National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for wood cut specifically

  1. Chapter 10, Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Peak Demand and Time-Differentiated Energy Savings Cross-Cutting Protocols Frank Stern, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 10 - 1 Chapter 10 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Purpose of Peak Demand and Time-differentiated Energy

  2. Chapter 11, Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Sample Design Cross-Cutting Protocols M. Sami Khawaja, Josh Rushton, and Josh Keeling, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 11 - 1 Chapter 11 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3 1.1 Chapter Organization

  3. Chapter 13, Assessing Persistence and Other Evaluation Issues Cross-Cutting Protocols: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Assessing Persistence and Other Evaluation Issues Cross- Cutting Protocols Daniel M. Violette, Navigant Consulting Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 13 - 1 Chapter 13 - Table of Contents 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................2 2 Persistence of Energy Savings

  4. Daniel Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Daniel Wood is the Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist in the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Energy. He develops creative and interactive ways of viewing the Energy...

  5. Cutting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  6. Wood and Pellet Heating

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Looking for an efficient, renewable way to heat your home? Wood or pellets are renewable fuel sources, and modern wood and pellet stoves are efficient heaters.

  7. How Much Wood Would a North Country School Chip

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    North Country School in Lake Placid, New York, recently installed a high-efficiency wood chip boiler using Recovery Act funds from the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. Using wood sourced from their sustainably managed woodlot and local forests, the school will be able to cut energy costs by $38,970 annually and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 184 tons per year.

  8. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  9. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  10. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  11. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  12. STEO October 2012 - wood

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    More U.S. households burning wood this winter to stay warm, reversing two-decade decline Burning wood as the primary heating source in U.S. households has risen over the last 10 years, reversing the decline seen in the 1980s and 1990s. About 2.6 million households out of 115 million will rely on wood as the main way to warm their homes this winter. That's up 3 percent from last year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration's new winter fuels forecast. The West will have the most

  13. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  14. Densified fuels from wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickering, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    Wood compressed to a specific gravity of about 1.2 constitutes an excellent clean burning fuel. {open_quotes}Prestologs{close_quotes} were marketed before 1940, but in the past ten years a much larger and growing market is densified pellet fuel has developed. The market for pellet fuel is about 90% residential, using special pellet burning stoves. Initial sales were almost entirely in the northwest, but sales in other parts of the country are now growing rapidly. Approximately 300,000 stoves are in use. Note that this industry developed from the private sector with little or no support from federal or state governments. Densified fuel is manufactured by drying and compressing sawdust feedstock. Combustion is different than that of normal wood. For example, wood pellets require ample supplies of air. They then burn with a hot flame and very low particulate emissions. Volatile organic compounds are burned almost completely and carbon monoxide can also be kept very low. Stoves burning pellets easily meet EPA standards. This paper discusses technical and economic factors associated with densified fuel and considers the future of the industry.

  15. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  16. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  17. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  18. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  19. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  20. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H.; Lanning, David N.

    2015-06-23

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, wherein W.sub.C>L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is less than T.sub.D.

  1. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  2. specifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Device for cutting protrusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  5. Ribbon cutting makes history

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    being built at the nation's capital were enlightening. I am sure Lawler Wood and Turner Construction personnel in the room must have swelled with pride to hear such grand...

  6. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  7. Feasibility for Wood Heat - Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Wood Heat * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal ... Forestry, Fire Management, Self- Governance, ... coordination's across organizations 2 boilers and one ...

  8. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1.4 M - Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord - Kwh 0.51 (rate increase coming) - Propane 193 per 100 lbs tank - Funder reassurance - Consultant accountability - Harvest ...

  9. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  10. Laser cutting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  11. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood3 Resources Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood3 Resources Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77056-2409 Product: Wood3 Resources is an energy project development firm run by former...

  12. Wanda Woods | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wanda Woods Budget & Resource Administrator Wanda Woods Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue Building 240 - Wkstn. 1C9 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-1353...

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  14. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  15. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  16. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oil cost per year for school 210,000 Fuel cost for electrical generation 1.4 M Cord Wood 275 - 300 per cord Kwh 0.77 (rate increase coming) Propane 203.89 per 100 ...

  17. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  18. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  19. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  20. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Fort Yukon Wood Energy Program: Wood Boiler Deployment

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... cutting layout Fig 7: New Holland TV 6070 mounted with 3 point hitch Tractor Mounted Crane (Nokka 4472) New Holland Training: Safety Maintenance Proper functions, in ...

  2. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  3. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  5. Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stanford - Woods Institute for the Environment Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment Name: Stanford- Woods Institute for the Environment...

  6. CUTTING AND WEDGING JACKET REMOVER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freedman, M.; Raynor, S.

    1959-04-01

    A tool is presented for stripping cladded jackets from fissionable fuel elements. The tool is a tube which fits closely around the jacket and which has two cutting edges at opposite sides of one end. These cutting edges are adjusted to penetrate only the jacket so that by moving the edges downward the jacket is cut into two pieces.

  7. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  8. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    To Fuel LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood To Fuel LLC Place: Lackawana, New York Zip: 14208 Product: Wood fuelproduct supplier. Coordinates: 41.401932, -75.637848...

  9. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  10. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  11. Marcia A. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marcia A. Wood Group Leader, Information Solutions and Technology Assurance B.S. Computer Science, University of St. Francis Telephone 630.252.4656 Fax 630.252.6866 E-mail wood@anl.gov

  12. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Duffield Wood Pellets Jump to: navigation, search Name: Duffield Wood Pellets Place: North Yorkshire, United Kingdom Zip: HG4 5JB Product: A Yorkshire-based, family-run producer of...

  13. Kenneth L. Wood | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kenneth L. Wood Senior Engineering Specialist Telephone (630) 252-3971 E-mail klw@hep.anl

  14. Wood and Pellet Heating | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Wood and Pellet Heating Wood and Pellet Heating A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/King_Louie Today you can choose from a new generation of wood- and pellet-burning appliances that are cleaner burning, more efficient, and powerful enough to heat many average-sized, modern homes. Pellet fuel appliances burn small pellets that measure 3/8 to 1

  15. Cuttings Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Deep Electrical Sounding Cuttings Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Smith & Suemnicht, 1991) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1985 1988 Oxygen Isotope...

  16. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  17. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ... "Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998;" " Level: ...

  18. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: AB30 1PA Product: Wood pellet producer. Coordinates: 56.932781, -2.42531 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlema...

  19. Grant F. Wood | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grant F. Wood Consultant - Project Management 9700 S. Cass Avenue Building 240 Wkstn. 3D18 Argonne, IL 60439 630-252-5315 gfwood

  20. Qualifying Wood Stove Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Total cost, exclusive of taxes, interest and other finance charges Summary This incentive allows Arizona taxpayers to deduct the cost of converting an existing wood fireplace to a ...

  1. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.568752, -90.330887 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice"...

  2. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  3. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O.

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  4. Shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwab, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    A shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle is described which separates the jet from surrounding fluid environment and enhances the cutting effect.

  5. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Selected NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: Trillion Btu. Wood Residues and Wood-Related Pulping Liquor Wood Byproducts and NAICS or Biomass Agricultural Harvested Directly from Mill Paper-Related Code(a) Subsector and Industry Black Liquor Total(b) Waste(c) from Trees(d) Processing(e) Refuse(f) Total United States 311 Food 0 44 43 * * 1 311221 Wet Corn Milling 0 1 1 0 0 0

  6. Rachel Woods-Robinson | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rachel Woods-Robinson About Us Rachel Woods-Robinson - Guest Blogger, Cycle for Science Most Recent Rain or Shine: We Cycle for Science July 2 Mountains, and Teachers, and a Bear, Oh My! June 2 Sol-Cycle: Biking Across America for Science Education May 1

  7. Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaumont, O.

    1985-04-01

    Flash pyrolysis products from beech wood obtained in an original pyrolysis apparatus were analyzed. The analytical procedure is described, and the composition of pyrolytic oil presented with more than 50 compounds. Comparison of pyrolytic products of cellulose, hemicellulose, and wood indicates the origin of each product. 19 references.

  8. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company -...

  9. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota Baudette, Minnesota Roosevelt, Minnesota Williams, Minnesota Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLakeoftheWoodsC...

  10. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Facility Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy...

  11. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Compound and Elemental Analysis At Little Valley Area (Wood,...

  12. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  13. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  14. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Lim, C. Jim; Bi, X.T.; Lau, A.K.; Melin, Staffan; Oveisi, E.; Sowlati, T.

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  15. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  16. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  17. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  18. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  19. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  20. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  1. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  2. Petrophysical corner - calculating water cut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elphick, R.Y. )

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining the amount of water cut that can be expected from a well is discussed in conjunction with a program for making this calculation. The program was written for Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and MS DOS personal computers and source code for the program is provided.

  3. Mechanics of compression drying solid wood cubes and chip mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haygreen, J.G.

    1982-10-01

    Wood cubes and chip mats were compressed in a cell under ram face pressures to 13,000 psi. The amount of water removed was determined for a range of species of various specific gravities and at several green moisture contents (MCs). The time dependence of the process was also studied. The purpose of this work was to describe the mechanics of compression drying which must be considered in designing commercial equipment. Green MC of wood chip mats was reduced to 45 to 50 percent MC (31% to 33% MC, wet basis) at pressures of 13,000 psi. At low pressures of 1,000 to 2,000 psi, moisture was reduced to 60 to 75 percent MC (38% to 43% MC, wet basis). There was a significantly greater moisture reduction at these low pressures if the pressure is maintained for up to 2 minutes rather than releasing it immediately once the target pressure is obtained. Water can be removed from high density species but pressures required are higher by a factor of 2 to 3. The chip mat is reduced to about one-sixth of its original volume at 2,000 psi and one-seventh at 6,000 psi. When pressing cubes of high green MC, about 7,000 foot-pounds of work (equivalent to 9 Btu) applied to the wood will remove up to 1 pound of water. (Refs. 9).

  4. X-Z-Theta cutting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    1993-01-12

    A method for machining a workpiece. The method includes the use of a rotary cutting tool mounted on the end of a movable arm. The arm is adapted to move in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutting tool. The cutting tool has cutting teeth to cut chips of material off of the workpiece in a predetermined size and shape to facilitate better removal of the chips from the workpiece. The teeth can be of different type and length to permit the tool to both rough cut and finish cut the workpiece during machining. The total depth of cut is divided by the number of tool teeth, so that the longest tool always performs the finishing cut.

  5. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  6. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Woods to the Refinery CORRIM Life Cycle Analyses of Woody Feedstocks Dr. Steve Kelley ... composition, sugar types, residue fuel value * TC models are sensitive to MC, much less ...

  7. Wood Fuel LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    77034 Region: Texas Area Sector: Biomass Product: Wood by-products consulting and marketing Website: www.woodfuel.com Coordinates: 29.6221328, -95.1872605 Show Map Loading...

  8. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  9. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use ...

  10. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood Energy Ltd Place: Devon, United Kingdom Zip: EX16 9EU Product: Specialises in the design, installation and service of automatic...

  11. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wood and Pellet Heating Basics Wood and Pellet Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:02pm Addthis Wood-burning and pellet fuel appliances use biomass or waste resources to heat homes or buildings. Types of Wood- and Pellet-Burning Appliances The following is a brief overview of the different types of wood and pellet fuel appliances available. High-Efficiency Fireplaces and Fireplace Inserts Designed more for show, traditional open masonry fireplaces should not be considered heating devices.

  12. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  13. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Trillion Btu." ,,"S e l e c t e d","W o o d","a n d","W o o d -","R e l a t e d","P r o d u c t s" ,,,,,"B i o m a s s" ,,,,,,"Wood Residues" ,,,,,,"and","Wood-Related" " ...

  14. Finite element analyses of tool stresses in metal cutting processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kistler, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we analytically predict and examine stresses in tool tips used in high speed orthogonal machining operations. Specifically, one analysis was compared to an existing experimental measurement of stresses in a sapphire tool tip cutting 1020 steel at slow speeds. In addition, two analyses were done of a carbide tool tip in a machining process at higher cutting speeds, in order to compare to experimental results produced as part of this study. The metal being cut was simulated using a Sandia developed damage plasticity material model, which allowed the cutting to occur analytically without prespecifying the line of cutting/failure. The latter analyses incorporated temperature effects on the tool tip. Calculated tool forces and peak stresses matched experimental data to within 20%. Stress contours generally agreed between analysis and experiment. This work could be extended to investigate/predict failures in the tool tip, which would be of great interest to machining shops in understanding how to optimize cost/retooling time.

  15. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  16. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  17. Simple and Inexpensive Method of Wood Pellets Macro-porosity Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Igathinathane; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; X. Bi; C. J. Lim; S. Melin; E. Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0±2.5% and 35.5±2.7%, mean bulk density as and , and classified as “Class-3:Medium” and “Class-3&4:Medium to Low” for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr’s compressibility index classify wood pellets as “freely flowing.” The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  18. Simple and inexpensive method of wood pellets macro-porosity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igathinathane, C.; Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Lim, C. Jim; Melin, Staffan; Mohammad, E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel simplified stereometric measurement method for determining the macro-porosity of wood pellets through geometrical approach was successfully developed and tested. The irregular ends of pellets of circular cross-section were sanded flat so that their geometry becomes cylinder and their volumes evaluated using mensuration formula. Such formed cylindrical pellets were loose or tap filled to selected volumes to evaluate the macro-porosity and the constant specific weight. The method was extended to evaluate actual wood pellets properties. Overall macro-porosity of actual wood pellets was determined as 41.0 2.5% and 35.5 2.7%, mean bulk density as and, and classified as Class-3:Medium and Class-3&4:Medium to Low for loose and tapped fills, respectively. Hausner ratio and Carr s compressibility index classify wood pellets as freely flowing. The developed stereometric method can be used as a handy inexpensive laboratory procedure to estimate the macro-porosity of different types and makes of wood pellets and other similar packaged materials.

  19. New England Wood Pellet LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pellet LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: New England Wood Pellet LLC Place: Jaffrey, New Hampshire Zip: NH 03452 Product: New England Wood Pellet LLC is a manufacturer and...

  20. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  1. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Prev Next Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ; Salamov, Asaf ; Min, Byoungnam ; Choi, In-Geol ; ...

  2. City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Wood River, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood River Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308.583-2515; 308-583-2066 Website:...

  3. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: 1-866-415-2951 Website: www.wcec.org Facebook: https:...

  4. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control: Subprogram B, Practical aspects of deep cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlow, J.; Ruggieri, S.

    1990-05-01

    Deep/slow cutting is one of the few changes that a longwall operator can make that will simultaneously reduce respirable dust, increase production and decrease power consumption. Though extensively employed in other countries, the technique has not seen widespread use in the United States. The objective of this research effort was to promote the use of deep/slow cutting by examination of the real and perceived constraints to its application. This report discusses the theoretical and experimental background of cutting with high pick penetration, the benefits to be obtained in terms of reduced dust make and specific energy consumption and the practical imparts of deeper cutting in terms of shearer performance and coal loading. Included in the report are literature references, results of surveys of equipment manufacturers and US longwall operations, results of laboratory and underground testing of deep/slow cutting and specific conclusions and recommendations for use of the technique. 9 figs. 1 tab.

  5. One on One - Douglas K Woods | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One on One - Douglas K Woods One on One - Douglas K Woods A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing. One on One - Douglas K Woods (97.92 KB) More Documents & Publications Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Printing a Car: A Team Effort in Innovation Advanced Microturbine System: Market Assessment, May 2003 Green Leasing Deployment Portfolio - 2014 BTO Peer Review

  6. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An

  7. Wood and Wood Waste - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Energy Information Administration Wood and Wood Waste Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From

  8. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  9. Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

  10. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  11. Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Report-Out Webinar February 9, 2012 Adam ... Cost Largest cost contributor to biofuels production Impact of Harvesting...

  12. Cutting Wasteful Spending While Protecting Our Priorities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Congress must work together on a budget that cuts wasteful spending while supporting jobs, the economy, and middle-class families.

  13. Savannah River Site Museum Ribbon Cutting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A ribbon cutting ceremony marked the opening of the new SRS Museum, on October 27, 2014, at the former Dibble Library in Aiken, South Carolina.

  14. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  15. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  16. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  17. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  18. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Program in the Yukon Flats Region

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collaborative Integrated Wood Energy Program for Fort Yukon Implementation DOE Tribal Energy Program 2 0 November 2008 Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation CATG - AWEA For-Profit Wood Energy Business Model Fort Yukon * Forest Management Service - CATG * For-Profit Wood Utility Company - Vertically Integrated * Gwitchyaa Zhee Native Corporation - Wood Harvest Company - Village Wood Yard/Distribution Company - Wood Energy Utility - Diesel Biomass - Wood diesel hybrid power plant CHP - still dreaming for

  19. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  20. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  1. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  2. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  3. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  4. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  5. Baltimore Vet Cuts Energy Bills With Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Baltimore resident and disabled veteran Paul Bennett shares his experience utilizing state and federal grants and tax credits to install solar panels on his historic row home and cut energy costs.

  6. Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Little Valley Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  8. Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Alvord Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Beowawe Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Salton Sea Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Salton...

  11. Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mccredie Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Umpqua Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  13. Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Zim's Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity...

  14. Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Heber Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location Heber Area...

  15. Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Breitenbush Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Crane Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Mickey Hot Springs Area (Wood, 2002) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  18. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Alabama Program Type Rebate Amount 100% Summary This statute allows individual taxpayers a deduction for the purchase and installation of a wood-burning heating system. The...

  19. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...cofiring of Biomass and Coal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasificationcofiring of Biomass and Coal Utilization of biomass as a ...

  20. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  1. Title: Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert- Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Lessons Learned Statement- Cumulative damage can cause a loss of structural integrity. When furnishings are repeatedly exposed to water,...

  2. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maine Zip: 4101 Product: Maine-based pellet producer and installer of commercial wood pellet heating systems. Coordinates: 45.511795, -122.675629 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  4. New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use April 1, 2016 - 11:40pm Addthis New Energy ...

  5. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  6. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that larger biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger wood

  7. How chip size impacts steam pretreatment effectiveness for biological conversion of poplar wood into fermentable sugars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DeMartini, Jaclyn D.; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Jung, Seokwon; Kumar, Rajeev; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Wyman, Charles E.

    2015-12-09

    We report that woody biomass is highly recalcitrant to enzymatic sugar release and often requires significant size reduction and severe pretreatments to achieve economically viable sugar yields in biological production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. However, because mechanical size reduction of woody biomass can consume significant amounts of energy, it is desirable to minimize size reduction and instead pretreat larger wood chips prior to biological conversion. To date, however, most laboratory research has been performed on materials that are significantly smaller than applicable in a commercial setting. As a result, there is a limited understanding of the effects that largermore » biomass particle size has on the effectiveness of steam explosion pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of wood chips. To address these concerns, novel downscaled analysis and high throughput pretreatment and hydrolysis (HTPH) were applied to examine whether differences exist in the composition and digestibility within a single pretreated wood chip due to heterogeneous pretreatment across its thickness. Heat transfer modeling, Simons’ stain testing, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to probe the effects of pretreatment within and between pretreated wood samples to shed light on potential causes of variation, pointing to enzyme accessibility (i.e., pore size) distribution being a key factor dictating enzyme digestibility in these samples. Application of these techniques demonstrated that the effectiveness of pretreatment of Populus tremuloides can vary substantially over the chip thickness at short pretreatment times, resulting in spatial digestibility effects and overall lower sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Finally, these results indicate that rapid decompression pretreatments (e.g., steam explosion) that specifically alter accessibility at lower temperature conditions are well suited for larger

  8. Thermal Pretreatment of Wood for Cogasification/cofiring of Biomass and Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ping; Howard, Bret; Hedges, Sheila; Morreale, Bryan; Van Essendelft, Dirk; Berry, David

    2013-10-29

    Utilization of biomass as a co-feed in coal and biomass co-firing and co-gasification requires size reduction of the biomass. Reducing biomass to below 0.2 mm without pretreatment is difficult and costly because biomass is fibrous and compressible. Torrefaction is a promising thermal pretreatment process and has the advantages of increasing energy density, improving grindability, producing fuels with more homogenous compositions and hydrophobic behavior. Temperature is the most important factor for the torrefaction process. Biomass grindability is related to cell wall structure, thickness and composition. Thermal treatment such as torrefaction can cause chemical changes that significantly affect the strength of biomass. The objectives of this study are to understand the mechanism by which torrefaction improves the grindability of biomass and discuss suitable temperatures for thermal pretreatment for co-gasification/cofiring of biomass and coal. Wild cherry wood was selected as the model for this study. Samples were prepared by sawing a single tangential section from the heartwood and cutting it into eleven pieces. The samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550oC for 0.5 hr under flowing nitrogen in a tube furnace. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for physical properties (color, dimensions and weight), microstructural changes by SEM, and cell wall composition changes and thermal behaviors by TGA and DSC. The morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. Thermal treatments were observed to decompose the cell wall components. Hemicellulose decomposed over the range of ~200 to 300oC and resulted in weakening of the cell walls and subsequently improved grindability. Furthermore, wood samples treated above 300oC lost more than 39% in mass. Therefore, thermal pretreatment above the hemicelluloses decomposition temperature but below 300oC is probably sufficient to improve

  9. Selecting the proper fuel gas for cost-effective oxyfuel cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyttle, K.A.; Stapon, W.F.G.; Guimaraes, A.

    1997-07-01

    The motivating factor behind recent research and development efforts in metal cutting has been the growing need for companies everywhere to embrace emerging technologies if they are to complete in the global economy. To quickly implement these productivity improvements and gain lower bottom line costs for welding and cutting operations, rapid commercialization of these process advancements is needed. Although initially more expensive, additive-enhanced fuel gases may be the most cost-effective choice for certain cutting applications. The cost of additive-enhanced fuel gases can be justified where oxygen pricing is low (such as with bulk oxygen). Propylene exhibited equal cutting speeds to acetylene and improved cutting economy under specific conditions, which involved longer cuts on thicker base materials. With a longer cut distance, the extra time required to reach the kindling temperature (when compared to acetylene) becomes less critical. It is important to note that kindling temperature was reached more rapidly with propylene than it was with propane, but both fuel gases were slower than acetylene. When factors such as these are considered, many applications are found to be more cost effectively performed with the more expensive acetylene or propylene fuel gases. Each individual application must be studied on a singular basis to determine the most cost-effective choice when selecting the fuel gas.

  10. Fuels for Schools Program Uses Leftover Wood to Warm Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In parts of this country, wood seems like the outsider in the biomass family. New ethanol plants that grind down millions of bushels of corn in the Midwest and breakthroughs in algae along the coasts always garner the most attention. But in states like Montana, a place with over 70 million acres of forest, wood is the biofuel of choice.

  11. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-21

    Version 00 SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependentmore » components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  12. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO{sub 2} is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO{sub 2} and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO{sub 2

  13. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1995-10-31

    Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.

  14. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  15. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips November 26, 2013 - 9:23am Addthis Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Jason

  16. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  18. CRAD, Welding, Cutting and Brazing Assessment Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is to verify hot work requirements associated with welding, cutting, burning, brazing, grinding and other spark- or flame-producing operations have been implemented. Verify that the requirements implemented are appropriate for preventing loss of life and property from fire, and personal injury from contact with or exposure to molten metals, vapors, radiant energy, injurious rays and sparks.

  19. Wood-Polymer composites obtained by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gago, J.; Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, J.; Acevedo, M.

    2007-10-26

    In this work we impregnate three Peruvian woods (Calycophy spruceanum Be, Aniba amazonica Meiz and Hura crepitans L) with styrene-polyester resin and methyl methacrylate. The polymerization of the system was promoted by gamma radiation and the experimental optimal condition was obtained with styrene-polyester 1:1 and 15 kGy. The obtained composites show reduced water absorption and better mechanical properties compared to the original wood. The structure of the wood-polymer composites was studied by light microscopy. Water absorption and hardness were also obtained.

  20. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J.

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  1. Wood chips: an exploration of problems and opportunities. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report evaluates the current use of and potential market for wood chips as a fuel in the Northeast. This study covers the residential, commercial, and light industrial sectors and addresses cost, reliability, marketing systems, and technology improvements. A review of the available equipment for wood chip harvesting, processing, handling, drying, and transport is included. Three representative strategic business guides for different chip suppliers are presented. There is also a recommended action plan for future programs with initiatives that could facilitate the development of the wood chip market. 25 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  3. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    80,000 acres in one month Proposed Rural Wood Fuel Supply System *Capital costs for system capable of producing 7,000 TPY: 600,000 Key Obstacles to Overcome Development...

  4. Huntington Woods, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Huntington Woods is a city in Oakland County, Michigan. It falls under Michigan's 12th...

  5. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Laguna Woods is a city in Orange County, California. It falls under California's 48th...

  6. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Mission Woods is a city in Johnson County, Kansas. It falls under Kansas's 3rd congressional district.12 References...

  7. Study of emissions from small woods - fired boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    This short article announces a testing project RFP to determine the air emissions produced by small wood-chip fired combustion systems and to determine associated health risks if any.

  8. Improving combustion in residential size wood chip fireboxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    In a small experimental wood chip firebox with separate control of grate and overfire air, combustion intensity was increased with reduction in flyash and carbon monoxide by reducing air through the grate to a small fraction of stoichiometric air.

  9. Wood Dale, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Dale is a city in DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 6th congressional...

  10. Wood County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in West Virginia. Its FIPS County Code is 107. It is classified as...

  11. Wood County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood County is a county in Texas. Its FIPS County Code is 499. It is classified as ASHRAE...

  12. Wood Village, Oregon: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Wood Village is a city in Multnomah County, Oregon. It falls under Oregon's 3rd...

  13. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8456555, -74.0879195 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  14. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that wood-composite development is something that will bolster the U.S. economy, matches the funding from the WBC. "People in this industry are always looking for ways to...

  15. Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments - Wood Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Wood Energy Program for Yukon Flats Villages DOE Tribal Energy Program 20 November 2008 Feasibility for Wood Heat Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) * Non-Profit Consortium of Ten Tribal Governments within the Yukon Flats. * CATG Administers several Tribal Programs on behalf of the Tribes. * CATG also applies for and administers several other grants. - IHS, Regional Clinic (Fort Yukon), Health Aids in Each Village, drug and alcohol programs, and other health related

  16. Evaluation of processes for producing gasoline from wood. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-05-01

    Three processes for producing gasoline from wood by pyrolysis have been investigated. Technical and economic comparisons among the processes have been made, based on a hypothetical common plant size of 2000 tons per day green wood chip feedstock. In order to consider the entire fuel production process, the energy and cost inputs for producing and delivering the feedstock were included in the analysis. In addition, perspective has been provided by comparisons of the wood-to-gasoline technologies with other similar systems, including coal-to-methanol and various biomass-to-alcohol systems. Based on several assumptions that were required because of the candidate processes' information gaps, comparisons of energy efficiency were made. Several descriptors of energy efficiency were used, but all showed that methanol production from wood, with or without subsequent processing by the Mobil route to gasoline, appears most promising. It must be emphasized, however, that the critical wood-to-methanol system remains conceptual. Another observation was that the ethanol production systems appear inferior to the wood-to-gasoline processes. Each of the processes investigated requires further research and development to answer the questions about their potential contributions confidently. The processes each have so many unknowns that it appears unwise to pursue any one while abandoning the others.

  17. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  18. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  19. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  20. Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor ...

  1. Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing Facility Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing Facility June 30, 2016 - 12:55pm Addthis DOE ...

  2. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. ); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  3. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique...

  4. Cuttings Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992)...

  5. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt

  6. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  7. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  8. Cofiring Wood and Coal to Stoker Boilers in Pittsburgh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T., Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1997-07-01

    The prime objective of the University of Pittsburgh's overall wood/coal cofiring program is the successful introduction of commercial cofiring of urban wood wastes into the stoker boilers of western Pennsylvania. Central to this objective is the demonstration test at the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. In this test the project team is working to show that two commercially-available clean wood wastes - tub-ground pallet waste and chipped clearance wood - can be included in the fuel fed daily to an industrial stoker boiler. Irrespective of its economic outcome, the technical success of the demonstration at the brewery will allow the local air quality regulation agency to permit a parametric test at the Bellefield Boiler Plant. The objective of this test is to obtain comprehensive data on all key parameters of this operational boiler while firing wood with coal. The data would then be used for thorough generic technical and economic analyses. The technical analysis would be added to the open literature for the general planning and operational guidance for boiler owners and operators. The economic analysis would gage the potential for providing this stoker fuel commercially in an urban setting and for purchasing it regularly for combustion in an urban stoker boiler.

  9. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  10. Extensive sampling of basidiomycete genomes demonstrates inadequacy of the white rot/ brown rot paradigm for wood decay fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Brown, Daren W.; Nagy, Laszlo G.; Floudas, Dimitris; Held, Benjamin; Levasseur, Anthony; Lombard, Vincent; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Sun, Hui; LaButti, Kurt; Schmutz, Jeremy; Jabbour, Dina; Luo, Hong; Baker, Scott E.; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D.; Blanchette, Robert; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis; Cullen, Dan; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-03-14

    Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes) make up 32percent of the described fungi and include most wood decaying species, as well as pathogens and mutualistic symbionts. Wood-decaying basidiomycetes have typically been classified as either white rot or brown rot, based on the ability (in white rot only) to degrade lignin along with cellulose and hemicellulose. Prior genomic comparisons suggested that the two decay modes can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of ligninolytic class II peroxidases (PODs), as well as the abundance of enzymes acting directly on crystalline cellulose (reduced in brown rot). To assess the generality of the white rot/brown rot classification paradigm we compared the genomes of 33 basidiomycetes, including four newly sequenced wood decayers, and performed phylogenetically-informed Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of a broad range of gene families encoding plant biomass-degrading enzymes. The newly sequenced Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea genomes lack PODs, but possess diverse enzymes acting on crystalline cellulose, and they group close to the model white rot species Phanerochaete chrysosporium in the PCA. Furthermore, laboratory assays showed that both B. botryosum and J. argillacea can degrade all polymeric components of woody plant cell walls, a characteristic of white rot. We also found expansions in reducing polyketide synthase genes specific to the brown rot fungi. Our results suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. A more nuanced categorization of rot types is needed, based on an improved understanding of the genomics and biochemistry of wood decay.

  11. Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harless, Charles E.; Taylor, Ward G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

  12. Dimming LEDs with Phase-Cut Dimmers: The Specifier's Process for Maximizing Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2013-10-01

    This report reviews how phase-cut dimmers work, how LEDs differ from the incandescent lamps that the dimmers were historically designed to control, and how these differences can lead to complications when trying to dim LEDs. Compatibility between a specific LED source and a specific phase-cut dimmer is often unknown and difficult to assess, and ensuring compatibility adds complexity to the design, specification, bidding, and construction observation phases for new buildings and major remodel projects. To maximize project success, this report provides both general guidance and step-by-step procedures for designing phase-controlled LED dimming on both new and existing projects, as well as real-world examples of how to use those procedures.

  13. Gas pollution control apparatus and method and wood drying system employing same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eatherton, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    Pollution control apparatus and method are disclosed in which hot exhaust gas containing pollutants including solid particles and hydrocarbon vapors is treated by transmitting such exhaust gas through a container containing wood members, such as wood chips, which serve as a filter media for filtering out such pollutants by causing such solids to deposit and such hydrocarbon vapors to condense upon the surface of the wood members. The contaminated wood chips are discharged from the filter and further processed into chip board or other commercial wood products thereby disposing of the pollutants. Lumber may be used as the wood members of the filter in a lumber kiln by deposition of solid particles on the rough surface of such lumber. The contaminated surfaces of the lumber are removed by a planer which produces a smooth finished lumber and contaminated wood chips that may be processed into chip board or other commercial wood products. A wood drying system employing such pollution control apparatus and method includes a hot air dryer for wood or other organic material, such as a wood chip rotary dryer or a wood veneer dryer, which produces hot exhaust gases containing pollutants including hydrocarbon vapors and solid particles. This hot exhaust air is transmitted through a lumber kiln to dry lumber thereby conserving heat energy and causing solid particle pollutants to deposit on the surface of the lumber. The kiln exhaust air containing solid and hydrocarbon vapor pollutants is then transmitted up through a filter stack of wood chips.

  14. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prime, Michael B; Kastengren, Alan L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  15. Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Based Wood Heat System for Fort Yukon A Systems Integration Bill Wall, PhD Alaska Wood Energy Associates Village Survival Highest Energy Costs in Nation Project Initiation Partners 2005  Council of Athabascan Tribal Government  Alaska Village Initiatives  Original Goal: Displace as much diesel fuel as possible through development of a sustainable community based program  $0.51 per kWh electricity  $6.75 per gallon gasoline  $7.00 per gallon heating fuel  $200 per

  16. Wood energy in Georgia: a five-year progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial plants and public and residential facilities in Georgia are using wood, Georgia's greatest renewable energy source, to replace gas, oil, coal, and electricity. All wood systems described in this report are or will soon be in operation in schools, prisons, hospitals, and other state facilities, and are producing substantial financial savings. The economic values from increased markets and jobs are important in all areas of the state, with total benefits projected at $2.9 million a year for state taxpayers. 2 figures.

  17. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  18. 01-02-2008 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 - Wood Cabinet Falls Apart Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012008 File (public): PDF icon 01-02-2008blue...

  19. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Four projects are working to accelerate the development of revolutionary products or processes for the photovoltaic (PV) industry through the High Impact Supply Chain R&D for PV Technologies/Systems program, which represents the second round of PV Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies funding. These projects

  20. Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    College Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico College Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico College Los Alamos National Security, LLC provides support November 1, 2013 Ribbon cutting at Northern New Mexico College As others look on, Northern New Mexico College

  1. Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connection |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connection Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connections September 21, 2006 Cutting-Edge Andy Kowalski holds a 10 Gigabit fiber-optic cable. Newport News, Va. - Scientists who conduct research at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility can now access and share research data faster than ever before, thanks to an upgraded Internet connection that provides data

  2. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  3. Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) hosted a cross-cutting review on June 10, 2016, to evaluate FCTO's activities related to hydrogen station infrastructure, discuss the critical technical barriers to expanding hydrogen infrastructure and the strategies to overcome them, and gather feedback to better inform strategies to address research, development,

  4. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 On June 11, 2009, DOE announced the first round of Photovoltaic (PV) Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies awardees. The funded projects target manufacturing and product cost reduction with the potential to have a near-term impact on a substantial segment of the PV industry. General Electric Global Research

  5. Effect of wood chip size on update gasifier-combustor operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, F.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Caussanel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Three wood chip sizes were tested in a 0.3 GJ/h updraft gasifier-combustor. Thermal output did not vary significantly between wood chips. Pressure and temperature profiles were measured in the gasifier bed. Channeling occurred with the small wood chips. Efficiency of the combustor was determined by a mass and energy balance and an enthalpy technique.

  6. Cuttings Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (1976) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (1976)...

  7. NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual AAAS Meeting February 17, ... newly elected fellows at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

  8. SF 2001-WLD;CONTRACTOR WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01-WLD (11-2012) Supersedes (4-2010) Issue CONTRACTOR WELDING, CUTTING, BRAZING P ART 1: CO NT R ACT O R' S E X PO S UR E AS S E S SM ENT Identify what welding, cutting and/or brazing you are doing: (Check box or fill-in type below) Welding Thermal Cutting Brazing (No cadmium filler BAg-1 or BAg- 2; Silver not to exceed 45%) MIG Oxy-acetylene Oxy-acetylene TIG Stick Plasma arc Other Identify the base metal you are welding, cutting or brazing: (Check box or fill-in below) Carbon steel Galvanized

  9. PPPL researchers present cutting edge results at APS Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL researchers present cutting edge results at APS Plasma Physics Conference November ... Gallery: Fast-camera image showing plasma during magnetic reconnection. Fast-camera image ...

  10. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Currently, only operational mitigation (stopping turbine blades from spinning) during ... Most studies found at least a 50% reduction in bat fatalities when turbine cut-in speed ...

  11. Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  12. Cuttings Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  13. Cuttings Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  14. Cuttings Analysis At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  15. Cuttings Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Cuttings Analysis At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  17. Cuttings Analysis At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  18. Cuttings Analysis At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  19. Cuttings Analysis At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  20. Cuttings Analysis At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  1. Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  2. Overview of FCTO Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCTO Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Activities - Overview ... Meeting June 6 - 10, 2016 Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 2 7... Performance * Station Cost * Station Financing * ...

  3. Session #1: Cutting Edge Methodologies--Beyond Current DFT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Session 1: Cutting Edge Methodologies (beyond Current DFT) Moderator: Shengbai Zhang (RPI REL) Topics to be addressed: Benchmarking state-of-the-art approaches, accurate energy ...

  4. Cuttings Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    description of the cuttings was prepared. Afterwards, the samples were packed in small cotton bags, transported to the warehouse located at the Nevada Geothermal office in...

  5. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  6. Apparatus and method for cutting soft materials, especially meat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Shaw, Dick L.; Scalia, Barbara J.

    2005-10-18

    An apparatus and method for cutting soft materials such as meat. Two or more spirally mounted helical blades are situated between two supports, and the supports are mounted to a shank. The shank is rotated to impart rotary action to the spiral shear blades, and the entire device may be used to perform various cutting operations. The distal or bottom one of the supports may also be a cutting blade, and a number of versions of bottom cutting blades are useable in the practice of the invention.

  7. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Cuttings Analysis Activity Date 1980 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  8. Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Silicon Genesis advancing the field of solar energy by developing a process that will virtually eliminate all waste when cutting materials needed to implement solar technology.

  9. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. Engineering methods for the design and employment of wood cribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barczak, T.M. ); Gearhart, D.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Wood cribs are used extensively by the mining industry to stabilize mine openings. While the cost per crib is relatively low, their extensive use can result in annual mine costs of over $1 million. In an effort to improve the utilization of these supports and to reduce ground control hazards, the US Bureau of Mines has developed engineering methods to assist mine operators in wood-crib design and employment. Design and employment criteria are established based on the strength, stiffness, and stability of the crib structure in relation to the load conditions imposed by the mine environment. Models have been developed based on full-scale tests in the USBM's Mine Roof Simulator that compute the capacity of wood cribs of various configurations and material constructions as a function of displacement of the crib structure due to roof-and-floor convergence. These models permit the comparison of the loading characteristics and cost of employment of different crib designs, and in conjunction with roof behavior models, provide a means to determine the optimum design and employment strategy. In eastern coal mines, wood cribs generally are constructed from hardwood timbers, while softwood timbers generally are used in western coal mines. 11 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Wood pellet market and trade: a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun Sheng Goh; Martin Junginger; Maurizio Cocchi; Didier Marchal; Daniela Thran; Christiane Hennig; Jussi Heinimo; Lars Nikolaisen; Peter-Paul Schouwenberg; Douglas Bradley; J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Leslie Ovard; Michael Deutmeyer

    2001-01-01

    This perspective provides an overview of wood pellet markets in a number of countries of high significance, together with an inventory of market factors and relevant past or existing policies. In 2010, the estimated global wood pellet production and consumption were close to 14.3 Mt (million metric tonnes) and 13.5 Mt, respectively, while the global installed production capacity had reached over 28 Mt. Two types of pellets are mainly traded (i) for residential heating and (ii) for large-scale district heating or co-fi ring installations. The EU was the primary market, responsible for nearly 61% and 85% of global production and consumption, respectively in 2010. EU markets were divided according to end use: (i) residential and district heating, (ii) power plants driven market, (iii) mixed market, and (iv) export-driven countries. North America basically serves as an exporter, but also with signifi cant domestic consumption in USA. East Asia is predicted to become the second-largest consumer after the EU in the near future. The development perspective in Latin America remains unclear. Five factors that determine the market characteristics are: (i) the existence of coal-based power plants, (ii) the development of heating systems, (iii) feedstock availability, (iv) interactions with wood industry, and (v) logistics factor. Furthermore, intervention policies play a pivotal role in market development. The perspective of wood pellets industry was also analyzed from four major aspects: (i) supply potential, (ii) logistics issues, (iii) sustainability considerations, and (iv) technology development.

  13. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  14. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  15. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  16. Using recycled wood waste as a fuel in the northeast: A handbook for prospective urban wood waste producers, suppliers and consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Donovan, C.T.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of existing and future markets for recycled wood wastes in the eleven-state northeast region. The purpose of the report is to estimate the availability of wood and woody materials in the solid waste stream and to determine the technical and economic viability of separating and recycling them for other uses. The topics discussed include: current and future markets for recycled wood wastes; key components of successful wood waste processing facilities; decisionmaking process used to determine technical and economic viability of a proposed processing facility; environmental regulations and the permitting process required for recycled wood waste processors and users; case studies and annotated listings of existing wood waste processors and uses; detailed assessments of market opportunities in three metropolitan areas including Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; and a proposed action plan to stimulate and facilitate future market development.

  17. Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace005_pickett_2011_o.pdf (2.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research Progress of the Engine Combustion Network

  18. Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels NREL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on crosscutting technologies for advanced biofuels. ctab_webinar_crosscutting.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading

  19. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  20. Commissioning Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Commissioning specifications outline basic requirements of the commissioning process and detail the roles and responsibilities of each party involved. System checklists, startup requirements, and...

  1. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood

  2. Kinetics of fluidized bed combustion of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leckner, B.; Hansson, K.M.; Tullin, C.; Borodulya, A.V.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.

    1999-07-01

    Devolatilization and char combustion of a single wood pellet in a fluidized bed has been studied. The effect of operation parameters (bed temperature, bed particle size, oxygen concentration) and pellet characteristics has been investigated. A simplified analytical model of heat-transfer controlled pyrolysis has been developed to interpret the measured volatiles release time. The model predictions are in a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the initial physical properties of the pellet are used. The model can be used to estimate the devolatilization times in other combustion systems. Kinetic parameters of char combustion are obtained, based on the measured burnout times and simple model considerations. The physical properties of wood pellets need further study.

  3. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  4. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  5. CAMX - A High Performance Cutting Technique for Underwater Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, Fr.-W.; Versemann, R.; Bienia, H.; Kremer, G.

    2003-02-27

    During the past years a new cutting technology, the CAMX-process-family (Contact-Arc-Metal-X [X is for Cutting, Grinding and Drilling]) was developed at the Institute of Materials Science in Hanover. These are electro-thermal underwater separation processes for metallic structures. The CAMX technology covers the Contact-Arc-Metal- Cutting (CAMC) with a sword-like cutting electrode, the Contact-Arc-Metal-Grinding (CAMG) with a rotating electrode and the Contact-Arc-Metal-Drilling (CAMD) with a wrap mechanism to fix and carry the workpiece. There are no limitations of CAMC concerning the capability of cutting complicated structures of workpieces. Undercuts and cavities in the workpiece do not affect the CAMC. The CAMG is a separation process for straight cuts with a very high cutting speed. The CAMD is a technology to drill holes or pocket holes of any geometry. With the integrated wrap mechanism it is possible to fix and carry workpieces, which are not to handle with conventional mechanisms.

  6. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  7. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  8. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  9. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  10. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.