmission line construction. The species can be categorized by their level of corrosion resistance, the type of preservative treatment that is appropriate and the type of decay that is predominant. This market has the benefit of experience and training gained through years of pole maintenance practices, research and the techniques that migrate directly to crossarm maintenance.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

411

Tectonic Setting of the Wooded Island Earthquake Swarm, Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic anomalies provide insights into the tectonic implications of a swarm of ?1500 shallow (?1 km deep) earthquakes that occurred in 2009 on the Hanford site,Washington. Epicenters were concentrated in a 2 km2 area nearWooded Island in the Columbia River. The largest earthquake (M 3.0) had first motions consistent with slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault. The swarm was accompanied by 35 mm of vertical surface deformation, seen in satellite interferometry (InSAR), interpreted to be caused by ?50 mm of slip on a northwest-striking reverse fault and associated bedding-plane fault in the underlying Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A magnetic anomaly over exposed CRBG at Yakima Ridge 40 km northwest of Wooded Island extends southeastward beyond the ridge to the Columbia River, suggesting that the Yakima Ridge anticline and its associated thrust fault extend southeastward in the subsurface. In map view, the concealed anticline passes through the earthquake swarm and lies parallel to reverse faults determined from first motions and InSAR data. A forward model of the magnetic anomaly near Wooded Island is consistent with uplift of concealed CRBG, with the top surface <200 m below the surface. The earthquake swarm and the thrust and bedding-plane faults modeled from interferometry all fall within the northeastern limb of the faulted anticline. Although fluids may be responsible for triggering the Wooded Island earthquake swarm, the seismic and aseismic deformation are consistent with regional-scale tectonic compression across the concealed Yakima Ridge anticline.

Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian; Weaver, Craig; Rohay, Alan C.; Wells, Ray E.

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Best Practices for Biomass Handling in Wood Yard Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are beginning to add wood and other biomass fuels to fire their generating units to enable them to produce carbon-neutral electricity and participate in state or national renewable energy programs. However, because the material handling aspects of biomass differ from those of coal, firing at a significant scale requires new equipment to receive, store, and deliver the biomass to the flame front. This equipment is analogous in function to existing machinery but is quite different in detail, desi...

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Economics of modifying harvesting systems to recover energy wood  

SciTech Connect

Recent interest in the recovery of previously underutilized logging residues for energy has stimulated the development of a variety of technologies for bringing this resource to market. The most promising approach for the independent contractor working the south eastern United States is to incorporate residue recovery equipment into his existing harvesting system. Computer simulation was used to assess the potential impact of adding small chippers or residue balers to three common harvesting systems. The systems are used in pine plantations, and mixed pine hardwood and upland hardwood stands. Changes in both operating costs and capital used were used to measure the effect of moving from conventional products to total energy wood harvests and capturing residues for energy in conjunction with conventional products. Incremental analysis was used to assess the operating cost per ton and capitalization per ton of annual production associated with the addition of the residue recovery capability. In nearly every case the incremental cost per ton and the incremental capitalization per ton associated with adding capability (for recovering wood residues for energy) to conventional harvesting systems were considerably less than for establishing systems of the same configuration (to produce energy wood only). The flow of conventional products must not be interrupted by the residue recovery process. Clearcutting or thinning operations conducted primarily for the production of enery wood did not appear to be economical on any stand, given 1979 residue values, unless a proportion of the large diameter trees are merchandized as conventional products. This statement, of course, must take into account that the cost used for both conventional products and the full tree chips were based upon 1979 pulp chip prices. If the alternative value of this material as fuel rises above its current value for fiber, this situation may change.

Stuart, W.B.; Porter, C.D.; Walbridge, T.A.; Oderwald, R.G.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Guidelines for Fabrication, Examination, Testing and Oversight of Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and subsequent amendments require the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) to receive and be responsible for disposal of spent commercial nuclear power plant fuel from U.S. utilities. However, because of delays in the siting of a permanent federal repository, and with no federal interim storage facilities designated, U.S. utilities have been forced to provide additional spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage capability to accommodate spent fuel discharge requirements. At...

1999-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

416

Cost Impact of Using ISG-8 Rev. 3 for PWR Spent Fuel Pool Criticality Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidance for applying burnup credit in criticality analyses for spent fuel storage and transportation requirements recently changed with the release of Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) 8 Revision 3, Burnup Credit in the Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Spent Fuel in Transportation and Storage Casks. If ISG-8 Rev. 3 were imposed upon pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool (SFP) criticality analyses, the burnup requirements for loading would ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 7  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Green pine blocks (2x1x 1) were dried to different moisture levels at 120 degrees C. They were immersed in D{sub 2}O (greater than 99% isotopic Content) for different periods at room temperature, and were then cut in halves. One piece from each set was then wrapped in plastic, and microwaved at 110 W, for 30 minutes, with the field being cycled to keep the wood surface at 90-100 degrees C. Fibers taken from just inside the wet surface from five regions along the length of the piece were then analysed by mass spectrometry with a direct insertion probe. The m/e profiles of the three isotopic forms of water, namely H{sub 2}O, HOD, and D{sub 2}O, remained unchanged as the wood was heated inside the spectrometer, indicating that they were bound equally strongly to the wood. The water released from the green wood had the same isotopic composition regardless of whether or not the wood was microwaved (Table 1), indicating that the exchangeable protons in wood were not affected by microwaving. However, as the wood progressively dried, the water released from the microwaved wood was of lower isotopic content, which means that microwaving increases access of the exchangeable protons in wood tissue to water. The only exchangeable protons in dried wood are those sited on hydroxyl groups, and the difference in isotopic exchange is the greatest for dried wood. This must mean that as wood dries, internal hydrogen bonding restricts access of D{sub 2}O to the hydroxyl protons. Presumably the energy transferred to water upon microwaving is sufficient to at least partially overcome this barrier. The effect is akin to the hysteresis that occurs for moisture sorption to green and dried wood. Similar isotope exchange work with D{sub 2}O has been previously conducted to determine the accessibility of cellulose to water.

Hui Yan; Hooda, Usha; Banerjee, Sujit [and others

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

419

Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill  

SciTech Connect

As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of

Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

420

Water geochemistry of hydrothermal systems, Wood River District, Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrothermal systems of the Wood River District, central Idaho, have been studied by geologic mapping of thermal spring areas and geochemical investigations of thermal and non-thermal waters. This report summarizes the new geochemical data gathered during the study. Integration of the results of geological and geochemical studies has led to development of a target model for hydrothermal resources on the margin of the Idaho Batholith. Warfield Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 58/sup 0/C, flow from a major shear zone along the margin of an apophysis of the batholith. Hailey Hot Springs, with temperatures up to 60/sup 0/C, occur in an area of multiple thrust faults and newly recognized, closely spaced normal faults in the Paleozoic Milligen and Wood River Formations, 2.5 km from a highly brecciated batholith contact. Other Wood River district hydrothermal systems also occur along the margins of batholith apophyses or in adjacent highly fractured Paleozoic rocks, where there are indications of batholith rocks at shallow depths (100 to 300 m) in water wells.

Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.; Blackett, R.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situ oil shale combustion experiment con- A gas chro- Thisspent shales were waters were studied, retort water and gasof retort waters and gas condensate. Spent shale reduces the

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Instrumented, Shielded Test Canister System for Evaluation of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Dry Storage  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the development of an instrumented, shielded test canister system to store and monitor aluminum-based spent nuclear duel under dry storage conditions.

Sindelar, R.L.

1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

Two-stage oil shale retorting process and disposal of spent oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Formation is excavated from an in situ oil shale retort site for forming at least one void within the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a void. The remaining zone is explosively expanded toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. Oil shale in the in situ retort is retorted to produce liquid and gaseous products, leaving a mass of spent oil shale particles in the in situ retort. Oil shale particles excavated from the in situ retort site are separately retorted, such as in a surface retorting operation, producing liquid and gaseous products and spent surface retorted oil shale particles. The spent surface retorted particles are disposed of by forming an aqueous slurry of the particles, and pumping the slurry into a spent in situ retort. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry is introduced into a hot lower portion of the spent retort where contact with hot spent oil shale particles generates steam which, in turn, is withdrawn from the spent retort in usable form. In another embodiment, water from the aqueous slurry introduced into a spent in situ retort collects at a level within the retort. The water can be recovered by drilling a drainage hole upwardly from a lower level drift into the level within the spent retort where the water collects and draining the water through the drainage hole to the lower level drift for recovery.

Tassoney, J.P.

1983-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

424

Examining 239Pu and 240Pu Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on Spent Fuel for Nuclear Safeguards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S.D. Ambers, “Assesment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescencefor Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay,” Inst. of Nucl. Mat. Man. ,clandestine material with nuclear resonance fluorescence,”

Quiter, Brian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

POTENTIAL USES OF SPENT SHALE IN THE TREATMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WATERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

study of retorted oil shale," Lawrence Livermore Laboratoryb) using columns of spent shale. REFERENCES Burnham, Alankinetics between and oil-shale residual carbon. 1. co Effect

Fox, J.P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Data as of December 31, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects data for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) on the detailed ...

427

O-1: Using of Spent Moulding Sands for Production of Burned ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurements of exhaust gases emissions performed during burning the products containing spent moulding sands as well as during the normal ...

428

Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive  

SciTech Connect

Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Water Pool Storage  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Behavior of Spent Nuclear Behavior of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Water Pool Storage A. 0; Johnson, jr. , I ..: . Prepared Cor the Energy Research and Development Administration under Contract EY-76-C-06-1830 ---- Pat t i ~ < N ~ ~ r ~ t b w t ~ - ! I , ~ I ~ ~ ~ I . I I ~ ) ~ I I ~ ~ N O T I C E T€& - was prepad pnpn4. m w n t of w k spon-d by the Unitd S t . & ) C a u n m ~ (*WU ij*. M t e d $tam w the Wqy R e s e w & a d Ohrsropmcnt ~dmhirmlion, nor m y d thair ewhew,,nq Pny @fw a n t r ~ ~ t 0 ~ 1 , s ~ k m r i t r i l t t q r , ~ , m r tWf ernpfQw, r(tLltm any wartany, s x p r e s or kWld,= w w aAql -9 . o r r w p a m l ~ ~ t y for e~ o r uodruincvr of any infomutim, 9 F p d + d - , or repratants that -would nat 1 d - e privately owned rfghas. ,i PAQFIC NORTHWEST UBORATORY operated b ;"' SArnLLE ' fw the E M R m RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRAT1QN Wk.Cwfraa rv-76c-ts-is38

430

Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation`s radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated.

Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Interim Storage of Used or Spent Nuclear Fuel Position Statement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The American Nuclear Society (ANS) supports the safe, controlled, licensed, and regulated interim storage of used nuclear fuel (UNF) (irradiated, spent fuel from a nuclear power reactor) until disposition can be determined and completed. ANS supports the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) determination that “spent fuel generated in any reactor can be stored safely and without significant environmental impacts for at least 30 years beyond the licensed life for operation. ” 1 Current operational and decommissioned nuclear power plants in the United States were licensed with the expectation that the UNF would be stored at the nuclear power plant site until shipment to an interim storage facility, reprocessing plant, or permanent storage. Because of delays in Federal programs and policy issues, utilities have been forced to store UNF. Current means of interim storage of UNF at nuclear power plant sites include storage of discharged fuel in a water-filled pool or in a sealed dry cask, both under safe, controlled, and monitored conditions. This UNF interim storage is designed, managed, and controlled to minimize or preclude potential radiological hazards or material releases. At nuclear power plant sites in the United States and internationally, this interim storage is regulated under site license requirements and technical specifications imposed by the national or state regulator. In the United States, NRC is the licensing and regulatory authority. ANS believes that UNF interim storage

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The synchronous active neutron detection system for spent fuel assay  

SciTech Connect

The authors have begun to develop a novel technique for active neutron assay of fissile material in spent nuclear fuel. This approach will exploit the unique operating features of a 14-MeV neutron generator developed by Schlumberger. This generator and a novel detection system will be applied to the direct measurement of the fissile material content in spent fuel in place of the indirect measures used at present. The technique they are investigating is termed synchronous active neutron detection (SAND). It closely follows a method that has been used routinely in other branches of physics to detect very small signals in the presence of large backgrounds. Synchronous detection instruments are widely available commercially and are termed {open_quotes}lock-in{close_quotes} amplifiers. The authors have implemented a digital lock-in amplifier in conjunction with the Schlumberger neutron generator to explore the possibility of synchronous detection with active neutrons. This approach is possible because the Schlumberger system can operate at up to a 50% duty factor, in effect, a square wave of neutron yield. The results to date are preliminary but quite promising. The system is capable of resolving the fissile material contained in a small fraction of the fuel rods in a cold fuel assembly. It also appears to be quite resilient to background neutron interference. The interrogating neutrons appear to be nonthermal and penetrating. Although a significant amount of work remains to fully explore the relevant physics and optimize the instrument design, the underlying concept appears sound.

Pickrell, M.M.; Kendall, P.K.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel strategic plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for safely and efficiently managing DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and SNF returned to the US from foreign research reactors (FRR). The fuel will be treated where necessary, packaged suitable for repository disposal where practicable, and placed in interim dry storage. These actions will remove remaining vulnerabilities, make as much spent fuel as possible ready for ultimate disposition, and substantially reduce the cost of continued storage. The goal is to complete these actions in 10 years. This SNF Strategic Plan updates the mission, vision, objectives, and strategies for the management of DOE-owned SNF articulated by the SNF Strategic Plan issued in December 1994. The plan describes the remaining issues facing the EM SNF Program, lays out strategies for addressing these issues, and identifies success criteria by which program progress is measured. The objectives and strategies in this plan are consistent with the following Em principles described by the Assistance Secretary in his June 1996 initiative to establish a 10-year time horizon for achieving most program objectives: eliminate and manage the most serious risks; reduce mortgage and support costs to free up funds for further risk reduction; protect worker health and safety; reduce generation of wastes; create a collaborative relationship between DOE and its regulators and stakeholders; focus technology development on cost and risk reduction; and strengthen management and financial control.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has produced spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for many years as part of its various missions and programs. The historical process for managing this SNF was to reprocess it whereby valuable material such as uranium or plutonium was chemically separated from the wastes. These fuels were not intended for long-term storage. As the need for uranium and plutonium decreased, it became necessary to store the SNF for extended lengths of time. This necessity resulted from a 1992 DOE decision to discontinue reprocessing SNF to recover strategic materials (although limited processing of SNF to meet repository acceptance criteria remains under consideration, no plutonium or uranium extraction for other uses is planned). Both the facilities used for storage, and the fuel itself, began experiencing aging from this extended storage. New efforts are now necessary to assure suitable fuel and facility management until long-term decisions for spent fuel disposition are made and implemented. The Program Plan consists of 14 sections as follows: Sections 2--6 describe objectives, management, the work plan, the work breakdown structure, and the responsibility assignment matrix. Sections 7--9 describe the program summary schedules, site logic diagram, SNF Program resource and support requirements. Sections 10--14 present various supplemental management requirements and quality assurance guidelines.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Dry oxidation and fracture of LWR spent fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates the characteristics of oxidation and fracture of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in dry air. It also discusses their effects on radionuclide releases in the anticipated high-level waste repository environment. A sphere model may describe diffusion-limited formation of lower oxides, such as U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, in the oxidation of the spent fuel (SF) matrix. Detrimental higher oxides, such as U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, may not form at temperatures below a threshold temperature. The nucleation process suggests that a threshold temperature exists. The calculated results regarding fracture properties of the SF matrix agree with experimental observations. Oxidation and fracture of Zircaloy may not be significant under anticipated conditions. Under saturated or unsaturated aqueous conditions, oxidation of the SF matrix is believed to increase the releases of Pu-(239+240), Am-(241+243), C-14, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. Under dry conditions, I-129 releases are likely to be small, unlike C-14, in lower oxides; Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135 may be released fast in higher oxides. 79 refs.

Ahn, T.M.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report  

SciTech Connect

This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment is required to realize high yields vital to commercial success. The focus of the pretreatment step is to methodically change key features of the biomass to favor enzymatic hydrolysis. This work assesses the compositional changes due to oxidative and non-oxidative longterm lime pretreatment of poplar wood (up to 4 weeks of pretreatment) at mild temperatures (25ºC to 65ºC), and their effect on the enzymatic yield of glucan and xylan. The most important pretreatment yield of lignin was 54 g lignin remaining/100 g lignin in raw biomass, and was accomplished for 4-week lime pretreatment at 65ºC in oxidative conditions. The corresponding pretreatment yields of glucan and xylan were 85.9 g glucan recovered/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 80.2 g xylan recovered/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. For poplar wood oxidatively pretreated with lime for 4 weeks at 65ºC and enzymatically hydrolyzed with an enzyme loading of 15 FPU/g glucan in raw biomass during a 3-day period, the best overall yields of glucan and xylan, were 80.7 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in raw biomass and 66.9 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in raw biomass respectively. The corresponding hydrolysis yields were 94.0 g glucan hydrolyzed/100 g glucan in treated biomass and 83.5 g xylan hydrolyzed/100 g xylan in treated biomass respectively. Because there is a previous study of long-term lime pretreatment of corn stover (Kim, 2004), the data obtained in this work show the effect of using woody lignocellulose as substrate. From the comparison, resulted that in the case of poplar wood oxidatively pretreated at 65ºC for 4 weeks, less lignin was removed and more carbohydrates were solubilized, however the hydrolysis yield of glucan was almost equal and the hydrolysis yield of xylan was higher than the reported by Kim for corn stover oxidatively pretreated at 55ºC for 4 weeks. The overall yield of glucan resulted lower in the case of poplar wood because of the lower pretreatment yield of glucan. Thus, it is important to complete the mass balances including an analysis on the pretreatment liquor to determine if the solubilized glucan was degraded.

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Development of Technical Nuclear Forensics for Spent Research Reactor Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pre-detonation technical nuclear forensics techniques for research reactor spent fuel were developed in a collaborative project with Savannah River National Lab ratory. An inverse analysis method was employed to reconstruct reactor parameters from a spent fuel sample using results from a radiochemical analysis. In the inverse analysis, a reactor physics code is used as a forward model. Verification and validation of different reactor physics codes was performed for usage in the inverse analysis. The verification and validation process consisted of two parts. The first is a variance analysis of Monte Carlo reactor physics burnup simulation results. The codes used in this work are MONTEBURNS and MCNPX/CINDER. Both utilize Monte Carlo transport calculations for reaction rate and flux results. Neither code has a variance analysis that will propagate through depletion steps, so a method to quantify and understand the variance propagation through these depletion calculations was developed. The second verification and validation process consisted of comparing reactor physics code output isotopic compositions to radiochemical analysis results. A sample from an Oak Ridge Research Reactor spent fuel assembly was acquired through a drilling process. This sample was then dissolved in nitric acid and diluted in three different quantities, creating three separate samples. A radiochemical analysis was completed and the results were compared to simulation outputs at different levels ofdetail. After establishing a forward model, an inverse analysis was developed to re-construct the burnup, initial uranium isotopic compositions, and cooling time of a research reactor spent fuel sample. A convergence acceleration technique was used that consisted of an analytical calculation to predict burnup, initial 235U, and 236U enrichments. The analytic calculation results may also be used stand alone or in a database search algorithm. In this work, a reactor physics code is used as a for- ward model with the analytic results as initial conditions in a numerical optimization algorithm. In the numerical analysis, the burnup and initial uranium isotopic com- positions are reconstructed until the iterative spent fuel characteristics converge with the measured data. Upon convergence of the sample’s burnup and initial uranium isotopic composition, the cooling time can be reconstructed. To reconstruct cooling time, the standard decay equation is inverted and solved for time. Two methods were developed. One method uses the converged burnup and initial uranium isotopic compositions along in a reactor depletion simulation. The second method uses an isotopic signature that does not decay out of its mass bin and has a simple production chain. An example would be 137Cs which decays into the stable 137Ba. Similar results are achieved with both methods, but extended shutdown time or time away from power results in over prediction of the cooling time. The over prediction of cooling time and comparison of different burnup reconstruction isotope results are indicator signatures of extended shutdown or time away from power. Due to dynamic operation in time and function, detailed power history reconstruction for research reactors is very challenging. Frequent variations in power, repeated variable shutdown time length, and experimentation history affect the spectrum an individual assembly is burned with such that full reactor parameter reconstruction is difficult. The results from this technical nuclear forensic analysis may be used with law enforcement, intelligence data, macroscopic and microscopic sample characteristics in a process called attribution to suggest or exclude possible sources of origin for a sample.

Sternat, Matthew 1982-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings May 10, 2010 - 1:11pm Addthis Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood firebox | Photo Courtesy USFS Fuels for Schools, Dave Atkins Darby Schools received a woodchip heating system in 2003. Rick Scheele, facilities manager for the Darby schools, shows off the wood firebox | Photo Courtesy USFS Fuels for Schools, Dave Atkins Stephen Graff Former Writer & editor for Energy Empowers, EERE In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the

442

Expert Paper for the UNECE, Timber Committee Market Discussions, Geneva, 7-8 October 2003 1 Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is the future direction of electricity production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants and pulp and paper production; ethanol and wood pellets projects have been more directed production from wood and co-firing of wood in coal power plants is the variable with the highest potential

443

Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Fire safety for your wood-burning appliance: tips for proper installation, operation, and maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dramatic increase in house fires caused by wood-burning appliances has accompanied the rediscovery of wood as an alternative heating fuel. The National Bureau of Standards attributed the majority of these fires to conditions related to the installation, operation or maintenance of the appliances rather than malfunctions or construction defects. This publication presents guidelines for the proper installation, use, and maintenance of wood-burning appliances in the home. (DMC)

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Options for Prevention, Mitigation, and Remediation at Wood Poles Storage Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the maintenance of the electrical transmission and distribution networks in the United States, electric utilities store treated wood poles and cross arms at storage facilities. During this storage, chemicals of concern (COCs) used in preservative formulations can drip and leach during precipitation events from the treated wood poles and cross arms, potentially impacting site soils, groundwater, and nearby surface water bodies. These COCs will vary depending on the types of treated wood stored ...

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

446

Chemical Pretreatment And Enzymatic Hydrolysis Of Mixed Source-Separated Organic (SSO) And Wood Waste.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper examines the effectiveness of two pretreatments on Source-Separated Organic waste (SSO) mixed with wood wastes: long term lime for SSO mixed with forestry… (more)

Faye, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Modelling of mass transfer during wood fermentation processes to produce bioalcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to model the bioethanol production by wood degradation, and to check if there is mass transfer limitations in the… (more)

Spalluto, Giorgio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Microsoft Word - CX-CowlitzTaptoChehalis-CovingtonWoodPoles_WEB...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Clay Grande Line Foreman III - TFCF-Covington Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at...

449

Development of a Financial Model for Wood Pellet Production Costs in New England.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The wood fuel pellet industry has been growing rapidly in recent years. The conversion of a significant proportion of central home heating systems in the… (more)

Lu, Ning

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Wood compost process engineering, properties and its impact on extreme soil characteristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The landfilling of biodegradable waste is proven to contribute to environmental degradation. Much wood and lumber is discharged as waste from the cleared fields. These… (more)

Nada, Wael Mohamed Abdel-Rahman

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Planning and setup for the implementation of coal and wood co-fired boilers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has been significantly advancing in the past years, but many of their capabilities remain unknown to much of the… (more)

Gump, Christopher D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Finding the light out of Into the Woods : a lighting design.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Designing the lighting for any major theatrical production is comparable to one's own adventure through the woods. From pre-production to finalized design this thesis project… (more)

Groskopf, Kelli Jean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

Not Available

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Issues in the use of wood as an energy source in the northeastern US  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report analyzes some of the concerns surrounding the use of wood for energy in the Northeast. It reviews the information on resource availability and ownership patterns in the Northeast, then focuses on New England, to assess the affect of potential resource constraints on the supply of wood available for energy and the effects of wood energy use on land use patterns. Finally, the application of specific technologies in settings that may experience significant wood energy use in the future is considered, including an assessment of the regional employment and income benefits of a major woodfuel installation.

Munson, J.S. (ed.)

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Riparian forest disturbances by a mountain flood -- the influence of floated wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large floods can have major impacts on riparian forests. Here we examine the variability and spatial distribution of riparian forest responses along eight third- to fifth-order streams following a large flood ( 100 year recurrence interval) in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon. We categorized disturbance intensity (physical force) exerted on riparian trees during floods into three classes: (i) purely fluvial (high water flow only); (ii) ¯uvial supplemented by dispersed pieces of floating wood (uncongested wood transport); (iii) fluvial with movement of batches of wood (congested wood transport). These types of material transport and associated classes of disturbance intensity resulted in a gradient of biotic responses of disturbance severity ranging from standing riparian trees inundated by high water, to trees toppled but still partially rooted, to complete removal of trees. High within-stream and among stream responses were inflenced by pre-flood stream and riparian conditions as well as flood dynamics, especially the availability of individual pieces or congested batches of wood. Fluvial disturbance alone toppled fewer riparian trees than in reaches where floodwaters transported substantial amounts of wood. Debris flows delivered additional wood and sediment to parts of reaches of four of these study streams; riparian trees were removed and toppled for up to 1 5 km downstream of the debris flow tributary channel. Congested wood transport resulted in higher frequency of toppled trees and greater deposition of new wood levees along channel margins. The condition of the landscape at the time of a major ¯ood strongly influenced

Sherri L. Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Gordon E. Grant; Steven M. Wondzell

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Water-Activated, Shape Memory Twist Effect in Wood Slivers as an ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This shape memory twist effect in wood could inspire new smart materials for a wide range of applications, including sensors, actuators, biomedical devices, and

459

Microsoft Word - CX-BigEddy-RedmondWoodPoles_WEB.doc  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements at select locations along the Big Eddy-Redmond and Redmond-Pilot...

460

Impacts Associated with Transfer of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Spent Fuel Storage Pools to Dry Storage After Five Years of Cooling, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2010, EPRI performed a study of the accelerated transfer of spent fuel from pools to dry storage in response to the threat of terrorist activities at nuclear power plants (report 1021049). Following the March 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, some organizations issued a renewed call for accelerated transfer of used fuel from spent fuel ...

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood spent sulfite" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package Misload Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the probability of misloading a commercial spent nuclear fuel waste package with a fuel assembly(s) that has a reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) outside the waste package design. The waste package designs are based on the expected commercial spent nuclear fuel assemblies and previous analyses (Macheret, P. 2001, Section 4.1 and Table 1). For this calculation, a misloaded waste package is defined as a waste package that has a fuel assembly(s) loaded into it with an enrichment and/or burnup outside the waste package design. An example of this type of misload is a fuel assembly designated for the 21-PWR Control Rod waste package being incorrectly loaded into a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. This constitutes a misloaded 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package, because the reactivity (i.e., enrichment and/or burnup) of a 21-PWR Control Rod waste package fuel assembly is outside the design of a 21-PWR Absorber Plate waste package. These types of misloads (i.e., fuel assembly with enrichment and/or burnup outside waste package design) are the only types that are evaluated in this calculation. This calculation utilizes information from ''Frequency of SNF Misload for Uncanistered Fuel Waste Package'' (CRWMS M&O 1998) as the starting point. The scope of this calculation is limited to the information available. The information is based on the whole population of fuel assemblies and the whole population of waste packages, because there is no information about the arrival of the waste stream at this time. The scope of this calculation deviates from that specified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Risk and Criticality Department'' (BSC 2002a, Section 2.1.30) in that only waste package misload is evaluated. The remaining issues identified (i.e., flooding and geometry reconfiguration) will be addressed elsewhere. The intended use of the calculation is to provide information and inputs to the Preclosure Safety Analysis Department. Before using the results of this calculation, the reader is cautioned to verify that the assumptions made in this calculation regarding the waste stream, the loading process, and the staging of the spent nuclear fuel assemblies are applicable.

A. Alsaed

2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

462

Trojan Nuclear Plant Decommissioning: Final Survey for the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the final radiological survey for the area where Portland General Electric (PGE) will construct the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) at Trojan nuclear power plant. The survey fulfills the requirements for release of this area from Trojan's 10 CFR 50 license before radiation levels increase with spent fuel storage in the ISFSI.

1998-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

463

Spent Fuel Pool Cooling and Cleanup During Decommissioning: Experience at Trojan Nuclear Power Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operation of original in-plant spent fuel pool facilities at shutdown power plants is expensive compared to available alternatives and can interfere with the decommissioning process. This report describes the approach taken in the Trojan Decommissioning Project to establish independent cooling and cleanup services for the fuel pool until the spent fuel is placed in dry storage.

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

464

Eddy Current Examination of Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Closure Welds  

SciTech Connect

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has developed standardized DOE SNF canisters for handling and interim storage of SNF at various DOE sites as well as SNF transport to and SNF handling and disposal at the repository. The final closure weld of the canister will be produced remotely in a hot cell after loading and must meet American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III, Division 3 code requirements thereby requiring volumetric and surface nondestructive evaluation to verify integrity. This paper discusses the use of eddy current testing (ET) to perform surface examination of the completed welds and repair cavities. Descriptions of integrated remote welding/inspection system and how the equipment is intended function will also be discussed.

Arthur D. Watkins; Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

ALARA studies on spent fuel and waste casks  

SciTech Connect

In this report, some implications of applying the ALARA concept to cask designs for transporting spent fuel, high-level commercial and defense waste, and remote-handled transuranic waste are investigated. The XSDRNPM, one-dimensional radiation transport code, was used to obtain potential shield designs that would yield total dose rates at 1.8 m from the cask surface of 10, 5, and 2 mrem/h. Gamma shields of depleted uranium, lead, and steel were studied. The capacity of the casks was assumed to be 1, 4, or 7 elements or canisters, and the wastes were 1, 3, 5, and 10 years old. Depending on the dose rate, the cask empty weights and lifetime transportation costs were estimated.

Sutherland, S.H.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Threat Reduction Initiative: Global Threat Reduction Initiative: U.S. Nuclear Remove Program Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance 2007 DOE TEC Meeting Chuck Messick DOE/NNSA/SRS 2 Contents * Program Objective and Policy * Program implementation status * Shipment Information * Operational Logistics * Lessons Learned * Conclusion 3 U.S. Nuclear Remove Program Objective * To play a key role in the Global Threat Reduction Remove Program supporting permanent threat reduction by accepting program eligible material. * Works in conjunction with the Global Threat Reduction Convert Program to accept program eligible material as an incentive to core conversion providing a disposition path for HEU and LEU during the life of the Acceptance Program. 4 Reasons for the Policy

467

Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management This second National Report updates the first National Report published on May 3, 2003, under the terms of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (Joint Convention). This report satisfies the requirements of the Joint Convention for reporting on the status of safety at spent fuel (SF) and radioactive waste management facilities within the United States of America (U.S.). Second National Report for the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel

468

U.S. Spent Nuclear Fuel Data as of December 31, 2002  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Home > Nuclear > Spent Nuclear Fuel Home > Nuclear > Spent Nuclear Fuel Release Date: October 1, 2004 Next Release: Late 2010** Spent nuclear fuel data is collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) data includes detailed characteristics of SNF generated by commercial U.S. nuclear power plants. From 1983 through 1995 this data was collected annually. Since 1996 this data has been collected every three years. The latest available detailed data covers all SNF discharged from commercial reactors before December 31, 2002, and is maintained in a data base by the EIA. Summary data tables from this data base may be found as indicated below. Table 1. Total U.S. Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges, 1968 - 2002

469

Assessment of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence for Spent Nuclear Fuel Assay  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurements, resonances are excited by an external photon beam leading to the emission of gamma rays with specific energies that are characteristic of the emitting isotope. NRF promises the unique capability of directly quantifying a specific isotope without the need for unfolding the combined responses of several fissile isotopes as is required in other measurement techniques. We have analyzed the potential of NRF as a non-destructive analysis technique for quantitative measurements of Pu isotopes in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Given the low concentrations of 239Pu in SNF and its small integrated NRF cross sections, the main challenge in achieving precise and accurate measurements lies in accruing sufficient counting statistics in a reasonable measurement time. Using analytical modeling, and simulations with the radiation transport code MCNPX that has been experimentally tested recently, the backscatter and transmission methods were quantitatively studied for differing photon sources and radiation detector types. Resonant photon count rates and measurement times were estimated for a range of photon source and detection parameters, which were used to determine photon source and gamma-ray detector requirements. The results indicate that systems based on a bremsstrahlung source and present detector technology are not practical for high-precision measurements of 239Pu in SNF. Measurements that achieve the desired uncertainties within hour-long measurements will either require stronger resonances, which may be expressed by other Pu isotopes, or require quasi-monoenergetic photon sources with intensities that are approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those currently being designed or proposed.This work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to develop an integrated instrument, comprised of individual NDA techniques with complementary features, that is fully capable of determining Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies.

Quiter, Brian; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Ambers, Scott

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

470

Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a large inventory of diverse types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This legacy derives from the history of the INL as the National Reactor Testing Station, and from its mission to recover HEU from SNF and to test and examine SNF after irradiation. The INL also has a large diversity of SNF storage facilities, some 50 years old. SNF at INL has many forms—from intact assemblies down to metallurgical mounts, and some fuel has been wet stored for over 40 years. SNF is stored bare or in metal cans under water, or dry in vaults, caissons or casks. Inspection shows varying corrosion and degradation of the SNF and its storage cans. SNF has been stored in 10 different facilities: 5 pools, one cask storage pad, one vault, two generations of caisson facilities, and one modular Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The pools range in age from 40 years old to the most modern in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The near-term objective is to move SNF from older pools to interim dry storage, allowing shutdown and decommissioning of the older facilities. This move involves drying methods that are dependent on fuel type. The long-term objective is to have INL SNF in safe dry storage and ready to be shipped to the National Repository. The unique features of the INL SNF requires special treatments and packaging to meet the proposed repository acceptance criteria and SNF will be repackaged in standardized canisters for shipment and disposal in the National Repository. Disposal will use the standardized canisters that can be co-disposed with High Level Waste glass logs to limit the total fissile material in a repository waste package. The DOE standardized canister also simplifies the repository handling of the multitude of DOE SNF sizes and shapes.

Thomas Hill; Denzel L. Fillmore

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood  

SciTech Connect

Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose. Enzymes will play an increased role in this conversion in that they potentially provide an alternative to costly and caustic high temperature and acid treatment. The increasing use of enzymes in biotechnology is facilitated by both continued improvements in enzyme technology but also in the discovery of new and novel enzymes. The present proposal is aimed at identifying the enzymes which are known to depolymerize woody biomass. Fundamental understanding of how nature gains access to cellulose and hemicellulose will impact all applications. Because fungi are the only known microbes capable of circumventing the lignin barrier, knowledge of the enzyme they use is of great potential for biofuel processing. Nature has evolved different fungal mechanisms for enzymatic hydrolysis of wood. Most notable are the white-rot fungi (wrf) and the brown-rot fungi (brf). This proposed research aims at determining the complete transcriptome of three wrf and two brf to determine the enzymes involved in lignocellulose degradation. The transcriptome work will be supported by enzyme characterization (and zymograms) and finally analysis of the lignin component to determine the mode of lignin modification. In this proposed research, we hypothesize that: 1) Determination of the complete transcriptome of closely related white and brown rot fungi will lead to knowledge of the relevant enzymes involved in wood degradation. 2) Knowledge of the extracellular transcriptome and the mechanism of wood decay can only be obtained if the products of the decay are known. As such, characterization of the lignin oxidation products will correlate the enzymes involved (obtained from the transcriptome) to the lignin oxidation products. The Department of Energy has sequenced the P. chrysosporium genome and has approved the sequencing of the genome of the closely-related brown rot fungus P. placenta. This comparative genomics approach will yield important information on differences between these two fungi. Analysis of gene unique to each fungus (which have been lost or gained) can potentially lead to determining the enzymes which are responsible for each type of decay. This comparison, however, would not be complete without comparing the transcriptome and the proteome/enzymes. Comparative genomics may tell us which genes may be important, but it will not tell us when these genes are expressed, at what levels and will not necessarily tell us what these genes do.

Tien, Ming

2009-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

472

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted by the Federal Government. Galaxy Carpet Corporation has been sufficiently impressed with performance, both economically and technically, to place a follow-up order of $1,500,000.00 for a second solid fuel fired boiler system at its Dalton, Georgia Dye House operation.

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

d.\tFuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e.\tIntegrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

474

Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential and commercial buildings. Steel framing has many advantages over wood framing; strength, low weight, dimensional stability, resistance to termite damage, almost 100% recycleability, etc .. However because of several reasons an application of steel as a framing material in US residential building market is relatively low. Steel industry has noticed much more success on commercial building market which is not as rigorous regarding thermal efficiency and energy conservation. Steel framing has one significant disadvantage over wood; Steel members conduct heat extremely well. This effect is known as thermal bridging, and it can sharply reduce a wall's effective Rvalue. The simplest and most common way to overcome this problem is to block the path of heat flow with rigid foam insulation. Adding rigid foam insulation not only increases the whole wall's R-value, but it also reduces the temperature difference between the center of the cavity and the stud area, which cuts down on the possibility of black stains forming from dirt getting asymmetrically attracted to cold spots on a wall's surface. However, rigid foam insulation is an expensive solution. Several material configurations were developed in the past to increase thermal effectiveness of steel-framed structures. This paper is focused on most common options of thermal improvements of steels framed walls. They were as follow: 1) diminishing the contact area between the studs and exterior sheathing materials, 2) reducing the steel stud web area, 3) replacing the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim to optimize thermal design of steel stud walls.. While examining several material options, ORNL's BTC was also striving to develop energy-efficient steel stud wall technologies that would enable steel-stud walls to beat the performance of traditional 2 x 6 wood stud walls. Several, most current, ORNL developments in steel framing are presented below.

Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near 2 MeV in U and 239 Pu,” PHYSICAL REVIEW C 78, 041601(C. Rudy, “Determination of Pu in Spent Fuel Assemblies by X-Induced XRF to Quantify the Pu Content in PWR Spent Nuclear

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for safeguards of LEU and MOX spent fuel,” Internationalsystems in use today (Safeguards Mox Python Detector, 1 Fork

Tobin, S. J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

CONTAMINATION OF GROUNDWATER BY ORGANIC POLLUTANTS LEACHED FROM IN-SITU SPENT SHALE  

SciTech Connect

The potential for contamination of groundwater by organic pollutants leached from in-situ spent shale was studied in a series of laboratory leaching experiments. Both batch-mode and continuous-flow column experiments were conducted to study the leaching phenomenon. Experimental variables included retorting characteristics of spent shale, leaching time, initial quality of leach water, temperature of leach water, and particle size of spent shale. Several unique samples of spent shale were examined during the eaching experiments, including spent shale samples produced during combustion retorting, inert gas retorting, and combustion retorting employing recycle gas. The solid-phase organic carbon content of spent shale samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 percent by weight. Leachate derived from the batch-mode experiments was analyzed for organic carbon, organic nitrogen, phenols, and acid/base/netral fractions. The highest levels of organic carbon were detected in leachate derived from spent shale produced during either inert gas retorting or combstion retorting using recycle gas. The highest levels of phenols were observed in leachate obtained from spent shale produced during inert gas retorting; significant levels of organic nitrogen were also detected in various leachate samples. The most predominant organic fraction measured in leachate samples was the neutral fraction associated with spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. Batch-mode experimental results describing equilibrium conditions were analyzed according to the Freundlich and langmuir isotherm models. Those models were found to be appropriate for describing equilibrium relationships between leachate and spent shale produced during inert gas retorting. To a somewhat lesser extent, these same models were found to be appropriate for modeling equilibrium relationships involving combustion-retorted spent shale. A kinetic analysis of results derived from the continuous-flow column experiments was conducted in an attempt to identify a rate-controlling mass transfer mechanism. Internal diffusion appeared to be the most likely rate-limiting mechanism for leaching from combustion-retorted spent shale. In contrast, no single mass transfer mechanism appeared to control the leaching phenomenon for inert gas-retorted spent shale over the entire range of leaching times examined. The results presented here suggest that groundwater resources in regions of potential in-situ development may be significantly degraded in quality as a consequence of leached organic contaminants. Overall, the leaching phenomenon represents a potentially chronic problem which may preclude beneficial uses of groundwater for decades.

Amy, Gary L.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

A case study on the influence of THM coupling on the near field safety of a spent fuel repository in sparsely fractured granite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

geological disposal of spent CANDU fuel in Canada, a safetyhypothetical repository for spent CANDU fuel in the Canadianbuffer. The waste form: CANDU reactors in Canada are fuelled

Nguyen, T.S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

A Technical Review of Non-Destructive Assay Research for the Characterization of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies Being Conducted Under the US DOE NGSI - 11544  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Characterization of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies BeingSociety’s Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management IV, HiltonPlutonium Mass in Spent Nuclear Fuel,” 201