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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Wood Heating Fuel Exemption  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute exempts from the state sales tax all wood or "refuse-derived" fuel used for heating purposes. The law does not make any distinctions about whether the qualified fuels are used for...

2

Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from...

3

Calculating and reporting changes in net heat of combustion of wood fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is often confusion when reporting net heat of combustion changes in wood fuel due to changes in moisture content (MC) of the fuel. This paper was written to identify and clarify the bases on which changes in net heat of combustion can be calculated. Formulae for calculating changes in net heat of combustion of wood fuel due to MC changes are given both on a per unit weight of fuel basis and on an actual gain basis. Examples which illustrate the difference in the two reporting approaches, as well as the importance of both approaches, are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.; McMinn, J.W.; Payne, F.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

McDonald, R.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wth for one family, with larger scale systems of 1 MWth heating 200 houses. Small scale wood fuel electricity provide electricity for up to 30,000 houses. Many electricity generating systems also produce heat and are called Combined Heat and Power systems. kWth = kilowatt thermal (i.e. heat) kWe = kilowatt electricity

6

High Fuel Costs Spark Increased Use of Wood for Home Heating by Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

families reducing their costly household oil or gas dependence by turning to a traditional fuel is typically delivered to homes in tanks, and is almost as expensive as heating oil. Berry manages the EIA Hampshire. Just last week, Erik said, he had a discussion with his fuel-oil supplier about how little oil

South Bohemia, University of

7

Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste and Materials Disposition InformationWindWood and Pellet Heating Basics

8

Wood furnance cuts fuel bills and wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a wood burning furnace instead of propane to heat the Saddlecraft manufacturing plant in Cherokee, North Carolina, is described. A chart shows gallons of propane usage in winter for five years. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The deduction is equal to the total cost of purchase and installation for...

10

Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,SaveWhiskey Flats Geothermal AreaarticleWood Fuel LP Name: Wood

11

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Winter Heating Fuels Update  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Heating Fuels Update For: Congressional Briefings October 20, 2014 | Washington, DC By U.S. Energy Information Administration Winter Heating Fuels Update October 20, 2014 |...

13

Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Potential for comparison drying of green wood chip fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Equipment currently designed for and in use by the forest products industry for the dewatering of wood bark and chips by mechanical pressure can only reduce the moisture content (MC) to 45 or 50% (wet basis). Thus, this equipment is suited to remove water added in processing but not free water normally present in green wood. Exploratory research described in this paper has shown on a laboratory scale that the proper application of high pressure to green wood chips can remove the water from cell lumens, thus reducing the MC to 35% or less. Further, this water removal may be accomplished in an energy efficient manner. The ratio of energy increase of the fuel (increase in recoverable heat) to the mechanical energy required for water removal was found to vary from 67:1 to 240:1. This ratio depends upon wood specific gravity (SG) green MC, and mode of compression. A theoretical relationship between volumetric compression, MC, SG, and water extracted was developed and tested on several species of softwoods and hardwoods. The cost savings for fuel and boiler investment in a hypothetical situation are presented to illustrate the economic potential of the process if production scale equipment can be developed. (17 references).

Haygreen, J.G.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Using waste wood as fuel saves $2000 per day  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sawdust and wood residue replaced natural gas or number 2 fuel oil to fire 2 kilns at the Cherokee Brick Co. in Raleigh, NC, resulting in savings of $2000/day. Exhaust air from the kilns was sent directly back to a rotating dryer to dry the waste wood. The dried wood containing 8 to 12% moisture was supplied, around the clock, at a rate of 140 ton/day of dry material. (BLM)

Ragland, W. (Cherokee Brick Co., Raleigh, NC); Byrnes, D.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

Betts, W. D.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 √?¬?√?¬įF per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 √?¬?√?¬įF water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 √?¬?√?¬įF water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 √?¬?√?¬įF per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 √?¬?√?¬įF water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 √?¬?√?¬įF per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

RFPs Due for Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy Grant  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Forest Service requests proposals for the 2014 Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy (W2E) Grant.† The outcome anticipated under this funding mechanism will advance the United States Department of...

19

Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless or Demand-TypeWelcome toFarm Growth ThroughWomen @

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Producer gas from citrus wood fuels irrigation power unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A 90-hp diesel engine operating a citrus irrigation system was converted to run on a dual-fuel mixture utilizing producer gas from citrus wood chips as the main fuel source. A chip feeder mechanism, gasifier, filter system and control unit were designed to meet typical irrigation power requirements. Blighted, unproductive and dead trees removed near the irrigation site were used for chipping. Data on chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying rate and fuel/tree weight are presented but labour and equipment costs were not determined. 14 references.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Rational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-line IR heating system installed on the peeling lathe. Keywords: green wood; heating; infrared; modeling solutions are sought for. Experiments with electric ohmic and microwave heating methods (TorgovnikovRational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments Anna

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Prediction of the heat release rate of wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for the heat release rate of wood during flaming combustion was developed during this research. It includes the effects of char shrinkage, multiple chemical components, adsorbed moisture, internal convective cooling and the variation of the thermophysical and thermochemical properties with temperature and the mass retention fraction of the char. It does not include char oxidation or diffusion of moisture and volatile pyrolysis products toward the rear surface. It calculates the time to ignition, mass burning rate, heat release rate, heat of combustion, heat of gasification and depth of char. An important part of this research was the determination of the thermochemical and thermophysical properties required by the model. An apparatus was developed for determining the kinetic parameters and the heat of combustion of the volatiles under conditions similar to those in the interior of a flaming slab of wood. Data were obtained on each of the four major chemical components present in Douglas fir. Thermal diffusivity measurements on Douglas fir and its char yielded an average value of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} s{sup 2}/s which was nearly independent of temperature and mass retention fraction of the char for temperature sup to 500{degree}C and for mass-retention fractions above 0.30.

Parker, W.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

26

Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

Nautiyal, Sunil [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)], E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2012 I Hudson Consulting I November 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Existing plant demand is forecast to grow in 2012, and together with projects currently in the building phase, total wood fuel demand is forecast to rise to 678k odt in 2012 and to 946k odt in 2013 80k odt of wood in 2011. There is a major increase in forecast demand for wood to be used as pellet

28

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History Download6 Electricity: Sales to31

29

Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period: Monthly Annual Download Series History71.7 588.51 "1. Consumption1.

30

International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429 Throttled (bot load)International AssociationServicesfor Conservation

31

Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import Costs for Selected CountriesU.S.1 Nonfuel20112 Fuel3

32

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia 1 Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia Energy energy User behaviour ESCOs Biomass Education Architects and engineers Wind Other Financial institutions countries it is already implemented for several years. #12;Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Slovakia

33

Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004 The purpose of this 2004...

34

EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

35

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

completed and the preliminary results indicate that our approach is potentially a very cost-effective and simple option to substantially reduce or possibly eliminate fossil-fuel usage in lime kilns....

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Woodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

crops With increasing pellet production taking place in the UK, a fifth category of "UK Pellet" has been.1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only Pellet plants 3 in previous reports: Virgin wood fibre Imported fibre (in the form of wood pellets) Recycled fibre Energy

37

Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in forecast demand for wood to be used for pellet production of 140k odt/yr in 2011. 9. The total of wood usage by fuel category 3.3. Pellet plants 3.4. Greenhouse gas emissions 3.5. Projects in planning 4 by 2012 and beyond. The use of recycled fibre is forecast to increase to 40% in 2012. 8. Four wood pellet

38

Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

39

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood,AND TECHNOLOGY CHOICE IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J.nology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

Pincelli, R. D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization G.F. Naterer a,*, C production of ohmic heating and concentration polarization is investigated for two types of fuel cells (PEMFC oxide fuel cell (SOFC), this article formulates entropy production within electrodes of a proton

Naterer, Greg F.

48

Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Jim Halliday, Alan Ruddell, Jane;Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Tyndall Centre Technical Report No. 32 efficiencies, and therefore reduced CO2 emissions, compared to conventional centralised generation. Fuel cell

Watson, Andrew

49

Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-built facility that holds up to 450 cubic metres of woodchips. A tractor and trailer transports four loads of woodchips weekly to the boiler house fuel store in the centre of the village. The delivery trailer has

50

Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The state of New York began offering a personal income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

51

Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

52

Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember1. Foreign salesWestern Hemisphere4

53

EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683Diesel pricesArkansas56, "Monthly ForeignU.S.

54

Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

Jonathan Bolling

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

55

York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and...

56

High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

Wertheim, R.J.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001Long-Term StorageDepartment of Energyin a Motored

58

Sludge, fuel degradation and reducing fouling on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract to the US Department of Energy, operates an oil heat research primarily to lower energy consumption in the 12 million oil heated homes in the US. The program objectives include: Improve steady state efficiency of oil heating equipment, Improve seasonal efficiencies, Eliminate or minimize factors which tend to degrade system performance. This paper provides an overview of the status of three specific projects which fall under the above objectives. This includes our fuel quality project, oil appliance venting and a project addressing efficiency degradation due to soot fouling of heat exchangers.

Butcher, T.; Litzke, Wai Lin; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

Allan Jones

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

None

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper Science and Technology; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strategic Utilization of Paper/Wood Waste for Biodiesel Fuel Art J. Ragauskas, Institute of Paper lignocellulosics to biodiesel fuel Feedstocks ABSTRACT This poster examines the potential of utilizing waste paper CelluloseHemicelluloseLigninResource Cracking and Refining of Polysaccharides Bio-Diesel Substitutes

63

Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

Not Available

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Generating power with waste wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

Atkins, R.S.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Castor-1C spent fuel storage cask decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear Services (GNS) CASTOR-1C cask used in a spent fuel storage demonstration performed at Preussen Elektra's Wurgassen nuclear power plant. The demonstration was performed between March 1982 and January 1984, and resulted in cask and fuel temperature data and cask exterior surface gamma-ray and neutron radiation dose rate measurements. The purpose of the analyses reported here was to evaluate decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding computer codes. The analyses consisted of (1) performing pre-look predictions (predictions performed before the analysts were provided the test data), (2) comparing ORIGEN2 (decay heat), COBRA-SFS and HYDRA (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) results to data, and (3) performing post-test analyses if appropriate. Even though two heat transfer codes were used to predict CASTOR-1C cask test data, no attempt was made to compare the two codes. The codes are being evaluated with other test data (single-assembly data and other cask data), and to compare the codes based on one set of data may be premature and lead to erroneous conclusions.

Rector, D.R.; McCann, R.A.; Jenquin, U.P.; Heeb, C.M.; Creer, J.M.; Wheeler, C.L.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Co-generation of electricity and heat from combustion of wood powder utilizing thermophotovoltaic conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a thermophotovoltaic converter that uses combustion of wood powder as energy source has started with development of the combustion source. During the last few months, we have constructed and tested a feeding mechanism and a combustion chamber that seem very promising. We manage to keep a 10 kW flame steadily burning for several minutes at the time, generating a temperature exceeding 1400 K. The plans for continued development of this and other components of the converter are discussed in the paper. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Broman, L. [Solar Energy Research Center, University College of Falun/Borlaenge, P.O. Box 10044, S-781 10 Borlaenge, Sweden, Phone +46 2437 3747, fax 3750, e-mail lbratt.hfb.se (Sweden); Marks, J. [Department of Operational Efficiency, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences S-776 98 Garpenberg, Sweden, Phone +46 2252 6068, fax 2162 (Sweden)

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and07-01-3994Fueling the Nextof

69

Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

brown-coal fired boilers with low efficiency. The special furnace design ensures that woody biofuel authorities CHP Planning issues Transport companies District Heating Sustainable communities Utilities Solar

70

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases This project will develop a new,...

71

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water...

72

EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat...

73

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2011 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2011 TDA...

74

Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 . Tensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism

75

DEVELOPMENT OF FUEL AND VALUE-ADDED CHEMICALS FROM PYROLYSIS OF WOOD/WASTE PLASTIC MIXTURE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Highly oxygenated compounds in bio-oil produce negative properties that have hampered fuel development. Copyrolysis with plastics has increased hydrogen content in past research. Py-GC/MS analysesÖ (more)

Bhattacharya, Priyanka

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Report of Shelton wood-coal firing tests conducted March 16-April 2, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood and coal combinations were tested at representative steam rates while boiler performance, gaseous and particulate emissions were measured. Wood contributed up to 50% of the Btu requirements of the boilers during the tests. The Quinault-Pacific system will permit selected green mill residues to be used in place of coal at the rate of 2.5 tons of wood per ton of coal. Green wood and coal are compatible fuels. Heat provided by the coal and other combustion effects are enough to offset the effects of moisture in green wood and in some cases improve boiler performance. The combined firing of wood with coal at typical steam rates results in better flyash collection, lower emissions, improved opacity, better cinder recovery and lower steam costs.

Not Available

1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

77

Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

Canaan, R.E.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

79

Juan A. Blanco & Dave Flanders (University of British Columbia/Universidad Pblica de Navarra), Dale Littlejohn & Peter Robinson (Community Energy Association), David Dubois (Wood Waste to Rural Heat Project)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), Dale Littlejohn & Peter Robinson (Community Energy Association), David Dubois (Wood Waste to Rural Heat Project) August 2013 Fire in the woods or fire in the boiler? A new tool to help rural communities .............................................................................................................................. 25 #12;4 Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Many rural British Columbia (BC

Pedersen, Tom

80

Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

Not Available

1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel additives and heat treatment effects on nanocrystalline zinc ferrite phase composition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel additives and heat treatment effects on nanocrystalline zinc ferrite phase composition Ping Hu October 2010 Keywords: Zinc ferrite Fuel additive Heat treatment Phase composition a b s t r a c, carbamide and acrylic acid as fuel additives. Pure spinel zinc ferrite with the crystallite size of about 15

Volinsky, Alex A.

82

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study...

83

Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

84

Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

86

Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage ¬Ľof EnergyTheTwoVulnerabilities | DepartmentReactive Barrierof| Department

87

Effects of moisture and hydrogen content on the heating value of fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, effects of moisture and hydrogen contents on lower heating value (LHV) of fuels were investigated. The LHV at constant pressure measures the enthalpy change of combustion with and without water condensed, respectively. Moisture in biomass generally decreases its heating value. Moisture in biomass is stored in spaces within the dead cells and within the cell walls. Higher heating value (HHV) of a fuel decreases with increasing of its moisture content. The LHV of a fuel increases with increasing of its hydrogen content. The LHV of a fuel depends on its oxygen content and the LHV of a fuel decreases with increasing of its oxygen content. The LHV of a fuel increases with increasing the hydrogen content due to cause combustion water. Moisture in a fuel generally decreases its HHV. The LHV of a fuel increases with increasing the sulfur content due to SOx gases absorbed by water.

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indiana College Provides TrainingEnergy

89

The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

None

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project | Department  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codes andDepartment ofPressure Sampling for

91

Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: Scope ChangeL-01-06 AuditAugust 5,Re evised JuneConversion to

92

Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward a Peaceful Nuclear Future Moving8,

93

Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOEToward a Peaceful Nuclear FutureSlide 1 DOEand

94

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOETowardExecutive Summary In0| 93-851Grid

95

Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

Stockie, John

97

RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RISō-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS IRRADIATED IN DR3 C. Bagger of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially of the data. INIS Descriptors . BURN-UP, CALORIMETRY, COMPUTER CALCULATIONS, DR-3, FISSION, FUEL ASSEMBLIES

98

EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328 2,683Diesel pricesArkansas56, "Monthly ForeignU.S.7,

99

Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry

100

Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

102

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

Tora, Eman

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

Chiang, R. T. [AREVA Inc., 303 Ravendale Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The combination of the Native Village of Tellers limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of...

107

Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and StandardsFuelCellsat NASCARforand

109

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power be theoretically improved through integration in power cycles; the low emissions; and the pos- sibility of using

Berning, Torsten

110

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

111

High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Hawaii HIGH PERFORMANCE andHigh Risk PlanD

112

ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Department ofIOWA1999) | Department2009 | The U.S. Power

113

In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S. Improving Fan System PerformanceIn situIn

114

Use of Integrated Decay Heat Limits to Facilitate Spent Nuclear Fuel Loading to Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an alternative to the use of the linear loading or areal power density (APD) concept, using integrated decay heat limits based on the use of mountain-scale heat transfer analysis is considered to represent the thermal impact from the deposited spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to the Yucca Mountain repository. Two different integrated decay heat limits were derived to represent both the short-term (up to 50 years from the time of repository closure) and the long-term decay heat effect (up to 1500 years from the time of repository closure). The derived limits were found to appropriately represent the drift wall temperature limit (200 deg. C) and the midway between adjacent drifts temperature limit (96 deg. C) as long as used fuel is uniformly loaded into the mountain. These limits can be a useful practical guide to facilitate the loading of used fuel into Yucca Mountain. (authors)

Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University (United States); Piet, Steven [Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

116

Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

Popa-Simil, L. [LAVM LLC, Los Alamos (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

Phillippe, Aaron M [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Banfield, James E [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

Stefanopoulou, Anna

120

Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; Biodiesel production using soybean and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

production using wood biomass required 57 % more fossil energy than the ethanol fuel produced. ē Biodiesel

David Pimentel; Tad W. Patzek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Comparison of selected fuel and chemical content values for seven Populus hybrid clones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel and chemical content values were determined for seven Populus clones by component (wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens) and tissue age (1 to 8 years old). The fuel and chemical content values obtained included: gross heat of combustion, extractives, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, lignin and ash. In general, analysis of the data for the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens indicated that: 1) wood was higher in holocellulose and alpha-cellulose content than bark; 2) bark was higher in gross heat of combustion, lignin, extractive, and ash content values than wood; and 3) combined wood/bark fuel and chemical content values were usually between the individual values for the wood and bark. Statistical analyses indicated that significant differences existed within and among clones. Within the wood, bark, and wood/bark specimens, tissue age influenced the chemical content values more than the parentage. Potential chemical yields derived from the seven Populus hybrid clones investigated will depend on component and age with limited parentage effects. 15 references.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Bowersox, T.W.; Kuklewski, K.M.; Stimely, G.L.; Murphey, W.K.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4.5 for heating to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

Hall, Julian

123

BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Division requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory to help design and conduct an up-to-date assessment of the Program. The evaluation includes five separate studies; the fuel oil study is the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the fuel-oil study was to provide a region-wide estimate of the space-heating fuel oil saved by the Program in the Northeast during the 1991 and 1992 program years. Other goals include assessing the cost effectiveness of the Program within the fuel-oil submarket, and identifying factors which caused fuel-oil savings to vary. This paper reports only the highlights from the fuel-oil study`s final report.

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

31 WoodChemistry Wood Degradation & Preservation Chemical Utilization of Wood Pulp & Paper and carbohydrates is of considerable interest in connection with a number of issues in wood chemistry, such as the reactions taking place during the formation of wood, the natural molecular weight distribution of lignin

Geldenhuys, Jaco

126

Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

New Hampshire, University of

127

Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Wood Resources International  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Resources International Wood Raw Material Consumption on the Rise Despite Weak Global Economy UNECE Timber Committee Meeting October 7-8, 2003 Geneva, Switzerland HŚkan EkstrŲm Wood Resources International #12;Wood Resources International Outline ∑ Roundwood Removals ∑ Roundwood Consumption ∑ Raw

129

apparent molar heat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: efficient use of renewable energy in district heating individual heat pumps solar heating and wood pellets individual heat pumps, solar heating and...

130

Prediction of heat transfer for a supercritical water test with a four pin fuel bundle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a next step to validate prediction methods for core design of a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor, a small, electrically heated fuel bundle with 4 pins is planned to be tested. This paper summarizes first heat transfer predictions for such a test, which were performed based on supercritical and subcritical sub-channel analyses. For heat transfer under supercritical pressure conditions, the sub-channel code STAFAS has been applied, which had been tested successfully already for a supercritical water reactor design. Design studies with different assembly box sizes at a given pin diameter and pitch have been performed to optimize the coolant temperature distribution. With a fuel pin outer diameter of 10 mm and a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.15, an optimum inner width of the assembly box was determined to be 24 mm. Coolant and cladding surface temperatures to be expected at subcritical pressure conditions have been predicted with the sub-channel code MATRA. As, different from typical PWR or BWR conditions, a dryout has been foreseen for the tests, this code had to be extended to include suitable dryout criteria as well as post dryout heat transfer correlations at higher enthalpies and pressures. Different from PWR or BWR design, the cladding surface temperature of fuel pins in supercritical water reactors can vary significantly around the circumference of each pin, causing bending towards its hotter side which, in turn, can cause additional sub-channel heat-up and thus additional thermal bending of the pin. To avoid a thermal instability by this effect, a sensitivity study with respect to thermal bending of fuel pins has been performed, which determines the minimum number of grid spacers needed for this test. (authors)

Behnke, L. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany); Himmel, S.; Waata, C.; Schulenberg, T. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Laurien, E. [University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

COBRA-SFS predictions of single assembly spent fuel heat transfer data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study reported here is one of several efforts to evaluate and qualify the COBRA-SFS computer code for use in spent fuel storage system thermal analysis. The ability of COBRA-SFS to predict the thermal response of two single assembly spent fuel heat transfer tests was investigated through comparisons of predictions with experimental test data. From these comparisons, conclusions regarding the computational treatment of the physical phenomena occurring within a storage system can be made. This objective was successfully accomplished as reasonable agreement between predictions and data were obtained for the 21 individual test cases of the two experiments.

Lombardo, N.J.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Rector, D.R.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Processing and utilizing high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from urban solid waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The history of technologies in the US that recover energy from urban solid waste is relatively short. Most of the technology as we know it evolved over the past 25 years. This evolution led to the development of about 100 modern mass burn and RDF type waste-to-energy plants and numerous small modular combustion systems, which collectively are handling about 20%, or about 40 million tons per year, of the nations municipal solid waste. Technologies also evolved during this period to co-fire urban waste materials with other fuels or selectively burn specific waste streams as primary fuels. A growing number of second or third generation urban waste fuels projects are being developed. This presentation discusses new direction in the power generating industry aimed at recovery and utilization of clean, high heat value, low ash alternative fuels from municipal and industrial solid waste. It reviews a spectrum of alternative fuels for feasible recovery and reuse, with new opportunities emerging for urban fuels processors providing fuels in the 6,000--15,000 BTU/LB range for off premises use.

Smith, M.L. [M.L. Smith Environmental and Associates, Tinley Park, IL (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Design of a core-length thermionic fuel element for electrical heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design of an electrically heated version of a core-length Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) with advanced features, as is suggested by the designation Advanced Thermionic Inititative (ATI). The advanced features include a high-strength emitter structure to be fabricated by Space Power, Incorporated. This structure consists of a cylindrical emitter, 15 mm diameter and 254 mm long of Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) tungsten, reinforced with tungsten-hafnium carbide wire wound over a CVD tungsten core with additional CVD tungsten incorporating and bonding the wire into the emitter. The emitter surface is CVD tungsten, deposited from tungsten chloride resulting in the desirable crystal orientation of [l angle]110[r angle]. It is possible to design a reactor with core-length TFEs so that it can be electrically tested prior to fueling. The program is focussed on the design and fabrication of a single core-length TFE with current collection at both ends which will be tested in a reactor. In parallel with this effort is the design, fabrication, and testing of an unfueled, electrically heated prototype. The intent is to make the electrically heated converter as similar as possible to the fueled one, while providing for accurate emitter and collector temperature measurement.

Miskolczy, G. (ThermoTrex Coporation, 85 First Avenue, P.O. Box 8995, Waltham, MA 02254-8995 (United States)); Horner, H. (General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States)); Lamp, T. (Wright Laboratories, WL/POOC-2, Wright Patternson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

134

Effect of Fuel Type on the Attainable Power of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) is a small liquid metal cooled fast reactor that features uniform composition core, at least 20 effective full power years of operation without refueling, nearly zero burnup reactivity swing and heat removal by natural circulation. A number of cores have been designed over the last few years to provide the first three of the above features. The objective of this work is to find to what extent use of nitride fuel, with either natural or enriched nitrogen, affects the attainable power as compared to the reference metallic fueled core. All the compared cores use the same fuel rod diameter, D, and length but differ in the lattice pitch, P, and Pu weight percent. Whereas when using Pb-Bi eutectic for both primary and intermediate coolants the P/D of the metallic fueled core is 1.36, P/D for the nitride cores are, respectively, 1.21 for natural nitrogen and 1.45 for enriched nitrogen. A simple one-dimensional thermal hydraulic model has been developed for the ENHS reactor. Applying this model to the different designs it was found that when the IHX length is at its reference value of 10.4 m, the power that can be removed by natural circulation using nitride fuel with natural nitrogen is 65% of the reference power of 125 MWth that is attainable using metallic fuel. However, using enriched nitrogen the attainable power is 110% of the reference. To get 125 MWth the effective IHX length need be 8.7 m and 30.5 m for, respectively, enriched and natural nitrogen nitride fuel designs. (authors)

Okawa, Tsuyoshi; Greenspan, Ehud [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average octane levels must be at least 8.5 for gasoline, 7 for jet fuel, and 4. Distilled naphtha can be used only to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce

Hall, Julian

136

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Wood biology We present investigations of wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood biology We present investigations of wood formation which started in 1999. Samples for investigations are taken from living trees. Processes of wood formation are affected by different factors like temperature and precipitation. #12;We use light microscopy to study cell wall formation in the wood. Double

Cufar, Katarina

138

Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department/17/2014 Postdoctoral Research Associate, University of Wisconsin-Madison PUBLICATIONS Wood, E. M., A. M. Pidgeon, V. C community structure in U.S protected areas. Ecological Applications in press Wood, E. M., and A. M. Pidgeon

Mladenoff, David

139

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

Nairn, John A.

140

Standard test method for heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels by bomb calorimeter (high-precision method)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This method covers the determination of the heat of combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. It is designed specifically for use with aviation turbine fuels when the permissible difference between duplicate determinations is of the order of 0.1%. It can be used for a wide range of volatile and nonvolatile materials where slightly greater differences in precision can be tolerated. The heat of combustion is determined by burning a weighed sample in an oxygen-bomb calorimeter under controlled conditions. The temperature is measured by means of a platinum resistance thermometer. The heat of combustion is calculated from temperature observations before, during, and after combustion, with proper allowance for thermochemical and heat-transfer corrections. Either isothermal or adiabatic calorimeters may be used. The heat of combustion is a measure of the energy available from a fuel. A knowledge of this value is essential when considering the thermal efficiency of equipment for producing either power or heat.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Countercurrent flow limited (CCFL) heat flux in the high flux isotope reactor (HFIR) fuel element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The countercurrent flow (CCF) performance in the fuel element region of the HFIR is examined experimentally and theoretically. The fuel element consists of two concentric annuli filled with aluminum clad fuel plates of 1.27 mm thickness separated by 1.27 mm flow channels. The plates are curved as they go radially outward to accomplish constant flow channel width and constant metal-to-coolant ratio. A full-scale HFIR fuel element mock-up is studied in an adiabatic air-water CCF experiment. A review of CCF models for narrow channels is presented along with the treatment of CCFs in system of parallel channels. The experimental results are related to the existing models and a mechanistic model for the annular'' CCF in a narrow channel is developed that captures the data trends well. The results of the experiment are used to calculate the CCFL heat flux of the HFIR fuel assembly. It was determined that the HFIR fuel assembly can reject 0.62 Mw of thermal power in the CCFL situation. 31 refs., 17 figs.

Ruggles, A.E.

1990-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

142

A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for UO2 Fuel Based on the IFA-432 Experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IFA-432 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the effects of gap size, fuel density, and fuel densification on fuel centerline temperature in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for uranium dioxide (UO$_2$) fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the densification stage (2.2 \\unitfrac{GWd}{MT(UO$_{2}$)}). In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole. The analysis demonstrated excellent agreement for rods 1, 2, 3, and 5 (varying gap thicknesses and density with traditional fuel), demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for traditional fuel. For rod 6, which contained unstable fuel that densified an order of magnitude more than traditional, stable fuel, the magnitude of densification was over-predicted and the temperatures were outside of the experimental uncertainty. The radial power shape within the fuel was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures, whereas modeling the fuel at the thermocouple location as either annular or solid was relatively negligible. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for UO$_2$ fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

Phillippe, Aaron M [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Banfield, James E [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--called "green energy"called "green energy" ·· Simultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuelsSimultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuels increaseincrease ·· This leads to increasing costs for wood productsIncreasing use of wood for energy production ·· Governments in Europe are granting subsidies for

144

Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 2. Pre- and post-test decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses conducted in support of performance testing of a Ridhihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2033 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The cask testing program was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by General Electric at the latters' Morris Operation (GE-MO) as reported in Volume I. The analyses effort consisted of performing pretest calculations to (1) select spent fuel for the test; (2) symmetrically load the spent fuel assemblies in the cask to ensure lateral symmetry of decay heat generation rates; (3) optimally locate temperature and dose rate instrumentation in the cask and spent fuel assemblies; and (4) evaluate the ORIGEN2 (decay heat), HYDRA and COBRA-SFS (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) computer codes. The emphasis of this second volume is on the comparison of code predictions to experimental test data in support of the code evaluation process. Code evaluations were accomplished by comparing pretest (actually pre-look, since some predictions were not completed until testing was in progress) predictions with experimental cask testing data reported in Volume I. No attempt was made in this study to compare the two heat transfer codes because results of other evaluations have not been completed, and a comparison based on one data set may lead to erroneous conclusions.

Wiles, L.E.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heeb, C.M.; Jenquin, U.P.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Creer, J.M.; McCann, R.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #9 (Fact Sheet).  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.1310 DOE

147

Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #8 (Fact Sheet).  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.Indianaof Energy2-02 InspectionS10IS00719IG-17

148

Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOE Theory9-9260-2003October 02,(JulyWebinar: IRSofDanDaniel Wood

151

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS Ė A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

aluminum-finned copper-tube heat: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

individual heat pumps, solar heating and wood pellets 6Ris International Energy Conference 2009Heat Plan 12 Heat Pump for High School Heat Recovery Texas A&M...

154

arsenate cca wood: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in...

155

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of LASL are presented. The three programs involved are: general-purpose heat source development; space nuclear safety; and fuels program. Three impact tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of a high temperature reentry pulse and the use of CBCF on impact performance. Additionally, two /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets were encapsulated in Ir-0.3% W for impact testing. Results of the clad development test and vent testing are noted. Results of the environmental tests are summarized. Progress on the Stirling isotope power systems test and the status of the improved MHW tests are indicated. The examination of the impact failure of the iridium shell of MHFT-65 at a fuel pass-through continued. A test plan was written for vibration testing of the assembled light-weight radioisotopic heater unit. Progress on fuel processing is reported.

Maraman, W.J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

Moyer, M.W.

2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use on COPD, lung cancer,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trends in smoking and household solid-fuel use and to construct a range of future scenarios. We obtained and more than 70% of Chinese households use solid fuels, such as wood, crop residues, and coal for heatingArticles www.thelancet.com Vol 372 October 25, 2008 1473 Effects of smoking and solid-fuel use

Cohen, Ted

158

Wood Quality: The Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Quality: The Effects of Planting Density and Thinning Eini C. Lowell PNW Research Station wood quality? By volume, characteristic, product? #12;http://jilldenton.files.wordpress.com/2007, faster #12;What is it that defines wood quality?What is it that defines wood quality? Density: earlywood

159

Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

Not Available

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Clean, Efficient, and Reliable Heat and Power for the 21st Century, Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program describes the program's focus and goals, along with current fuel cell applications and future potential. The program focuses on research and development of fuel cell systems for diverse applications in the stationary power, portable power, and transportation sectors. It works to reduce costs and improve technologies to advance fuel cell uses in areas such as combined heat and power, auxiliary power units, portable power systems, and stationary and backup power. To help ensure that fuel cell advances are realized, the program rigorously analyzes energy efficiency, economic, and environmental benefits of fuel cells and seeks to optimize synergies among fuel cell applications and other renewable technologies.

Not Available

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

extremely attrac t:i.ve to today's capital investment market. 7. Several states, including North Carolina, have enacted 15% State Tax Credits to further the use of wood fuel boilers. Specific examples of the utilization of wood as a boiler fuel include... on the fact that Galaxy would be purchasing all of its waste wood fuel, as well as supplemental coal if needed. Efficiency guarantees of 80% on wood waste with less than 10% moisture content were given, as well as 78.5% on coal. These efficiencies were...

Pincelli, R. D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook Ecosystem Science and Management College ........................................................................................................................... 2 Wood Products Undergraduate Program ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 Careers for Wood Products Majors

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

166

Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered ďmicroĒ-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51?C to 43 ?C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturerís rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

Louay Chamra

2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

168

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Included in this reaction is the decomposition of methanol, which produces CO: CH3OH CO + 2H2 (90.5 kJ mol a picture of the methanol reformer which has been designed to produce hydrogen for a 1 kWe HTPEM fuel cellExperimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

Berning, Torsten

170

Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book presents papers on the use of wood fuels in Kenya. Topics considered include domestic energy consumption, historical aspects, the Kenyan economy, ecology, supply and demand, forests, aspects of energy consumption in a pastoral ecosystem, estimation of present and future demand for wood fuels, and energy source development.

Barnes, C.; Ensminger, J.; O'Keefe, P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

FIELD TO FUEL Bioenergy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TO FUEL Bioenergy Wheat straw, corn stover, prairie grasses, wood chips, and logging residues - all are left over mate- rial from various agricultural and industrial operations....

173

Introduction Mich ael Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Mich ael Wood Italo Calvino was discreet about his life and the lives of others or mechanical means without prior written permission of the publisher. #12;viii michael wood notion with great

Rowley, Clarence W.

174

WOOD STREET METERED LOT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LOT E1 LOT O WOOD STREET METERED LOT LOT W5 LOT C4 LOT B4 LOT L LOT M MARSHFIELDAVENUE PAULINASTREET Clinical Sciences Building UI Hospital Wood Street Station Clinical Sciences North Grand Grounds Garden

Dai, Yang

175

Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a qualifying wood stove. The cost to purchase and install all necessary equipment is tax...

176

Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7{percent} efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Wilson, V.C. [General Electric RDC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico871059 (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10 A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500 W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7% efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel.

Wilson, Volney C. [General Electric R and DC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico 87105 (United States)

1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

179

Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

can provide energy at all scales, ranging from micro power sources for small consumer devices to multi breakthroughs for hydro- gen and fuel cells to compete in the market. This report offers examples of real

180

Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

suppliers. Based upon the designs submitted and subsequent negotiations, the Applied Engineering Company (APCO) in Orangeburg, South Carolina, was chosen to do the job. Applied Engineering has been working on wood gasification systems for several years...-20, 1983 company has a large manufacturing plant in Orange burg and is fully capable of fabricating large pressure vessels and heavy industrial equipment. The overall wood gasification system is shown in Figure 1. The fuel for the gasifier is green...

Bulpitt, W. S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

Standiford, Richard B.

183

CURRICULUM VITAE Robert Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CURRICULUM VITAE Robert Wood Assistant Professor Atmospheric Sciences, Box 351640, University. Publications [1] Wood, R., I. M. Stromberg, P. R. Jonas and C. S. Mill, 1997: Analysis of an air motion system on a light aircraft for boundary layer research. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 960-968. [2] Wood, R., D. W

Wood, Robert

184

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives todayÖ (more)

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Modeling of fuel-to-steel heat transfer in core disruptive accidents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mathematical model for direct-contact boiling heat transfer between immiscible fluids was developed and tested experimentally. The model describes heat transfer from a hot fluid bath to an ensemble of droplets of a cooler ...

Smith, Russell Charles

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

187

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

Not Available

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

Kramm, D. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson Submitted to the graduate degree program..., Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling BY Jonathan Michael Stearns Mattson...

Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd:June 20154:04-21-2014

191

Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle Battery PlantDetermineDetroitMicrochannel

192

Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel Cell Vehicle Basics Fuel Cell Vehicle BasicsValentineson the|

193

Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety, Codes and07-01-3994 FuelMicroturbine and

194

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumption. EPRI translates these projections into3 Technology Choices in EPRI's Model of Space Heating andPower Research Institute (EPRI) [1984]: "Household Appliance

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

joint probability of a household choosing each particular heating/cooling technology combination is a function of the capital and operating

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

An experiment to simulate the heat transfer properties of a dry, horizontal spent nuclear fuel assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear power reactors generate highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies. Initially, the spent fuel assemblies are stored for a period of several years in an on-site storage facility to allow the radioactivity levels of ...

Lovett, Phyllis Maria

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

models require accurate estimates of how the market shares of different fuel choices (electricity, gas, or oil)

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergy DOEDealingVehicle1 Closing the2-A Dynegy PowerA62-SA-1:Renewable

200

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment of Energy Advanced1, 2014 EIS-0474: EPADepartmentGökhan O.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Fundamentals of Understanding & Collecting data for SHOPP¬źs EIA-877 Winter Heating Fuels Survey  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansion 5Wellhead PriceB.1.Data Collection

202

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top FiveDepartment ofCarrie Noonan About Us Carrie Noonan - Technologyin|Central

203

Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department of  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector General Office0-72.pdfGeorgeDoesn't32Department ofMoving Away from Silos MovingContractors

204

Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy Health andofIan Kalin About32 InspectionSummary ReportRemovable

205

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil'sofAppendixEnergyR&DELECTRIC8 RIVACYEnvergent

206

Fossil Fuel-fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublicIDAPowerPlantSitingConstruction.pdfNotify98.pdf JumpFlixMapFile Jump to:ForseoMcKinley,Worth,Foss and

207

Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugust 2012 Monthly ProjectEnterprisesRepair0,

208

Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

Denholm, P.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas...

210

In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

release * Metal engine experiments have shown that RCCI combustion using in-cylinder fuel blending allows low NOx and soot operation over a wide range of operating conditions -...

211

Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

photosynthesis to produce hydrogen -- research that will help scientists harvest light with solar fuels. Thanks to scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the...

212

Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartment ofTheDepartment of2012PathwaysJobs | DepartmentThis

213

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2EnergyDepartment511Laws &

214

RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket37963American |Purpose01/05/14RPAM

215

SciTech Connect: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systems controllerAdditiveBetatron RadiationDirect Liquefactionand

216

Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FORSuperiorThe Office ofScience| Department| Department

217

Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJuneWhenJuly 28,TheEnergy LintgramSME33Department

218

Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Potential sites for joint venture biomass fueled power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Army is investigating wood-fired boilers. One application is for wood fuels to fire fixed power plant installations where the technology is well proven. Approximately 170 Army bases were evaluated for their heating and electrical needs versus fuel availability from on-base forests. Approximately 20 bases met the minimum demand and resource criteria. Potential joint venture partner classes were identified as new Contractor Owned/Contractor Operated (COCO) entrepreneurs; existing utilities and industries in the vicinity of the bases; and existing Government Owned/Contractor Operated (GOCO) entrepreneurs.

Not Available

1980-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

220

Friction of wood on steel.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? This thesis deals with the experimental description of friction between steel and wood materials, specifically laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and pine wood with twoÖ (more)

Koubek, Radek

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chopwell Wood Health Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chopwell Wood Health Project An innovative project of school visits and General Practitioner. The project took place at Chopwell Wood a 360 hectare mixed woodland managed by the Forestry Commission to carry on being involved in the project. Next stage of the project Although the project leader has now

222

Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass Introduction Wood pellets have increased tremendously pellet stoves or boilers over traditional wood-fired equipment due to their relative ease of use. As a result, the demand for fuel pellets has also grown quickly. However, wood is not the only suitable

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

223

On the calculation of flow and heat transfer characteristics for CANDU-type 19-rod fuel bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study is reported of flow and heat transfer in a CANDU-type 19 rod fuel bundle. The flow domain of interest includes combinations of trangular, square, and peripheral subchannels. The basic equations of momentum and energy are solved with the standard k--epsilon model of turbulence. Isotropic turbulent viscosity is assumed and no secondary flow is considered for this steady-state, fully developed flow. Detailed velocity and temperature distributions with wall shear stress and Nusselt number distributions are obtained for turbulent flow of Re = 4.35 x 10/sup 4/, 10/sup 5/, 2 x 10/sup 5/, and for laminar flow of Re--2400. Friction factor and heat transfer ceofficients of various subchannels inside the full bundle are compared with those of infinite rod arrays of triangular or square arrangements. The calculated velocity contours of peripheral subchannel agreed reasonably with measured data.

Yuh-Shan Yueh; Ching-Chang Chieng

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

On the calculation of flow and heat transfer characteristics for CANDU-type 19-rod fuel bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study is reported of flow and heat transfer in a CANDU-type 19 rod fuel bundle. The flow domain of interest includes combinations of triangular, square, and peripheral subchannels. The basic equations of momentum and energy are solved with the standard k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Isotropic turbulent viscosity is assumed and no secondary flow is considered for this steady-state, fully developed flow. Detailed velocity and temperature distributions with wall shear stress and Nusselt number distributions are obtained for turbulent flow of Re = 4.35 {times} 10{sup 4}, 10{sup 5}, 2 {times} 10{sup 5}, and for laminar flow of Re {approximately} 2,400. Friction factor and heat transfer coefficients of various subchannels inside the full bundle are compared with those of infinite rod arrays of triangular or square arrangements. The calculated velocity contours of peripheral subchannel agreed reasonably with measured data.

Yueh, Yuhshan; Chieng, Chingchang (National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan))

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

226

Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

develop a low-cost, high-capacity expendable sorbent to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high...

227

Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

228

Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

Nailen, R. L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

Maraman, W.J. (comp.)

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Marcelo A. Wood Marcelo A. Wood, Ph.D.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marcelo A. Wood 1 Marcelo A. Wood, Ph.D. Curriculum Vitae June, 2013 Current Appointment: Associate, University of California, Irvine #12;Marcelo A. Wood 2 Teaching Experience: since joining UCI 2006, American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) #12;Marcelo A. Wood 3 Journal/Editorial Review Service

Wood, Marcelo A.

233

Design, Feasibility, and Testing of Instrumented Rod Bundles to Improve Heat Transfer Knowledge in PWR Fuel Assemblies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two 5 x 5 test rod bundles mimicking the PWR fuel assembly have been adapted into two suitable test loop facilities, respectively, to carry out sufficiently detailed hydraulic and thermal measurements in identical geometric configuration. The objective is to investigate heat transfer phenomena in single-phase as well as with onset of nucleate boiling (ONB). The accuracy and reproducibility of the temperature measurements using the sliding-traversing thermocouple device under typical PWR conditions has been demonstrated in the thermal test facility. In the hydraulic loop, a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system to precisely scan the local axial velocity component in each sub-channel has been implemented. The approach is to utilize mean sub-channel axial velocity distributions and pressure drop data from the hydraulic loop and the global boundary conditions (Pressure, Temperature, flow rate) from the thermal loop to simulate sub-channels in appropriate T/H codes. This permits computation of sub-channel averaged fluid temperatures (as well as mass velocity) in various subchannels within the test bundle. Subsequently, in conjunction with the wall temperatures and applied heat flux values from the thermal loop, it is possible to develop a complete map of heat transfer coefficients along the 9 instrumented central heater rods. Locations downstream of spacer grids would be of special interest. Depending on pressure, mass velocity and heat flux conditions of a given test, the inlet temperature will be a parameter to be varied so that the ONB boundary can be observed within the bundle. Detailed designs of the test section, required loop modifications, and adaptation of specialized instrumentation and data acquisition systems have been accomplished in both test loops. Further we have established that based on such detailed rod surface temperature and sub-channel axial velocity measurements, it is possible to achieve sufficient accuracy in the temperature measurements to meet the objective of improving the heat transfer correlations applicable to PWR cores. (authors)

Bergeron, A. [CEA, Saclay (France); Chataing, T.; Garnier, J. [CEA, Genoble (France); Decossin, E.; Peturaud, P. [EDF/R and D, Chatou (France); Yagnik, S.K. [Electric Power Research Institute - EPRI (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating oxide fuel crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis is presented of the crust stability and heat transfer behavior in the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten oxide fuel at approx. 160/sup 0/K above its freezing temperature was impinged normally upon stainless steel plates initially at 300 and 385 K. The major issue is the existence of nonexistence of a stable solidified layer of fuel, or crust, interstitial to the flowing hot fuel and the steel substrate, tending to insulate the steel from the hot molten fuel. A computer model was developed to predict the heatup of thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the surface of the plate for both of the cases in which a stable crust is assumed to be either present or absent during the impingement phase. Comparison of the model calculations with the measured thermocouple temperatures indicates that a protective crust was present over nearly all of the plate surface area throughout the impingement process precluding major melting of the plate steel. However, the experiments also show evidence for very localized and isolated steel melting as revealed by localized and isolated pitting of the steel surface and the response of thermocouples located within the pitted region.

Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

Ghafghazi, S. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY WORK KATARINA CUFAR, MARTIN ZUPANCIC University of Ljubljana Biotechnical Faculty Department of Wood Science and Technology #12;Publisher Department of Wood The publishing of "Wood Anatomy - Instructions for Laboratory Work", a textbook by Katarina Cufar and Martin

Cufar, Katarina

237

WOOD RESEARCH 53 (4): 2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 WOOD RESEARCH 53 (4): 2008 1-12 CAMBIAL ACTIVITY AND WOOD FORMATION IN BEECH FAGUS SYLVATICA, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia Jozica Griar Slovenian Forestry Institute (Fagus sylvatica), cambium, wood formation, cell differentiation, xylem growth rings, Gompertz function

Cufar, Katarina

238

WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 WOOD RESEARCH 52 (2): 2007 1-10 WOOD FORMATION IN NORWAY SPRUCE PICEA ABIES STUDIED BY PINNING Zupani, Katarina Cufar, Primoz Oven University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood methods for examining wood formation. Pinning induced desiccation of differentiated xylem, necrosis

Cufar, Katarina

239

Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

240

Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems Engineering Research and DevelopmentDepartmentinBatteryRachel Woods-Robinson About

242

Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScienceCareers Apply for a JobBernardthe AlcatorBeverly Woods Beverly

243

James F. Wood  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

244

Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the safety aspects of direct gas fired air heating, the most important qUe~tion is whether there would be a harmful build up of carbon monoxide within the building as a result of!the products of combustion being released directly into the air stream.... The unvented infrared heaterslhave long been proven safe from this standpoint. By looking at the fundamental chemistry of combustion! of natural gas, the direct gas-fired make-up air heaters can be shown to produce lower concentrationsII of carbon monoxide...

Searcy, J. A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power by Thomas Schmeister B.Sc., University of Colorado, 1991 cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP

Victoria, University of

246

A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project description and evaluation page 1 January 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project description and evaluation page 1 January 2007 Wye Wood: the wider wood A project description and evaluation Report written by: Dr Frances Howie Associate Director Parrott Health Development Worker, Wye Wood: the wider wood #12;Wye Wood: the wider wood : A project

248

Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energyís request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

Not Available

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Precision wood particle feedstocks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

251

Calorimetric analysis of fungal degraded wood  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Endothermic transition and gross heat of combustion of aspenwood subjected to degradation by Lenzites trabea and Polyporus versicolor were determined by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an adiabatic O bomb. Endothermic peak areas of undegraded and fungi-degraded wood differed from each other at all levels of weight loss. The regression analysis of the DSC data vs. weight loss revealed a significant relations, although not highly correlated, for P. versicolor-degraded specimens and a nonsignificant relation for L. trabea-degraded specimens; weight loss and gross heat of combustion values of degraded specimens were significantly correlated.

Blankenhorn, P.R.; Baldwin, R.C.; Merrill, W. Jr.; Ottone, S.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

Alpay, S. Pamir

253

April, 2006 Allen W. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 April, 2006 Vita Allen W. Wood Academic Address: Philosophy Department, Bldg 90 Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-2155 Telephone 650-723-2587 Fax 650-723-0985 E-mail: Allen.Wood University, 1999-2000. Professor of Philosophy, Stanford University, 1999-2001 Ward W. and Priscilla B. Woods

Zalta, Edward N.

254

Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts, "Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood", the conference proceedings which served as a starting point

Florida, University of

255

Rheological Model for Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Biennially Renewable Fuel Resource: Woodchips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and perpetually fueled by a ten thousand acre resource (assuming spontaneously dried woodchips and 700/0 load factor). Utilizing non-prime lands for the production of "hybrid poplars" one acre can generate the woodfuel equivalent of 40 barrels of oil ($8/bbl... and storing a usable 250 million BTU (mBTU) per acre per year on a biennial harvest. During harvest the entire tree is chipped and hauled to a facility employing the use of a wood fired system for "power" or "heat." The green woodchips (approx. 55...

Krantz, B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

Geiling, D.W. [ed.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, environmentally harmful, oil exploration and drilling. Technology Solar Fuel's proprietary technology converts wasteful thermal energy production. Solar Fuel has two patents filed and in process. Market Potential There are many potential markets for Solar Fuel, however, the beachhead target is the oil and gas in- dustry

Jawitz, James W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. High temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer

Berning, Torsten

262

Fuel pin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix Domingos De Sousa Meneses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix · Domingos De Sousa Meneses and the amount of energy absorbed by green wood under infrared (IR) radiation. This lack of knowledge is a potential barrier to the development of IR heating as an alternative to soaking as a means of warming logs

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nonlinear Electron Heat Conduction Equation and Self similar method for 1-D Thermal Waves in Laser Heating of Solid Density DT Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.

A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss

2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

266

Viability of waste-based cooking fuels for Developing countries : combustion emissions and field feasibility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass-derived cooking fuels are used by three billion people worldwide. The drawbacks of such fuels, typically wood or wood-derived charcoal, include health hazards, negative environmental effects, and perpetuation of ...

Banzaert, Amy, 1976-

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

James T. Cobb Jr.

2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

97 BTUs of refinery energy per BTU of dieseland hydrogen) per BTU of diesel produced, depending onof refinery energy per BTU of diesel fuel In the real world

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Development of a technique for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and for obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of development of a technique for ex-reactor heating with simultaneous recording of voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements (TFE). Heating pulses were applied to electrodes of a thermionic energy converter (TIC), and between these pulses in the antiphase to them there were applied shorter pulses. The TIC emitter was heated by energy of an electric current flowing from the collector (back current heating). Comparison of TIC voltage-current characteristics, obtained for direct (using electric heater) and back current (current from the collector) heating, shows that for the same conditions they differ only slightly. Significant difference may be observed in the case of different profiles along the collector working surface. Results are given of the investigation of multi-cell thermionic fuel assemblies conducted using this technique. The developed technique of the TFE diagnostics can be successfully employed to assess the device quality. Pre-loop testing of multi-cell TFE by the method of back currents allows for cost effective and expeditious thermovacuum treatment of the TFE on thermal stands and for checking of its serviceability prior to its mounting into an irradiation loop or reactor-converter, enables improvements to the TFE design, monitoring of its electric parameters, for example, after vibration testing, and TFE accelerated testing in the most arduous conditions (thermocycling, loss of vacuum, etc.).

Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Mailov, G.M.; Igumnov, B.N.; Bisko, V.A. [I.N. Vekua Sukhumi Inst. for Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi (Georgia)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

271

Balsa Wood Bridge Competition Sponsored by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Balsa Wood Bridge Competition Sponsored by: The University of Tennessee, Department of Civil only of BALSA WOOD and ELMER'S WOOD GLUE. No other materials will be accepted. The balsa wood must be no larger than ¬ľ" high and ¬ľ" wide. Any dowels can not have a diameter greater than ¬ľ". Balsa wood comes

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

272

SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS T_Wood1 to T_Wood35  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS WOODS.INC T_Wood1 to T_Wood35 STONES.INC T_Stone1 to T_Stone44Pink DarkPurple NeonBlue CoolCopper MandarinOrange LightWood MediumWood DarkWood SpicyPink Semi

Lee, Carl

273

A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

274

Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are in high demand, the cost continues to rise with the increasing demand. With increasing use, the supply of these types of fuels will keep on reducing and the cost will continue to rise. Currently, on account of a large demand for coal and wood fuels... of the pulverizer can be estimated. If the wood fuel is to be mixed in with the coal in the pulverizer, only wood in the form of sawdust ESL-IE-12-05-22 Proceedings of the 2012 Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, Louisiana, May 29-June 1, 2012...

Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in European and CIS). · Oil prices soared, stimulating wood-based biofuels and policies to mobilize more wood Oil prices 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 $/barrel · Rising fossil fuel costs products prices generally rose in 2007, then fell in 2008 as markets weakened · In North America prices

276

A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

However, in the case of biomass feedstocks and fuels, LNG,NGL57/LRG43 LDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 26 mpg LDGV)NGL57/LRG43 HDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 6 mpg HDDV)

Delucchi, Mark

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DIVISION 6 - WOOD AND PLASTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 06000 GENERAL 1. For both woods and plastics, special attention is called to matters of flame spread-dried. 3. For exterior wood or plastic framed structures, see Division 4 for dimensions of Sample Panel

278

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

Heat Transfer -2 A heat generating ( ) flat plate fuel element of thickness 2L is covered with flat plate steel cladding of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with flat plate steel cladding of thickness b. The heat generated is removed by a fluid at T, which adjoins on both sides On the sketch show regions where dT/dx is zero, constant and increasing. T , h x LL bb SteelSteel

Virginia Tech

280

Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Process Heating Tip Sheet #2 (Fact Sheet)  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Day withCharacterizationDiesel LosDepartment

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Energy Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration

282

A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EERE Blog Posts of 2014ReviewsndSIMPLE WAYSth800 to 1000Energy

283

WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF DR. ROBERT J. WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF DR. ROBERT J. WOOD DIRECTOR OF THE COOPERATIVE OXFORD LABORATORY NATIONAL Robert Wood, Director of the Cooperative Oxford Laboratory, a cooperative scientific research laboratory

284

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson Biomass and Resource Efficiency: the need for a supply led approach to forest productivity European Parliament, Brussels, 10 November 2011 #12;MEGATREND WOOD SUPPLY ≠ 2020 the trees on the right Source: JP Management Consulting (Asia-Pacific) Ltd., 2006 #12;BAMBOO FOREST Source

285

Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowellisMcDonald is a boroughMcPherson County isMeadeWoods,

286

Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperative JumpWilliamson County,Bay,¬įTrap, Virginia: EnergyWestWood-Ridge, New

287

STEO October 2012 - wood  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA REPORTSORNRecovery

288

Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

Giles, GE

2003-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

289

Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12;Fuelwood #12;Current Industry Structure · 8% of GDP · 250 companies involved in primary operations · 180 companies in secondary operations · Over 200 companies involved in tertiary operations · General

290

The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

Chatterjee, Avik P.

291

Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

need to be developed, to promote bioenergy as an additional opportunity to add to the many other of the raw materials, or the means of producing and making them available to the market. The Government

292

Electricity from wood powder report on a TPV generator in progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A joint project between NREL, SLU, and UCFB aims at building a wood powder fueled TPV generator. The progress of the project is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Broman, L.; Jarefors, K. [Solar Energy Research Center (SERC), University College of Falun Borlange (UCFB), Box 10044, S-781 10 Borlange (Sweden); Marks, J. [Department of Operational Efficiency, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Herrgardsv 122, S-776 98 Garpenberg (Sweden); Wanlass, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401-3393, United States of America

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

US Army Corps of Engineers

294

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article Growth stresses in tension wood: role of microfibrils and lignification T Okuyama the growth stress generation in the region of normal and tension woods. growth stress/ tension wood in normal and ten- sion wood. The compressive stress from the deposition of lignin controls the level

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

Friedman et al. on Eagly & Wood ...1059 Kenrick & Li on Eagly & Wood ......1060  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comment Contents Friedman et al. on Eagly & Wood ...1059 Kenrick & Li on Eagly & Wood ......1060 Kleyman on Eagly & Wood ............ 1061 Wood & Eagly reply ....................... 1062 Chan on Peng J. Scheyd University of Texas at Austin Eagly and Wood (June 1999) argued that social structural

Pillow, Jonathan

296

Companies commit to eliminate dodgy wood products Companies commit to eliminate dodgy wood products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Companies commit to eliminate dodgy wood products Companies commit to eliminate dodgy wood products wood products only from sustainable managed sources. Canadian paper, pulp and wood company Domtar has. "Companies that seriously commit to responsible wood sourcing can have significant positive impacts on forest

297

Accidental Burning of a Fuel Layer on a Waterbed: A Scale Analysis Study of the Heat Transfer Models Predicting the pre-Boilover Time and Scaling to Published Data†  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The paper concerns the heat transfer models of liquid fuel bed burning on water sublayer. The main efforts are stressed on the qualitative assessment of models available and their adequacy as well as on the prediction of ...

Hristov, J; Planas, E; Arnaldos, J; Casal, J

298

Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve grindability and retain energy value.

Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

299

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun DengWISPWindDownloadsWood and Pellet

300

Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched FerromagnetismWaste and MaterialsWenjun DengWISPWindDownloadsWood and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A:decisional. 1 B O NAmes Blue Alert- Wood

302

Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

everal kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. The tunneling activities E-394 03/06 Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles John A. Jackman* S *Professor and Extension Entomologist, The Texas A... at these locations. Other signs of an infestation include stained wood or a blistering appearance on the wood surface caused by larvae tunneling just below the surface. Less commonly, immature beetles produce audible rasping or ticking sounds while chewing...

Jackman, John A.

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

303

Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

Owens, E. T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Treatment of Wood Preserving Wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The wastewater produced by the wood preserving industry presents a difficult problem to treat economically. A review of the literature indicates the size of the industry has limited the pursuit of an orderly and economic solution. Atmospheric...

Reynolds, T. D.; Shack, P. A.

305

Wood/coal cofiring in industrial stoker boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Realizing that a significant reduction in the global emissions of fossil carbon dioxide may require the installation of a wide variety of control technologies, options for large and small boilers are receiving attention. With over 1,500 coal-fired stoker boilers in the US, biomass co-firing is of interest, which would also open markets for waste wood which is presently landfilled at significant costs ranging from $20--200/ton. While much cofiring occurs inside the fence, where industrial firms burn wastes in their site boilers, other opportunities exist. Emphasis has been placed on stoker boilers in the northeastern US, where abundant supplies of urban wood waste are generally known to exist. Broken pallets form a significant fraction of this waste. In 1997, the cofiring of a volumetric mixture of 30% ground broken pallet material and 70% coal was demonstrated successfully at the traveling-grate stoker boilerplant of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. Fourteen test periods, with various wood/coal mixtures blended on site, and two extended test periods, using wood/coal mixtures blended at the coal terminal and transported by truck to the brewery, were conducted. The 30% wood/70% coal fuel was conveyed through the feed system without difficulty, and combusted properly on the grate while meeting opacity requirements with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. Efforts are underway to commercialize a wood/coal blend at the brewery, to identify specific urban wood supplies in the Pittsburgh region and to conduct a demonstration at a spreader stoker.

Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.; Freeman, M.C.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

311

Peculiarities of a method for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper discusses principle of operation and applications of a pulse method of heating multi-cell thermionic fuel elements. Some experimental results are given for a cylindrical single-cell thermionic energy converter that simulates conditions close to that of multi-cell TFE operation. Basic requirements for technical parameters are stated that should be observed when testing TFE on thermal facilities. The means to improve the method are described, including both a computer-aided experiment and modifications in individual components of the test facility. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Kalandarishvili, A.G. [Sukhumi Institute of Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi 380008 Republic of (Georgia); Drozdov, A.A. [RRC ``Kurchatov Institute``, Moscow 123182 (Russia); Stepennov, B.S. [INERTEK, Moscow 123182 (Russia)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TEXTILE DRYING VIA WOOD GASIFICATION Thomas F. ;McGowan, Anthony D. Jape Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACT This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement... for dryers. In addition to the experimental program described above, the DOE grant covered two other major areas. A survey of the textile industry was made to assess the market for gasification equip ment. The major findings were that a large amount...

McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot

314

SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

Eugene A. Fritzler

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)] [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Stratocumulus Clouds ROBERT WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by latent heating in updrafts and cooling in downdrafts. Turbulent eddies and evaporative cooling drives, stratification of the STBL, and in some cases cloud breakup. Feedbacks between radiative cooling, precipitation- way interactions may be a key driver of aerosol concentrations over the remote oceans. Aerosol

Wood, Robert

318

Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

Colella, Whitney G.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Investigate... Future Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the Gas Tank? What Does It Take? 9:30 am Using GIS to Map the Wood Supply 11:00 am Forest Management Forest to Processing Plant 2:00 pm Ethanol Production in Lab: Cellulosic Biomass to Liquid Fuel 2:50 pm of Mechanical Engineering ∑ Tim Jenkins, Ph.D. Candidate ≠ tree biomass from forest to processing facility

320

Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel? Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel? Homes built the destruction of fire-tolerant trees if a wildfire moves through the area. Creating fuel breaks (such ignite it. ∑ When ERC grows in forests and wood- lands, it acts as a ladder fuel to allow fire to climb

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Special Problem for Chapter 4: Compare the Lower Heating Values of different fuel gases per Standard Cubic Foot, recalling that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2 + 3.76N2) - 1H2Ovapor + 1.88N2 0 = 1 lbmolH2 O lbmolfuel √? 18.016 lbmH2 O lbmolH2 O ¬Ķ -5774.6 BTU lbmH2 0 ¬∂ + Qout 0 = -104040 BTU/lbmolfuel + Qout Qout = 104040 BTU/lbmolfuel = 51607 BTU/lbmfuel = 266 BTU/ft3 fuel [274 BTU/SCF] For 16.043 lbm of Methane CH4 + 2 (O2 + 3.76N2) - 2H2O + CO2 + 7.52N2

322

Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors VOCALS Education and Outreach Snider (Wyoming) · Dave Spencer (NCSU) · Cindy Twohy (OSU) · Rob Wood/Chris Bretherton/Rhea George

Wood, Robert

323

Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

324

Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

Gezer, Engin Derya

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-01-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology OAK. Ferris, Entomologists This metallic wood-boring beetle (Family Bupresti- dae) primarily attacks oaks. Oak wood- borers. Distribution: The native geographical range of this beetle includes parts of Asia, Africa

Ginzel, Matthew

326

STACY L. WOOD Department of Marketing wood@moore.sc.edu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STACY L. WOOD Department of Marketing wood@moore.sc.edu Moore School of Business ph. (803) 777) Alba, Joseph, John Lynch, Barton Weitz, Chris Janiszewski, Richard Lutz, Alan Sawyer, Stacy Wood (1997, September-October 1996, p. 12. Wood, Stacy L. (2001), "Remote Purchase Environments: The Influence of Return

Reif, John H.

327

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender) #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-07-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue University Cooperative

Ginzel, Matthew

328

Wood density measurement protocol J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood density measurement protocol ­ J Chave Page 1 Measuring wood density for tropical forest trees Diversité Biologique Université Paul Sabatier 31000 Toulouse, France 1. Introduction Wood is a biological, that transport the sap along the stem and they are filled by water. The density of tree wood is an interesting

Chave, J√©r√īme

329

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-06-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology CAMPHOR August. Female beetles make a horizontal tunnel in the wood initiating gallery construction where/APHIS grant number 10-8100-1488-CA. #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-06-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue

Ginzel, Matthew

330

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-08-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology OAK, these beetles feed on oak (Quercus spp). Direct damage results from galleries in the wood that are formed in the breeding season. The host trees for these beetles are important for the wood indus- try, orna

Ginzel, Matthew

331

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-09-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology EUROPEAN trees are very crucial for the wood industry, ornamental industry and many species of wildlife: The beetles construct the egg gal- leries perpendicular to the grain of the wood which can be found under

Ginzel, Matthew

332

Assessment of the possibilities of electricity and heat co-generation from biomass in Romania's case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the use of biomass for electricity (and heat) production. The objectives of the works developed by RENEL--GSCI were to determine the Romanian potential biomass resources available in economic conditions for electricity production from biomass, to review the routes and the available equipment for power generation from biomass, to carry out a techno-economic assessment of different systems for electricity production from biomass, to identify the most suitable system for electricity and heat cogeneration from biomass, to carry out a detailed techno-economic assessment of the selected system, to perform an environmental impact assessment of the selected system and to propose a demonstration project. RENEL--GSCI (former ICEMENERG) has carried out an assessment concerning Romania's biomass potential taking into account the forestry and wood processing wastes (in the near term) and agricultural wastes (in mid term) as well as managing plantations (in the long term). Comparative techno-economical evaluation of biomass based systems for decentralized power generation was made. The cost analysis of electricity produced from biomass has indicated that the system based on boiler and steam turbine of 2,000 kW running on wood-wastes is the most economical. A location for a demonstration project with low cost financing possibilities and maximum benefits was searched. To mitigate the electricity cost it was necessary to find a location in which the fuel price is quite low, so that the low yield of small installation can be balanced. In order to demonstrate the performances of a system which uses biomass for electricity and heat generation, a pulp and paper mill which needed electricity and heat, and, had large amount of wood wastes from industrial process was found as the most suitable location. A technical and economical analysis for 8 systems for electricity production from bark and wood waste was performed.

Matei, M.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

School of Biological Sciences Juvenile wood What is it and why should we be concerned? #12;School of Biological Sciences What is juvenile wood? A brief recap. There is no universally accepted definition of juvenile wood. It is typically described as follows · zone near to the pith · displays marked

334

c Copyright 2014 Benjamin P. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

c Copyright 2014 Benjamin P. Wood #12;#12;Software and Hardware Support for Data-Race Exceptions Benjamin P. Wood A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree;#12;University of Washington Abstract Software and Hardware Support for Data-Race Exceptions Benjamin P. Wood Co

Anderson, Richard

335

Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Generating Textures of New Zealand Native Wood Jack Wang Abstract - This report explores algorithms for computer generated textures simulating New Zealand native wood, we out line procedural and Ray tracing. The main goal of this research is to study New Zealand native wood in depth and to gather

Goodman, James R.

336

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS DIRECTOR, PACIFIC DIVISION PLANS, POLICIES, OPERATIONS DEPARTMENT U.S. Marine Corps Mr. Bryan H. Wood is the Director, Pacific Division under the Deputy-Japan International Agreement. Mr. Wood was appointed to his current position in 2010 following 24 years

337

SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS EFFECTS OF ELEVATED AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE SCHEDULES ON NARP IN SOUTHERN YELLOW-temperature (ET) from ET and HT schedules. and a high-temperature (HT) schedule. Wood properties including juvenile wood content, density, ring count, largest knot area, presence of pith, moisture content

338

Wood Laminated Composite Louisiana Forest Product Lab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Laminated Composite Poles Cheng Piao Louisiana Forest Product Lab School of Renewable Natural, in accordance with CSA O15, ANSI 05 and many other international standards #12;Wood Laminated Composite Poles y, v z, w R r x, u #12;Why Wood Composite Poles · Sufficient strength · More cost-effective · Light

339

Optical computing Damien Woods a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

Woods, Damien

340

Optical computing Damien Woods a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical

Woods, Damien

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Creating Value Wood Products Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Louisiana Forest Products Development Center #12;2 Louisiana is blessed with quality timberland for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all for quality information, research and education in forest products in Louisiana, recognized regionally

342

Cultural Values of Trees, Woods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research into the importance of the cultural values of trees, woods and forests for sustainable forest managers have to take account of cultural values as one of the central themes of Sustainable Forest and taking them into account as part of the processes of planning and decisionmaking. Cultural values

343

System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Forest Fuel Characterization Using Direct  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the plantation was 53.65 ton/ha; wood fuels accounted for 70% of this accumulation with 39.62 tons

Standiford, Richard B.

346

Thulium-170 heat source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy projects to increase utilization of wood for energy. The Wood Energy Program came about partly the management of the wood resource. The Department of Forestry recognized that an extensive resource

Standiford, Richard B.

348

Fuel Price Forecasts INTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel Price Forecasts INTRODUCTION Fuel prices affect electricity planning in two primary ways and water heating, and other end-uses as well. Fuel prices also influence electricity supply and price because oil, coal, and natural gas are potential fuels for electricity generation. Natural gas

349

FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY Heat Engineering Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering Laboratory 2 Process Chemistry Centre (PCC) √?bo Akademi University, Faculty of Technology, HeatFACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY Heat Engineering Laboratory Combined thermal treatment of CCA-wood waste Engineering Laboratory #12;- ii - Tiivistelm√§ suomeksi CCA-puuj√§tteen ja kunnallisten j√§tevesien lietteen

Zevenhoven, Ron

350

One on One- Douglas K Woods  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

351

Billet Heating with the Homopolar Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forging billets are presently brought from room temperature to forging temperature using one of three heating methods - indirect heating in a furnace, either fuel-fired or electric; direct electric resistance heating; or induction heating. Homopolar...

Weldon, W. F.; Keith, R. E.; Weldon, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

First university owned district heating system using biomass heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highlights ∑ First university owned district heating system using biomass heat ∑ Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance ∑ Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 ∑ Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

Northern British Columbia, University of

353

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-05-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology ASIAN) #12;1-888-EXT-INFO · www.extension.purdue.edu 2Wood Borer -- WB-05-W October 2012 It is the policy

Ginzel, Matthew

354

WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared words: composites; mechanical properties; modifi- cation; monomers; renewable resources INTRODUCTION

355

Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014 Postgraduate Diploma Enquiries: Head of Department Contact details: Department of Forest and Wood Science Stellenbosch University;Department of Forest and Wood Science - 2012 2 Contents: Postgraduate Programmes Postgraduate Diploma

Geldenhuys, Jaco

356

*sja@iet.aau.dkwww.iet.aau.dk Initial experiments with a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer for a HTPEM fuel cell system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fuel water/methanol mixture is done by electrical heaters, but could be integrated with the burner side reformed hydro- carbon as fuel for fuel cells can redu- ce fuel storage volume considerably. The PBI of evaporated water and methanol is presented and steam-reformed to a hydrogen rich gas. The steam reforming

Andreasen, S√łren Juhl

357

Waste Heat Recovery From Stacks Using Direct-Contact Condensing Heat Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-06-69 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 Solid fuels generally show lower recovery potential and, in the case of coals, contain sulfur as well. Wood fuels have high fuel-borne moisture content...

Thorn, W. F.

358

automatic wood furnaces: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

pressure differences that included standard rating points 11 Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Wood Products 201213 Student...

359

Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods, SciSys Ltd., Clothier Road, Bristol, UK BS4 5SS Email: mark.woods@scisys.co.uk Tel: +44 117 9717251 ESA's Aurora programme incorporates a strategy for European involvement in future robotic and human exploration of our Solar System. The Aurora roadmap calls

Fisher, Michael

360

FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as their relevance in forestry, energy and rural development contexts, woody biomass is an important resource thatFAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ Slovenia Spatial woodfuel production Rudi Drigo Forestry Specialist - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring Zivan Veseli

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat Transfer Guest Editorial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

Kandlikar, Satish

362

Property:Building/SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformationInyo County, CaliforniaInformation SPPurchasedEngyForPeriodMwhYrWoodChips Jump to:

363

Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pretreatments include the use of dilute acids, ammonia fiber expansion, steam explosion, organo-solvents

364

Fuel Cell Case Study  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen Telescope Looks

365

Fuel Cells Go Live  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewableEnergy

366

Stabilized fuel with silica support structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

Wiltsee, G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Case Study: Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)/hour/ton of cooling capacity. The absorption chillers' internal pumps consume approximately 0.07 kW (supplied-switching generate significant heat during operation and must be kept cool to maintain reliable phone connectivity through March), cooling water conveys waste heat from the fuel cells to an unfired furnace for space

369

Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df and the tube at a rate m , and the outer surface of the tube is well insulated. Heat generation occurs within. The specific heat of water pc , and the thermal conductivity of the fuel rod fk are constants. The system

Virginia Tech

370

Lake of the Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place:Keystone Clean Airjoin <Nacimiento,View

371

Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of Existing and Alternative Management Options (FINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory Results 24 CHAPTER III, SORTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEPARATING TREATED WOOD FROM UNTREATED WOOD III.1

Florida, University of

372

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor, R.E. Taylor & Associates Ltd. Forest Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood Products Outlook. #501 - 543 Granville Street Vancouver, B

373

ORIGINAL PAPER M. Grosell C.M. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER M. Grosell √° C.M. Wood Branchial versus intestinal silver toxicity and uptake Hogstrand and Wood 1998; Wood et al. 1999 for reviews), much less is known about the exact toxic mechanisms primarily through the apical Na+ channel (Bury and Wood 1999) and targets the basolateral Na/K-AT- Pase

Grosell, Martin

374

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-02-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers CHINESE under the bark and in dry dead wood and complete their development in two or more years. Adults emerge campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian wood-boring beetle recorded in North America

Ginzel, Matthew

375

ALASKAN WOOD FROGS STOCK UP ON SOLUTES TO SURVIVE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inside JEB i ALASKAN WOOD FROGS STOCK UP ON SOLUTES TO SURVIVE Outwardly, the tiny wood frog, Rana these wood frogs, which are native to Alaska, Canada and the northern USA, to unravel their secrets. Costanzo tolerance in a northern population of the wood frog. J. Exp. Biol. 216, 3461-3473. Nicola Stead THE GENETICS

Besansky, Nora J.

376

Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Original article A study on growth stresses, tension wood distribution and other related wood variations of wood structure (specific gravity and pulp yield), and the transverse mechanical resistance of wood. To investigate growth stresses, longitudinal displacements after stress release were estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323--2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http://www.calumet.purdue.edu/public/math/wood Scholarly Research Awards. #12; JAY A. WOOD 1. Linear codes as modules Throughout this extended abstract

Wood, Jay

378

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

Standiford, Richard B.

379

1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible). (Photo credit: Stanislaw Kinelski, Bugwood.org) #12;1-888-EXT-INFO · www.extension.purdue.edu 2Wood Borer

Ginzel, Matthew

380

Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current-based Biomass Energy #12;2/20/2014 5 Forest Landowner Opportunities and Challenges The U.S. South is the "wood2/20/2014 1 Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director Crosby Land & Resources

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Daniel Wood | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005Department ofDOE AccidentWaste Isolation Pilotat4DoublesDaniel

382

Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

383

01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies | BlandinePrinceton Plasmareactions. |8 - Wood Cabinet Falls

384

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 107118 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 107­118 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE RESISTANCE OF BORATE-MODIFIED STRANDBOARD MANUFACTURED FROM SOUTHERN WOOD, but not on termite mortality. Wood species showed no significant effect on the termite resistance. Correlations

385

Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95111 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95­111 © 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE: IMAGING MORPHOLOGY AND WETTING wetting behavior of wood-PVC composites in this study. Two-dimensional and time-dependent profiles

386

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 1725 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 17­25 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology FUNDAMENTALS OF VERTICAL DENSITY PROFILE FORMATION IN WOOD COMPOSITES. PART III. MDF DENSITY FORMATION DURING of Wood Science and Forest Products 210 Cheatham Hall, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061-0323 and Timothy

Wang, Siqun

387

Wood and Fiber Science, 35(4), 2003, pp. 482498 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 35(4), 2003, pp. 482­498 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology. INTRODUCTION Strength properties of wood-based compos- ites are related to mean panel density and the density of the average panel density (Kruse et al. 2000). Modeling for the spatial structure of wood composites

388

Wood and Fiber Science, 37(2), 2005, pp. 207212 2005 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 37(2), 2005, pp. 207­212 © 2005 by the Society of Wood Science. Leichti Associate Professor and Barbara L. Gartner Professor Department of Wood Science and Engineering purposes that characterize smaller sections of wood. Moreover, theASTM standards spec- ify loading

Lachenbruch, Barbara

389

Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381­396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology a feasible application of both methods in wood composite research and in a real-time quality control system wood composites widely 1 This paper (NO: 02-40-0457) is published with the approval of the Director

390

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 7183 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood and Fiber Science, 36(1), 2004, pp. 71­83 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology (Lenth and Kamke 1996). Interest in predicting the consolidation be- havior of wood strand mats has led that strand geometry affects the relative void volume in a mat. #12;72 WOOD AND FIBER SCIENCE, JANUARY 2004, V

391

North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

themes were: 1. softwood market developments, and 2. wood energy and wood mobilization. The main use of wood for energy throughout the UNECE region, driven by policy measures and high oil prices development, which will have to try to balance the needs of the established wood products sector and the bio-energy

392

URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Environmental Questionnaire for the demonstration at the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP) was submitted to the national Energy Technology Laboratory. An R&D variance for the air permit at the BBP was sought from the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD). R&D variances for the solid waste permits at the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) were sought from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Construction wood was acquired from Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation. Verbal authorizations were received in all cases. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh with BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties and from Seven D Corporation. Forty tons of pallet and construction wood were ground to produce BioGrind Wood Chips at JARC and delivered to Mon Valley Transportation Company (MVTC). Five tons of construction wood were hammer milled at ETS and half of the product delivered to MVTC. Blends of wood and coal, produced at MVTC by staff of JARC and MVTC, were shipped by rail to BBP. The experimental portion of the project was carried out at BBP in late March and early April 2001. Several preliminary tests were successfully conducted using blends of 20% and 33% wood by volume. Four one-day tests using a blend of 40% wood by volume were then carried out. Problems of feeding and slagging were experienced with the 40% blend. Light-colored fly ash was observed coming from the stack during all four tests. Emissions of SO{sub 2}, NOx and total particulates, measured by Energy Systems Associates, decreased when compared with combusting coal alone. A procedure for calculating material and energy balances on BBP's Boiler No.1 was developed, using the results of an earlier compliance test at the plant. Material and energy balances were then calculated for the four test periods. Boiler efficiency was found to decrease slightly when the fuel was shifted from coal to the 40% blend. Neither commercial production of sized urban waste wood for the energy market in Pittsburgh nor commercial cofiring of wood/coal blends at BBP are anticipated in the near future.

James T. Cobb Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; William P. Barry; Jun Wang; Hongming Li

2004-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

393

From the Woods to the Refinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 2DóBuilding Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

394

Active microchannel heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood...-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 50l-k). A...

Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

396

Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

Speight, J. [University of Utah, UT (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Miniature ceramic fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

398

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Heat pipe array heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

400

Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fossil fuel sources of waste heat and other lossesthat this is only the waste heat from fossil generation,an estimate of the total waste heat from fossil generation

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood.2 million cubic meters) of lumber treated with CCA are produced annually in the United States (Micklewright 1998). ·In 1997, for example, some 581.4 million cu. ft. was treated with waterborne preservatives

404

Fuel Cell Financing Options  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen Telescope Looks4 FuelUTC Power

405

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewable 0 0 A N09Fuel Cell

406

Fuel Cell Technologies Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewable 0 0 A N09Fuel

407

Fuel Cells at NASCAR  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014 2014 organizedFuel

408

Fuel Cycle Subcommittee  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014EnergyNEAC Fuel

409

2009 Fuel Cell Market Report  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

410

DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Natural Gas Power Heat + Cooling Electricity Cooling Natural Gas Natural Gas or Biogas Fuel Cell H Excess power generated by the fuel cell is fed to the grid National...

411

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mathematical model of steam drying of wood chips and other hygroscopic porous media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model is presented that is focused on the drying kinetics of single wood chips as a function of time and external conditions, such as temperature, pressure and velocity of the superheated steam. A multiphase and 2-D approach was used to model the coupled transport of water, vapor, air and heat in anisotropic hygroscopic porous media. The model was verified by drying experiments where measurements of the average moisture content, center temperature and pressure in a single wood chip could be performed simultaneously. A comparison between the calculations and the measurements showed that the drying behavior was well predicted. The drying can be divided into three stages: a heat-up period when condensation on the surface initially increases the moisture content; a period of constant drying rate when the external heat transfer controls the drying rate; and a period of decreasing drying rate when the drying is controlled by internal mass transfer. Many interesting features of the drying could be assigned to the strong anisotropicity of wood, which makes a 2-D model necessary.

Fyhr, C.; Rasmuson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Design] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Design

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

National Fuel Cell Research Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu CONTROLS RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL PHOTOVOLTAIC and efficiency, (3) RFC produces hydrogen, a flexible fuel that may be used for electricity, vehicles, heating fuel cells (RFC), we gain access to a new energy storage device that is both analogous to rechargeable

Mease, Kenneth D.

414

Chipping citrus wood for gasifiction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both green and dead citrus trees were used for chipping. Chip moisture content, fuel analysis, drying time, and data on fuel/tonne of chips were obtained. The average moisture contents of green and dead trees when chipped were 25% and 16% (wet basis) respectively. Chips were sized to a minimum of 0.32 squared cm x 0.32 cm thick to a maximum of 5.0 cm squared x 0.32 cm thick and normally required 4 weeks to air dry to 14% (wet basis) moisture content before use. Approximately 50% of the total tree by weight could be made into usable chips. 9 references.

Churchill, D.B.; Hedden, S.L.; Whitney, J.D.; Shaw, L.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

417

A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180¬įC

419

Drawing a Graph in a Hypercube David R. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drawing a Graph in a Hypercube David R. Wood #3; Departament de Matem#18;atica Aplicada II Universitat Polit#18;ecnica de Catalunya Barcelona, Spain david.wood@upc.edu Submitted: Nov 16, 2004; Accepted

Wood, David R.

420

Ring Involutions and Self-Dual Codes Jay A. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ring Involutions and Self-Dual Codes Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics Western Michigan University jay.wood@wmich.edu AMS meeting, Lexington, Kentucky March 27, 2010 #12;Acknowledgments Much

Wood, Jay

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

RELATIVE ONE-WEIGHT LINEAR CODES JAY A. WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RELATIVE ONE-WEIGHT LINEAR CODES JAY A. WOOD In memory of Professor F. E. P. Hirzebruch, 17 October University. 1 #12;2 JAY A. WOOD G thus defines a linear functional (a "coordinate functional") on the k

Wood, Jay

422

Generalizing Halfspaces 1 Eugene Fink 2 Derick Wood 3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generalizing Halfspaces 1 Eugene Fink 2 Derick Wood 3 Abstract Restricted­orientation convexity, as a generalization of standard convexity [9]. Rawlins, Wood, and Schuierer studied planar O­convex sets

Fink, Eugene

423

Drawing a Graph in a Hypercube David R. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drawing a Graph in a Hypercube David R. Wood Departament de Matem`atica Aplicada II Universitat Polit`ecnica de Catalunya Barcelona, Spain david.wood@upc.edu Submitted: Nov 16, 2004; Accepted: Aug 11

Wood, David R.

424

Wood mobilization: la nuova frontiera delle politiche forestali  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8-03-2013 1 Wood mobilization: la nuova frontiera delle politiche forestali europee CONAF settore forestale, un nuovo tema-guida: Wood Mobilization Task Force Foreste2. Green o grey? 3. Politica

Pettenella, Davide

425

XML Structure Compression Mark Levene and Peter Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

XML Structure Compression Mark Levene and Peter Wood Birkbeck College, University of London London WC1E 7HX, U.K. {m.levene,p.wood}@dcs.bbk.ac.uk Abstract XML is becoming the universal language

Levene, Mark

426

Characters and finite Frobenius rings Jay A. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characters and finite Frobenius rings Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics Western Michigan-modules; 3. R = R as right R-modules. Due independently to Hirano, 1997, and Wood, 1999. JW (WMU) Frobenius

Wood, Jay

427

Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program...

428

FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM East Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

percent of total African wood consumption. In the countries of East Sahelian Africa, Central Africa energy consumption (FAO 1999). Numerous studies have analyzed the wFAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ East Africa Woodfuel Integrated Supply

429

International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

Not Available

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Science VOLATILE CONSTITUTENTS IN A WOOD PYROLYSIS OIL A Thesis SHIH-CHIEN LIN Appro d as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) Head of epa tmen (Member Member Nay 1978 442936 ABSTRACT Volatile Constituents in a Wood Pyrolysis Oil.../120 Supelcoport. Other trace constituents of volatile acid were also 'dentifi="' by trap- ping the substances from the C. C. column into i: n;- 0-sh ped capillary tube and subjecting to mass spectrometry. The corrosivity of pyrolysis oil and it, volati'e acids...

Lin, Shih-Chien

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Fire spread probabilities for experimental beds composed of mixedwood boreal forest fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that fire spread was largely determined by the heat sink, heat of combustion, and fuel bed depth. We found

Johnson, Edward A.

432

PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

MCDONALD,R.J.

2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fuel Cells in Telecommunications  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovember 10, 2014 2014for|

434

Farms to Fuels  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCofConstructionofFYOxideof EnergyFactDepartmentFact

435

Financing Fuel Cells  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal Registry Comments MayDepartmentFinancialEnergyorganized by:

436

The Storage and Seasoning of Pecan Bud Wood.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be returned to cold storage and will remain ready for use at a later date. It has been found that bud wood cut late in the dormant period seasons in a shorter time than that cut early. Bud wood of the Delmas variety seasons more readiIy than that of Stuart... _._-_._.--__..__------~-..._..--_...._.--_.....-. Relation of Time of Cutting Bud Wood to Seasoning ._.__....._._-___._------------ ., Relative Response of Stuart and Delmas in Seasoning _---..__._.__....._.---....-....--.- 10 Number of Days for Seasoning Bud Wood During Different Months .... 12 Storage...

Brison, Fred R. (Fred Robert)

1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

Florida, University of

438

Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood Department of Statistics, Columbia of discrete sequences called the sequence memoizer [Wood et al., 2009]. Gasthaus et al. showed that although was reposed on a sequence memo- izer [Wood et al., 2009] whose space complexity was linear in the length

Wood, Frank

439

Wood Products Identification by Internal Characteristics Readings C. FUENTEALBA1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Products Identification by Internal Characteristics Readings C. FUENTEALBA1 , C. SIMON2 , D.fuentealba@cran.uhp-nancy.fr 5 LERMAB - Wood Research Laboratory, Epinal, France, e-mail: daniel- proving control of production tools and reacting to their defi- ciencies. For wood industries

Boyer, Edmond

440

Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Editorial Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes No doubt about it, wood complicates fluvial geo- morphology. It messes up nice tidy streams, compli- cates quantitative through the study of channels lacking a substantial load of wood debris (Leopold et al., 1964

Montgomery, David R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Using Wood Quality Measures to Evaluate Second-Growth Redwood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

553 Using Wood Quality Measures to Evaluate Second-Growth Redwood Stephen L. Quarles1 and Yana stability, durability, microfibril angle, redwood, wood quality Introduction Redwood has long been a valued" or "resistant or very resistant" (Wood Handbook 1999). 1 University of California Cooperative Extension (Advisor

Standiford, Richard B.

442

Frederic Wood Compiled by Michael W. Pidgeon (1985)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Frederic Wood fonds Compiled by Michael W. Pidgeon (1985) University of British Columbia Archives Description Frederic Wood fonds. ­ 1915-1973. 33 cm of textual records. 22 photographs. Biographical Sketch Born in Victoria, B.C., Frederic Gordon Campbell Wood (1887-1976) enrolled in the first class

Handy, Todd C.

443

Surface light fields for 3D photography Daniel N. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface light fields for 3D photography Daniel N. Wood A dissertation submitted in partial This is to certify that I have examined this copy of a doctoral dissertation by Daniel N. Wood and have found for 3D photography by Daniel N. Wood Chair of Supervisory Committee: Associate Professor Brian L

Washington at Seattle, University of

444

Wood Engineering Education Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Engineering Education ­ Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1 and Vijaya Gopu2 1 Member ASCE, Associate Professor, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis of the factors impacting the wood engineering/design education in the U.S. has been presented. The actions

Cox, Dan

445

Wood Science and Nanotechnology: Overview and Our Efforts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Science and Nanotechnology: Overview and Our Efforts Siqun Wang, Ph.D. Department of Forestry. Bot. 17, 543-588 (1886). Wang UT CRC #12;Wood Structure MICROFIBRIL STRUCTURE CRYSTALLINE REGIONS wood fibers under axial tensile strain Nature 1971; 229:252-3 Page DH, EI-Hosseiny F., Winkler K. Wang

Gray, Matthew

446

Wood 1 19th Annual AIAA/USU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood 1 19th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites SSC05-IV-03 Adopting Internet standards for orbital use Lloyd Wood Cisco Systems Global Defense, Space and Security Bedfont Lakes, London, UK; +44. #12;Wood 2 19th Annual AIAA/USU Conference on Small Satellites In June 2004, after lying dormant while

Wood, Lloyd

447

Robert Wood Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robert Wood Professor of Engineering and Applied Sciences at Harvard's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Mechanical Engineering Robert Wood is the Charles River Professor of Engineering member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. Prof. Wood completed his M.S. and Ph

Lin, Xi

448

Wood ants use resin to protect themselves against pathogens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood ants use resin to protect themselves against pathogens Michel Chapuisat1,*, Anne Oppliger2. Wood ants, Formica paralugubris, commonly bring back pieces of solidified coniferous resin of larvae exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. These results show that wood ants

Lehmann, Laurent

449

Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323 2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http: www.calumet.purdue.edu public math wood Abstract. Carlet 2 has determined the linear codes over Z=4 of constant Lee weight

Wood, Jay

450

Wood September 28, 2002 DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood September 28, 2002 1 DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CARNEGIE MELLON: Microstructure-Sensitive Mechanical Properties #12;Wood September 28, 2002 2 Introduction Reading will also have an opportunity to perform similar experiments on various types of wood. These will illustrate

Rollett, Anthony D.

451

Wood Density and Growth Conifers Introduced to Hawaii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood Density and Growth of Some Conifers Introduced to Hawaii Roger G. Skolmen U . S . F O R E - Berkeley, California Forest Service - U. S. Department of Agriculture #12;Skolmen, Roger G. 1963. Wood Expt. Sta. 20 pp., illus. (U.S. Forest Serv. Res Paper PSW-12) The specific gravity of the wood of 14

Standiford, Richard B.

452

Center for Wood Utilization Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Asia, and Latin America. A business plan was developed to capture 1% of the $2.5 billion h manufacturing; and (c) lead to more efficient use of renewable wood-based materials for the benefit of Americans. Renewable wood is essential to human existence. Wood utilization research is critical to national needs

Tullos, Desiree

453

E-Print Network 3.0 - acr-1000 reference fuel Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Meeting Summary: Electricity and heatAC Electricity Gaseous fuel Pathways for Bioenergy Systems Reference Scott Turn "pathway... & Heat Other Fuels, Chemicals, &...

454

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Laser ablation based fuel ignition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

LITZKE,W.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy FrozenNovemberDepartment ofusingand Emission

458

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:GroundtoProductionEnergy9/9/2011

459

Integrated Datasets (IDs) Wood/Bretherton proposal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated Datasets (IDs) Wood/Bretherton proposal ID Rationale Space/Time scale; Location; Platforms Parameters Combined Drizzle Dataset (CD ID) Collocated precipitation, aerosol and cloud micro, precip. rate, cloud Cross- Section Dataset (XS-ID) Data on E-W cross- section along 20¬įS from coast

Wood, Robert

460

CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD PRODUCTS MARKET: the Italian experience in controlling Science 7 May 2004 Paper organization 1. State of the problem 2. Are Italian companies involved in deforestation and trade of illegal logging? 3. Which are the most affected countries? 4. Why do we need

Pettenella, Davide

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

PASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

countries on 5 continents · 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, 10 of which have do-it-yourself stores Division consists of 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, just over half of which have an adjacent doPASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006 #12;54% 21% 25% ONE OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR TIMBER WHOLESALERS

462

Wood anomalies in resonant photonic quasicrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A theory of light diffraction from planar quasicrystalline lattice with resonant scatterers is presented. Rich structure, absent in the periodic case, is found in specular reflection spectra, and interpreted as a specific kind of Wood anomalies, characteristic for quasicrystals. The theory is applied to semiconductor quantum dots arranged in Penrose tiling.

Poddubny, A N

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Milnor-Wood inequalities for products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove Milnor-Wood inequalities for local products of manifolds. As a consequence, we establish the generalized Chern Conjecture for products $M\\times \\Sigma^k$ for any product of a manifold $M$ with a product of $k$ copies of a surface $\\Sigma$ for $k$ sufficiently large.

Bucher, Michelle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Harvested Wood Products -an Incentive for Deforestation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Harvested Wood Products - an Incentive for Deforestation? Andreas Fischlin1 Abstract Mitigation for deforestation is real. To curb the disadvantages of HWP, some debiting of non-sustainable forest management activities are implemented that provide true disincentives to deforestation, HWP may continue to create some

Fischlin, Andreas

465

Mean and Variability of Air-Sea Heat Fluxes in the Indian Ocean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-sea heat Fluxes) Project: blended product planned activity: daily, 1¬ļ-grid, mid 1950's ¬≠ present currently available: daily, 1¬ļ-grid, 1988-2003 #12;OAFlux (Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Heat Fluxes) For the GlobalMean and Variability of Air-Sea Heat Fluxes in the Indian Ocean Lisan Yu Woods Hole Oceanographic

Yu, Lisan

466

HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-Eís HEATS program, short for ďHigh Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,Ē seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: ē Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; ē Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

468

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In Michigan The Case for Wood as a Home Heating Fuel Michigan State University Extension Service Henry A The Case for Wood as aHome Heating Fuel ~~ HCA"~ ~ ",v- Oc, ∑THRee TIH£S ∑ Is there enough wood for heating that two-thirds of the homes outside the 10 largest cities of Michigan could be heated entirely with wood

470

PROSPECTS FOR CO-FIRING OF CLEAN COAL AND CREOSOTE-TREATED WASTE WOOD AT SMALL-SCALE POWER STATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 įC in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the ď3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant Ē sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the ď3R Clean Coal Carbonisation PlantĒ. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the ď3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant Ē is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus

471

Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergy Frozen TelescopeRenewable 0 0

472

Fuel Technologies | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional ElectricalEnergyQuality Challenges An OEMLife10

473

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:GroundtoProductionEnergy Refueling

474

A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating the Market for Home Heating and Cooling EquipmentFuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling," LBLTHE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT* David

Wood, D.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

Elder, Betsy

2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

476

Fuel cell gas management system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

477

Radiant Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles ¬ĽExchangeDepartment ofManagement PropertyQuiz:Heating Radiant

478

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2011 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in...

479

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by...

480

Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "wood heating fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

482

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Fact Sheet, 2015 FuelCell Energy, Inc., in...

483

Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

484

Thermal/MechanicalThermal/Mechanical Properties of WoodProperties of Wood--PVCPVC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.composites. Heat flow, heat capacity, andHeat flow, heat capacity, and enthalpyenthalpy Glass transition/Mechanical Analysis TechniquesThermal/Mechanical Analysis Techniques #12;Rubbery Leathery Viscous liquid Rigid (Semi

485

National Fuel Cell Research Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu SOFC AND PEMFC COMPARISON Efficiency ≠ Higher operating voltages and temperatures and reduced fuel processing requirements give SOFCs an efficiency FOR OPTIMIZATION ∑ Fuel Cell ∑ Compressor ∑ Combustor ∑ Turbine ∑ Storage Tank ∑ Heat Exchanger∑Battery ∑ Motor

Mease, Kenneth D.

486

Residential heating oil price  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories ¬ĽSubmitter A B CAdministration (EIA)heating

487

Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated to what would have been the added municipal (community) management costs involved with maintaining closed landfills. (2) With greater quantities of recovered material being returned to and integrated into manufacturing and the marketplace, reduced demand upon virgin wood sources could help lead the way to promoting improved relations and environmental balance between producers and consumers further expanding the value of our natural resource without adding environmental burden.

Auburn Machinery, Inc.

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

488

Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground Source Heat Pump Subprogram Overview Ground

489

Integrated Module Heat Exchanger | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.IndianaofPilot Project | DepartmentandModule Heat

490

Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel Cells Electricity On-Site Consumption Sold to Utility Fuel Natural Gas Propane Biogas Landfill Gas Coal Steam Waste Products Others Generator Heat Exchanger Thermal Steam...

492

Secondary fuel delivery system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

493

Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood May 1998 Helena Solo, INVENTORY OF CCA-TREATED WOOD IN FLORIDA II.1 Characteristics of the Florida Wood Treatment Industry in 1996 10 II.2 Generation and Disposal of Cca-treated Wood 14 II.3 Disposal Reservoirs for Cca-treated Wood

Florida, University of

494

Wood elastic characterization from a single sample by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wood elastic characterization from a single sample by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy R. Longoa materials such as wood using only one sample. To do so, two complementary methods are used. First, the wood: Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, spherical and cubic samples, wood, elastic constants 1. Introduction Wood

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

495

Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER. In this paper, we review coupling agents, pretreatment, and mixing technology for wood fiber and polymer and adhesion Wood ond trhc,r S c r r ~ ~ Society of Wood Sclencc

496

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell , Numerical Heat Transferof Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using a Two-EquationExchange Membrane Fuel Cells 2. Absolute Permeability ,

Weber, Adam Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

electrolytic cell, designed to integrate waste heat recovery (i.e a microbial heat recovery cell or MHRC), can operate as a fuel cell and convert effluent streams into...

498

Fuel cell system combustor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten Jr., Carl Frederick

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

500

The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

Zhang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z