National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wood product formed

  1. Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, O.

    1985-04-01

    Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood obtained in an original pyrolysis apparatus were analyzed. The analytical procedure is described, and the composition of pyrolytic oil presented with more than 50 compounds. Comparison of pyrolytic products of cellulose, hemicellulose, and wood indicates the origin of each product. 19 references.

  2. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  3. Product Information Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When planning to present a new product to the EERE Product Governance Team, complete this product information form and email it to ee.communications@ee.doe.gov.

  4. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  5. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  6. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  7. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  8. Flash methanolysis of wood for the production of fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Biomass in the form of less than 1000 micron oven dried fir wood particles was flash pyrolyzed in the presence of methane (methanolysis) in a downflow 1 in. I.D. tubular reactor at pressures of 20 to 200 psi and temperatures between 800/sup 0/ and 1050/sup 0/C. The major products were benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), a heavy oily liquid (greater than or equal to C/sub 9/), ethylene and carbon monoxide. As much as 12% of the available carbon in the wood was converted to BTX, 21% to ethylene and 48% to carbon monoxide at 50 psi and 1000/sup 0/C. The maximum heavier oil yield of 11% was observed at 50 psi and 800/sup 0/C. Wood particle residence times for all experiments were calculated to be less than 1 second at 20 and 50 psi and up to 2.8 sec at 200 psi. The yelds were found to be greatly influenced by the methane to wood feed ratio. Experiments were conducted to insure the results to be that produced from the wood and methane and not a catalytic effect of the reactor wall of foreign matter. Material balance, including char analyses, indicate approximately 75 to 80% of the available carbon in the feed wood reacted. Methane balances were within the margin of error of the measuring equipment showing that there is no significant net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary economic evaluation of a 2000 ton/day wood processing plant producing ethylene, benzene and methanol showed a reasonably cmpetitive plant investment of $29,000/barrel fuel oil equivalent/day assuming 15% return on investment and present market values for the products.

  9. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ...

  10. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ...

  11. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  12. The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

    1990-02-01

    The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  15. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  16. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  17. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working document I. The Florida Eucalyptus energy farm: silvicultural methods and considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    The silvicultural matrix within which the nation's first large scale wood energy plantation will develop is described in detail. The relevant literature reviewed is identified and distilled. The plantation history, site preparation, planting, species selection, maintenance and management, harvesting, and the Eucalyptus biomass production estimates are presented.

  18. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  19. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  20. Characterization of the products and comparison of the product yields from the flash pyrolysis of fir wood in hydrogen and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A seasoned sawdust of Douglas Fir wood was flash pyrolyzed in an entrained tubular reactor in the presence of hydrogen and helium at short residence times (less than 4 sec) at temperatures varying from 600/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C and pressures of 50 to 500 psi. A significant quantity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and CO were produced. The liquid products were characterized via GC/MS and Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry. The composition of the liquid products and the influence of the processing conditions on the product yields are discussed. 2 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earths atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach profitability under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The additionality of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such reforestation occur, it would also produce ancillary benefits by providing env

  2. Permitting: Lessons from a case study--the U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Enforcement Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umberger, N.,

    1995-12-01

    U.S. EPA`s Wood Products Initiative has resulted in the settlement with Louisiana-Pacific (L-P) for over eleven million dollars in fines and much more in expenditures for corporate environmental improvements. EPA claimed that L-P`s corporate environmental structure inadequately addressed the environmental requirements of the Clean Air Act. L-P failed to obtain the necessary permits and provide the permitting authorities with accurate and complete information on air emissions. The author concentrates on the steps companies must follow to ensure that adequate permitting is obtained. The paper states clearly the expectations EPA has of permitting authorities and permit applicants. A checklist of criteria necessary to avoid permitting dilemmas is presented, along with practical advice for environmental managers responsible for permitting and interactions with regulatory authorities. The steps of source identification, emissions quantification, control technology selection, and permit completion are detailed.

  3. New Fission-Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandra Navrotsky

    2010-07-30

    Research performed on the program New Fission Product Waste Forms: Development and Characterization, in the last three years has fulfilled the objectives of the proposal which were to 1) establish ceramic waste forms for disposing of Cs, Sr and minor actinides, 2) fully characterize the phase relationships, structures and thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of promising waste forms, 3) establish a sound technical basis for understanding key waste form properties, such as melting temperatures and aqueous durability, based on an in-depth understanding of waste form structures and thermochemistry, and 4) establish synthesis, testing, scaleup and commercialization routes for wasteform implementation through out in-kind collaborations. In addition, since Cs and Sr form new elements by radioactive decay, the behavior and thermodynamics of waste forms containing different proportions of Cs, Sr and their decay products were discovered using non-radioactive analogues. Collaborations among researchers from three institutions, UC Davis, Sandia National Laboratories, and Shott Inc., were formed to perform the primary work on the program. The unique expertise of each of the members in the areas of waste form development, structure/property relationships, hydrothermal and high temperature synthesis, crystal/glass production, and thermochemistry was critical to program success. In addition, collaborations with the Brigham Young Univeristy, Ben Gurion University, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, were established for standard entropies of ceramic waste forms, sol-gel synthesis, and high temperature synthesis. This work has had a significant impact in a number of areas. First, the studies of the thermodynamic stability of the mineral analogues provided an important technical foundation for assessment the viability of multicomponent oxide phases for Cs and Sr removal. Moreover, the thermodynamic data discovered in this program established information on the reaction pathways for the potential reaction products. The phase equilibria and thermodynamics involving the intermediates in the decay process in this program will assist in selection of the best process for Cs or Sr immobilization. In addition, data from the study can be used to develop engineering solutions for potential process upsets. Second, the glass crystal stability of multicomponent oxide phases that were representative silicates on this program is highly distinguishable for mother compounds and decay products, thus providing a fundamental understanding on the separate effects from chemistry and from radiation. Finally, we have developed a foundation for understanding chemistry-structure-energetics relationships in titanosilicates that can be used to develop more effective materials.

  4. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  5. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Mid-South Wood Products, Polk County, Arkansas, November 1986. First remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-14

    The Mid-South Wood Products site is located in Polk County, Arkansas, approximately 1/2 mile southwest of Mena, Arkansas. The 57-acre site includes the following areas: the Old Plant site, the Small Old Pond and Old Pond areas, the North and South Landfarms, the landfill, Clear Lake and an existing chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment plant. The Old Plant site was used to treat wood with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote; the Small Old Pond was the original impoundment for waste PCP and creosote. These two areas have been covered with soil. The Old Pond area was used to store PCP and creosote sludge and has since been graded and covered with soil; materials from the Old Pond were spread over the Landfarm areas and mixed into the soil; the Landfill area contains deposits of sawdust, woodchips, and other waste-wood products; Clear Lake receives runoff from all the above areas; the CCA treatment plant contains an ongoing wood-treating operation where the surface drainage from the plant is put in sumps.

  7. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  8. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-15

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  10. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  11. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  12. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  13. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these sites, we developed a cost-effective method for partitioning total soil carbon to pedogenic carbon and geogenic carbon in mine soils. We are in the process of evaluating the accuracy and precision of the proposed carbon partitioning technique for which we are designing an experiment with carefully constructed mine soil samples. In a second effort, as part of a mined land reforestation project for carbon sequestration in southwestern Virginia we implemented the first phase of the carbon monitoring protocol that was recently delivered to DOE.

  14. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    132014 10:58 AM Submitted by Anonymous User This message was created by a Microsoft InfoPath form. The form data may be included as an attachment. Freedom of Information Act...

  15. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9:27 PM Submitted by Anonymous User This message was created by a Microsoft InfoPath form. The form data may be included as an attachment. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)...

  16. Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms and Checklists Download or view forms and checklists used at WNR. IWD Forms 2100 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information (word version) 2100_con - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information Continuation Page (word version) 2101 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 2, FOD Requirements and Approval for Entry and Area Hazards and Controls, Non-Tenant Activity Form (word version) 2102 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 2, FOD

  17. Process for forming coal compacts and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunnink, Brett; Kanunar, Jayanth; Liang, Zhuoxiong

    2002-01-01

    A process for forming durable, mechanically strong compacts from coal particulates without use of a binder is disclosed. The process involves applying a compressive stress to a particulate feed comprising substantially water-saturated coal particles while the feed is heated to a final compaction temperature in excess of about 100.degree. C. The water present in the feed remains substantially in the liquid phase throughout the compact forming process. This is achieved by heating and compressing the particulate feed and cooling the formed compact at a pressure sufficient to prevent water present in the feed from boiling. The compacts produced by the process have a moisture content near their water saturation point. As a result, these compacts absorb little water and retain exceptional mechanical strength when immersed in high pressure water. The process can be used to form large, cylindrically-shaped compacts from coal particles (i.e., "coal logs") so that the coal can be transported in a hydraulic coal log pipeline.

  18. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  19. Process for forming shaped group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group III-V semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  20. Process for forming shaped group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, and product formed using process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Peng, Xiaogang; Manna, Liberato

    2001-01-01

    A process for the formation of shaped Group II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals comprises contacting the semiconductor nanocrystal precursors with a liquid media comprising a binary mixture of phosphorus-containing organic surfactants capable of promoting the growth of either spherical semiconductor nanocrystals or rod-like semiconductor nanocrystals, whereby the shape of the semiconductor nanocrystals formed in said binary mixture of surfactants is controlled by adjusting the ratio of the surfactants in the binary mixture.

  1. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  2. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Privacy Act must be signed and, therefore, cannot be submitted : on this form. t Name Richard van Dijk Email , Orga nizati on Mailin g Addre ss city PA State I P Pion e Ex....

  3. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  4. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  5. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  6. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  7. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  8. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * ... Chalkyitsik * 80% of homes in Fort Yukon are heated by wood. Most use wood and fuel heat. ...

  9. Method for chemically inactivating energetic materials and forming a nondetonable product therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadros, Maher E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for rendering nondetonble energetic materials, such as are contained in or removed from decommissioned ordnance. The energetic materials are either combined with epoxy hardener or are combined with other compounds, preferably amine compounds, to form a substance that functions as an epoxy hardener. According to the invention, energetic materials (including TNT, RDX and Composition B) that are treated according to the invention method yield a reaction product that is non-explosive, that serves to harden or cure conventional epoxy resin to form a stable, nonexplosive waste product. Epoxy hardener made using the method of the invention is also described.

  10. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  11. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  12. Wood and Wood Waste - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Energy Information Administration Wood and Wood Waste Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  13. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  14. Method for forming a layer of synthetic corrosion products on tubing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Salamon, Eugene J. M. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for forming a synthetic corrosion product layer on tube surfaces. The method utilizes two dissimilar materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. An object tube and sacrificial tube are positioned one inside the other such that an annular region is created between the two tubes' surfaces. A slurry of synthetic corrosion products is injected into this annular region and the assembly is heat treated. This heat causes the tubes to expand, the inner tube with the higher coefficient of expansion expanding more than the outer tube, thereby creating internal pressures which consolidate the corrosion products and adhere the corrosion products to the tubing surfaces. The sacrificial tube may then be removed by conventional chemical etching or mechanical methods.

  15. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  16. STEO October 2012 - wood

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    that households across the U.S. use as a supplemental heating source. Almost half of all rural households use wood this way, in addition to using it for cooking or water heating

  17. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  18. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  19. Research into the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, lignin, and birch wood flour in the China Lake entrained-flow reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, J.

    1980-06-01

    This experimental program used the China Lake entrained-flow pyrolysis reactor to briefly investigate the pyrolysis of pure cellulose, pure lignin, and birch wood flour. The study determined that the cellulose and wood flour do pyrolyze to produce primarily gaseous products containing significant amounts of ethylene and other useful hydrocarbons. During attempts to pyrolyze powdered lignin, the material melted and bubbled to block the reactor entrance. The pure cellulose and wood flour produced C/sub 2/ + yields of 12% to 14% by weight, which were less than yields from an organic feedstock derived from processed municipal trash. The char yields were 0.1% by weight from cellulose and 1.5% from birch wood flour - one to two orders of magnitude less than were produced from the trash-derived feedstock. In scanning electron microscope photographs, most of the wood flour char had a sintered and agglomerated appearance, although some particles retained the gross cell characteristics of the wood flour. The appearance of the char particles indicated that the material had once been molten and possibly vapor before it formed spheroidal particles about 1 ..mu..m diameter which agglomerated to form larger char particles. The ability to completely melt or vaporize lignocellulosic materials under conditions of high heating rates has now been demonstrated in a continuous flow reactor and promises new techniques for fast pyrolysis. This char was unexpectedly attracted by a magnet, presumably because of iron contamination from the pyrolysis reactor tube wall. The production of water-insoluble tars was negligible compared to the tars produced from trash-derived feedstock. The production of water-soluble organic materials was fairly low and qualitatively appeared to vary inversely with temperature. This study was of a preliminary nature and additional studies are necessary to optimize ethylene production from these feedstocks.

  20. Renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M.; Gearhart, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    Wood cribs have been the dominant form of supplemental support in coal mining for many years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in prop supports as a replacement for wood cribbing due to the increasing cost of mine timber and engineering advancements in prop design to improve their stability and yield capability. Prop supports generally consume less material, can be installed in less time with less labor, and provide less restriction to mine ventilation than wood crib supports. Several prop supports are now available or under development. These include: (1) Strata Products Propsetter{trademark} Support System, (2) Heintzmann ACS and Super Prop; (3) MBK-Hydraulik MEGA prop; (4) Advanced Mining Technology Inc. (AMTI) BTS Mortar prop; (5) Dywidag Coal Post; (6) Western Support Systems YIPPI support; and (7) ``The Can`` support by Burrell Mining Products. A comparison of the performance and cost of these support systems to wood cribs is made to provide mine operators with information needed to underground installations are discussed. Included in this assessment are full scale tests of these supports conducted in the US Bureau of Mines` Mine Roof Stimulator.

  1. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste stream options in terms of waste loading and/or decay time required before treatment. For Option 1, glass ceramics show an increase in waste loading of 15 mass % and reduction in decay time of 24 years. Decay times of {approx}50 years or longer are close to the expected age of the fuel that will be reprocessed when the modified open or closed fuel cycle is expected to be put into action. Option 2 shows a 2x to 2.5x increase in waste loading with decay times of only 45 years. Note that for Option 2 glass, the required decay time before treatment is only 35 years because of the waste loading limits related to the solubility of MoO{sub 3} in glass. If glass was evaluated for similar waste loadings as those achieved in Option 2 glass ceramics, the decay time would be significantly longer than 45 years. These glass ceramics are not optimized, but already they show the potential to dramatically reduce the amount of waste generated while still utilizing the proven processing technology used for glass production.

  2. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Evaluation of selected detector systems for products formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Bostick, D.T.

    1987-03-01

    Sensitive detection of UF/sub 6/ hydrolysis products, either by discontinuous sampling or by continuous or near real-time monitoring, is an important safety consideration for DOE contractors handling large quantities of UF/sub 6/. Automated continuous or rapid intermittent remote sensing of these reaction products can provide an alarm signal when a preselected threshold value has been exceeded (absolute response) or when a significant emission excursion has occurred (rate of change of response). This report evaluates the performance of selected devices for the detection of airborne materials formed in the release of liquid UF/sub 6/ (approx. =1.3 g) into an enclosed volume of 6 m/sup 3/; these experiments were initiated on October 23, 1986. The detection principles investigated are: photometric, gas detector tubes, and electrochemical sensor.

  5. Marginally trapped submanifolds in Lorentzian space forms and in the Lorentzian product of a space form by the real line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anciaux, Henri; Godoy, Yamile

    2015-02-15

    We give local, explicit representation formulas for n-dimensional spacelike submanifolds which are marginally trapped in the Minkowski space ℝ{sub 1}{sup n+2}, the de Sitter space dS{sup n+2}, the anti-de Sitter space AdS{sup n+2} and the Lorentzian products S{sup n+1} × ℝ and ℍ{sup n+1} × ℝ of the sphere and the hyperbolic space by the real line.

  6. Sources of biogenic methane to form marine gas hydrates: In situ production or upward migration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W. III; Borowski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    Potential sources of biogenic methane in the Carolina Continental Rise -- Blake Ridge sediments have been examined. Two models were used to estimate the potential for biogenic methane production: (1) construction of sedimentary organic carbon budgets, and (2) depth extrapolation of modern microbial production rates. While closed-system estimates predict some gas hydrate formation, it is unlikely that >3% of the sediment volume could be filled by hydrate from methane produced in situ. Formation of greater amounts requires migration of methane from the underlying continental rise sediment prism. Methane may be recycled from below the base of the gas hydrate stability zone by gas hydrate decomposition, upward migration of the methane gas, and recrystallization of gas hydrate within the overlying stability zone. Methane bubbles may also form in the sediment column below the depth of gas hydrate stability because the methane saturation concentration of the pore fluids decreases with increasing depth. Upward migration of methane bubbles from these deeper sediments can add methane to the hydrate stability zone. From these models it appears that recycling and upward migration of methane is essential in forming significant gas hydrate concentrations. In addition, the depth distribution profiles of methane hydrate will differ if the majority of the methane has migrated upward rather than having been produced in situ.

  7. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  8. PHOTOREDUCTIVE SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 TO FORM C1 PRODUCTS AND FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore Mill; Haruthai Tungudomwongsa

    2003-08-25

    Analytical methods for determining formic, acetic and oxalic acids, formaldehyde, and methanol have been evaluated and/or optimized for measuring products from photoreduction of CO{sub 2} in illuminated, aqueous suspensions of photocatalysts. An electrophoresis anion separation method (CIA) can detect aqueous formate and oxalate ions at 22 and 17 {micro}M (1 ppm), respectively. Recalibration of the Nash formaldehyde determination shows that as little as 10 {micro}M (0.3 ppm) can be detected spectrally. Several experiments using suspensions of Pt/TiO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}, and SrTiO{sub 3} with Cr and Sb were illuminated in CO{sub 2} saturated solutions. No acids were detected in most experiments using CIA; however, ion chromatography (IC) was able to detect formate and acetate at low {micro}M (sub ppm) concentrations in several experiments using Pt/TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} in sunlight and with xenon uv light. Analysis for methanol by gas chromatography showed that not more than 2 ppm methanol could have formed and probably less. Adding 0.6 mM 2-propanol to an irradiated CO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} suspension led to formation of 550 {micro}M formate, but no formaldehyde, probably because re-oxidation of formate by semiconductor holes was competitively blocked. Loss of C{sub 1} products at higher concentrations by re-oxidation may be an important process, limiting the accumulation of products. Preliminary estimates were made of the physical size of a solar CO{sub 2} photoreduction unit large enough to reduce the CO{sub 2} produced from a 1000 MW coal-fired electricity plant. A perfectly efficient system could be as small as 2 to 3 km{sup 2}.

  9. Summary Report: Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined Fission Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.; Turo, Laura A.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna

    2011-09-23

    Glass-ceramic waste form development began in FY 2010 examining two combined waste stream options: (1) alkaline earth (CS) + lanthanide (Ln), and (2) + transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by the uranium extraction (UREX+) separations process. Glass-ceramics were successfully developed for both options however; Option 2 was selected over Option 1, at the conclusion of 2010, because Option 2 immobilized all three waste streams with only a minimal decrease in waste loading. During the first year, a series of three glass (Option 2) were fabricated that varied waste loading-WL (42, 45, and 50 mass%) at fixed molar ratios of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali both at 1.75. These glass-ceramics were slow cooled and characterized in terms of phase assemblage and preliminary irradiation stability. This fiscal year, further characterization was performed on the FY 2010 Option 2 glass-ceramics in terms of: static leach testing, phase analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and irradiation stability (electron and ion). Also, a new series of glass-ceramics were developed for Option 2 that varied the additives: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0-6 mass%), molar ratio of CaO/MoO{sub 3} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}/alkali (1.75 to 2.25) and waste loading (50, 55, and 60 mass%). Lastly, phase pure powellite and oxyapatite were synthesized for irradiation studies. Results of this fiscal year studies showed compositional flexibility, chemical stability, and radiation stability in the current glass-ceramic system. First, the phase assemblages and microstructure of all of the FY 2010 and 2011 glass-ceramics are very similar once subjected to the slow cool heat treatment. The phases identified in these glass-ceramics were oxyapatite, powellite, cerianite, and ln-borosilicate. This shows that variations in waste loading or additives can be accommodated without drastically changing the phase assemblage of the waste form, thus making the processing and performance characteristics of the waste form more predictable/flexible. However, in the future, the glass phase still needs to be accurately characterized to determine the effects of waste loading and additives on the glass structure. Initial investigations show a borosilicate glass phase rich in silica. Second, the normalized concentrations of elements leached from the waste form during static leach testing were all below 0.6 g/L after 28d at 90 C, by the Product Consistency Test (PCT), method B. These normalized concentrations are on par with durable waste glasses such as the Low-Activity Reference Material (LRM) glass. The release rates for the crystalline phases (oxyapatite and powellite) appear to be lower (more durable) than the glass phase based on the relatively low release rates of Mo, Ca, and Ln found in the crystalline phases compared to Na and B that are mainly observed in the glass phase. However, further static leach testing on individual crystalline phases is needed to confirm this statement. Third, Ion irradiation and In situ TEM observations suggest that these crystalline phases (such as oxyapatite, ln-borosilicate, and powellite) in silicate based glass ceramic waste forms exhibit stability to 1000 years at anticipated doses (2 x 10{sup 10}-2 x 10{sup 11} Gy). This is adequate for the short lived isotopes in the waste, which lead to a maximum cumulative dose of {approx}7 x 10{sup 9} Gy, reached after {approx}100 yrs, beyond which the dose contributions are negligible. The cumulate dose calculations are based on a glass-ceramic at WL = 50 mass%, where the fuel has a burn-up of 51GWd/MTIHM, immobilized after 5 yr decay from reactor discharge.

  10. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  11. PHOTOREDUCTIVE SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 TO FORM C1 PRODUCTS AND FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore Mill; Haruthai Tungudomwongsa

    2004-02-24

    We have investigated the photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} in aqueous solution to form C{sub 1} products using a variety of oxide semiconductors and near UV light. Conventional oxide photosemiconductors including TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3}, as well as modified oxide semiconductors including Pt/TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3}/Cr-Sb, TiO{sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or TiO{sub 2}/Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} were used. Analysis for formate, acetate, formaldehyde, methanol and methane were conducted by a variety of analytical methods. Despite extensive published data on the facile reduction of CO{sub 2} by these semiconductors, we found only trace quantities of formate and acetate (typically less than 1 ppm) and no unequivocal evidence for formation of the other products. The quantum efficiencies of TiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} for forming formate and acetate from CO{sub 2} are estimated to be 0.1-0.2% or less. The spectral properties of the unmodified oxides (TiO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3}) restricts their use of solar irradiation to about 10% of the available near UV and visible spectrum, thereby giving an overall quantum and spectral efficiency of less than 0.01%. Semiconductor oxides modified with, Cr and Sb, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} exhibited no enhanced efficiency. However, Pt/TiO{sub 2} does produce more formate and acetate than TiO{sub 2} alone by about a factor of two. Addition of 0.6 mM 2-propanol to an irradiated CO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} suspension led to formation of larger amounts (0.55 mM, 25 ppm) of formate, but no formaldehyde. The higher yield is probably because re-oxidation of formate by semiconductor holes was competitively blocked by propanol acting as a sacrificial electron donor. Reoxidation of formate by TiO{sub 2} under argon is 80 times faster than reduction. Thus, reoxidation could be an important process limiting the accumulation of products and will require new design strategies for reducing accumulation of products in the photocatalytic zone if the an efficient process is to be developed. New photosemiconductors are needed which have broad spectral absorbance extending to 600 nm. Preliminary estimates were made of the physical size of a solar CO{sub 2} photoreduction unit large enough to reduce the CO{sub 2} produced from a 1000 MW coal-fired electricity plant. Although a perfectly efficient (100%) system could be as small as 10 km{sup 2}, to begin to approach that size plant footprint will require a dramatic improvement in semiconductor photocatalysis efficiency over that which is currently available.

  12. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  13. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal ... Forestry, Fire Management, Self- Governance, ... coordination's across organizations 2 boilers and one ...

  14. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Daniel Wood About Us Daniel Wood - Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Daniel Wood Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy Department's vast array of data. You can check out some of his work here. Prior to joining the Energy.gov team, Daniel worked at a large PR firm in Washington, D.C, doing web development

  15. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  16. The Production of Advanced Glass Ceramic HLW Forms using Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veronica J Rutledge; Vince Maio

    2013-10-01

    Cold Crucible Induction Melters (CCIMs) will favorably change how High-Level radioactive Waste (from nuclear fuel recovery) is treated in the 21st century. Unlike the existing Joule-Heated Melters (JHMs) currently in operation for the glass-based immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW), CCIMs offer unique material features that will increase melt temperatures, increase throughput, increase mixing, increase loading in the waste form, lower melter foot prints, eliminate melter corrosion and lower costs. These features not only enhance the technology for producing HLW forms, but also provide advantageous attributes to the waste form by allowing more durable alternatives to glass. This paper discusses advantageous features of the CCIM, with emphasis on features that overcome the historical issues with the JHMs presently utilized, as well as the benefits of glass ceramic waste forms over borosilicate glass waste forms. These advantages are then validated based on recent INL testing to demonstrate a first-of-a-kind formulation of a non-radioactive ceramic-based waste form utilizing a CCIM.

  17. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  18. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Bo-Ching; Rosenbaum, Herman S.; Armijo, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for producing nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction having components providing therein a barrier system for resisting destructive action by volatile fission products or impurities and also interdiffusion of metal constituents, and the product thereof. The composite nuclear fuel containers of the method comprise a casing of zirconium or alloy thereof with a layer of copper overlying an oxidized surface portion of the zirconium or alloy thereof.

  19. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  20. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado March 26, 2014 Presented by: Kelda Britton CATG Department of Natural Resources Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village and Venetie are the remote

  1. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment Department of Energy Tribal Program Review Golden, Colorado May 7 2015 Presented by: Frannie Hughes Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CEO Work compiled by Kelda Britton, CATG NR Director Please contact me for a full list of citations. kelda@catg.org CATG is a consortium of 10 Gwich'in and Koyukon Athabascan tribes located throughout the Yukon Flats. Arctic Village, Beaver, Birch Creek, Canyon Village, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, Rampart, Stevens Village

  2. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AN ACTIVATED FORM OF UO$sub 2$

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Polissar, M.J.

    1957-09-24

    A process for producing a highly active form of UO/sub 2/ characterized both by rapid oxidation in air and by rapid chlorination with CCl/sub 4/ vapor at an elevated temperature is reported. In accordance with the process, commercial UO/sub 2/, is subjected to a series of oxidation-reduction operations to produce a form of UC/sub 2/ of enhanced reactivity. By treatimg commercial UO/sub 2/ at a temperature between 335 and 485 deg C with methane, then briefly with an oxygen containing gas and followimg this by a second treatment with a methane containing gas, the original relatively stable charge of UO/sub 2/ will be transformed into an active form of UO/sub 2/.

  3. Application of the metal compression forming process for the production of an aluminum alloy component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, S.; Porter, W.D.; Ren, W.; Purgert, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. MCF applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting. It also enhances the solidification rate of the metal, promoting a very fine grain structure which results in improved properties. Consequently, the process is capable of producing parts with properties close to that of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complex geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process.

  4. Potential role of lignin in tomorrow's wood utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glasser, W.G.

    1981-03-01

    Low-grade timber supplies and wood processing residues are presently converted into paper products, used for fuel, or remain totally unused. Competition for this resource will continue to mount, particularly when manufacturers of chemicals and liquid fuels enter the market with new technologies now under development. The type of technology that concentrates on depolymerization of carbohydrates will generate large quantities of lignin-rich residues. The potential of these lignins to contribute to the economic feasibility of new chemical wood process technologies may involve degradative depolymerization to phenols and benzene, or polymer conversion into a wide variety of dispersants, binders, reinforcing and antioxidizing agents, etc. Where lignin's fuel value lies around 3 to 4 cents/lb. (fall of 1979), its raw material value for phenol is reported to be almost 5 cents/lb., and the value of the polymeric materials is estimated to be between 6 and 20 cents/lb. At the lower end of this range of raw material values are ligninsulfonates, which contribute nearly 98 percent to the approximately 1.5 billion lb./yr. U.S. market for lignin products. Kraft lignins are located at the opposite end of this range. Novel bioconversion-type lignins are expected to be more similar in structure and properties to kraft than to sulfite lignins. Whereas application of the dispersant properties of ligninsulfonates in tertiary oil recovery operations is expected to constitute the most significant use of lignin in terms of volume, adhesive and resin applications hold the greatest promise in terms of value. Both utilization schemes seem to require pretreatments in the form of either polymeric fractionation or chemical modification. Potential savings from the use of polymeric lignins in material systems are great.

  5. Inelastic Scattering Form Factors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-01-01

    ATHENA-IV computes form factors for inelastic scattering calculations, using single-particle wave functions that are eigenstates of motion in either a Woods-Saxon potential well or a harmonic oscillator well. Two-body forces of Gauss, Coulomb, Yukawa, and a sum of cut-off Yukawa radial dependences are available.

  6. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test ResultsTHOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Product in a Geopolymer Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pires, Richard P.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-07-14

    Screening tests are being conducted to evaluate waste forms for immobilizing secondary liquid wastes from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Plans are underway to add a stabilization treatment unit to the Effluent Treatment Facility to provide the needed capacity for treating these wastes from WTP. The current baseline is to use a Cast Stone cementitious waste form to solidify the wastes. Through a literature survey, DuraLith alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymer, fluidized-bed steam reformation (FBSR) granular product encapsulated in a geopolymer matrix, and a Ceramicrete phosphate-bonded ceramic were identified both as candidate waste forms and alternatives to the baseline. These waste forms have been shown to meet waste disposal acceptance criteria, including compressive strength and universal treatment standards for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (as measured by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP]). Thus, these non-cementitious waste forms should also be acceptable for land disposal. Information is needed on all four waste forms with respect to their capability to minimize the release of technetium. Technetium is a radionuclide predicted to be in the secondary liquid wastes in small quantities, but the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) risk assessment analyses show that technetium, even at low mass, produces the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater.

  7. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, Kazuei Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  8. PHOTOREDUCTIVE SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 TO FORM C1 PRODUCTS AND FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodore Mill; Haruthai Tungudomwongsa

    2003-03-13

    Analytical methods for determining formic and oxalic acids, formaldehyde and methanol have been evaluated and/or optimized for measuring products from photoreduction of CO{sub 2} in illuminated, aqueous suspensions of photocatalysts. An electrophoretic analysis method can detect aqueous formate and oxalate ions at 3 and 1 {micro}M respectively. Recalibration of the Nash formaldehyde determination shows that as little as 0.5 {micro}M can be detected spectrally. Several experiments using suspensions of TiO{sub 2}, SrTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} with Cr and Sb were tested in CO{sub 2} saturated solutions. No formate was detected in most experiments. However adding 2-propanol to a CO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} suspension gave significant amounts of formate and some formaldehyde by blocking the re-oxidation of formate by semiconductor holes. Loss of C{sub 1} products by re-oxidation is probably an important process limiting the accumulation of formate, formaldehyde and methanol.

  9. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  10. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - capacity to deliver split fire wood, boiler round wood, wood chips for chip boilers; ... of heat and is responsible for feeding boiler Forest and land management plan CATG ...

  11. AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EPSILON-METAL WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-03-01

    This report examines and ranks a total of seven materials processing techniques that may be potentially utilized to consolidate the undissolved solids from nuclear fuel reprocessing into a low-surface area form. Commercial vendors of processing equipment were contacted and literature researched to gather information for this report. Typical equipment and their operation, corresponding to each of the seven techniques, are described in the report based upon the discussions and information provided by the vendors. Although the report does not purport to describe all the capabilities and issues of various consolidation techniques, it is anticipated that this report will serve as a guide by highlighting the key advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The processing techniques described in this report were broadly classified into those that employed melting and solidification, and those in which the consolidation takes place in the solid-state. Four additional techniques were examined that were deemed impractical, but were included for completeness. The techniques were ranked based on criteria such as flexibility in accepting wide-variety of feed-stock (chemistry, form, and quantity), ease of long-term maintenance, hot cell space requirements, generation of additional waste streams, cost, and any special considerations. Based on the assumption of ~2.5 L of waste to be consolidated per day, sintering based techniques, namely, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, were ranked as the top-3 choices, respectively. Melting and solidification based techniques were ranked lower on account of generation of volatile phases and difficulties associated with reactivity and containment of the molten metal.

  12. Product-form solution techniques for the performance analysis of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems with nonuniform memory references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiola, G.; Marsan, M.A.; Balbo, G.

    1988-05-01

    Recursive relations are derived for the exact computation of the steady-state probability distribution of some queueing models with passive resources that can be used to analyze the performance of multiple-bus multiprocessor system architectures. The most general case that was shown to admit a product-form solution is described, and a recursive solution is obtained considering different processor access rates, different memory selection probabilities, and an FCFS bus scheduling policy. Several simpler cases allowing easier model solutions are also considered. Numerical evaluations of large computing systems with nonuniform memory references show the usefulness of the results.

  13. Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    be claimed for a period of five years; total tax credits cap set at 6,000,000 annually, subject to appropriations Program Info Sector Name State Administrator Division of Energy...

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  15. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1 inch in length.

  16. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    By: Karonhiakta'tie Bryan Maracle and Bill Wall - Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) - Consortia of 10 Tribal Governments of Interior Alaska - Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation (GZ Corp) - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Village Corporation - Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) - Rural Alaska economic development organization - First off grid, off road system biomass CHP in the world - 8 miles north of the Arctic Circle - New Power House - Wood Chip Boiler - District Heating loop

  17. Quantifying And Predicting Wood Quality Of Loblolly And Slash Pine Under Intensive Forest Management Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark III

    2006-05-04

    The forest industry will increasingly rely on fast-growing intensively managed southern pine plantations to furnish wood and fiber. Intensive silvicultural practices, including competition control, stand density control, fertilization, and genetic improvement are yielding tremendous gains in the quantity of wood production from commercial forest land. How these technologies affect wood properties was heretofore unknown, although there is concern about the suitability of fast-grown wood for traditional forest products. A four year study was undertaken to examine the effects of these intensive practices on the properties of loblolly and slash pine wood by applying a common sampling method over 10 existing field experiments. Early weed control gets young pines off to a rapid start, often with dramatically increased growth rates. This response is all in juvenile wood however, which is low in density and strength. Similar results are found with early Nitrogen fertilization at the time of planting. These treatments increase the proportion of juvenile wood in the tree. Later, mid-rotation fertilization with Nitrogen and Phosphorus can have long term (4-8 year) growth gains. Slight reductions in wood density are short-lived (1-2 years) and occur while the tree is producing dense, stiff mature wood. Impacts of mid-rotation fertilization on wood properties for manufacturing are estimated to be minimal. Genetic differences are evident in wood density and other properties. Single family plantings showed somewhat more uniform properties than bulk improved or unimproved seedlots. Selection of genetic sources with optimal wood properties may counter some of the negative impacts of intensive weed control and fertilization. This work will allow forest managers to better predict the effects of their practices on the quality of their final product.

  18. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  19. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  20. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  1. The Influence of Process Conditions on the Chemical Composition of Pine Wood Catalytic Pyrolysis Oils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pereira, J.; Agblevor, F. A.; Beis, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Pine wood samples were used as model feedstock to study the properties of catalytic fast pyrolysis oils. The influence of two commercial zeolite catalysts (BASF and SudChem) and pretreatment of the pine wood with sodium hydroxide on pyrolysis products were investigated. The pyrolysis oils were first fractionated using column chromatography and characterized using GC-MS. Long chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, levoglucosan, aldehydes and ketones, guaiacols/syringols, and benzenediols were the major compounds identified in the pyrolysis oils. The catalytic pyrolysis increased the polycyclic hydrocarbons fraction. Significant decreases in phthalate derivatives using SudChem and long chain aliphatics using BASF catalyst were observed. Significant amountsmore » of aromatic heterocyclic hydrocarbons and benzene derivatives were formed, respectively, using BASF and SudChem catalysts. Guaiacyl/syringyl and benzenediols derivatives were partly suppressed by the zeolite catalysts, while the sodium hydroxide treatment enriched phenolic derivatives. Zeolite catalyst and sodium hydroxide were employed together; they showed different results for each catalyst.« less

  2. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  3. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  4. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  5. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  6. SEP Success Story: How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Country School has dedicated itself to finding renewable sources of fuel to heat the approximately 85,000 square feet of classroom and office space on campus. After investigating many options, installing a wood chip boiler emerged as the most environmental and economical choice, due in large part to the availability of wood chips that are a by-product of the campus’ forest woodlot. Learn more.

  7. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Patent: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  8. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May 1

  9. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  10. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  11. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  12. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company -...

  13. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  14. Service Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Forms Beamtime Request Form Deposition Request Form Exposure Request Form - pdf Fly Cutting Request Form Hot Embossing Request Form Metrology Request Form

  15. Continuous-flow wood chip reactor for biodegradation of 2,4-DCP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yum, K.J.; Peirce, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Chlorinated phenols are by-products of chlorine bleaching in numerous industries including pulp and paper mills and can be emitted from a variety of incineration processes. This research investigates the ability and efficiency of continuous-flow wood chip reactors seeded with a white-rot fungus to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) using wood chips as a carbon source. When 2,4-DCP was the only substrate (nonglucose treatment conditions), the wood chip reactor system had a high degradation efficiency and operated continuously without excessive fungal biomass buildup on the wood chips. In the presence of added glucose, a clogging problem and an effluent contamination problem of fungal cells are found during the reactor operating period. In addition, 2,4-DCP is degraded effectively both under low-nitrogen as well as high-nitrogen treatment conditions. The 2,4-DCP is degraded to a greater extent with small-size wood chips and hardwood chips as a carbon source. The results of this research demonstrate a potential application of wood chip reactor systems for the treatment of contaminated water while expanding the use of wasted forest products.

  16. Two Translation Products of Yersinia yscQ Assemble To Form a Complex Essential to Type III Secretion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P.; Hamaoka, Brent Y.; Ghosh, Partho

    2012-07-11

    The bacterial flagellar C-ring is composed of two essential proteins, FliM and FliN. The smaller protein, FliN, is similar to the C-terminus of the larger protein, FliM, both being composed of SpoA domains. While bacterial type III secretion (T3S) systems encode many proteins in common with the flagellum, they mostly have a single protein in place of FliM and FliN. This protein resembles FliM at its N-terminus and is as large as FliM but is more like FliN at its C-terminal SpoA domain. We have discovered that a FliN-sized cognate indeed exists in the Yersinia T3S system to accompany the FliM-sized cognate. The FliN-sized cognate, YscQ-C, is the product of an internal translation initiation site within the locus encoding the FliM-sized cognate YscQ. Both intact YscQ and YscQ-C were found to be required for T3S, indicating that the internal translation initiation site, which is conserved in some but not all YscQ orthologs, is crucial for function. The crystal structure of YscQ-C revealed a SpoA domain that forms a highly intertwined, domain-swapped homodimer, similar to those observed in FliN and the YscQ ortholog HrcQ{sub B}. A single YscQ-C homodimer associated reversibly with a single molecule of intact YscQ, indicating conformational differences between the SpoA domains of intact YscQ and YscQ-C. A 'snap-back' mechanism suggested by the structure can account for this. The 1:2 YscQ-YscQ-C complex is a close mimic of the 1:4 FliM-FliN complex and the likely building block of the putative Yersinia T3S system C-ring.

  17. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, ...

  18. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail...

  19. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  20. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  1. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices.

  2. Cellulosic Liquid Fuels Commercial Production Today

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    liquid fuel from wood and other non-food biomass Our key product is Renewable ... petroleum replacement from cellulosic non- food biomass Powerful unit economics - cash ...

  3. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2004-04-08

    An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forming and Springback Behavior and the Resulting Effects on Industrial Application on a Structural Part in Mass Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prexl, A.; Hoffmann, H. [Institute of Metal Forming and Casting, Technische Universitaet Muenchen D-85747 Garching (Germany); Golle, M. [Institute of Metal Forming and Casting, Technische Universitaet Muenchen D-85747 Garching (Germany); Institute of Punching and Blanking, Pforzheim University, D-75175 Pforzheim (Germany); Kudrass, S.; Wahl, M. [AUDI AG, D-85045 Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2011-01-17

    Springback prediction and compensation is nowadays a widely recommended discipline in finite element modeling. Many researches have shown an improvement of the accuracy in prediction of springback using advanced modeling techniques, e.g. by including the Bauschinger effect. In this work different models were investigated in the commercial simulation program AutoForm for a large series production part, manufactured from the dual phase steel HC340XD. The work shows the differences between numerical drawbead models and geometrically modeled drawbeads. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis was made for a reduced kinematic hardening model, implemented in the finite element program AutoForm.

  5. Carbon number distribution of Fischer-Tropsch products formed on an iron catalyst in a slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satterfield, C.N.; Huff, G.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Studies at 234 to 269/sup 0/C and at 790 kPa showed a precise linear relationship between the log of mole fraction m/sub n/ of products of carbon number n, and n, as predicted by the Flory molecular-weight distribution provided that all products, including oxygenated species, are considered. The relationship held over more than four orders of magnitude of m/sub n/, values of n of from 1 to about 20, and over a wide range of gas composition. The chain growth probability factor, ..cap alpha.., increased slightly from 0.67 at 269/sup 0/C to 0.71 at 234/sup 0/C. 8 figures, 1 table.

  6. Production of a highly active, soluble form of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR A) from Candida tropicalis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Mark

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides soluble cytochrome p450 reductase (CPR) proteins from Candida sp. having an altered N-terminal region which results in reduced hydrophobicity of the N-terminal region. Also provided are host cells comprising the subject soluble CPR proteins. In addition, the present invention provides nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences for soluble CPR proteins and vectors comprising the nucleotide sequences. Methods for producing a soluble CPR, for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid, and for detecting a cytochrome P450 are also provided.

  7. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  8. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Rieke, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups.

  9. Process for depositing thin film layers onto surfaces modified with organic functional groups and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasevich, B.J.; Rieke, P.C.

    1998-06-02

    A method is provided for producing a thin film product, comprising a first step in which an underlying substrate of a first material is provided. The underlying substrate includes a plurality of unmodified sites. The underlying substrate is then chemically modified wherein a plurality of organic functional groups are attached to a plurality of the unmodified sites. The arrangement and type of the functional group used can be selected for the purpose of controlling particular properties of the second material deposited. A thin film layer of at least one second material is then deposited onto the chemically modified underlying substrate. This can be accomplished by connecting the thin film to the underlying substrate by binding the thin film to the functional groups. 5 figs.

  10. Task 4.0 -- Advanced fuel forms and co-products. Semi-Annual report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C.; Timpe, R.C.; Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

    1993-07-01

    Summarized below is the work carried out over a six-month period on the subtasks Beneficiation for Advanced Systems, Co-Products, and Low-Rank Coal Liquefaction. Hydrothermal drying (hot-water drying and saturated-steam drying) was determined to be an effective method of causing a permanent reduction in the equilibrium moisture of low-rank coals and removing sodium. The development of improved methods is continuing for assessing the propensity of coals to dust generation. Carbonic acid treatment of lignites and subbituminous coals reduced the sodium contents of these coals by 60 to 70 wt%. Float/sink washability testing of low-sulfur subbituminous coals produced ash reductions of 30 to 40 wt% at +95 wt% moisture and ash-free (maf) coal recovery. Ineffective agglomerants were induced to agglomerate low-rank coals by mixing with a polar oil or polar alcohol. Effective agglomeration promoters were crude phenol, m-cresol, cresylic acid, methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol. Three coals, a North Dakota Lignite, a North Dakota Leonardite, and an Alaskan subbituminous coal, were pyrolyzed. Proximate analysis showed that the subbituminous char was typically lower in volatiles than the lignite. Adsorption of sulfur dioxide by the chars were indistinguishable from one another. Coal can be effectively solubilized by treatment with CO reductant in an aqueous solvent (CO steam process). In this report, the catalytic hydrotreatment of the solubilized low-severity products from sodium aluminate-catalyzed and uncatalyzed CO/H{sub 2}O reactions of a Wyodak subbituminous coal are compared. Liquefaction with the Co-Me catalyst gave 68% conversion to heptane solubles for both the sodium aluminate and the uncatalyzed low-severity reaction intermediates.

  11. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  12. Investigation of possible health effects of community exposure to fermenting wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkhead, G.; Vogt, R.L.; Hudson, P.J.

    1988-03-01

    We conducted a case-control study of emergency room (ER) patients to evaluate whether asthma is caused by living near a wood-chip fueled power plant that released wood-chip fermentation products. Only eight (29 per cent) of 28 asthma patients seen in the ER during an 11-week period lived within 1.5 miles of the plant compared with 18 (34 per cent) of 54 control patients matched for severity of diagnosis and seen during the same period (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio controlling for age = 0.96).

  13. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated to what would have been the added municipal (community) management costs involved with maintaining closed landfills. (2) With greater quantities of recovered material being returned to and integrated into manufacturing and the marketplace, reduced demand upon virgin wood sources could help lead the way to promoting improved relations and environmental balance between producers and consumers further expanding the value of our natural resource without adding environmental burden.

  14. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

    2001-08-21

    During the third quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin early in the fourth quarter. Authorization was awaited in response to the letter that was submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) seeking an R&D variance for the air permit at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Verbal authorizations were received from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) for R&D variances for solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Discussions were held with BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA) about the test program. Material and energy balances on Boiler No.1 and a plan for data collection were prepared. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the Pittsburgh Chapter of the Pennsylvania Society of Professional Engineers, and the Upgraded Coal Interest Group and the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). An article describing the program appeared in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. An application was submitted for authorization for a Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Program.

  15. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  16. Assessment of potential wood supply for intermediate scale thermoconversion facilities, Tasks I, II, III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program has been concerned with the potential of wood biomass to contribute to the Nation's energy supply. One of the factors inhibiting the selection of wood biomass for energy by non-forest industries, especially by those requiring large quantities (500 to 2000 green tons per day), is concern with adequate fuel supply in terms of both a supply system and an adequate resource base. With respect to the latter, this report looks at the gross resource base as has been historically reported and also examines factors other than traditional product removals that could reduce to some degree the amount of resource that is available. The study also examined the conversion of a New England utility from coal to wood chips.

  17. JLF Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JLF Forms JLF Target Fab Request JLF Experiment Worksheet JLF-Experimental Team Registration Form JLF-LLNL Participant Registration Form JLF-External Participant Registration Form JLF-Debriefing Form

  18. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  19. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  20. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  1. Online Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microfabrication | Safety Online Forms, Guidelines & Policies Questions of How to Get Started? - Click here! User Forms: Beamtime Request Form - pdf CAMD Gas Cylinder Request Form - pdf Compressed Gas Purchase Order - pdf Exposure Request Form - pdf (How To Fill the Exposure Request Form?) Format for Annual User Reports - pdf Microfabrication Project Proposal Form - pdf Synchrotron Project Proposal Form - pdf Registration & Test Application for Facility Access & Radiation Badge - pdf

  2. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research Print Thursday, 25 October 2012 10:44 paris-wood composites Wood scientist and ALS user Jesse Paris (at left) is getting an intimate, 3-D view of adhesive penetration in wood-composite structures thanks to ALS Beamline 8.3.2. He and colleagues at Oregon State University are now using the data he gathered through x-ray tomography scans at the ALS to build a predictive computer simulation model

  3. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid from the extract. When operating the facility will produce 1.5 million gallons per year of butanol and create 16 new “green collar” jobs. Previously, a spare pulp digester was converted to a new extractor, and in 2009 it was demonstrated that a good hemicellulose extract could be produced, while simultaneously producing market pulp. Since then more than 250 hours of operational experience has been acquired by the mill generating a hemicellulose extract while simultaneously producing market pulp at a scale of 1000 tonnes (OD)/day of mixed northern hardwood chips.

  4. Wood energy and preservation of woodlands in semi-arid developing countries. The case of Dodoma region, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    At present little land and labour resources are expended on energy production, but the woodlands in Dodoma are disappearing, causing villagers to save time by switching from fuelwood collected on foot to charcoal shipped in by truck. Results of a linear program show that if the costs of growing the wood for charcoal are counted the switch to charcoal saves time only in areas where population is relatively dense and natural woodland remote. Woodland preservation in Dodoma will require more plantations, increased plantation productivity, improved efficiency of charcoal kilns or stoves and ultimately a switch to some other fuel than wood.

  5. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration Energy Star Kids Energy Education Activities switch on clean energy (EERE) invests in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy,

  6. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  7. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  8. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  9. Forest Products Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forest Products Industry Profile Forest Products Industry Profile Wood and paper products meet the everyday needs of consumers and businesses. They provide materials essential for communication, education, packaging, construction, shelter, sanitation, and protection. The U.S. forest products industry is based on a renewable and sustainable raw material: wood. It practices recovery and recycling in its operations. Its forests help the global carbon balance by taking up carbon dioxide from the

  10. Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forms Forms Engraving To request engraving services submit form DOE F 4250.2 (pdf), Requisition for Supplies Equipment, or Service. Go to Engraving information web page. Staffed Copy Center - Graphics - Photography - Printing To request various services and products from the Printing, Graphics and Photography offices, submit form HQ F 1420.7 (pdf), Request for Print Media Services. Go to Staffed Copy Center web page. Go to Graphics web page. Go to Photography web page. Go to Printing web page.

  11. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  12. Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transcriptome and Biochemical Analyses of Fungal Degradation of Wood Lignocellulosic accounts for a large percentage of material that can be utilized for biofuels. The most costly part of lignocellulosic material processing is the initial hydrolysis of the wood which is needed to circumvent the lignin barrier and the crystallinity of cellulose.

  13. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  14. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  15. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  19. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  20. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  1. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  2. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  3. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  4. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  5. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  6. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  7. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  8. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  9. Characterization of Lignin Derived from Water-only and Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment of Poplar Wood at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Background: Flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. Results: In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. Conclusions: Elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during hot water and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment.

  10. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during hot water and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment.

  11. FORM EIA-846C

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Yes 2 D No |j 1 DYes 2 DNO 1 DYOS 2 DNO Copy to line 1 of section 3 ? 1 D Yes 2 DNO 1 1 . Wood chips, bark, and wood waste 8 1 0 12. Other solids 919 927 B. GASES 1 . Natural gas...

  12. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  13. 3219," Other Wood Products",41,43,0,58

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",5,5,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  14. 3219," Other Wood Products",0,0,0

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  15. 3219," Other Wood Products",7,12,8

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",16,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ... and Intermediates",0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  16. 3219," Other Wood Products",5,0,41,0,5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Intermediates",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",11,0,5,0,10 325199," Other Basic ... Intermediates",0,0,0,0,0 325193," Ethyl Alcohol ",0,0,0,0,0 325199," Other Basic Organic ...

  17. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  18. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ? The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ? The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ? PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ? The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  19. Characterization of emissions from a fluidized-bed wood chip home heating furnace. Final report Apr 82-May 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truesdale, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    The report gives results of measurements of emissions from a residential wood-chip combustor, operated in both a fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired mode, and their comparison with those from a conventional woodstove and industrial wood-fired boilers. In general, the combustion efficiency of the fluidized-bed and cyclone-fired wood-chip burner is higher than that of conventional woodstoves. Concomitant with this increase in efficiency is a decrease in most emissions. For the fluidized-bed tests, significant reductions of total hydrocarbons and CO were observed, compared to woodstove emissions. The cyclone test showed PAH levels far below those of conventional woodstoves, approaching levels measured in industrial wood-fired boilers. A baghouse, installed during two fluidized-bed tests, was extremely effective in reducing both particulate and PAH emissions. Method 5 samples from above the fluid bed suggest that appreciable PAH is formed in the upper region of the furnace or in the watertube heat exchangers. In general, the cyclone-fired mode was more effective in reducing emissions from residential wood combustion than the fluidized-bed mode.

  20. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  1. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the most attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.

  2. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  3. ARM - Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Forms To assist researchers in the conduct of field campaigns or required administrative procedures (such as Baseline Change Requests), we provide a number of...

  4. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  5. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  6. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  7. ARM - VAP Suggestion Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Suggestion Form Showcase Data ARM Best Estimate Data Products (ARMBE) This is a collection of data products that represents "best estimates" derived from several instruments and/or VAPs. We are interested in your feedback; please contact us. VAP Update Information on new, existing, and future value-added products for July l-September 30, 2015 is now available. Have a VAP idea? Use this form to let us know. Datastream Status Further details on the status of VAPs being processed or

  8. Benefit Forms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The employment and benefits forms that you will be asked to complete as part of this orientation program can be numerous. Each, however, serves an important purpose in ensuring proper recording of...

  9. EEOC FORM

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Management Directive-715 Fiscal Year 2012 DOE NNSA February 4, 2013 i National Nuclear Security Administration U.S. Department of Energy ANNUAL EEO PROGRAM STATUS REPORT EEO PLAN TO ATTAIN THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF A MODEL EEO PROGRAM Table of Contents Page FORM 715-01 Part A Department or Agency Identifying Information......................1 FORM 715-01 Part B Total

  10. Form Approved

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OGE Form 450, 5 CFR Part 2634, Subpart I U.S. Office of Government Ethics (January 2007) (Replaces September 2002 edition) Form Approved OMB NO. 3209-0006 CONFIDENTIAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REPORT Executive Branch Why Must I File? The duties and responsibilities of your position require you to file the Confidential Financial Disclosure Report to avoid involvement in a real or apparent conflict of interest. The purpose of this report is to assist employees and their agencies in avoiding conflicts

  11. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  12. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  14. An overview of agriforestry waste production and use in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleit, S.; Hoop, C.F. de; Chang, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    Agriculture and forestry are the second largest employers in the state of Louisiana. Natural by-products of these industries are biomass waste in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. Disposing of these wastes poses problems for the air and water. One popular waste management solution is to use them for fuel. To measure the potential for using biomass waste for fuel and other uses, a study was conducted of sugar cane processors, cotton ginners, rice processors and the primary and secondary wood processors in Louisiana. The study revealed that while some firms use waste for their own boilers, or sell it to others for fuel, there is still unused waste. There are many reasons for this including the cost of competing energy sources, lack of marketing innovation and the economies of scale. The study`s mission includes identifying new areas for utilizing waste. To facilitate these innovations, and bridge buyers with sellers of biomass waste, a geographic information system (GIS) was developed to map all sites claiming to produce and/or consume wood waste, as well as processors of cotton gin trash, rice hulls and sugar bagasse. These data are layered with timber supply data from the U.S. Forest Service.

  15. Registration Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Registration Form Registration Form Register for the Fall 2015 Tritium Focus Group Meeting sponsored by LANL. Contacts Mike Rogers (505) 665-2513 Email Chandra Savage Marsden (505) 664-0183 Email First Name: Last Name: Job Title: Company/Organization: Address: City, State, Zip Code: Email: Phone Number: Are you a US citizen? Yes No Do you have a DOE Q Clearance? Yes No Will you be giving a presentation? Yes No Maybe Are you interested in attending the classified session? Yes No Maybe Are you

  16. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  17. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  18. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  19. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  20. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  1. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    80,000 acres in one month Proposed Rural Wood Fuel Supply System *Capital costs for system capable of producing 7,000 TPY: 600,000 Key Obstacles to Overcome Development...

  2. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon A Systems Integration Bill Wall, PhD ... nation: 6.00 per gallon of heating fuel Heat School & Gym 30,000gals 180K Run ...

  3. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  4. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  5. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  6. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  7. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  8. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  9. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi « Prev Next » Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; Grigoriev, Igor V. Publication Date: 2014-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1222394 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print) Additional Journal Information: Journal Name: Fungal Genetics and Biology (Print); Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: C;

  10. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  11. Insulating concrete forms: Installed cost and acoustic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    The NAHB Research Center conducted a study to compare the cost and performance of Insulating Concrete Form (ICF) walls to conventional wood-frame exterior walls. This report contains the results of the cost study and sound transmission tests. Three home were built and monitored. One home has an ICF plank system, one has an ICF block system, and one is of conventional 2x4 lumber construction. The homes have identical floor plans and are located side by side. The findings indicate that the labor costs for the ICFs were slightly to moderately higher than the wood framing. However, the sound tests indicate that the ICF walls perform significantly better than the wood walls when no openings were present. The report summarizes the findings and recommends ways to increase the cost-effectiveness of ICFs.

  12. Administrative Forms/Policies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administrative Forms Microfab Project Proposal Form Exit Form After Hours Request Form

  13. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  14. Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea Genome, Transcriptome and Secretome Provides Insight into Its Pioneer Colonization Strategies of Wood

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hori, Chiaki; Ishida, Takuya; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Master, Emma; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Held, Benjamin; Canessa, Paulo; et al

    2014-12-04

    Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on freshcut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genesmore » involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea’s extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.« less

  15. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  16. Form 2B | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Application: Form 2BLegal Abstract Form 2B: Application for Permit to Discharge Wastewater from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Aquatic Animal Production...

  17. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during hot water and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment.« less

  18. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  19. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  20. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore » and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.« less

  1. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Hunter, J. F.; et al

    2015-07-16

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas andmore » particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO–HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.« less

  2. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore »and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.« less

  3. EIA-412 Form and Instructions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Other Generation: Electricity originating from these sources: biomass, fuel cells, geothermal heat, solar power, waste, wind, and wood. Peak demand: The maximum load during a ...

  4. Reservoir characterization and performance predictions for the E.N. Woods lease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aka-Milan, Francis A.

    2000-07-07

    The task of this work was to evaluate the past performance of the E.N. WOODS Unit and to forecast its future economic performance by taking into consideration the geology, petrophysics and production history of the reservoir. The Decline Curve Analysis feature of the Appraisal of Petroleum Properties including Taxation Systems (EDAPT) software along with the Production Management Systems (PMS) software were used to evaluate the original volume of hydrocarbon in place and estimate the reserve. The Black Oil Simulator (BOAST II) was then used to model the waterflooding operation and estimate the incremental oil production attributable to the water injection. BOAST II was also used to predict future performance of the reservoir.

  5. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  6. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  7. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  8. The production, purification and crystallization of a soluble form of the nonclassical MHC HLA-G: the essential role of cobalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, Craig S.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 from crystals of HLA-G. Cobalt ions were found to be essential for the production of diffracting crystals. HLA-G is a nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that is primarily expressed at the foetalmaternal interface. Although the role of HLA-G has not been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests it protects the foetus from the maternal immune response. In this report, HLA-G (44 kDa) is characterized by expression in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies were refolded in complex with a peptide derived from histone H2A (RIIPRHLQL), purified and subsequently crystallized. Correct refolding was determined using two conformation-dependent antibodies. Cobalt ions were shown to be an essential ingredient for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. The crystals, which diffracted to 1.9 resolution, belonged to space group P3{sub 2}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.15, c = 151.72 .

  9. Postdoctoral Initial Discussion Form | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initial Discussion Form This form outlines initial goals and clarifies expectations between a postdoc and his/her supervisor for a successful and productive relationship. Microsoft Office document icon Postdoctoral Initial Discussion Form.doc

  10. Measurement of wood/plant cell or composite material attributes with computer assisted tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Darrell C.; Paulus, Michael J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Wimmer, Rupert

    2004-06-08

    A method for obtaining wood-cell attributes from cellulose containing samples includes the steps of radiating a cellulose containing sample with a beam of radiation. Radiation attenuation information is collected from radiation which passes through the sample. The source is rotated relative to the sample and the radiation and collecting steps repeated. A projected image of the sample is formed from the collected radiation attenuation information, the projected image including resolvable features of the cellulose containing sample. Cell wall thickness, cell diameter (length) and cell vacoule diameter can be determined. A system for obtaining physical measures from cellulose containing samples includes a radiation source, a radiation detector, and structure for rotating the source relative to said sample. The system forms an image of the sample from the radiation attenuation information, the image including resolvable features of the sample.

  11. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008blue...

  12. The gasification of coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures in the University of Minnesota, two-stage coal gasifier: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The technical feasibility of gasifying coal-peat and coal-wood chip mixtures with the University of Minnesota, Duluth Campus commercially technology two-stage coal gasifier was demonstrated during a series of experimental tests. Three types of processed peat products were mixed with coal and gasified. The three peat products were: peat briquettes, peat pellets and sod peat. The best peat product for gasification and handling was found to be peat pellets with a diameter of 7/8 inch and a length of .75 to 2 inches. A mixture of 65% coal and 35% peat pellets was found to cause no loss in gasifier efficiency and no operational problems. However, there was found to be no economic advantage in using coal-peat mixtures. The very limited testing performed with coal-wood chip mixtures indicated that the wood chips would be difficult to handle with the coal handling-equipment and there would be no economic advantage in using wood chips. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  14. APPENDIX A: Forms and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D-03 Form R93D-59 Instructions Form RT94-02 Form RT94-04 Form RT94-0 Form RT94-03 Form RT94-05 Form RT94-06 Instructions Form...

  15. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  16. Engineering methods for the design and employment of wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M. ); Gearhart, D.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Wood cribs are used extensively by the mining industry to stabilize mine openings. While the cost per crib is relatively low, their extensive use can result in annual mine costs of over $1 million. In an effort to improve the utilization of these supports and to reduce ground control hazards, the US Bureau of Mines has developed engineering methods to assist mine operators in wood-crib design and employment. Design and employment criteria are established based on the strength, stiffness, and stability of the crib structure in relation to the load conditions imposed by the mine environment. Models have been developed based on full-scale tests in the USBM's Mine Roof Simulator that compute the capacity of wood cribs of various configurations and material constructions as a function of displacement of the crib structure due to roof-and-floor convergence. These models permit the comparison of the loading characteristics and cost of employment of different crib designs, and in conjunction with roof behavior models, provide a means to determine the optimum design and employment strategy. In eastern coal mines, wood cribs generally are constructed from hardwood timbers, while softwood timbers generally are used in western coal mines. 11 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Converting Sustainable Forest Products into Fuel: What it takes to have a successful wood pellet manufacturing business Presented at The Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunities and Strategies Forum July 9, 2014 Presented by Dr. William Strauss President, FutureMetrics Director, Maine Energy

  18. Using recycled wood waste as a fuel in the northeast: A handbook for prospective urban wood waste producers, suppliers and consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Donovan, C.T.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of existing and future markets for recycled wood wastes in the eleven-state northeast region. The purpose of the report is to estimate the availability of wood and woody materials in the solid waste stream and to determine the technical and economic viability of separating and recycling them for other uses. The topics discussed include: current and future markets for recycled wood wastes; key components of successful wood waste processing facilities; decisionmaking process used to determine technical and economic viability of a proposed processing facility; environmental regulations and the permitting process required for recycled wood waste processors and users; case studies and annotated listings of existing wood waste processors and uses; detailed assessments of market opportunities in three metropolitan areas including Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; and a proposed action plan to stimulate and facilitate future market development.

  19. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-10-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to replacing the more chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin with the less resistant hardwood guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) lignin genes. Achieving this genetic change would reduce the energy, chemical, and bleaching required in Kraft pulp production of softwoods.

  20. An Additive Resin Reaction Product, a Method of Treating a Wood Product,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solutions | Department of Energy An Adaptive, Consent-Based Path to Nuclear Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions An Adaptive, Consent-Based Path to Nuclear Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions February 12, 2014 - 1:15pm Addthis The Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Generating Station. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. The Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Generating Station. | Photo courtesy of the Energy Department. Dr. Ernest Moniz Dr. Ernest Moniz

  1. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  2. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  3. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  4. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  5. GlassForm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-09-16

    GlassForm is a software tool for generating preliminary waste glass formulas for a given waste stream. The software is useful because it reduces the number of verification melts required to develop a suitable additive composition. The software includes property models that calculate glass properties of interest from the chemical composition of the waste glass. The software includes property models for glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, and leach resistance as measured by the 7-daymore » product consistency test (PCT).« less

  6. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  7. ART ICHMI DOE Review Oct2015 Wood-1.pptx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technologies- Instrumentation, Control, and Human- Machine Interface (ICHMI) Technology Area Overview Richard Wood Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented during 2015 Nuclear Energy I&C Review U.S. Department of Energy - Webinar October 28, 2015 2 ICHMI Technology Area Focus is on Achieving Goals and Resolving Challenges for Advanced Reactors * DOE-NE R&D Objective #2 [Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors...] establishes the primary goal for ART ICHMI research -

  8. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  9. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  10. Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forms Forms Computer Keyboard Keyboard DOE Forms DOE's forms are developed within the Department and approved by the DOE Forms Manager. The forms provided (below) are designed to serve the needs of two (or more) DOE Headquarters or field organizations. (You must have Adobe Acrobat(R) Reader to view and print the below files. Fillable forms are identified by the "fillable" icon, and require the full version of Adobe Acrobat software.) Forms by Subject Forms by Number Management &

  11. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 °F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 °F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 °F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 °F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 °F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 °F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  12. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  14. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-13-053 Woods Hole EC B3-16.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium from Seawater: Studies under Real Ocean Conditions - Woods Hole Oceanographic ... and the best platform to expose, in high current regimes, these new fibers to the optimal ...

  15. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  16. Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Hot Lake Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Lake...

  17. Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Belknap-Foley-Bigelow Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  18. Science Brief Submission Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Brief Submission Form Science Brief Submission Form Print Tuesday, 01 May 2007 00:00 Loading... < Prev

  19. Microsoft Word - FORM46002.doc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Frequency No. of Copies Addressees 4. Reporting Requirements: MANAGEMENT REPORTING Progress Report Special Status Report SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL REPORTING (Reports/Products must be submitted with appropriate DOE F 241. The 241 forms are available at www.osti.gov/elink.) Report/Product Form Final Scientific/Technical Report DOE F 241.3 Conference papers/proceedings* DOE F 241.3 Software/Manual DOE F 241.4 Other (see special instructions) DOE F 241.3 * Scientific and technical conferences only

  20. Microsoft Word - Title Page Wood Feeding Beetle 2013.docx

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M etagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a Microbial Community Associated w ith a Wood- Feeding Beetle July 2013 Correspondence should be addressed to: John E. Carlson - i e c l 6 @ p s u . e d u Scully, Erin D.1; Geib, Scott M.2; Hoover, Kelli3; Tien, Ming4; Tringe, S usannah G.5; Barry, Kerrie W.3 ; Glavina del Rio, Tijana5; Chovatia,M ansi5; Herr, Joshua R.6 7 ; and Carlson, John E .7' 8 1 Intercollege Program in Genetics a t the Huck Institutes of the Life Sciences,

  1. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 _ .; , _-, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. \ Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of Energy (DDE) and its co,annunications with the .public.', In sup~port of this initiative, we are.pleased to forward.the,enclosed information reiated to the.former Linden Pilot Plant of the Chemical' Construction

  2. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  3. Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum > Petroleum Survey Forms> Petroleum Survey Forms Tutorial Product Pipeline Reports Tutorial Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe ...

  4. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel producers and production capacity by state, February 2016 State Number of ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  5. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel (B100) production by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  6. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B; Kehrer, Manfred; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  7. Demonstration of wood/coal co-firing in a spreader stoker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Geiger, G.E.; Campus, N.J.; Miller, W.F.; Freeman, M.C.; McCreery, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is sponsoring a series of demonstrations of wood/coal co-firing in stoker boilers. The first demonstration was conducted in 1997 in an industrial traveling-grate stoker boiler and the second in May 1999 in a spreader stoker boiler operated by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) at the Bruceton Research Laboratory. The principal wood used in both demonstrations was tub-ground broken pallets. In the first phase of the NIOSH demonstration, four five-ton loads of wood/coal mixtures, varying from 3% to 12% wood (by Btu content), were combusted. The second phase of this demonstration was a 50-hour test using a 10% wood/coal blend delivered in two 20-ton loads. It has been concluded from both demonstrations that (1) a 10% wood/coal blend burns acceptably in the boiler, but (2) tub-ground urban wood is unacceptably difficult to feed through the grill above the delivery pit and through the spreader stokers. A method is being sought to acquire urban waste wood, having a more chip-like nature, to use in further testing and for commercialization.

  8. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  9. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  10. Shale Gas Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Notes: Shale Gas production data collected in conjunction with proved reserves data on Form EIA-23 are unofficial. Official Shale Gas production data from Form EIA-895 can be found ...

  11. Bella Energy formely Sun Electric Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bella Energy formely Sun Electric Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bella Energy (formely Sun Electric Systems) Place: Lafayette, Colorado Zip: 80026 Sector: Solar Product:...

  12. BASF Fuel Cell formely PEMEAS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Cell formely PEMEAS Jump to: navigation, search Name: BASF Fuel Cell (formely PEMEAS) Place: Frankfurt am Main, Hessen, Germany Zip: 65926 Product: Frankfurt-based supplier of...

  13. Form OE-417

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Form OE-417 ELECTRIC EMERGENCY INCIDENT AND DISTURBANCE REPORT Form Approved OMB No. 1901-0288 Approval Expires 03312018 Burden Per...

  14. Page 8, Benefit Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits Registration Form - 853 Kb - Allows an employee to enroll or waive health insurance coverage. SF-2817 - Life Insurance Election Form (Federal Employee Group Life...

  15. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik; Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat; Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd

    2014-02-12

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  16. Technologies for Production of Heat and Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-04-01

    Biomass is a desirable source of energy because it is renewable, sustainable, widely available throughout the world, and amenable to conversion. Biomass is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components. Cellulose is generally the dominant fraction, representing about 40 to 50% of the material by weight, with hemicellulose representing 20 to 50% of the material, and lignin making up the remaining portion [4,5,6]. Although the outward appearance of the various forms of cellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, municipal solid waste (MSW), or agricultural residues, is different, all of these materials have a similar cellulosic composition. Elementally, however, biomass varies considerably, thereby presenting technical challenges at virtually every phase of its conversion to useful energy forms and products. Despite the variances among cellulosic sources, there are a variety of technologies for converting biomass into energy. These technologies are generally divided into two groups: biochemical (biological-based) and thermochemical (heat-based) conversion processes. This chapter reviews the specific technologies that can be used to convert biomass to energy. Each technology review includes the description of the process, and the positive and negative aspects.

  17. Form:SampleForm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SampleForm Jump to: navigation, search Input the name of a Test Page below. If the resource already exists, you will be able to edit its information. AddEdit a Test Page The text...

  18. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbonmore » pollution from power plants.« less

  19. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbon pollution from power plants.

  20. Forms | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Forming the Future Forming the Future This feature article from the April 2014 edition of the Fabricating and Forming Journal (FFJournal) describes how Ford Motor Co.'s sheet metal freeforming technology accelerates prototyping, taking stamping tool costs and lead time out of the equation. Reprinted with permission of FFJournal PDF icon Forming the Future, FFJournal (April 2014) More Documents & Publications RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION

  1. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  2. Form OE-417

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | U.S. Department of Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Form OE-417|ELECTRIC EMERGENCY INCIDENT AND DISTURBANCE REPORT|Form Approved OMB No. 1901-0288 Approval...

  3. FOIA Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOEID Home > FOIA > FOIA Request Form U.S. Department of Energy Idaho (DOE-ID) Operations Office Electronic FOIA Request Form* To make an Electronic FOIA (E-FOIA) request, please...

  4. 2015 Electricity Form Proposals

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Photovoltaic) Survey Forms November 19, 2015 In early 2016 the U.S. Energy Information ... Details will be provided closer to that date. Proposed changes as of December 2015 Forms ...

  5. OCPR Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OCPR Forms Technology Transfer Reporting Form Mediation Survey Form Agreement to Mediate Form Instructions: Fill out the form and e-mail the completed document to Office of ...

  6. Method for forming ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong; Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  7. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  8. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  9. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Ohm, Robin A.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Min, Byoungnam; Choi, In-Geol; Grigoriev, Igor V. Not Available Elsevier None USDOE United States...

  10. Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use of Petrified Wood | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    620 Free Use of Petrified Wood Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 43 CFR 3620 Free Use...

  11. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  12. Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii « Prev Next » Title: Evolution of novel wood decay mechanisms in Agaricales revealed by the genome sequences of Fistulina hepatica and Cylindrobasidium torrendii Authors: Floudas, Dimitrios ; Held, Benjamin W. ; Riley, Robert ; Nagy, Laszlo G. ;

  13. Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    decay and mycoremediation (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation This content will become publicly available on July 23, 2016 « Prev Next » Title: Genome sequence of a white rot fungus Schizopora paradoxa KUC8140 for wood decay and mycoremediation Authors: Min, Byoungnam ; Park, Hongjae ; Jang, Yeongseon ; Kim, Jae-Jin ; Kim, Kyoung Heon ; Pangilinan, Jasmyn ; Lipzen, Anna ; Riley, Robert ;

  14. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  15. Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    www.facebook.comhwe.coop Outage Hotline: 800-445-4840 or 888-417-3010 Outage Map: oms.hwe.coop References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1a1 EIA Form...

  16. SGP Shipment Notification Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PlainsShipment Notification Form SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric...

  17. Research Input Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HighlightsSubmit Form Submit a New Research Highlight Sort Highlights Submitter Title Research Area Working Group Submission Date DOE Progress Reports Notable Research Findings for...

  18. OFFSITE USE FORM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OFFSITE USE FORM Fill form out in triplicate, send original to Property Control, m/s 85A, give a copy to the Gate Guard and keep a copy for your files. This form needs to be updated once a year. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Authorization Record Form: Stanford University Removal of Government Property from SLAC PO Box 4349 premises for Official Use Elsewhere (*) Date: To: Property Control, m/s 85A From: Name E Mail Address Group and Mail Stop SLAC Extension This is to notify you that I have

  19. Form W-4 (2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Form W-4 (2015) The exceptions do not apply to supplemental wages greater than $1,000,000. Nonwage income. If you'have a large amount of nonwage income, such as interest or dividends, consider making estimated tax payments using Form . 1040-ES, Estimated Tax for Individuals. Otherwise, you may owe additional tax. If you have pension or annuity income, see Pub. 505 to find out if you should adjust your withholding on Form W-4 or W-4P. Purpose. Complete Form W-4 so that your employer can withhold

  20. User Financial Account Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22013 User Financial Account Form Establish a user financial account at SLAC to procure gases, chemicals, supplies or services to support your experiment at SLAC's user ...

  1. Coach Compliance Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coach Compliance Form My team is participating in theNational Renewable Energy Laboratory's Lithium-Ion Battery Car Competition. I have reviewed the following documents with the...

  2. 2013 Electricity Form Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report" The EIA-861 survey has historically collected retail sales, revenue, and a variety of information related to demand response ...

  3. Procurement Forms | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposal Form National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Checklist NEPA Checklist - Instruction and Preparation NREL Request for ACH Banking Information NREL Request for...

  4. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  5. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  6. ARM - Ingest Readiness Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Home Workflow Graphic Engineering Workflow Document Tools for Workflow ECR ECO BCR Ingests Value-Added Products Reprocessing Instruments Data System Elements Field...

  7. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  8. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil Kaechele, Harald

    2008-11-15

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  9. Montana MPDES General Information Form (MDEQ Form 1) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (MDEQ Form 1) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana MPDES General Information Form (MDEQ Form 1) Abstract Completion of form allows...

  10. Image forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satoh, Hisao (Hachioji, JP); Haneda, Satoshi (Hachioji, JP); Ikeda, Tadayoshi (Hachioji, JP); Morita, Shizuo (Hachioji, JP); Fukuchi, Masakazu (Hachioji, JP)

    1996-01-01

    In an image forming apparatus having a detachable process cartridge in which an image carrier on which an electrostatic latent image is formed, and a developing unit which develops the electrostatic latent image so that a toner image can be formed, both integrally formed into one unit. There is provided a developer container including a discharge section which can be inserted into a supply opening of the developing unit, and a container in which a predetermined amount of developer is contained, wherein the developer container is provided to the toner supply opening of the developing unit and the developer is supplied into the developing unit housing when a toner stirring screw of the developing unit is rotated.

  11. User Financial Account Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2/20/13 User Financial Account Form Establish a user financial account at SLAC to procure gases, chemicals, supplies or services to support your experiment at SLAC's user facilities and to send samples, dewars, or other equipment between SLAC and your institution. To open or renew your SLAC user financial account, complete and submit this form along with a Purchase Order (PO) from your institution. The PO should be made to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the amount of estimated

  12. User Financial Account Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10/21/15 User Financial Account Form Establish a user financial account at SLAC to procure gases, chemicals, supplies or services to support your experiment at SLAC's user facilities or to send samples, dewars, or other equipment between SLAC and your institution. To open or renew your SLAC user financial account, complete and submit this form along with a Purchase Order (PO) from your institution. The PO should be made to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the amount of estimated

  13. Compute Reservation Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compute Reservation Request Form Compute Reservation Request Form Users can request a scheduled reservation of machine resources if their jobs have special needs that cannot be accommodated through the regular batch system. A reservation brings some portion of the machine to a specific user or project for an agreed upon duration. Typically this is used for interactive debugging at scale or real time processing linked to some experiment or event. It is not intended to be used to guarantee fast

  14. Mass transport parameters of aspen wood chip beds via stimulus-response tracer techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hradil, G.; Calo, J.M.; Wunderlich, T.K. Jr. )

    1993-02-05

    A stimulus-response tracer technique has been used to characterize packed beds of untreated, as well as acid prehydrolyzed, and enzymatically hydrolyzed aspen wood chips. Glucose was used as the trace. Bulk liquid phase dispersion, interphase mass transfer, and intraparticle diffusion coefficients were determined for these materials as well as effective porosities and tortuosities. The untreated and prehydrolyzed aspen wood chips were found to have effective void fractions of ca. 0.8, while the enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips exhibited a void fraction of 0.37. Intraparticle diffusion was approximately twice as rapid in the prehydrolyzed and enzymatically hydrolyzed wood chips as in the untreated wood chips. Also, under the current experimental conditions, intraparticle diffusional transport resistance accounted for roughly half of the total tracer pulse dispersion. It is demonstrated that stimulus-response tracer techniques can be useful and convenient probes for beds of lignocellulosic, or other porous materials, which vary in character with extent of conversion and/or treatment.

  15. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted by manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.

  16. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  17. Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Inputs to biodiesel production million pounds Period Canola oil Corn oil Cottonseed ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-22M "Monthly Biodiesel Production ...

  18. Technology Transfer Reporting Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This form is to be completed by the TTO for individual inquiry/case activity during the quarter as required by the Technology Transfer Commercialization Act of 2000. Mouse over definitions and descriptions appear over text/check boxes where appropriate. After completing this form, click on the submit button. *If you have no TTO activity for the quarter, please fill in your name, FY and quarter, lab or facility and check the box "No Quarterly Activity". Initial Ombuds Contact:

  19. Realtime Queue Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Realtime Queue Request Form Realtime Queue Request Form Cori now support a realtime queue. Users can request a small number of on-demand nodes if their jobs have special needs that cannot be accommodated through the regular batch system. The real-time queue enables immediate access to a set of nodes, for jobs that are under the realtime wallclock limit (currently 6 hours). Typically this is used for real time processing linked to some experiment or event. It is not intended to be used to

  20. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  1. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  2. Forms | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms Forms Computer Keyboard Keyboard DOE Forms DOE's forms are developed within the Department and approved by the DOE Forms Manager. The forms provided (below) are designed to serve the needs of two (or more) DOE Headquarters or field organizations. (You must have Adobe Acrobat(R) Reader to view and print the below files. Fillable forms are identified by the "fillable" icon, and require the full version of Adobe Acrobat software.) Forms by Subject Forms by Number Management &

  3. Apparatus for forming targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus and method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  4. Method for forming targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woerner, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    Method for cryoinduced uniform deposition of cryogenic materials, such as deuterium-tritium (DT) mixtures, on the inner surface of hollow spherical members, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on the inner surface of the spherical member. Heating of the cryogenic material, located within a non-isothermal compact freezing cell, is accomplished by an electrical heat pulse, whereafter the material is quickly frozen forming a uniform layer on the inner surface of the spherical member. The method is not restricted to producing a frozen layer on only the inner surface of the innermost hollow member, but where multiple concentric hollow spheres are involved, such as in multiple shell targets for lasers, electron beams, etc., layers of cryogenic material may also be formed on the inner surface of intermediate or outer spherical members, thus providing the capability of forming targets having multiple concentric layers or shells of frozen DT.

  5. Formed photovoltaic module busbars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Douglas; Daroczi, Shan; Phu, Thomas

    2015-11-10

    A cell connection piece for a photovoltaic module is disclosed herein. The cell connection piece includes an interconnect bus, a plurality of bus tabs unitarily formed with the interconnect bus, and a terminal bus coupled with the interconnect bus. The plurality of bus tabs extend from the interconnect bus. The terminal bus includes a non-linear portion.

  6. Fermilab Today - Subscription Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subscription Form Subscribe | Contact Us | Archive | Classifieds | Guidelines | Help Search GO Subscribe to Fermilab Today This page has been moved. You will be automatically redirected to the new page below... http://news.fnal.gov/fermilab-at-work/subscribe-to-our-newsletter/ Last modified 12/14/2009 email Fermilab

  7. Forms & Documents | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms & Documents Incremental Budget Request Form FY 2015 Field Work Proposal (FWP) LDRD Budget Template Instructions for LDRD Budget Template Capital Equipment Validation Form...

  8. Proper chip storage methods can reduce wood and byproduct losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maron, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Guidelines are given to help in proper chip storage and inventory. The volume, location, and methods of chip storage affect production cost and require consideration in the design of a storage system.

  9. NEPA Determination Form

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    LA NEPA COMPLIANCE DETERMINATION FORM PRID - 09P-0059 V2 Page 1 of 8 Project/Activity Title: TA-3 Substation Replacement Project PRID: 09P-0059 V2 Date: February 16, 2016 Purpose: The proposed demolition and replacement of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Technical Area (TA)-3 electrical power substation is needed to provide reliable and efficient electrical distribution systems with sufficient electrical capacity to support the national security missions. The electrical distribution

  10. Rules of Behavior Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rulemakings and Notices Rulemakings and Notices The Department of Energy (DOE) sets energy efficiency standards and test procedures for more than fifty residential, commercial, and industrial products. DOE is required to review these standards and test procedures periodically, and initiates a process to set new standards provided that improvements to energy efficiency are "technically feasible and economically justified." Current Rulemakings DOE maintains a summary table of current

  11. Review and analysis of emissions data for residential wood-fired central furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCrillis, R.C.

    1998-12-31

    The paper reviews data published over the past 10--15 years on domestic wood-fired central heaters. Emphasis is on stick-fired units, the most common type used in the US, but also presented are data on chip- and pellet-fired units, showing that they are capable of achieving lower emissions.

  12. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyPerAreaKwhM2WoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PerAreaKwhM2WoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  13. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    yNrmlYrMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  14. Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rPeriodMwhYrWoodChips" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0...

  15. Low temperature waste form process intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Cozzi, A. D.; Hansen, E. K.; Hill, K. A.

    2015-09-30

    This study successfully demonstrated process intensification of low temperature waste form production. Modifications were made to the dry blend composition to enable a 50% increase in waste concentration, thus allowing for a significant reduction in disposal volume and associated costs. Properties measurements showed that the advanced waste form can be produced using existing equipment and processes. Performance of the waste form was equivalent or better than the current baseline, with approximately double the amount of waste incorporation. The results demonstrate the feasibility of significantly accelerating low level waste immobilization missions across the DOE complex and at environmental remediation sites worldwide.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATION FORM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Document(s) responsive to Item 1 TOC-ENV-NOT-2013-0019 Rev. 0 ENVIRONMENTAL NOTIFICATION FORM Date: 02/15/2013 Notification No.: TOC-ENV-NOT- 2013-0019 Name: D.L. Dyekman Revision No. 0 Section 1. Spills NA M ChemicalName: see section 3 below MSDS No.: n/a Regulated per 40 CFR 302: Yes 0 No 13EPCRA EHS: Yes Z No E3 CAS No.: n/ a Quantity Released: up to 300gal/yr Reportable Quantity (RO):_________ CAS No.: ________Quantity Released: ___________Reportable Quantity (RO):__________ CAS No.:

  17. DOCUMENT RELEASE FORM C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE FORM C (1) Document Number: RPP-RPT-431 74 (2) Revision Number: (3) Effective Date: 9/30/2009 (4) Document Type: El Digital Image El Hard copy (a) Number of pages (including the DRF) or 107 E PDF E] Video number of digital images (5) Release Type 0 New El Cancel El Page Change El complete Revision (6) Document Title: 2009 Auto-TOR for Tank 241 -T-204 (7) Change/Release Initial Issuance Description: (8) Change Initial Issuance Justification: (9) Associated (a) Structure Location: (c)

  18. Forming the Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - - - - Automotive BY NICK WRIGHT, EXECUTIVE EDITOR A computer program generates a tool path for the robots based on a CAD design, turning 2 D sheet metal into a 3 D part. A blue grease is applied before the sheet is held into place with De sta co clamps. The grease protects the metal's surface finish during forming. Styluses above and below the sheet manipulate the metal into shape. FFJournal ® April 2014 As seen in the April 2014 issue of ® A bout 10 miles west of down- town Detroit sprawls

  19. Standard Form 120

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stan Calvert About Us Stan Calvert - Wind Systems Integration Team Lead, Wind & Water Power Program Stan Calvert is the Wind Systems Integration Team Lead for the Wind and Water Power Program. Most Recent Today's Forecast: Improved Wind Predictions July 20

    1 OF STANDARD FORM 120# REV. APRIL 1957 GEN. SERV. ADMIN. FPMR (41 CFR) 101-43.311 PROPERTY REPORT OF EXCESS PERSONAL 1. REPORT NO. 2. DATE MAILED 3. TOTAL COST 4. TYPE (Check one only of  a. ORIGINAL  c. PARTIAL W/D (Also

  20. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  1. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  2. Ferns and fires: Experimental charring of ferns compared to wood and implications for paleobiology, paleoecology, coal petrology, and isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McParland, L.C.; Collinson, M.E.; Scott, A.C.; Steart, D.C.; Grassineau, N.V.; Gibbons, S.J.

    2007-09-15

    We report the effects of charring on the ferns Osmunda, Pteridium, and Matteucia with coniferous wood (Sequoia) for comparison. Like charred wood, charred ferns shrink, become black and brittle with a silky sheen, and retain three-dimensional cellular structure. Ferns yield recognizable charcoal (up to 800{sup o}C) that could potentially survive in the fossil record enabling reconstruction of ancient fire-prone vegetation containing ferns. Charred fossils of herbaceous ferns would indicate surface fires. Like charred wood, cell-wall layers of charred ferns homogenize, and their reflectance values increase with rising temperature. Charcoalified fragments of thick-walled cells from conifer wood or fern tissues are indistinguishable and so cannot be used to infer the nature of source vegetation. Charred conifer wood and charred fern tissues show a relationship between mean random reflectance and temperature of formation and can be used to determine minimum ancient fire temperatures. Charred fern tissues consistently have significantly more depleted {delta}{sup 13}C values ({le} 4 parts per thousand) than charred wood. Therefore, if an analysis of {delta} {sup 13}C through time included fern charcoal among a succession of wood charcoals, any related shifts in {delta} {sup 13}C could be misinterpreted as atmospheric changes or misused as isotope stratigraphic markers. Thus, charcoals of comparable botanical origin and temperatures of formation should be used in order to avoid misinterpretations of shifts in {delta}{sup 13}C values.

  3. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  4. Fermilab | Fermilab at Work | Web Form | Feedback Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feedback Form Use the form below to submit a suggestion to senior management. Required fields are marked with an asterisk (*). Suggestion: Name: Email Address: Submit Last modified...

  5. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  6. Form 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Form 1 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: Form 1Legal Abstract Form 1: General Information,...

  7. HDOT Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HDOT Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: HDOT FormsLegal Abstract The State of Hawaii Forms Central webpage...

  8. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  9. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gustafson, Richard (Bellevue, WA); Callis, James B. (Seattle, WA); Mathews, Jeffrey D. (Neenah, WI); Robinson, John (Issaquah, WA); Bruckner, Carsten A. (San Mateo, CA); Suvamakich, Kuntinee (Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  10. NDEP Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Legal Document- OtherOther: NDEP FormsLegal Abstract The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) provides links various forms, including all necessary...

  11. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

  12. Form 200 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ApplicationPermit Application: Form 200Legal Abstract Form 200: ApplicationReport for Waste Discharge, current through August 14, 2014. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  13. New Employee Orientation- Forms Checklist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Listing of the forms to be issued and collected at a new employee's orientation. Please review the checklist to ensure that you bring all of the needed forms.

  14. A Thermally Stable Form of Bacterial Cocaine Esterase: A Potential...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Brim, Remy L. ; Nance, Mark R. ; Youngstrom, Daniel W. ; Narasimhan, Diwahar ; Zhan, Chang-Guo ; Tesmer, John J.G. ; Sunahara, Roger K. ; Woods, James H. 1 ; ...

  15. STEP Utility Data Release Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    STEP Utility Data Release Form, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  16. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  17. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  18. Immobilization and Waste Form Product Acceptance for Low Level and TRU Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtzscheiter, E.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Harbour, J.R.

    1998-05-01

    The Tanks Focus Area is supporting technology development in immobilization of both High Level (HLW) and Low Level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The HLW process development at Hanford and Idaho is patterned closely after that of the Savannah River (Defense Waste Processing Facility) and West Valley Sites (West Valley Demonstration Project). However, the development and options open to addressing Low Level Waste are diverse and often site specific. To start, it is important to understand the breadth of Low Level Wastes categories.

  19. Benefits Forms & Required Notices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Benefits Forms & Required Notices Benefits Forms & Required Notices A comprehensive benefits package with plan options for health care and retirement to take care of our employees today and tomorrow. Contacts Benefits Office (505) 667-1806 Email Benefits Forms & Required Notices Forms Benefits Enrollment Form, 1751a (pdf) Declaration of Domestic Partnership, 1925a (pdf) Declaration of Legal Ward as Eligible Dependent, 3028 (pdf) Declaration that Enrolled Dependent Meets IRS

  20. Proposed plant will turn wood residues into synfuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A group of entrepreneurs plan to have a plant operating in Burney, CA. The projected facility will produce an estimated 21,000 gallons of oil per day, converting about 300 tons of raw material. Converting cellulose into synthetic fuel is superior to alcohol production. The process yields approximately 84 gallons of synthetic fuel per ton of raw material. The entire LHG (liquid hydrogen gas) patented facility is self-sufficient and releases only carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Synfuel production is a three-phase process. First, butyl alcohol (butanol) and acetone are produced from a portion of the raw material. This is facilitated by adding to the raw material a bacteria culture. The planned facility in Burney will have thirty-five 2100 gallon fermentation tanks and will produce 1.25 million gallons of butanol. Next, organic material is blended with water and is pumped into patented LHG catalytic converters, charged with carbon monoxide gas as a catalyst and then heated to 350 degrees C at 2000 to 5000 psi. Here, the organic material is converted to No. 4 oil with bituminous tar as a residue. A patented gasifier system produces the carbon monoxide catalyst plus COH (carbon hydroxide) gas. The COH is used to power a gas turbine driving a 100 kW generator and a central hydraulic pump. The facility, which will be energy self-sufficient, will have approximately 50 kW of excess power to sell to the local utility power grid. Finally, the No. 4 oil, butanol and liquified COH gas are blended to produce any grade fuel oil or a gasoline substitute of very high octane.

  1. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  2. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  3. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  4. Mathematical model of steam drying of wood chips and other hygroscopic porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fyhr, C.; Rasmuson, A.

    1996-09-01

    A model is presented that is focused on the drying kinetics of single wood chips as a function of time and external conditions, such as temperature, pressure and velocity of the superheated steam. A multiphase and 2-D approach was used to model the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in anisotropic hygroscopic porous media. The model was verified by drying experiments where measurements of the average moisture content, center temperature and pressure in a single wood chip could be performed simultaneously. A comparison between the calculations and the measurements showed that the drying behavior was well predicted. The drying can be divided into three stages: a heat-up period when condensation on the surface initially increases the moisture content; a period of constant drying rate when the external heat transfer controls the drying rate; and a period of decreasing drying rate when the drying is controlled by internal mass transfer. Many interesting features of the drying could be assigned to the strong anisotropicity of wood, which makes a 2-D model necessary.

  5. Composites of Polystyrene/Wood Fiber, Processing Effect to Creep Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Balderrama, L.; Mendoza-Duarte, M. E.; Flores-Gallardo, S. G.; Ibarra-Gomez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109. Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gaspar-Rosas, A. [TA Instruments-Waters LLC. 109 Lukens Drive New Castle, DE 19720 (United States)

    2008-07-07

    In the present work, PS/wood fiber composites were studied in relation to their creep response as to be affected by the incorporation of a silane type coupling agent. Two elaboration variables were also considered in the experiments: wood fiber content and type of composites processing (compression, extrusion and injection molding). A series of weight ratios PS/wood fiber, with and without coupling agent, were prepared, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. For the compatibilized series, 1% wt of silane coupling agent in relation to the polystyrene weight was employed. The creep tests were performed inside the lineal viscoelastic region at 80 deg. C. A general improvement of the creep resistance for the compatibilized composites was observed independently of the elaboration process. However, the injection molded samples showed by far the lowest deformation with time. This behavior suggests that the high orientation of the fibers generated by the injection molding process, in relation to the extrusion and compression molding, promotes a higher superficial area of treated fiber to be in contact with the PS matrix, which enhances the adhesion and in consequence the resistance to creep.

  6. Influence of corn steep liquor and glucose on colonization of control and CCB (Cu/Cr/B)-treated wood by brown rot fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humar, Miha; Pohleven, Franc

    2006-07-01

    There are increasing problems with regard to the disposal of treated wood waste. Due to heavy metals or arsenic in impregnated wood waste, burning and landfill disposal options are not considered to be environmentally friendly solutions for dealing with this problem. Extraction of the heavy metals and recycling of the preservatives from the wood waste is a much more promising and environmentally friendly solution. In order to study the scale up of this process, copper/chromium/boron-treated wood specimens were exposed to copper tolerant (Antrodia vaillantii and Leucogyrophana pinastri) and copper sensitive wood decay fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria monticola). Afterwards, the ability of fungal hyphae to penetrate and overgrow the wood specimens was investigated. The fungal growths were stimulated by immersing the specimens into aqueous solution of glucose or corn steep liquor prior to exposure to the fungi. The fastest colonization of the impregnated wood was by the copper tolerant A. vaillantii. Addition of glucose onto the surface of the wood specimens increased the fungi colonization of the specimens; however, immersion of the specimens into the solution of corn steep liquor did not have the same positive influence. These results are important in elucidating copper toxicity in wood decay fungi and for using these fungi for bioremediation of treated wood wastes.

  7. Industrial recycling of glass, plastic and wood materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caccavo, F.N.; Posusney, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The intent of this paper is to discuss in detail the development and implementation of a recycling program encompassing these three residual waste streams at a major plant site of a large United States company. The paper will review the history of the program`s development, the vendor selection and recycling processes, the initial efforts to include failures and successes, and the cost recovery and profit that can be realized through a well-managed recycling program. The facility that is the subject of this paper is located approximately 20 lies north west of Philadelphia, Pa and supports a site population of over 6,200 employees working in three divisions of the parent company. The primary business of this firm is the manufacture, distribution, and sale of pharmaceutical drugs. This plant is the company`s largest facility engaging its employees in predominantly research and manufacturing operations. The manufacturing operations being the largest division encompassing the widest range of activities from the receipt of raw material through packaging and shipping operations. This site and the company it represents enjoy an excellent relationship within the community stemming in part to the commitment to environmental stewardship demonstrated by this successful program. The site retains its own internal waste management and disposal operations for the wide variety of refuse materials generated and it is this department which is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the site`s extensive recycling effort. The paper will review the ongoing development of these elements of this company`s growing recycling operations and attempt to demonstrate that extensive recycling can be both a productive and cost effective alternative to conventional disposal through incineration`s or landfill.

  8. SSRL Computer Account Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRL/LCLS Computer Account Request Form August 2009 Fill in this form and sign the security statement mentioned at the bottom of this page to obtain an account. Your Name: __________________________________________________________ Institution: ___________________________________________________________ Mailing Address: ______________________________________________________ Email Address: _______________________________________________________ Telephone:

  9. Paperclips Etc. Special Order Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PSS-02.2 (March 7, 2011) Replaces PSS-02.1 PAPERCLIPS Etc. SPECIAL Orders Form This form is used to order supplies that are not readily available in the DOE HQ self-service supply...

  10. Fire Protection Account Request Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fire Protection System Account Request Form To obtain a user id and password to access the Fire Protection system, please complete the form, save the file and email it to...

  11. SSRL Computer Account Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRLLCLS Computer Account Request Form August 2009 Fill in this form and sign the security statement mentioned at the bottom of this page to obtain an account. Your Name:...

  12. HHS SMALL BUSINESS REVIEW FORM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Form 4220.2 (Revised March 14 2013) Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization DOE F 4220.2 - Small Business Review Form (03142013) OSDBU Control Number: ...

  13. ESA Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: ESA Forms Abstract Fish and Wildlife Service Fish and Wildlife Permit Application Forms Author U.S. Fish and...

  14. CSLB Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: CSLB FormsLegal Abstract The Colorado State Land Board (CSLB) provides various...

  15. ADOT Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: ADOT FormsLegal Abstract The Arizona Department of Transportation provides...

  16. NDSL Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NDSL Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: NDSL FormsLegal Abstract The Nevada Division of State Lands provides...

  17. CSLC Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: CSLC FormsLegal Abstract The California State Lands Commission (CSLC) provides...

  18. WSDNR Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Forms Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: WSDNR FormsLegal Abstract The Washington State Department of Natural Resources...

  19. Document Certification and Transmittal Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Use this form to submit a NEPA document to the Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance for website posting.

  20. Prioritization Tool Measurement Input Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO encourages stakeholders to recommend updates and improvements to the Prioritization Tool by using the below Measure Input Form.

  1. Atomization methods for forming magnet powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sellers, Charles H.; Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention encompasses methods of utilizing atomization, methods for forming magnet powders, methods for forming magnets, and methods for forming bonded magnets. The invention further encompasses methods for simulating atomization conditions. In one aspect, the invention includes an atomization method for forming a magnet powder comprising: a) forming a melt comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; b) atomizing the melt to form generally spherical alloy powder granules having an internal structure comprising at least one of a substantially amorphous phase or a substantially nanocrystalline phase; and c) heat treating the alloy powder to increase an energy product of the alloy powder; after the heat treatment, the alloy powder comprising an energy product of at least 10 MGOe. In another aspect, the invention includes a magnet comprising R, Q, B, Z and X, wherein R is a rare earth element; X is an element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and mixtures thereof; Q is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co and mixtures thereof; and Z is an element selected from the group consisting of Ti, Zr, Hf and mixtures thereof; the magnet comprising an internal structure comprising R.sub.2.1 Q.sub.13.9 B.sub.1.

  2. Nanotechnology for the Forest Products Industry Vision and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atalla, Rajai; Beecher, James; Caron, Robert; Catchmark, Jeffrey; Deng, Yulin; Glasser, Wolfgang; Gray, Derek; Haigler, Candace; Jones, Philip; Joyce, Margaret; Kohlman, Jane; Koukoulas, Alexander; Lancaster, Peter; Perine, Lori; Rodriguez, Augusto; Ragauskas, Arthur; Wegner, Theodore; Zhu, Junyong

    2005-03-01

    A roadmap for Nanotechnology in the Forest Products Industries has been developed under the umbrella of the Agenda 2020 program overseen by the CTO committee. It is expected that the use of new analytical techniques and methodologies will allow us to understand the complex nature of wood based materials and allow the dramatically enhanced use of the major strategic asset the US has in renewable, recyclable resources based on its well managed Forests.

  3. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observers visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  4. Hawaii Well Abandonment Report Form (DLNR Form WAR) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Notice Form Topic Well Abandonment Report Organization State of Hawaii Commission on Water Resource Management Published Publisher Not Provided, 012008 DOI Not Provided Check...

  5. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    must exist at the time the request is submitted. Orga nizati Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pi on Mailin g 909 Fannin Suite 2000 Addre 55 City Houston Enter description: 1. All...

  6. Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    completed 20 or more years of Reserve or National Guard service but will not receive a pension until age 60.) SF-181 Ethnicity and Race Identification Ethnicity and Race...

  7. Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Former Worker Medical Screening Program Former Worker Medical Screening Program The Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) provides ongoing medical screening examinations, at no cost, to all former DOE Federal, contractor, and subcontractor workers who may be at risk for occupational diseases. The FWP is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) and reflects our commitment to the health and safety of all DOE workers - past

  8. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  9. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  10. DWPF waste form compliance plan (Draft Revision)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Marra, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy currently has over 100 million liters of high-level radioactive waste in storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy recognized that there were significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the high-level waste in a stable solid form. Several alternative waste forms were evaluated in terms of product quality and reliability of fabrication. This evaluation led to a decision to build the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS to convert the easily dispersed liquid waste to borosilicate glass. In accordance with the NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) process, an Environmental Impact Statement was prepared for the facility, as well as an Environmental Assessment of the alternative waste forms, and issuance of a Record of Decision (in December, 1982) on the waste form. The Department of Energy, recognizing that start-up of the DWPF would considerably precede licensing of a repository, instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to ensure that these canistered waste forms would be acceptable for eventual disposal at a federal repository. This report is a revision of the DWPF compliance plan.

  11. DWPF waste form compliance plan (Draft Revision)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Marra, S.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Energy currently has over 100 million liters of high-level radioactive waste in storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In the late 1970`s, the Department of Energy recognized that there were significant safety and cost advantages associated with immobilizing the high-level waste in a stable solid form. Several alternative waste forms were evaluated in terms of product quality and reliability of fabrication. This evaluation led to a decision to build the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS to convert the easily dispersed liquid waste to borosilicate glass. In accordance with the NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) process, an Environmental Impact Statement was prepared for the facility, as well as an Environmental Assessment of the alternative waste forms, and issuance of a Record of Decision (in December, 1982) on the waste form. The Department of Energy, recognizing that start-up of the DWPF would considerably precede licensing of a repository, instituted a Waste Acceptance Process to ensure that these canistered waste forms would be acceptable for eventual disposal at a federal repository. This report is a revision of the DWPF compliance plan.

  12. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

  13. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

  14. Complaint Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Complaint Form Complaint Form The Office of Inspector General (OIG) maintains a Hotline to facilitate the reporting of allegations of fraud, waste, abuse, or mismanagement in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs or operations. To submit an allegation to the OIG, complete the form below. Acknowledgement * I acknowledge that I have read the Office of Inspector General Hotline section of the OIG website regarding issues which should be reported to the OIG, complaint processing, anonymity and

  15. Electronic Registration Form - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Us Hanford Site Wide Programs Health & Safety Exposition Electronic Registration Form About Us Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria How to Get to TRAC Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Electronic Registration Form Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size * Fields marked with an asterisk are required. Exhibit

  16. Seal for fluid forming tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis

    2012-03-20

    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  17. System for forming janus particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Liang; Jiang, Shan; Granick, Steve

    2011-01-25

    The invention is a method of forming Janus particles, that includes forming an emulsion that contains initial particles, a first liquid, and a second liquid; solidifying the first liquid to form a solid that contains at least a portion of the initial particles on a surface of the solid; and treating the exposed particle sides with a first surface modifying agent, to form the Janus particles. Each of the initial particles on the surface has an exposed particle side and a blocked particle side.

  18. SNL Information Repository subscription form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES HAZARDOUS WASTE INFORMATION REPOSITORY INDEX Subscription form for hard copy notices of updates Name: Address: City: State: Zip: Please check each...

  19. Development and demonstration of a wood-fired gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.; Selzer, B.; Sethi, V.

    1993-08-01

    The objectives of the test program were to obtain some preliminary information regarding the nature of particulate and vapor phase alkali compounds produced and to assess any deleterious impact they might have on materials of construction. Power Generating Incorporated (PGI) is developing a wood-fired gas turbine system for specialized cogeneration applications. The system is based on a patented pressurized combustor designed and tested by PGI in conjunction with McConnell Industries. The other components of the system are fuel receiving, preparation, storage and feeding system, gas clean-up equipment, and a gas turbine generator.

  20. Technology Transfer Reporting Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer Reporting Form Technology Transfer Reporting Form PDF icon Technology Transfer Reporting Form More Documents & Publications Technology Partnership Ombudsman - Roles,...

  1. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poeppel, R.B.; Claar, T.D.; Silkowski, P.

    1987-04-22

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  2. Method of forming ceramic bricks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Claar, Terry D. (Newark, DE); Silkowski, Peter (Urbana, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method for forming free standing ceramic bricks for use as tritium breeder material is disclosed. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate are mixed with an organic hydrocolloid dispersion and powdered lithium carbonate, spray dried, and ceramic bricks formed by molding in a die and firing.

  3. Fermilab | Tevatron | Guest Book | Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guest Book - Form Share your Tevatron-related memories, comments and stories by using our submission form below: Submitted comments are restricted to 200 words and comments will be moderated for inappropriate content. Name: Institution: Email: Memory, comment or story: Words remaining: 200 Submit

  4. Waste Form Qualification Compliance Strategy for Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, Larry M.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Brouns, Thomas M.

    2005-01-03

    The Bulk Vitrification System is being pursued to assist in immobilizing the low-activity tank waste from the 53 million gallons of radioactive waste in the 177 underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the bulk vitrification process, a research and development facility known as the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) is being built to demonstrate the technology. Specific performance requirements for the final packaged bulk vitrification waste form have been identified. In addition to the specific product-performance requirements, performance targets/goals have been identified that are necessary to qualify the waste form but do not lend themselves to specifications that are easily verified through short-term testing. Collectively, these form the product requirements for the DBVS. This waste-form qualification (WFQ) strategy document outlines the general strategies for achieving and demonstrating compliance with the BVS product requirements. The specific objectives of the WFQ activities are discussed, the bulk vitrification process and product control strategy is outlined, and the test strategy to meet the WFQ objectives is described. The DBVS product performance targets/goals and strategies to address those targets/goals are described. The DBVS product-performance requirements are compared to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste product specifications. The strategies for demonstrating compliance with the bulk vitrification product requirements are presented.

  5. Oregon Modification Application Geothermal Wells Form | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modification Application Geothermal Wells Form Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Modification Application Geothermal Wells Form Form...

  6. TEPP - Exercise Evaluation Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    TEPP - Exercise Evaluation Forms TEPP - Exercise Evaluation Forms Hazardous Materials Exercise Evaluation Forms PDF icon Exercise Evaluation Forms More Documents & Publications...

  7. The influence of the drying medium on high temperature convective drying of single wood chips

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, A.; Rasmuson, A.

    1997-10-01

    High temperature convective drying of single wood chips with air and superheated steam respectively is studied theoretically. The two-dimensional model presented describes the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat. Transport mechanisms included are the convection of gas and liquid, intergas as well as bound water diffusion. In the initial part of the drying process, moisture is transported to the surface mainly due to capillary forces in the transversal direction where evaporation occurs. As the surface becomes dry, the drying front moves towards the center of the particle and an overpressure is simultaneously built up which affects the drying process. The differences between drying in air and steam respectively can be assigned to the physical properties of the drying medium. The period of constant drying rate which does not exist (or is very short) in air drying becomes more significant with decreasing amounts of air in the drying medium and is clearly visible in pure superheated steam drying. The maximal drying rate is larger in air drying, and shorter drying times are obtained since the heat flux to the wood chip particle increases with increasing amounts of air in the drying medium. The period of falling drying rate can be divided into two parts: in the first, the drying rate is dependent upon the humidity of the drying medium whereas in the second, there is no such correlation.

  8. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jrgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ? Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ? Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ? Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  9. Relation between combustion heat and chemical wood composition during white and brown rot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobry, J.; Dziurzynski, A.; Rypacek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of beech and spruce wood were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus tigrinus and the brown rot fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Serpula lacrymans (S. lacrimans) for four months. Decomposition (expressed as percent weight loss) and amounts of holocellulose, lignin, humic acids (HU), hymatomelanic acids (HY) and fulvo acids (FU) were determined and expressed in weight percent. Combustion heat of holocellulose and lignin was determined in healthy wood and in specimens where decomposition was greater than 50%. During white rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged even at high decomposition and the relative amounts of holocellulose and lignin remained the same. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased during the initial stages and stabilized at 20%. The content of HU plus HY was negligible even at the highest degree of decomposition. During brown rot decomposition, combustion heat was unchanged only in the initial stages, it increased continously with increasing rot. Lignin content was unchanged in the initial stages and increased after 30% weight loss. Total amounts of HU, HY and FU increased continuously, reaching higher values than in white rot decomposition; there were differences between the two species. Biosynthesis of HU plus HY began when weight loss reached 30%; there were differences in absolute and relative amounts between species. 24 references.

  10. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  11. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L.

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  12. IDENTIFICATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LIGNASE PROTEINS FROM TERMITES FOR DEPOLYMERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

    2012-12-06

    Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, a large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses included significantly reducing proteases and preventing blackening immune reactions that occur when caterpillars are homogenized. Proteases may degrade enzymes and immune reaction blackening may inactivate enzymes thus compromising the ability of these crude recombinant expressed termite enzyme preparations to release sugars. Commercial preparations of fungal enzymes currently are used to digest wood for ethanol production. We demonstrated in this study that termite enzymes could improve the efficiency of fungal enzyme cocktails. Although the economic feasibility of using caterpillar expressed termite enzymes alone to treat wood was not proven, this work points to the potential to combine C-PERLXpressed insect enzymes with industrial enzyme cocktails to boost their efficiency at treating wood for biofuels.

  13. Prescriptive method for insulating concrete forms in residential construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrankar, A.; Elhajj, N.

    1998-05-01

    Characterized as strong, durable, and energy-efficient, a new wall system for housing called Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) is emerging as an alternative to lumber wall frames. Due to rising costs and varying quality of framing lumber, home builders are increasing their use of ICFs even though added engineering costs make ICF homes slightly more expensive than homes with wood framing. To improve the affordability and acceptance of ICF homes, this report sets guidelines on the design, construction and inspection of ICF wall systems in residential construction. Based on thorough testing and research, the Prescriptive Method section of the report outlines minimum requirements for ICF systems including wall thickness, termite protection, reinforcement, lintel span, and connection requirements. It highlights construction and thermal guidelines for ICFs and explains how to apply the prescriptive requirements to one- and two-family homes. The Commentary section provides supplemental information and the engineering assumptions and methods used for the prescriptive method. Appendices contain step-by-step examples on how to apply ICF requirements when designing a home. They also contain engineering technical substantiation and metric conversion factors.

  14. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  15. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Anderson, Mark T.; Ganguli, Rahul; Lu, Yunfeng

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  16. Coal production 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-11-07

    Coal Production 1985 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. All data presented in this report, except the total production table presented in the Highlights section, and the demonstrated reserve base data presented in Appendix A, were obtained from form EIA-7A, ''Coal Production Report,'' from companies owning mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10,000 or more short tons of coal in 1985. The data cover 4105 of the 5477 US coal mining operations active in 1985. These mining operations accounted for 99.4% of total US coal production and represented 74.9% of all US coal mining operations in 1985. This report also includes data for the demonstrated reserve vase of coal in the US on January 1, 1985.

  17. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  18. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kelly, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  19. NMOSE Forms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: NMOSE FormsLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for...

  20. Employee In-Processing Forms

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The employment forms found in this section collect important and necessary information about you that will be used to verify your identity and eligibility for Federal Employment, capture all...

  1. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  2. EIA-412 Form and Instructions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    METHOD OF FILING RESPONSE Submit your data electronically over the Internet using our web-based form. Log on to https:elecidc.eia.doe.gov Web-based Survey Information EIA uses ...

  3. FAQs for Survey Forms 914

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... May the oil or gas volumes be submitted separately? Where are oil sales submitted (web or ... If you're using the web form there are comments you can select from the drop down list or ...

  4. Process for forming planarized films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pang, Stella W.; Horn, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

  5. Methods of forming hardened surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Iona, ID)

    2004-07-27

    The invention encompasses a method of forming a metallic coating. A metallic glass coating is formed over a metallic substrate. After formation of the coating, at least a portion of the metallic glass can be converted into a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size. The invention also encompasses metallic coatings comprising metallic glass. Additionally, the invention encompasses metallic coatings comprising crystalline metallic material, with at least some of the crystalline metallic material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  6. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  7. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form #: Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers mitigate the radiological hazards introduced by the proposed work? Yes No (b) Can the closed state of the beam line injection stoppers be assured during the proposed work (ie., work does NOT involve injection stoppers or associated HPS)? Yes No If the answers to both questions are yes, the work can be performed safely

  8. Chevron, GE form Technology Alliance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chevron, GE form Technology Alliance Chevron, GE form Technology Alliance The Chevron GE Technology Alliance will develop and commercialize valuable technologies to solve critical needs for the oil and gas industry. February 3, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los

  9. Supplier Information Form | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supplier Information Form PDF icon SB_SIF_form_Rev_0110

  10. LBNL Affiliate Forms - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Users‎ > ‎ LBNL Affiliate Forms Affiliate Forms (click here to open pdf)

  11. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  12. Paperwork Reduction Act Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Form Paperwork Reduction Act Form Collection Discontinuation Form PDF icon Paperwork Reduction Act Form More Documents & Publications OMB83 D Discontinuance Form OMB 83 C Paperwork Reduction Act Submission (OMB 83-I)

  13. Utah Antidegradation Review Form | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Utah Antidegradation Review Form Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Utah Antidegradation Review Form Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic...

  14. FAQs for Survey Forms 914

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    be reported for that area. If there are no operated properties in an area, leave the cell blank for that area. What units should I use to report the production volumes? Report...

  15. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2016-04-19

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  16. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2014-09-09

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  17. Methods of forming boron nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trowbridge, Tammy L; Wertsching, Alan K; Pinhero, Patrick J; Crandall, David L

    2015-03-03

    A method of forming a boron nitride. The method comprises contacting a metal article with a monomeric boron-nitrogen compound and converting the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound to a boron nitride. The boron nitride is formed on the same or a different metal article. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is borazine, cycloborazane, trimethylcycloborazane, polyborazylene, B-vinylborazine, poly(B-vinylborazine), or combinations thereof. The monomeric boron-nitrogen compound is polymerized to form the boron nitride by exposure to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. The boron nitride is amorphous boron nitride, hexagonal boron nitride, rhombohedral boron nitride, turbostratic boron nitride, wurzite boron nitride, combinations thereof, or boron nitride and carbon. A method of conditioning a ballistic weapon and a metal article coated with the monomeric boron-nitrogen compound are also disclosed.

  18. PROCESS OF FORMING POWDERED MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatter, J.; Schaner, B.E.

    1961-07-14

    A process of forming high-density compacts of a powdered ceramic material is described by agglomerating the powdered ceramic material with a heat- decompossble binder, adding a heat-decompossble lubricant to the agglomerated material, placing a quantity of the material into a die cavity, pressing the material to form a compact, pretreating the compacts in a nonoxidizing atmosphere to remove the binder and lubricant, and sintering the compacts. When this process is used for making nuclear reactor fuel elements, the ceramic material is an oxide powder of a fissionsble material and after forming, the compacts are placed in a cladding tube which is closed at its ends by vapor tight end caps, so that the sintered compacts are held in close contact with each other and with the interior wall of the cladding tube.

  19. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J.

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  20. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

  1. HHS SMALL BUSINESS REVIEW FORM

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Form 4220.2 (Revised January 2014) Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Small Business Review OSDBU Control Number: _______________________________________Date Received: ______________________________ A. Project Information 1. Requisition Number: ________________________ Acquisition Instrument Proposed/Contract Type: [ ] Contract No (Mod): ______________________ [ ] Departmental IDIQ No: ___________________ [ ] GSA Schedule: _________________________ [ ] GWAC Contract:

  2. ExRep_form.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Report Submit all experiment reports using this fillable pdf form and upload the saved file using the LANSCE proposals Websi After logging in, click the "Upload Experiment Report" link in the proposal actions view table. Local contact Flight path/instrument Proposal number Title Authors and Affiliations Experiment report

  3. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayley, H.; Walker, B.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Niblack, B.; Panchal, R.

    1998-07-07

    An inactive pore-forming agent is revealed which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell. 30 figs.

  4. Technetium Immobilization Forms Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2014-05-01

    Of the many radionuclides and contaminants in the tank wastes stored at the Hanford site, technetium-99 (99Tc) is one of the most challenging to effectively immobilize in a waste form for ultimate disposal. Within the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the Tc will partition between both the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the tank waste. The HLW fraction will be converted to a glass waste form in the HLW vitrification facility and the LAW fraction will be converted to another glass waste form in the LAW vitrification facility. In both vitrification facilities, the Tc is incorporated into the glass waste form but a significant fraction of the Tc volatilizes at the high glass-melting temperatures and is captured in the off-gas treatment systems at both facilities. The aqueous off-gas condensate solution containing the volatilized Tc is recycled and is added to the LAW glass melter feed. This recycle process is effective in increasing the loading of Tc in the LAW glass but it also disproportionally increases the sulfur and halides in the LAW melter feed which increases both the amount of LAW glass and either the duration of the LAW vitrification mission or the required supplemental LAW treatment capacity.

  5. Spin-forming Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick

    2009-03-20

    In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.

  6. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  7. Security Review Processing Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Security Review Processing Form Security Review Processing Form Security Review Process - Please review carefully. Security Acknowledge Form - Complete and return immediately. ...

  8. Course Form | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Course Form Course Form Students may take courses selected by PARCI-CARES, and receive points toward the certificate. By signing this form, the student acknowledges that heshe...

  9. Opinion of Counsel Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opinion of Counsel Form Opinion of Counsel Form For use with natural gas authorization filings PDF icon Opinion of Counsel Form - Natural Gas Regulation More Documents & ...

  10. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  11. This form may be submitted to the EIA by mail, fax, e-mail, or...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,," Version No: 2014.001" "ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS PRODUCTION" "FORM EIA-64A" "REPORT YEAR 2014" "This report is...

  12. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 8): Smeltertown Site, Operable Unit 2, former Koppers Wood Treating site, Salida, CO, June 4, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action (RA) for the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit (OU2) at the Smeltertown Superfund Site (the Site). This action addresses the wood-treating contaminants from the tie treating operations at the former Koppers Wood Treating Operable Unit that were conducted by Koppers Company, Inc. (now known as Beazer East, Inc.) from 1924 through 1953. This remedy calls for the containment of soils contaminated at low levels and monitors the effect of the contaminants in the soils, dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) within the groundwater.

  14. Forms | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms Forms The following are the official Y-12 forms needed by the public. Forms are provided in one or more of three formats: PDF fillable, Word, and HTML. Select a category to...

  15. Method of forming a joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butt, Darryl Paul; Cutler, Raymond Ashton; Rynders, Steven Walton; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2006-08-22

    A method of joining at least two sintered bodies to form a composite structure, including providing a first multicomponent metallic oxide having a perovskitic or fluorite crystal structure; providing a second sintered body including a second multicomponent metallic oxide having a crystal structure of the same type as the first; and providing at an interface a joint material containing at least one metal oxide containing at least one metal identically contained in at least one of the first and second multicomponent metallic oxides. The joint material is free of cations of Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P and Te and has a melting point below the sintering temperatures of both sintered bodies. The joint material is heated to a temperature above the melting point of the metal oxide(s) and below the sintering temperatures of the sintered bodies to form the joint. Structures containing such joints are also disclosed.

  16. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  17. Method of forming calthrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, T.; Gorski, A.J.

    1985-09-30

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultransonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. Thes small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  18. Method of forming clathrate ice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hino, Toshiyuki (Tokyo, JP); Gorski, Anthony J. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A method of forming clathrate ice in a supercooled water-based liquid contained in a vessel is disclosed. Initially, an oscillator device is located in the liquid in the vessel. The oscillator device is then oscillated ultrasonically so that small crystals are formed in the liquid. These small crystals serve as seed crystals for ice formation in the liquid and thereby prevent supercooling of the liquid. Preferably, the oscillating device is controlled by a thermostat which initiates operation of the oscillator device when the temperature of the liquid is lowered to the freezing point. Thereafter, the operation of the oscillator device is terminated when ice is sensed in the liquid by an ice sensor.

  19. PURPOSE FORM INSTRUCTIONS Item Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PURPOSE FORM INSTRUCTIONS Item Description 1 Enter inclusive dates of current reporting period. 2 Enter the official contract title. 3 Enter the official contract number. 4 Enter the name and address of each subcontractor. Subcontractors are to be grouped by state. 5 Enter ZIP code plus the 4-digit ZIP code extension. 6 Enter the subcontractor's business type (i.e. Academia, Industry, National Lab, Non-Profit Organization, State, or Other). 7 Enter the subcontractor's business classification

  20. DOE Form 1332.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 DOE F 243.2 Records Scheduling Request PDF icon DOE F 243 2 Records Scheduling Request Form (1).pdf More Documents & Publications DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire Records Management Handbook Energy

    5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire PDF icon DOE F 243.5 Electronic Recordkeeping System Questionnaire.pdf More Documents &

  1. Chevron, GE form Technology Alliance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chevron, GE form Technology Alliance February 3, 2014 HOUSTON, TX, Feb. 3, 2014-Chevron Energy Technology Company and GE Oil & Gas announced today the creation of the Chevron GE Technology Alliance, which will develop and commercialize valuable technologies to solve critical needs for the oil and gas industry. The Alliance builds upon a current collaboration on flow analysis technology for oil and gas wells. It will leverage research and development from GE's newest Global Research Center,

  2. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  3. Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Conference: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Is the proton electromagnetic form factor modified in nuclei? × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

  4. Rib forming tool for tubing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rowley, James P.; Lewandowski, Edward F.; Groh, Edward F.

    1976-01-01

    Three cylindrical rollers are rotatably mounted equidistant from the center of a hollow tool head on radii spaced 120.degree. apart. Each roller has a thin flange; the three flanges lie in a single plane to form an internal circumferential rib in a rotating tubular workpiece. The tool head has two complementary parts with two rollers in one part of the head and one roller in the other part; the two parts are joined by a hinge. A second hinge, located so the rollers are between the two hinges, connects one of the parts to a tool bar mounted in a lathe tool holder. The axes of rotation of both hinges and all three rollers are parallel. A hole exposing equal portions of the three roller flanges is located in the center of the tool head. The two hinges permit the tool head to be opened and rotated slightly downward, taking the roller flanges out of the path of the workpiece which is supported on both ends and rotated by the lathe. The parts of the tool head are then closed on the workpiece so that the flanges are applied to the workpiece and form the rib. The tool is then relocated for forming of the next rib.

  5. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, V.P.

    1958-12-16

    A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

  6. CERAMIC WASTE FORM DATA PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoroso, J.; Marra, J.

    2014-06-13

    The purpose of this data package is to provide information about simulated crystalline waste forms that can be used to select an appropriate composition for a Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) proof of principle demonstration. Melt processing, viscosity, electrical conductivity, and thermal analysis information was collected to assess the ability of two potential candidate ceramic compositions to be processed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) CCIM and to guide processing parameters for the CCIM operation. Given uncertainties in the CCIM capabilities to reach certain temperatures throughout the system, one waste form designated 'Fe-MP' was designed towards enabling processing and another, designated 'CAF-5%TM-MP' was designed towards optimized microstructure. Melt processing studies confirmed both compositions could be poured from a crucible at 1600{degrees}C although the CAF-5%TM-MP composition froze before pouring was complete due to rapid crystallization (upon cooling). X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the crystalline nature and phase assemblages of the compositions. The kinetics of melting and crystallization appeared to vary significantly between the compositions. Impedance spectroscopy results indicated the electrical conductivity is acceptable with respect to processing in the CCIM. The success of processing either ceramic composition will depend on the thermal profiles throughout the CCIM. In particular, the working temperature of the pour spout relative to the bulk melter which can approach 1700{degrees}C. The Fe-MP composition is recommended to demonstrate proof of principle for crystalline simulated waste forms considering the current configuration of INL's CCIM. If proposed modifications to the CCIM can maintain a nominal temperature of 1600{degrees}C throughout the melter, drain, and pour spout, then the CAF-5%TM-MP composition should be considered for a proof of principle demonstration.

  7. DOCUMENT RELEASE FORM G5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOCUMENT RELEASE FORM G5 (1) Document Number: RPP-RPT-431 69 (2) Revision Number: 0 (3) Effective Date: 9/30/2009 (4) Document Type: E] Digital Image l Hard copy (a) Number of pages (including the IDRF) or 125 E PDF ElVideo number of digital images (5) Release Type Z New 0 Cancel El Page Change l complete Revision (6) Document Title: 2009 Auto-TCR for Tank 241 -T-1 11 (7) Change/Release Initial Issuance Description: (8) Change Initial Issuance Justification: (9) Associated (a) Structure

  8. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  9. FermiCulture Subscription Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The FermiCulture email list is used to send email announcements and reminders about upcoming cultural events at Fermilab (e.g., the Fermilab Arts, Film, and Lecture series). This is a private, announcement-only mail list and will never be used for spamming or discussions. Subscribers receive approximately five emails per month. Use the form below to subscribe to (or unsubscribe from) the FermiCulture list. Email address: Name (First Last): Subscribe to email list Unsubscribe from email list Send

  10. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-05-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes {approximately} 5 {mu}m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  11. Performance aspects of de Laval spray-forming nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a multiphase fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is directed onto a suitably shaped substrate or pattern to produce a coherent, near-net-shape deposit The technology can simplify materials processing where simultaneously improving product quality. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Here we briefly describe the flow field characterization and atomization behavior of liquid metals in linear de Laval nozzles, and illustrate their versatility by summarizing results from three spray-forming programs. In one program, low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm was produced. In another program, polymer membranes [approximately] 5 [mu]m thick were spray formed. Finally, recent results in spray forming molds, dies, and related tooling for rapid prototyping are described.

  12. Integrally formed radio frequency quadrupole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbott, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    An improved radio frequency quadrupole (10) is provided having an elongate housing (11) with an elongate central axis (12) and top, bottom and two side walls (13a-d) symmetrically disposed about the axis, and vanes (14a-d) formed integrally with the walls (13a-d), the vanes (14a-d) each having a cross-section at right angles to the central axis (12) which tapers inwardly toward the axis to form electrode tips (15a-d) spaced from each other by predetermined distances. Each of the four walls (13a-d), and the vanes (14a-d) integral therewith, is a separate structural element having a central lengthwise plane (16) passing through the tip of the vane, the walls (13a-d) having flat mounting surfaces (17, 18) at right angles to and parallel to the control plane (16), respectively, which are butted together to position the walls and vane tips relative to each other.

  13. RRC - Geothermal Production Test Completion or Recompletion Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Production Test Completion or Recompletion Report and Log Form GT-1 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: RRC - Geothermal Production...

  14. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  15. Miscellaneous Waste-Form FEPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Schenker

    2000-12-08

    The US DOE must provide a reasonable assurance that the performance objectives for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) potential radioactive-waste repository can be achieved for a 10,000-year post-closure period. The guidance that mandates this direction is under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 63 and the US Department of Energy's ''Revised Interim Guidance Pending Issuance of New US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulations (Revision 01, July 22, 1999), for Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (Dyer 1999 and herein referred to as DOE's Interim Guidance). This assurance must be demonstrated in the form of a performance assessment that: (1) identifies the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that might affect the performance of the potential geologic repository; (2) examines the effects of such FEPs on the performance of the potential geologic repository; (3) estimates the expected annual dose to a specified receptor group; and (4) provides the technical basis for inclusion or exclusion of specific FEPs.

  16. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  17. CFCNCA Sample Pledge Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CFCNCA Sample Pledge Form CFCNCA Sample Pledge Form This file contains a sample pledge form and instructions for completing a paper donation through the CFC. PDF icon CFCNCA Fall 2012 Sample Pledge Form.pdf More Documents & Publications CFCNCA Sample Pledge Form 2012 CFCNCA Catalog of Caring DOE F 3630.1 Rights and Benefits of Reservists Called to Active Duty

  18. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  19. Gasoline from Wood via Integrated Gasification, Synthesis, and Methanol-to-Gasoline Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, S. D.; Tarud, J. K.; Biddy, M. J.; Dutta, A.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) assessment of the feasibility of making gasoline via the methanol-to-gasoline route using syngas from a 2,000 dry metric tonne/day (2,205 U.S. ton/day) biomass-fed facility. A new technoeconomic model was developed in Aspen Plus for this study, based on the model developed for NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007). The necessary process changes were incorporated into a biomass-to-gasoline model using a methanol synthesis operation followed by conversion, upgrading, and finishing to gasoline. Using a methodology similar to that used in previous NREL design reports and a feedstock cost of $50.70/dry ton ($55.89/dry metric tonne), the estimated plant gate price is $16.60/MMBtu ($15.73/GJ) (U.S. $2007) for gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) produced from biomass via gasification of wood, methanol synthesis, and the methanol-to-gasoline process. The corresponding unit prices for gasoline and LPG are $1.95/gallon ($0.52/liter) and $1.53/gallon ($0.40/liter) with yields of 55.1 and 9.3 gallons per U.S. ton of dry biomass (229.9 and 38.8 liters per metric tonne of dry biomass), respectively.

  20. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  1. Employee Information Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Form Employee Information Form PDF icon New Employee Information Form More Documents & Publications CX-007131: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007139: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-007172: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  2. Capital Equipment Validation Form | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capital Equipment Validation Form Version Number: 2.0 Document Number: Form 48100.001 Effective Date: 02/2015 File (public): Office spreadsheet icon form_48100.001_rev2.xls

  3. DEQ UPDES Forms Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UPDES Forms Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: DEQ UPDES Forms Website Abstract A website containing forms and guidance for...

  4. Form:EZFeed Policy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Form Edit History Form:EZFeed Policy Jump to: navigation, search This is the 'EZFeed Policy' form. To add a page with this...

  5. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  6. CAIRS Registration Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Registration Form CAIRS Registration Form June 12, 2002 Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) User Registration Form Completed registration request should be sent by facsimile to EHSS InfoCenter at (301) 903-9823 PDF icon CAIRS Registration Form More Documents & Publications ORPS User Registration Form Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 13, Controlled Unclassified Information Fire Protection System Account Request Form

  7. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power Forms

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Forms What's happening with electric power forms? In 2008 EIA is consolidating 6 data collection forms into 2 forms. Fill out forms electronically (Available soon!) Not registered? Why is that a good thing? * For Electricity Generators: This reduces the number of forms to submit. (Re-registering is not required!) * For EIA and Taxpayers: This streamlines the collection process for better efficiency. * For Everyone: This enables us to provide additional information about the electric power

  8. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality's Application Forms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality's Application Forms and Guidance Website Abstract This site contains forms...

  9. Pulse Pressure Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forming of Lightweight Materials, Development of High Strength Superplastic Al Sheet, Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels Pulse Pressure Forming of...

  10. 2015 Housing Innovation Awards Application Form | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Housing Innovation Awards Application Form 2015 Housing Innovation Awards Application Form ... The 2015 ceremony will take place at the EEBA Excellence in Building Conference & Expo ...

  11. Research Form | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Form Research Form Students may arrange to receive credit andor choose to receive points toward the PARCI-CARES certificate through research in a faculty-supervised...

  12. DOE Forms National Center for Photovoltaics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services » Forms » DOE Forms Management FAQ's DOE Forms Management FAQ's Facts.jpg What types of forms are there? Departmental Form: for use department-wide by DOE personnel only Headquarters (HQ) Form: developed or managed by a DOE Headquarters organization and generally for use by HQ or within an HQ element Local Form: for use within a specific DOE Field Office Optional Form: developed by a Federal agency for use by two or more agencies, or non-mandatory Government-wide use and approved by

  13. DOE Forms Management FAQ's | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Forms » DOE Forms Management FAQ's DOE Forms Management FAQ's Facts.jpg What types of forms are there? Departmental Form: for use department-wide by DOE personnel only Headquarters (HQ) Form: developed or managed by a DOE Headquarters organization and generally for use by HQ or within an HQ element Local Form: for use within a specific DOE Field Office Optional Form: developed by a Federal agency for use by two or more agencies, or non-mandatory Government-wide use and approved by

  14. Forms & Applications | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms & Applications Forms: Before You Arrive User Information Log in to the User Portal to Register or Update Contact Informatioin Proposals Submit Proposals via User Portal...

  15. CONTACTS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: Forms & Records | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONTACTS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: Forms & Records CONTACTS FOR INFORMATION MANAGEMENT: Forms & Records Maria Levesque, Director Enterprise Records Management Division (IM-23) ...

  16. Alten Energias Renovables Sociedad Limitada formly Solpark |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alten Energias Renovables Sociedad Limitada formly Solpark Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alten Energias Renovables Sociedad Limitada (formly Solpark) Place: Bilbao, Spain...

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Code Survey Form Design Code Survey Form Survey of Safety Software Used in Design of Structures, Systems, and Components 1. Introduction The Department's Implementation Plan ...

  18. FAQs for Survey Forms 804 and 814

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intended for cracking into olefins. EIA-804 Survey form & instructions Contact: Robert Merriam, (202) 586-4615 EIA-814 Survey form & instructions Contact: Chris Buckner, (202)...

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    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

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    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Two Forms of Identification More Documents & Publications Self-Identification of Disability New Employee Orientation - Forms Checklist DOE Emergency Special Needs ...