National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for witnessed unusually warm

  1. COLD DUST BUT WARM GAS IN THE UNUSUAL ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C. D.; Cridland, A.; Foyle, K.; Parkin, T. J.; Cooper, E. Mentuch; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Galametz, M.; and others

    2013-10-20

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory have revealed an unusual elliptical galaxy, NGC 4125, which has strong and extended submillimeter emission from cold dust but only very strict upper limits to its CO and H I emission. Depending on the dust emissivity, the total dust mass is 2-5 10{sup 6} M {sub ?}. While the neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is extremely low (<12-30), including the ionized gas traced by [C II] emission raises this limit to <39-100. The dust emission follows a similar r {sup 1/4} profile to the stellar light and the dust to stellar mass ratio is toward the high end of what is found in nearby elliptical galaxies. We suggest that NGC 4125 is currently in an unusual phase where evolved stars produced in a merger-triggered burst of star formation are pumping large amounts of gas and dust into the interstellar medium. In this scenario, the low neutral gas-to-dust mass ratio is explained by the gas being heated to temperatures ?10{sup 4} K faster than the dust is evaporated. If galaxies like NGC 4125, where the far-infrared emission does not trace neutral gas in the usual manner, are common at higher redshift, this could have significant implications for our understanding of high redshift galaxies and galaxy evolution.

  2. Crime Witness

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at 1-800-437-2744. What should I report? You can report theft, vandalism, illegal dumping or suspicious activities on BPA property. As a potential Crime Witness, watch for:...

  3. Universal nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotowski, Marcin; Kotowski, Michal [College of Inter-Faculty Individual Studies in Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Warsaw University, PL-Warszawa (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/44, PL-02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kus, Marek [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/44, PL-02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2010-06-15

    We give a universal recipe for constructing nonlinear entanglement witnesses able to detect nonclassical correlations in arbitrary systems of distinguishable and/or identical particles for an arbitrary number of constituents. The constructed witnesses are expressed in terms of expectation values of observables. As such, they are, at least in principle, measurable in experiments.

  4. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  5. Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. Witnessing of M&V activities is a part of the process of ...

  6. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  7. Northwest students battle wits at Super Bowl of Science?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA, 503-230-7536 or Mike Hansen, BPA, 503-230-4328 media line 503-230-5131 Northwest students battle wits at "Super Bowl of Science" BPA sponsors the 21 st annual Regional Science...

  8. Resource-Efficient Measurement-Device-Independent Entanglement Witness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Verbanis, E.; Martin, A.; Rosset, D.; Lim, C. C. W.; Thew, R. T.; Zbinden, H.

    2016-05-09

    Imperfections in experimental measurement schemes can lead to falsely identifying, or over estimating, entanglement in a quantum system. A recent solution to this is to define schemes that are robust to measurement imperfections—measurement-device-independent entanglement witness (MDI-EW). This approach can be adapted to witness all entangled qubit states for a wide range of physical systems and does not depend on detection efficiencies or classical communication between devices. In this paper, we extend the theory to remove the necessity of prior knowledge about the two-qubit states to be witnessed. Moreover, we tested this model via a novel experimental implementation for MDI-EW thatmore » significantly reduces the experimental complexity. Finally, by applying it to a bipartite Werner state, we demonstrate the robustness of this approach against noise by witnessing entanglement down to an entangled state fraction close to 0.4.« less

  9. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Biomass Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    05 June 2005 A Case Study: A Case Study: Warm Springs Warm Springs Cal Mukumoto Cal Mukumoto Warm Springs Forest Warm Springs Forest Products Industries Products Industries Warm Springs Indian Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon Reservation of Oregon Warm Springs Forest Warm Springs Forest Products Industries (WSFPI) Products Industries (WSFPI) Enterprise of the Confederated Enterprise of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon

  10. WITS - WASTE DATA COLLECTION WITH OUR PALMS AT OUR FINGERTIPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. MARTINEZ

    2000-11-01

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a project to build a computer-based system for tracking inventory, storage and disposal information for hazardous and radioactive waste and contaminated byproducts. This project, the Waste Inventory Tracking System (WITS), will initially be used in TA-55 (which includes the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility) and the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) building where wastes are generated. The system handles numerous waste types with variation in size, disposal method, and hazard classification including: low level waste such as room trash (compactable waste), SEG waste (non-compactable), and over-sized waste, mixed waste, hazardous and chemical waste, universal waste, and waste containing asbestos and PCB's. WITS is designed to provide up-to-date location, status, content information, radioactivity analyses, and other inventory information for every waste item and container managed by NMT-7. The system will support comprehensive reporting capabilities and cradle-to-grave audit trails. WITS is intended to facilitate handling of waste by NMT-7 staff to help minimize waste disposal costs, ensure compliance with applicable regulations, and standardize waste management methodologies and practices. This paper compares current management practices with revised methodologies supported by WITS. It shows how automating inventory tracking helps achieve these goals.

  11. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ThinkersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? What is the basis for the predictions concerning global warming? There are several gases in the air, collectively called greenhouse gases, that trap the infrared radiation emitted

  12. Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government Witnessing r. 3/28/2014 1 Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities Rev. 3/28/2014 1. Introduction This document provides guidance pertaining to government witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) recommends that government staff witness the M&V activities that are carried out by

  13. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  14. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? Our earth's average temperature stays pretty much the same from year to year. Sometimes it gets very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer where you live. And some years may be a little hotter

  15. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? The surface temperature of each of the planets in our solar system depends on a process called the heat budget. This budget, like any other type of budget, remains balanced if the amount (of energy)

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global ...

  17. The Web Interface Template System (WITS), a software developer`s tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauer, L.J.; Lynam, M.; Muniz, T.

    1995-11-01

    The Web Interface Template System (WITS) is a tool for software developers. WITS is a three-tiered, object-oriented system operating in a Client/Server environment. This tool can be used to create software applications that have a Web browser as the user interface and access a Sybase database. Development, modification, and implementation are greatly simplified because the developer can change and test definitions immediately, without writing or compiling any code. This document explains WITS functionality, the system structure and components of WITS, and how to obtain, install, and use the software system.

  18. Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Greenhouses Greenhouse Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  19. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? On earth we get energy from the sun's light. As you know, it gets hot outside if the sun is shining brightly on a summer ...

  20. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Geophysical Union Global Warming and Human Health WHEN: Jul 27, 2015 5:30 PM - ... Event Description The main reason we are concerned about human-induced climate change is ...

  1. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  2. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothrici...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction ...

  3. Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale pillars: roles of ultrathin ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of ...

  4. Warming up to solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondo, B.

    1996-07-01

    Increasingly alarmed by threats to their financial security posed by an escalating number of weather-related catastrophes, major insurance companaies, particularly those in Europe and Asia, are starting to support a variety of measures that would slowe the production of grenhouse gases worlwide. As the insurance and banking industries turn their attention to global warming, investments in solar energy take on growing appeal.

  5. Understanding CO2 Dynamics in Metal-Organic Frameworks wit Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Dynamics in Metal-Organic Frameworks wit Open Metal Sites Previous Next List Li-Chiang Lin, Jihan Kim, Xueqian Kong, Eric Scott, Thomas M. McDonald, Jeffrey R. Long, Jeffrey A....

  6. Guide to Government Witnessing and Review of Measurement and Verification Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document provides guidance pertaining to government witnessing of measurement and verification (M&V) activities in Federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. Witnessing of M&V activities is a part of the process of reviewing and approving M&V deliverables and the on-site inspections, spot measurements, short-term monitoring, and performance tests described in the M&V plan.

  7. Warming trends: Adapting to nonlinear change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jonko, Alexandra K.

    2015-01-28

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise, some regions are expected to warm more than others. Research suggests that whether warming will intensify or slow down over time also depends on location.

  8. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  9. Simulations Reveal Unusual Death for Ancient Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations Reveal Unusual Death for Ancient Stars Simulations Reveal Unusual Death for Ancient Stars Findings made possible with NERSC resources and Berkeley Lab Code September 29, 2014 Contact: Linda Vu, +1 510 495 2402, lvu@lbl.gov SMSweb.jpg This image is a slice through the interior of a supermassive star of 55,500 solar masses along the axis of symmetry. It shows the inner helium core in which nuclear burning is converting helium to oxygen, powering various fluid instabilities (swirling

  10. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  11. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Wednesday, 25 April 2012 00:00 Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material

  12. Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars ...

  13. Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Warming Solutions Inc (previously Southern Investments Inc) Place: Houston, Texas...

  14. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  15. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  16. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  17. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot...

  18. North Florida Global Warming Study Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Warming Study Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: North Florida Global Warming Study Group Address: 8342 Compass Rose Dr S Place: Jacksonville, Florida Zip: 32216 Year...

  19. Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen You are accessing a document ...

  20. Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation- 2007 Wind Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon.

  1. Warm Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Resort Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Warm Springs Resort...

  2. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Credit: National Institute of Standards Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming ...

  3. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot ...

  4. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First ...

  5. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like ...

  6. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle ...

  7. Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation- 2007 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon.

  8. Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets (Technical Report)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Direct Imaging of Warm Extrasolar Planets Citation Details In-Document ... companions to young stars, we can see thermal emission from planets that are still warm ...

  9. Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Equilibration dynamics and conductivity of warm dense hydrogen Authors: ...

  10. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  11. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme temperatures and

  12. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme

  13. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter Print Being neither solid, liquid, gas, nor plasma, warm dense matter (WDM) occupies a no man's land in the map of material phases. Its temperature can range between that of planetary cores (tens of thousands K) to that of stellar cores (hundreds of thousands K). Not only is it prevalent throughout the universe, it is relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and material performance under extreme conditions. However, because of its extreme

  14. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    -fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  15. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Geothermal Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Enterprises Geothermal Power Development Feasibility Study Warm Springs Indian Reservation US Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program Review October 23-27 2006 Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Warm Springs, Oregon Project Participants Project Participants * * Jim Manion, GM, Warm Springs Power & Water Ent. Jim Manion, GM, Warm Springs Power & Water Ent. * * David McClain, DW McClain Associates David McClain, DW McClain Associates * * GeothermEx Inc. GeothermEx Inc. * * Power

  16. Global warming: Science or politics. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-04-01

    ``The balance of evidence suggests that there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a statement employed as the foundation basis to intervene on behalf of the globe and the future. That statement, as scientific evidence of human-produced greenhouse gases (primarily CO{sub 2}) having a warming effect on global climate is a political statement only. Further, the Kyoto conference to consider intervention in human activities regarding global warming was a political conference. Political and treaty issues were the focus; scientific issues were not much discussed. What change is needed then to scientifically determine global warming and to ascertain whether human activity is involved? A better understanding of the natural climate variations related to solar variation can improve understanding of an anthropogenic greenhouse effect on the climate. The purpose of this article is to pose the scientific question. Part 2 will present an answer.

  17. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  18. Warm Hydroforming of Lightweight Metal Sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aginagalde, A.; Orus, A.; Esnaola, J. A.; Torca, I.; Galdos, L.; Garcia, C.

    2007-05-17

    Hydroforming is well known in steel applications for automotive industry, where complicated shapes can be get with high strength to weight ratios. Nevertheless, the poor formability of light alloys at room temperature has limited the application of hydroforming technology for aluminum and magnesium parts. Increasing the temperature of these materials allows substantially greater elongation without fracture. Warm forming strategy is applied in conventional processes, such as rolling and forging, in order to get complex shapes, but still rare in hydroforming technology. This is the technical base of this research project: the development of the hydroforming process at warm working temperatures. The main tasks of the initial phases of the research were the material characterization, and the heated fluid and tooling system design and set up for warm hydroforming of lightweight alloys. Once these goals were accomplished the present paper shows the obtained results. The uniaxial tensile deformation of 5754H111, 6082-T6, 6082-O and AZ31B at the temperature range of 25 deg. C - 250 deg. C is presented as the output of the material characterization task. Both the system features and the results obtained for a bulge test geometry carried out with a warm hydroforming system are also presented. The selected alloys show an improvement in formability at the studied temperature range under both uniaxial and biaxial state of stress.

  19. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Wind Energy Power Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Springs Power and Water Enterprise Use of DOE Grant DE-PS36-06GO96037 For Engineering Cost Assessment For Wind Energy Power Development On The Warm Springs Indian Reservation of Oregon. Prepared by: Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises The Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs * Home of the Warm Springs, Wasco, and Paiute tribes, the Warm Springs Reservation is inhabited by nearly 4,500 tribal members, most of whom live in or around the town of Warm Springs. * Within the community, the

  20. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We alsomore » developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.« less

  1. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30-nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  2. Dynamics of charge clouds ejected from laser-induced warm dense gold nanofilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Junjie; Correa, Alfredo A.; Tang, Shao; Ping, Yuan; Ogitsu, Tadashi; Li, Dong; Zhou, Qiong; Cao, Jianming

    2014-10-24

    We report the first systematic study of the ejected charge dynamics surrounding laser-produced 30- nm warm dense gold films using single-shot femtosecond electron shadow imaging and deflectometry. The results reveal a two-step dynamical process of the ejected electrons under the high pump fluence conditions: an initial emission and accumulation of a large amount of electrons near the pumped surface region followed by the formation of hemispherical clouds of electrons on both sides of the film, which are escaping into the vacuum at a nearly isotropic and constant velocity with an unusually high kinetic energy of more than 300 eV. We also developed a model of the escaping charge distribution that not only reproduces the main features of the observed charge expansion dynamics but also allows us to extract the number of ejected electrons remaining in the cloud.

  3. Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Investigation of Unusual Albedos in the SGP Domain Groff, David ARM SGP Duchon, Claude University Of Oklahoma Category: Atmospheric State and Surface We investigate the cause of unusually high albedos at an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) extended facility near Morris, OK. In a previous study, daily albedos were calculated at several SGP extended facilities for 1998 and 1999 using broadband (.28 to 3 microns) pyranometers. The average daily albedo during this

  4. Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  5. Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation- 2002 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Warm Springs Power Enterprises, a corporate entity owned and operated by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, will conduct a 36-month comprehensive wind energy resource assessment and development feasibility study.

  6. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Human Capacity Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Grant DE-PS36-06G096038 Human Capacity Building for Renewable Energy Development. Warm Spring Power and Water Enterprise Mark K. Johnson Jr. Prepared by: Warm Springs Power & Water ...

  7. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Wind Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Enterprises Wind Energy Development Feasibility Study Warm Springs Indian Reservation Oregon Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Warm Springs, Oregon US Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program Review October 23-27 2006 Project Participants * Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises * CTWS Dept. of Natural Resources * DW McClain and Associates: Project Management * OSU Energy Research Laboratory: Wind Modeling * Elcon Associates: Transmission System Studies * Northwest Wildlife

  8. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can we someday predict earthquakes? Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming New ways of looking at seismic information and innovative laboratory experiments are offering tantalizing clues to what triggers earthquakes-and when. March 14, 2016 Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Ice throughout the Arctic is vanishing due to a rapidly warming climate. Melting of ice wedges adds to arctic warming Ice wedges are a particularly cool surface feature in the

  9. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technique | The Ames Laboratory Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Publications Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area identified in the Report of the ReNeW in HEDLP. The electronic structure, equation of state, radiative, and transport properties of warm electrons in an amorphous or disordered configuration of ions are not well described by either solid state or plasma models. Such warm-dense

  10. Latitudinal distribution of the recent Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Lesins, Glen K; Wang, Muyin

    2010-12-08

    Increasing Arctic temperature, disappearance of Arctic sea ice, melting of the Greenland ice sheet, sea level rise, increasing strength of Atlantic hurricanes are these impending climate catastrophes supported by observations? Are the recent data really unprecedented during the observational records? Our analysis of Arctic temperature records shows that the Arctic and temperatures in the 1930s and 1940s were almost as high as they are today. We argue that the current warming of the Arctic region is affected more by the multi-decadal climate variability than by an increasing concentration of carbon dioxide. Unfortunately, none of the existing coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models used in the IPCC 2007 cIimate change assessment is able to reproduce neither the observed 20th century Arctic cIimate variability nor the latitudinal distribution of the warming.

  11. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  12. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M.

    1993-12-31

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  13. Impact of Temperature Trends on Short-Term Energy Demand, The (Released in the STEO September 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed unusually warm weather, as evidenced by both mild winters and hot summers. The analysis shows that the 30-year norms--the basis of weather-related energy demand projections--do not reflect the warming trend or its regional and seasonal patterns.

  14. Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorweiler, V.P.

    1998-05-01

    Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

  15. Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA Unusual light in dark space revealed by Los Alamos, NASA By looking at the dark spaces between visible galaxies and stars the NASA/JPL CIBER sounding rocket experiment has produced data that could redefine what constitutes a galaxy. November 7, 2014 Paul Johnson The optical array on the CIBER instrument, image from NASA. Contact Kevin Roark Communications Office (505) 665-9202 Email "We think stars are being scattered out into space

  16. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  17. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  18. A warm air poultry brooding system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nulte, W.H.

    1980-12-01

    As the energy crisis escalated during the mid-70's, it became apparent that energy intensive industries must seek alternate fuel sources. Georgia Tech realized that one of these industries was the poultry industry. Consequently, a demonstration project of a wood-fired, warm air poultry brooding system was designed and built. Since its completion in mid-1978, the system has demonstrated considerable cost savings as well as being a very functional and reliable system. The system consists of 3 main components--a wood burning furnace, a supply distribution and return duct, and 20 flexible ducts which simulate the function of the propane brooders by providing warm air close to the ground. A separate structure houses the furnace and wood supply. This house is located at the midpoint of the growout house to allow symmetrical and naturally balanced air distribution. Since the system became operational, 16 flocks of birds have been brooded. During this time, wood usage has averaged approximately 30 cords per year while in a neighboring house, that is used as a control house, the propane usage has averaged 3,800 gallons per year. In the area of Georgia where the demonstration project is located, the cost of fuelwood has remained stable over the last 2 years, whereas the price of propane has continually increased. Thus the grower has the benefit of constantly increasing cost savings while utilizing a renewable resource as fuel.

  19. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2013 Peer Review | Department of Energy Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech13_mclinden_040213.pdf (2.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Credit: National Institute of Standards Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

  20. Picture of the Week: Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists work to understand the fate of this carbon using computer simulations such as this model of snowmelt draining from polygonal ground near Barrow, Alaska. April 26, 2015 Climate feedbacks from a warming arctic x Arctic soils currently store nearly 20 years worth of human emissions of carbon in frozen permafrost, but the Arctic is warming faster than most of the rest of the Earth, meaning that this carbon may soon

  1. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot more to the observed climate warming than current estimates show. July 9, 2013 Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Haze of smoke emanating from the 2011 Las Conchas, NM fire. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "The fact that we are experiencing more fires and

  2. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Geothermal Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Springs The Confederated Tribes Of Warm Springs Presentation to DOE Department of Renewable Energy Presentation to DOE Department of Renewable Energy October, 2005 for Geothermal Development Potential on Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon repared by: Warm Springs Power Enterprises History with Energy Developments History with Energy Developments * * Intro to Power business in 1955 with the development of the Pelt Intro to Power business in 1955 with the development of the

  3. Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs - Geothermal Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Springs Presentation to DOE Department of Renewable Energy October , 2007 For Geothermal Development Potential On Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon Lands Prepared by: Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises History With Energy Developments Intro to Power business in 1955 with the development of the Pelton Project. 1970 with the installation of three 3 MW steam turbines at Warm Springs Forest Products Industries (WSFPI). 1982 completed the installation of the Pelton

  4. ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListPossible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Pros and Cons Given the need for caution, it may still be possible to make a few general comments. With more carbon dioxide in the

  5. ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Are the Effects of Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Are the Effects of Global Warming? Changes in Crop and Plant Life In the mid-latitudes (this includes most of the United States), the amount of moisture in the soil will probably decrease in the summer.

  6. ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Are the Effects of Global Warming? As greenhouse gases continue to increase, the earth may experience significant climate changes. In addition, there are many other impacts that global warming can have on the earth. You can learn more

  7. ARM - What Will Happen as a Result of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What Will Happen as a Result of Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Will Happen as a Result of Global Warming? Major Stratospheric Cooling Virtually certain. Because there is erosion of upper stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), there is less

  8. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Decai

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramica and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package

  9. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Pool & Spa Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  10. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm acceleratin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of ...

  11. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  12. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  13. Call for emission limits heats debate on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Emission limits on carbon dioxide is recommended by an Intergovernmental Panel in a discussion on global warming. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jakob,...

  15. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Warming Potential Refrigerants Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s ultra-small centrifugal compressor concept will facilitate low-GWP refrigerant adoption.
    Photo Credit: Mechanical ...

  16. Water trees to beat drought and global warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water trees to beat drought and global warming Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Water trees to beat drought and global warming Large trees are at risk in Northern New Mexico. May 2, 2016 Drought combined with global warming is a major threat to our trees in Northern New Mexico-and around the world-says LANL ecologist Nate McDowell. Drought combined with global warming is

  17. First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium forinertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...ial-confinement-fusion applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First-principles opacity table of warm dense deuterium for inertial-confinement-fusion applications ...

  18. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  19. Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation ... This research and development (R&D) roadmap for next-generation low-GWP refrigerants ...

  20. Water trees to beat drought and global warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water trees to beat drought and global warming Community Connections: Your link to news ... Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues submit Water trees to beat ...

  1. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  2. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  3. Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Authors: ...

  4. Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX You...

  5. Unusual Solar Photoconversion: Sensitized Triplet Fusion | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Excitonics Unusual Solar Photoconversion: Sensitized Triplet Fusion March 10, 2015 at 4:30 PM/ RLE Haus 36-428 Felix Castellano Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University castellano_02 abstract: One focus of our research program involves the study of sensitized triplet fusion (TF) in solution using highly photostable metal-organic chromophores in conjunction with energetically appropriate organic molecules with large singlet-triplet gaps. Selective excitation of the

  6. An Unusual Mechanism for the Antimicrobial Target Flavine-dependant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thymidylate Synthase (FTDS) An Unusual Mechanism for the Antimicrobial Target Flavine-dependant Thymidylate Synthase (FTDS) Classical thymidylate synthases, encoded by the thyA and TYMS genes, are present in most eukaryotes, including humans, and are frequently targeted by chemotherapeutic and antibiotic drugs. A recently discovered class of thymidylate synthases, the FDTSs encoded by the thyX gene has been found primarily in prokaryotes and viruses including several pathogens and biological

  7. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  8. Small inner companions of warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and legacies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Although warm Jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm Jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm Jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm Jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm Jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm Jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exceeds that of stellar radiation for the inner planet, and may be great enough to affect the internal structure of warm Jupiters. Secular theory gives insight into the tidal processes, providing, among other things, a way to constrain eccentricities of transiting planets based on estimates of the tidal parameter Q.

  9. A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timilsina, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

  10. Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Mitigation can slow down but not prevent sea level rise for centuries to come August 5, 2013 Contact: Linda Vu, Lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 washington.jpg Because seawater absorbs heat more slowly than the atmosphere above it, our oceans won't feel the full impact of the greenhouse gases already in the air for hundreds of years. Warm water expands, raising sea levels. (Courtesy W.

  11. Cold weather encourages warm hearts in Kansas City | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Cold weather encourages warm hearts in Kansas City Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - 12:00am NNSA Blog Most of us just reach into the closet to pull on a warm coat to shield us from the winter weather, but for thousands of needy children in the Kansas City area who have outgrown their coats, it's not so simple. Thanks to the Coats for Kids program, which provides new and gently used coats for children who need them, many of these children will be toasty warm. Each

  12. Measuring and Mitigating Urban Warming in a Northern Metropolitan Area |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Measuring and Mitigating Urban Warming in a Northern Metropolitan Area Event Sponsor: Environmental Science Seminar Start Date: Aug 25 2016 - 11:00am Building/Room: Building 240/Room 4301 Location: Argonne National Laboratory Speaker(s): Peter Snyder Speaker(s) Title: University of Minnesota In the United States and much of the rest of the world, cities are warming at twice the rate of outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. While the warming can

  13. WARM MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, N.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Howell, J.; Appleton, P.; Lord, S.; Schulz, B.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Daz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Isaak, K. G.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Inami, H.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Sanders, D. B.; and others

    2014-06-01

    We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ? 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ? 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100?m color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L {sub IR}, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 ? J ? 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO(54), (65), (76), (87) and (109) transitions to L {sub IR}, log R {sub midCO}, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of 4.13 (?log?R{sub midCO}{sup SF}) and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R {sub midCO} higher and lower than R{sub midCO}{sup SF}, respectively.

  14. Project Reports for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation- 2007 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon.

  15. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  16. Press Pass - Press Release - Fermilab Hosts Global Warming Presentatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Office, 630-840-5588 For immediate release Fermilab Hosts Presentation on Global Warming on Feb. 28 Program is free and open to the public Dr. David Carlson,...

  17. NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' July 30, 2010 Photo of a building coved in ... to a wall at the RSF that uses their award-winning transpired air collector technology. ...

  18. Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 23, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis An efficient heater can save money and energy while ... Get an energy audit and learn about your heating options to warm your home while saving ...

  19. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal...

  20. Unusual behavior of superconductors near the tricritical Lifshitz point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzdin, A.I.; Kulic, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    The properties of superconductors near the tricritical Lifshitz (TL) point are studied. Unusual behavior of H/sub c//sub 2/(T) near the TL point in three-dimensional (3D) systems is found, as well as an oscillatory character of H/sub c//sub 2/(T) in quasi-2D systems. The oscillatory character of the critical current J/sub c/ of the S-S'-S junction as a function of thickness and temperature is also studied. Predictions are compared to experimental data in such quasi-2D systems as T/sub a/S/sub 2/(pyridine).

  1. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Since 1901 Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9, 2013 Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 campo.jpg These maps show the changes in air temperatures over land as measured using thermometers (left side) and as calculated by the 20th Century Reanalysis project (left side). While more than 80 percent of the observed variation is captured by

  2. Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Georgiadi, A.G.

    1996-12-31

    The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

  3. Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wildfires Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming by wildfires Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming by wildfires Scientists have uncovered key attributes of so-called "brown carbon" from wildfires September 2, 2014 Wildfire fuel being burned in the fire laboratory as the aerosols from the top are being

  4. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; et al

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  5. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  6. Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wildfires Combustion mechanism to better predict warming by wildfires Scientists uncover combustion mechanism to better predict warming by wildfires Scientists have uncovered key attributes of so-called "brown carbon" from wildfires. August 4, 2014 Wildfire fuel being burned in the fire laboratory as the aerosols from the top are being sucked into inlets and sampled at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana by Los Alamos and Carnegie Mellon University

  7. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review emrgtech12_vineyard_040313.pdf (868.64 KB) More Documents & Publications Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Low-GWP Refrigerants for Refrigeration Systems Image

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  9. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses | Department of Energy Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Aaqius and Aaqius 2004_deer_joubert1.pdf (480.91 KB) More Documents & Publications A New Active DPF System for "Stop

  10. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra, and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.

  11. Stronger warming effects on microbial abundances in colder regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Ji; Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Jiang, Lifen; Zhou, Xuhui; Lu, Meng; Liang, Junyi; Shi, Zheng; Shelton, Shelby; Cao, Junji

    2015-12-10

    Soil microbes play critical roles in regulating terrestrial carbon (C) cycle and its feedback to climate change. However, it is still unclear how the soil microbial community and abundance respond to future climate change scenarios. In this meta-analysis, we synthesized the responses of microbial community and abundance to experimental warming from 64 published field studies. Our results showed that warming significantly increased soil microbial abundance by 7.6% on average. When grouped by vegetation or soil types, tundras and histosols had the strongest microbial responses to warming with increased microbial, fungal, and bacterial abundances by 15.0%, 9.5% and 37.0% in tundra,more » and 16.5%, 13.2% and 13.3% in histosols, respectively. We found significant negative relationships of the response ratios of microbial, fungal and bacterial abundances with the mean annual temperature, indicating that warming had stronger effects in colder than warmer regions. Moreover, the response ratios of microbial abundance to warming were positively correlated with those of soil respiration. Our results therefore indicate that the large quantities of C stored in colder regions are likely to be more vulnerable to climate warming than the soil C stored in other warmer regions.« less

  12. Indirect aerosol effect increases CMIP5 models projected Arctic warming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chylek, Petr; Vogelsang, Timothy J.; Klett, James D.; Hengartner, Nicholas; Higdon, Dave; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2016-02-20

    Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models’ projections of the 2014–2100 Arctic warming under radiative forcing from representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) vary from 0.9° to 6.7°C. Climate models with or without a full indirect aerosol effect are both equally successful in reproducing the observed (1900–2014) Arctic warming and its trends. However, the 2014–2100 Arctic warming and the warming trends projected by models that include a full indirect aerosol effect (denoted here as AA models) are significantly higher (mean projected Arctic warming is about 1.5°C higher) than those projected by models without a full indirect aerosolmore » effect (denoted here as NAA models). The suggestion is that, within models including full indirect aerosol effects, those projecting stronger future changes are not necessarily distinguishable historically because any stronger past warming may have been partially offset by stronger historical aerosol cooling. In conclusion, the CMIP5 models that include a full indirect aerosol effect follow an inverse radiative forcing to equilibrium climate sensitivity relationship, while models without it do not.« less

  13. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach

  14. More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-26

    Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

  15. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  16. The Science Behind 'The Martian' - Staying Warm on Mars

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wham, Bob; Ulrich, George

    2016-02-12

    Set in the not-too-distant future, ?The Martian? is the story of an astronaut stranded on Mars who has to rely on his own wit and ingenuity to survive the planet?s hostile conditions. If Mark Watney?s mission were real, Oak Ridge National Laboratory would be playing a vital role in his survival, as it would be the sole source of the Plutonium-238 needed for the RTG, as well as the fuel?s containment material in the form of iridium clad vent sets.

  17. Military implications of global warming. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, P.E.

    1999-05-20

    The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, US environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current US Policy as it pertains to global warming and climate change. It discusses related economic factors and environmental concerns. It assesses current White House policy as it relates to the US military. It reviews the Department of Defense strategy for energy conservation and reduction of greenhouse gases. Finally, it offers recommendations and options for military involvement to reduce global warming. Global warming and other environmental issues are important to the US military. As the United States leadership in environmental matters encourages global stability, the US military will be able to focus more on readiness and on military training and operations.

  18. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  19. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  20. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. COLLOQUIUM: Extreme Global Warming: Examples from the Past | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab April 16, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Extreme Global Warming: Examples from the Past Professor Mark Pagani Yale University Earth's climate 50 million years ago was the warmest time of the Cenozoic and characterized by expansive high-latitude warmth and low meridional temperature gradients. Starting at about 55 million years ago, a series of rapid and extreme carbon-induced global warming events, known as hyperthermals, are evident. This presentation

  2. Global warming. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies and general studies on global warming. Topics include the greenhouse effect, global climatic models, and climatic effects from combustion of fossil fuels. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. 8th Global warming international conference and exposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  4. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  5. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivanandam, Suresh; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H.

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ? 115-160 K) and a hot (T ? 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup 2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ?}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 ?m is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The H? and 24 ?m luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  6. How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme Weather? February 3, 2011 - 6:30am Addthis Many states are ...

  7. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program ...

  8. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium Sheet 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen ...

  9. Project Reports for Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation- 2002 Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Warm Springs Power Enterprises, a corporate entity owned and operated by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, will conduct a 36-month comprehensive wind energy resource assessment and development feasibility study.

  10. Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al Authors: ...

  11. Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense matter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Report: Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense matter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra in warm dense ...

  12. ARM - What is the ARM Climate Research Facility Doing About Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingWhat is the ARM Climate Research Facility Doing About Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is the ARM Climate Research Facility Doing About Global Warming? Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) scientists are studying the effects of clouds on weather

  13. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle describing how water

  14. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  15. Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

  16. Global warming: A geothermal evidence from northern Finland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodri, L.

    1996-12-31

    The greatest potential climatic changes induced by an increasing greenhouse effect are expected to occur in the high latitudes. Due to the great natural climatic variability in such areas, it is difficult to detect the greenhouse signal from meteorologic records. A reliable documentation of climate changes requires the examining of all available climatic records. In present study, temperature-depth profiles from two Finnish boreholes from over the Arctic circle have been considered to reconstruct ground surface temperature histories. The holes have been carefully selected to exclude any possible disturbances from underground water circulation, and to minimize the human effects as completely as possible. Both boreholes indicate continuous warming by {approximately}1--1.5 K through the last hundred years. The rate of warming increases from about the 1960`s. The results are in good agreement with those obtained for the Alaskan Arctic in a similar study by Lachenbruch and Marshall.

  17. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  18. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  19. Toxicological and epidemiological aspects of global warming on human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Kawahara, I.; Asanuma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Since human activities are responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, climate models project an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.9 C to 4.0 C by 2100. For human health, it is projected that global warming may have a critical effect on the increased periods of severe heat stress in summer throughout the world. Global warming may have a critical issue on the increased periods of severe heat stress that have a potential impact on peroxidative damage in humans and animals. Lipid peroxidative damage is markedly related to GSH peroxidase activities, therefore the study was carried out to analyze the relationship between biochemical adaptability and the lipid peroxidative damage especially intracellular structure, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum depending on the exposure time of heat stress.

  20. Evidences of global warming for various regions of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyreva, O.V.; Pischehko, V.A.; Vilfand, R.M.; Vasiliev, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The automatical classification of mean monthly temperature fields of Russia was carried out. The data of 42 years in regular grid-points 5 x 10{degree} of Northern Hemisphere were used. The combination of land`s algorithm of K-averages was applied. The increasing of prevailing occurrence of warm types during last decades was discovered. It turned out that different regions had different dynamics of type occurrences.

  1. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in the atmosphere have a sizeable effect on our climate. September 30, 2015 A new study by a science team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory stresses the importance of understanding mixed black and brown carbon in smoke emissions for climate models. The particulates found in urban smoke are especially prone

  2. Nuclear stopping power in warm and hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, Gerald; Blancard, Christophe; Gauthier, Maxence

    2013-01-15

    We present a method to estimate the nuclear component of the stopping power of ions propagating in dense matter. Three kinds of effective pair potentials are proposed. Results from the warm dense matter regime and the domain of high energy density physics are presented and discussed for proton and helium. The role of ionic temperature is examined. The nuclear stopping power can play a noticeable role in hot dense matter.

  3. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  5. Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caplan, A.J.; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D.

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  6. The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F.

    1999-04-01

    A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

  7. Current status and direction of US global warming policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.

    1997-12-31

    The pace and intensity of U.S. global warming efforts have been increasing over the past few years for three main reasons: (1) steady improvement in the underlying science that is in turn strengthening public support for action; (2) the likelihood that the United States will fall short of our national goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and (3) U.S. participation in international negotiations to address global climate change. The expansion of U.S. global warming activities can be seen at the state, federal, and international levels. At the state level, for example, a majority of states have completed greenhouse gas emissions inventories, several have undertaken analyses of mitigation options, and some are already beginning to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the federal level, all federal agencies with an interest in global warming are working together to define the likely consequences of continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions, inform the public about Such consequences, and assess the costs and benefits of different response options. Among the response options being assessed are actions to expand the use of energy efficient technologies; new controls on greenhouse gas emissions through -- for example - government standards, regulations, or emissions trading programs; and increased research and development of technologies less dependent on fossil fuels. Finally, at the international level, the United States is continuing to develop the position it will take to the climate change negotiations to be held in Japan this December. Among, other things, we have proposed enforceable emissions targets for developed countries, a strong program of reporting and compliance, new efforts by developing countries to prepare emissions inventories and mitigate emissions, and an international emissions trading program.

  8. Interpretation of simulated global warming using a simple model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watterson, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    A simple energy balance model with two parameters, an effective heat capacity and an effective climate sensitivity, is used to interpret six GCM simulations of greenhouse gas-induced global warming. By allowing the parameters to vary in time, the model can be accurately calibrated for each run. It is found that the sensitivity can be approximated as a constant in each case. However, the effective heat capacity clearly varies, and it is important that the energy equation is formulated appropriately, and thus unlike many such models. For simulations with linear forcing and from a cold start, the capacity is in each case close to that of a homogeneous ocean with depth initially 200 m, but increasing some 4.3 m each year, irrespective of the sensitivity and forcing growth rate. Analytic solutions for t his linear capacity function are derived, and these reproduce the GCM runs well, even for cases where the forcing is stabilized after a century or so. The formation of a subsurface maximum in the mean ocean temperature anomaly is a significant feature of such cases. A simple model for a GCM run with a realistic forcing scenario starting from 1,880 is constructed using component results for forcing segments. Given this, an estimate of the cold start error of a simulation of the warming due to forcing after the present would be given by the negative of the temperature drift of the anomaly due to the past forcing. The simple model can evidently be used to give an indication of likely warming curves, at lest for this range of scenarios and GCM sensitivities.

  9. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. Cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air in older homes in warm-humid climates. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long-off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  10. Measure Guideline: Supplemental Dehumidification in Warm-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-10-01

    This document covers a description of the need and applied solutions for supplemental dehumidification in warm-humid climates, especially for energy efficient homes where the sensible cooling load has been dramatically reduced. In older homes in warm-humid climates, cooling loads are typically high and cooling equipment runs a lot to cool the air. The cooling process also removes indoor moisture, reducing indoor relative humidity. However, at current residential code levels, and especially for above-code programs, sensible cooling loads have been so dramatically reduced that the cooling system does not run a lot to cool the air, resulting in much less moisture being removed. In these new homes, cooling equipment is off for much longer periods of time especially during spring/fall seasons, summer shoulder months, rainy periods, some summer nights, and some winter days. In warm-humid climates, those long off periods allow indoor humidity to become elevated due to internally generated moisture and ventilation air change. Elevated indoor relative humidity impacts comfort, indoor air quality, and building material durability. Industry is responding with supplemental dehumidification options, but that effort is really in its infancy regarding year-round humidity control in low-energy homes. Available supplemental humidity control options are discussed. Some options are less expensive but may not control indoor humidity as well as more expensive and comprehensive options. The best performing option is one that avoids overcooling and avoids adding unnecessary heat to the space by using waste heat from the cooling system to reheat the cooled and dehumidified air to room-neutral temperature.

  11. FINAL REPORT WIND POWER WARM SPRINGS RESERVATION TRIBAL LANDS DOE GRANT NUMBER DE-FG36-07GO17077 SUBMITTED BY WARM SPRINGS POWER & WATER ENTERPRISES A CORPORATE ENTITY OF THE CONFEDERATED TRIBES OF WARM SPRINGS WARM SPRINGS, OREGON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Manion; Michael Lofting; Wil Sando; Emily Leslie; Randy Goff

    2009-03-30

    Wind Generation Feasibility Warm Springs Power and Water Enterprises (WSPWE) is a corporate entity owned by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, located in central Oregon. The organization is responsible for managing electrical power generation facilities on tribal lands and, as part of its charter, has the responsibility to evaluate and develop renewable energy resources for the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs. WSPWE recently completed a multi-year-year wind resource assessment of tribal lands, beginning with the installation of wind monitoring towers on the Mutton Mountains site in 2003, and collection of on-site wind data is ongoing. The study identified the Mutton Mountain site on the northeastern edge of the reservation as a site with sufficient wind resources to support a commercial power project estimated to generate over 226,000 MWh per year. Initial estimates indicate that the first phase of the project would be approximately 79.5 MW of installed capacity. This Phase 2 study expands and builds on the previously conducted Phase 1 Wind Resource Assessment, dated June 30, 2007. In order to fully assess the economic benefits that may accrue to the Tribes through wind energy development at Mutton Mountain, a planning-level opinion of probable cost was performed to define the costs associated with key design and construction aspects of the proposed project. This report defines the Mutton Mountain project costs and economics in sufficient detail to allow the Tribes to either build the project themselves or contract with a developer under the most favorable terms possible for the Tribes.

  12. Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, G.R.

    1998-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

  13. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  14. ISSUANCE 2015-05-01: Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial Package Air Conditioners and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings

  15. Why the Earth has not warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.

    2010-05-01

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation, by empirical determination of the earth's climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluted by their performance over this period, is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  16. Why hasn't earth warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.; Charlson, R.; Kahn, R.; Ogren, J.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-03-15

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation by empirical determination of Earths climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluated by their performance over this period is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  17. Subarctic warming: Results from the global treeline project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siren, G.; Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    The authors reported last year at the 6th Global Warming Science and Policy Conference (GW6), April 3--6, 1995, San Francisco USA, the Global Treeline Project (BLECSCO) has definitively established the northward movement in the 20th century of the northernmost limit for pine trees in Finland. this movement is due to climate warming. The Finnish Forest Research Institute has been working on this problem between 1951 and 1996. The authors have observed over half a century the movements of the coniferous treeline. The subarctic pine tree line is used as a permanent bioindicator of climate change. The dynamic pine tree line in the subarctic of Finland serves as a reliable indicator of expected climate change in the future as well as of climatic fluctuations in the past. The FFRI has tracked comprehensively seed year frequencies, performed dendrochronological studies, fire studies, and ecological studies since the abundant seed year of 1948--50 to the present, and discovered that climate change has favored the northward movement of the pine limit. The authors report the detailed scientific methodology, data, and conclusions.

  18. Future warming patterns linked to today’s climate variability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dai, Aiguo

    2016-01-11

    The reliability of model projections of greenhouse gas (GHG)-induced future climate change is often assessed based on models’ ability to simulate the current climate, but there has been little evidence that connects the two. In fact, this practice has been questioned because the GHG-induced future climate change may involve additional physical processes that are not important for the current climate. Here I show that the spatial patterns of the GHG-induced future warming in the 21st century is highly correlated with the patterns of the year-to-year variations of surface air temperature for today’s climate, with areas of larger variations during 1950–1979more » having more GHG-induced warming in the 21st century in all climate models. Such a relationship also exists in other climate fields such as atmospheric water vapor, and it is evident in observed temperatures from 1950–2010. The results suggest that many physical processes may work similarly in producing the year-to-year climate variations in the current climate and the GHG-induced long-term changes in the 21st century in models and in the real world. Furthermore, they support the notion that models that simulate present-day climate variability better are likely to make more reliable predictions of future climate change.« less

  19. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  20. Warming increases methylmercury production in an Arctic soil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Ziming; Fang, Wei; Lu, Xia; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Graham, David E.; Liang, Liyuan; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-29

    The rapid temperature rise in Arctic permafrost concerns not only the degradation of stored soil organic carbon (SOC) and climate feedback, but also the production and bioaccumulation of methylmercury (MeHg) that may endanger humans, as well as wildlife in terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Decomposition of SOC provides an energy source for microbial methylation, although little is known how rapid permafrost thaw affects Hg methylation and how SOC degradation is coupled to MeHg biosynthesis. We describe rates of MeHg production in Arctic soils from an 8-month warming microcosm experiment under anoxic conditions. MeHg production increased >10 fold in both organic-more » and the mineral-rich soil layers at a warmer temperature (8 C) compared to a sub-zero temperature ( 2 C). MeHg production was positively correlated to methane and ferrous ion concentrations, suggesting that Hg methylation is coupled with methanogenesis and iron reduction. Labile SOC, such as reducing sugars and alcohol, were particularly effective in fueling the initial rapid biosynthesis of MeHg. In freshly amended Hg we found that there was more bioavailable than existing Hg in the mineral soil. Finally, the data indicate that climate warming and permafrost thaw could greatly enhance MeHg production, thereby impacting Arctic aquatic and marine ecosystems through biomagnification in the food web.« less

  1. Development of High-Volume Warm Forming of Low-Cost Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prepared by: Peter Friedman, Ford Motor Company USAMP AMD 602 - High-Volume Warm Forming ... above 300 o C. At lower temperatures, significant differences in behavior were observed. ...

  2. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  3. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more » Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  4. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.

  5. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  6. CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsavich, J.C.; Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.

    1990-03-01

    The objective of the CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System program was the development of an economically viable coal water slurry (CWS) fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During the first phase of the program, a novel state-of-the-art Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) combustor was designed and tested. The second phase of the program focused on evaluating the interaction between the individual components and system design optimization. Testing was conducted on the prototype furnace. This work concentrated on optimizing the combustor configuration to yield high combustion efficiencies and prevent the possible agglomeration of coal within the combustor. Also, a new twin-fluid CWS atomizer was designed and tested. This atomizer employed a supersonic airstream to shear the CWS external to the nozzle and thereby eliminated erosion problems. Also, a new furnace system was designed, constructed, and extensively tested. This furnace, called the third-generation system, served as a basis for a manufacturing prototype and included all the necessary controls needed for automatic operation. In life testing of the third-generation furnace system, the unit operated for 200 hours and burned 1,758 pounds of CWS. This translated into an average input rate throughout the test period of 87,200 Btu/hr. During this period, combustion efficiencies ranged from 98.2 to 99.1 percent, with a noted increase in efficiency with time. This furnace was also tested in a cyclic manner for an additional period of 54 hours to evaluate the effect of thermal transients. During cyclic testing, the furnace went through repeated transient cycles, which included startup on oil, transition to CWS, and cool-down. As part of an economic evaluation the high volume cost of a CWS-fired warm air furnace was determined. 90 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  8. 130 LPW 1000 Lm Warm White LED for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2012-06-14

    An illumination-grade warm-white LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2700 and 3500 K and capable of producing 1000 lm output at over 130 lm/W at room temperature, has been developed in this program. The high-power warm-white LED is an ideal source for use in indoor and outdoor lighting applications. Over the two year period, we have made the following accomplishments: • Developed a low-cost high-power white LED package and commercialized a series of products with CCT ranging from 2700 to 5700 K under the product name LUXEON M; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 124.8 lm/W at a flux of 1023 lm, CCT of 3435 K and color rendering index (CRI) over 80 at room temperature in the productized package; • Demonstrated a record efficacy of 133.1 lm/W at a flux of 1015 lm, CCT of 3475 K and CRI over 80 at room temperature in an R&D package. The new high-power LED package is a die-on-ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 2 mm2 InGaN pump dice, flip-chip attached to a ceramic submount in a 2x2 array configuration. The submount design utilizes a design approach that combines a high-thermal- conductivity ceramic core for die attach and a low-cost and low-thermal-conductivity ceramic frame for mechanical support and as optical lens carrier. The LED package has a thermal resistance of less than 1.25 K/W. The white LED fabrication also adopts a new batch level (instead of die-by-die) phosphor deposition process with precision layer thickness and composition control, which provides not only tight color control, but also low cost. The efficacy performance goal was achieved through the progress in following key areas: (1) high-efficiency royal blue pump LED development through active region design and epitaxial growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs); (2) improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN-die-level and package-level optical extraction efficiency; and (3) improvement in phosphor

  9. After Kyoto, science still probes global warming causes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, G.

    1998-01-19

    The Kyoto meeting has come and gone. In the US, the treaty still has to be signed by President Bill Clinton and ratified by the Senate, an action that is most unlikely in view of last year`s 95-0 vote on the issue. In the short term 36 senators are up for reelection in November and therefore likely to come under intense pressure to change their positions, to support the Kyoto treaty, and to push for Senate action. Senators will need support, additional inputs, and overall reinforcement of their positions. One area that this writer believes still has much to offer in this context is the quality--more specifically, the lack of quality--of much of the scientific evidence behind this treaty. Part of that subject is the natural variability in the climate. Natural climate variability is based on cyclical forces, random events, and the Earth`s response to these two factors. These forces create the variability in the climate, the background noise above which any signal of anthropogenic warming must rise in order to be detected. A review of key climatic cycles is the subject of this article.

  10. Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V.

    1997-12-31

    Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

  11. Warm and cold fermionic dark matter via freeze-in

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasen, Michael; Yaguna, Carlos E. E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uni-muenster.de

    2013-11-01

    The freeze-in mechanism of dark matter production provides a simple and intriguing alternative to the WIMP paradigm. In this paper, we analyze whether freeze-in can be used to account for the dark matter in the so-called singlet fermionic model. In it, the SM is extended with only two additional fields, a singlet scalar that mixes with the Higgs boson, and the dark matter particle, a fermion assumed to be odd under a Z{sub 2} symmetry. After numerically studying the generation of dark matter, we analyze the dependence of the relic density with respect to all the free parameters of the model. These results are then used to obtain the regions of the parameter space that are compatible with the dark matter constraint. We demonstrate that the observed dark matter abundance can be explained via freeze-in over a wide range of masses extending down to the keV range. As a result, warm and cold dark matter can be obtained in this model. It is also possible to have dark matter masses well above the unitarity bound for WIMPs.

  12. Exploring the parameter space of warm-inflation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Berera, Arjun; Kronberg, Nico

    2015-12-22

    Warm inflation includes inflaton interactions with other fields throughout the inflationary epoch instead of confining such interactions to a distinct reheating era. Previous investigations have shown that, when certain constraints on the dynamics of these interactions and the resultant radiation bath are satisfied, a low-momentum-dominated dissipation coefficient ∝T{sup 3}/m{sub χ}{sup 2} can sustain an era of inflation compatible with CMB observations. In this work, we extend these analyses by including the pole-dominated dissipation term ∝√(m{sub χ}T)exp (−m{sub χ}/T). We find that, with this enhanced dissipation, certain models, notably the quadratic hilltop potential, perform significantly better. Specifically, we can achieve 50 e-folds of inflation and a spectral index compatible with Planck data while requiring fewer mediator field (O(10{sup 4}) for the quadratic hilltop potential) and smaller coupling constants, opening up interesting model-building possibilities. We also highlight the significance of the specific parametric dependence of the dissipative coefficient which could prove useful in even greater reduction in field content.

  13. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night) but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much

  14. Microclimatic performance of a free-air warming and CO₂ enrichment experiment in windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO₂) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0°C day/night) and growing season free-air CO₂ enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5°C day/night)more » but soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms⁻¹ average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30°C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO₂ had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO₂. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming

  15. ON THE INSTABILITY OF TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL DURING THE BOREAL WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARR-KUMARAKULASINGHE,S.A.

    1998-03-23

    A source of instability in the western Pacific warm pool is shown to be due to sea surface elevation variations caused by changes in the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient and the changes in the Pacific Ocean basin length in relation to the warm pool latitudinal location. The variation of the sea-surface elevation is measured by using the thermocline depth response calculated from a two-layer ocean. The warm pool is shown to be barely at equilibrium during the boreal late winter and early spring by comparing the measured thermocline at 110{degree}W, 0{degree}E with the calculated thermocline depth. Based on this analysis, a failure or reversal of the climatological zonal winds are apparently not a necessary precursor for the instability of the warm pool and initiation of a warm event. A warm event can be initiated by an increase in the size of the warm pool and/or an increase in zonal SST differences during the boreal/winter spring. This mechanism could be an alternate mechanism for El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics to that postulated by Bjeknes (1969).

  16. Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  17. H.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO EFFICIENCY | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    H.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO EFFICIENCY H.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO EFFICIENCY H.E.A.T. SQUAD WARMS VERMONT UP TO EFFICIENCY Because Rutland County, Vermont, residents often experience seven-month winters, a nonprofit housing organization that promotes affordable and sustainable homeownership decided to tackle the challenge of making the county's historic building stock more comfortable and energy-efficient through the long winter season. Using $4.5 million in seed funding from the

  18. Effects of warming on the structure and function of a boreal black spruce forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stith T.Gower

    2010-03-03

    A strong argument can be made that there is a greater need to study the effect of warming on boreal forests more than on any other terrestrial biome. Boreal forests, the second largest forest biome, are predicted to experience the greatest warming of any forest biome in the world, but a process-based understanding of how warming will affect the structure and function of this economically and ecologically important forest biome is lacking. The effects of warming on species composition, canopy structure and biogeochemical cycles are likely to be complex; elucidating the underlying mechanisms will require long-term whole-ecosystem manipulation to capture all the complex feedbacks (Shaver et al. 2000, Rustad et al. 2001, Stromgren 2001). The DOE Program for Ecosystem Research funded a three year project (2002-2005) to use replicated heated chambers on soil warming plots in northern Manitoba to examine the direct effects of whole-ecosystem warming. We are nearing completion of our first growing season of measurements (fall 2004). In spite of the unforeseen difficulty of installing the heating cable, our heating and irrigation systems worked extremely well, maintaining environmental conditions within 5-10% of the specified design 99% of the time. Preliminary data from these systems, all designed and built by our laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, support our overall hypothesis that warming will increase the carbon sink strength of upland boreal black spruce forests. I request an additional three years of funding to continue addressing the original objectives: (1) Examine the effect of warming on phenology of overstory, understory and bryophyte strata. Sap flux systems and dendrometer bands, monitored by data loggers, will be used to quantify changes in phenology and water use. (2) Quantify the effects of warming on nitrogen and water use by overstory, understory and bryophytes. (3) Compare effects of warming on autotrophic respiration and above- and belowground

  19. SPECIAL EARTH DAY COLLOQUIUM: How Global Warming Is Heating Things Up at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab April 18, 2013, 12:00pm to 1:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium SPECIAL EARTH DAY COLLOQUIUM: How Global Warming Is Heating Things Up at Work Dr. John P. Dunne Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Earth_Day_18APR2013.pdf A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in

  20. Structure of an Unusually Small RNA Switch Provides Insight into the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimal Requirements for Microbial Gene Regulation Structure of an Unusually Small RNA Switch Provides Insight into the Minimal Requirements for Microbial Gene Regulation The emergence of drug-resistant microbes represents a major impediment in the treatment of bacterial infections. Resistance to first-choice drugs has become problematic for respiratory infections, AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrheal diseases, which are top killers among infectious agents. When second- and third-choice

  1. An unusual partnership takes fruit: artists exhibit works from PPPL at PPPL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab An unusual partnership takes fruit: artists exhibit works from PPPL at PPPL By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe June 5, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Buse Aktas painting the vacuum vessel of QUASAR (formerly the National Compact Stellarator Experiment), which was stored in the MG site basement. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Buse Aktas painting the vacuum vessel of QUASAR (formerly the National Compact Stellarator Experiment),

  2. Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: An interdisciplinary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1995-07-01

    This book focuses on ozone depletion first, global warming second. It is a collection of perspectives from a variety of disciplines and includes a limited amount of technical assessment information.

  3. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact...

  5. High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor High-efficiency Low Global-Warming Potential (GWP) Compressor Image courtesy of United Technologies Research Center and BTO Peer Review. Image courtesy of United Technologies Research Center and BTO Peer Review. Lead Performer: United Technologies Research Center - East Hartford, CT DOE Total Funding: $974,000 Cost Share: $417,000 Project Term: Sep 2015 - Aug 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and

  6. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compression | Department of Energy Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s ultra-small centrifugal compressor concept will facilitate low-GWP refrigerant adoption.<br />Photo Credit: Mechanical Solutions, Inc. Mechanical Solutions, Inc.'s ultra-small centrifugal compressor concept will facilitate low-GWP refrigerant adoption. Photo Credit:

  7. Natural gas and efficient technologies: A response to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-02-01

    It has become recognized by the international scientific community that global warming due to fossil fuel energy buildup of greenhouse CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is a real environmental problem. Worldwide agreement has also been reached to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. A leading approach to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions is to utilize hydrogen-rich fuels and improve the efficiency of conversion in the power generation, transportation and heating sectors of the economy. In this report, natural gas, having the highest hydrogen content of all the fossil fuels, can have an important impact in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper explores natural gas and improved conversion systems for supplying energy to all three sectors of the economy. The improved technologies include combined cycle for power generation, the Carnol system for methanol production for the transportation sector and fuel cells for both power generation and transportation use. The reduction in CO{sub 2} from current emissions range from 13% when natural gas is substituted for gasoline in the transportation sector to 45% when substituting methanol produced by the Carnol systems (hydrogen from thermal decomposition of methane reacting with CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants) used in the transportation sector. CO{sub 2} reductions exceeding 60% can be achieved by using natural gas in combined cycle for power generation and Carnol methanol in the transportation sector and would, thus, stabilize CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere predicted to avoid undue climate change effects. It is estimated that the total fossil fuel energy bill in the US can be reduced by over 40% from the current fuel bill. This also allows a doubling in the unit cost for natural gas if the current energy bill is maintained. Estimates of the total net incremental replacement capital cost for completing the new improved equipment is not more than that which will have to be spent to replace the existing equipment conducting

  8. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-05-23

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K{sup +} ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons

  9. Geothermal-resource assessment of Ranger Warm Spring, Colorado. Resources Series 24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zacharakis, T.G.; Pearl, R.H.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    In 1977 a program was initiated to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of geothermal resources in Colorado. This program consisted of literature search, reconnaissance geologic and hydrogeologic mapping and geophysical and geochemical surveys. During 1980 and 1981 geothermal resource assessment efforts were conducted in the Cement Creek Valley south of Crested Butte. In this valley are two warm springs, Cement Creek and Ranger, about 4 mi (6.4 km) apart. The temperature of both springs is 77 to 79/sup 0/F (25 to 26/sup 0/C) and the discharge ranges from 60 to 195 gallons per minute. Due to access problems no work was conducted in the Cement Creek Warm Springs area. At Ranger Warm Springs electrical resistivity and soil mercury surveys were conducted. The warm springs are located in the Elk Mountains of west central Colorado. The bedrock of the area consists of sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Recent. Several faults with displacements of up to 3000 ft (194 m) are found in the area. One of these faults passes close to the Ranger Warm Springs. The electrical resistivity survey indicated that the waters of Ranger Warm Springs are moving up along a buried fault which parallels Cement Creek.

  10. UNUSUAL CENTRAL ENGINE ACTIVITY IN THE DOUBLE BURST GRB 110709B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Binbin; Burrows, David N.; Meszaros, Peter; Falcone, Abraham D.; Zhang Bing; Wang Xiangyu; Stratta, Giulia; D'Elia, Valerio; Frederiks, Dmitry; Golenetskii, Sergey; Cummings, Jay R.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil; Norris, Jay P.

    2012-04-01

    The double burst, GRB 110709B, triggered the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) twice at 21:32:39 UT and 21:43:45 UT, respectively, on 2011 July 9. This is the first time we observed a gamma-ray burst (GRB) with two BAT triggers. In this paper, we present simultaneous Swift and Konus-WIND observations of this unusual GRB and its afterglow. If the two events originated from the same physical progenitor, their different time-dependent spectral evolution suggests they must belong to different episodes of the central engine, which may be a magnetar-to-BH accretion system.

  11. Unusual Capacitance Emission Transients in CIGS Caused by Large Defect Entropy Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Ramanathan, K.; Crandall, R. S.

    2005-02-01

    Capacitance transient data from bias-pulse experiments on CdS/CIGS solar cells show an unusual behavior at high temperatures. Above 350 K, a minority-carrier trap, with a larger activation energy than a majority-carrier trap, emits faster than the lower activation-energy minority trap. A simple enthalpy model for trap emission cannot explain this counterintuitive behavior; but the more complete Gibbs free-energy model that includes entropy can explain it. We show that entropy plays a major role in carrier emission from traps in CIGS.

  12. Runge-Lenz vector, accidental SU(2) symmetry, and unusual multiplets for motion on a cone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H. Wiese, U.-J.

    2008-01-15

    We consider a particle moving on a cone and bound to its tip by 1/r or harmonic oscillator potentials. When the deficit angle of the cone divided by 2{pi} is a rational number, all bound classical orbits are closed. Correspondingly, the quantum system has accidental degeneracies in the discrete energy spectrum. An accidental SU(2) symmetry is generated by the rotations around the tip of the cone as well as by a Runge-Lenz vector. Remarkably, some of the corresponding multiplets have fractional 'spin' and unusual degeneracies.

  13. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ∼7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ∼19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the

  14. HotPatch Web Gateway: Statistical Analysis of Unusual Patches on Protein Surfaces

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bowie, James U. [DOE-Molecular Biology Institute

    HotPatch finds unusual patches on the surface of proteins, and computes just how unusual they are (patch rareness), and how likely each patch is to be of functional importance (functional confidence (FC).) The statistical analysis is done by comparing your protein's surface against the surfaces of a large set of proteins whose functional sites are known. Optionally, HotPatch can also write a script that will display the patches on the structure, when the script is loaded into some common molecular visualization programs. HotPatch generates complete statistics (functional confidence and patch rareness) on the most significant patches on your protein. For each property you choose to analyze, you'll receive an email to which will be attached a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors (temp. factors) are replaced by patch indices; and the PDB file's Header Remarks will give statistical scores and a PDB-format file in which atomic B-factors are replaced by the raw values of the property used for patch analysis (for example, hydrophobicity instead of hydrophobic patches). [Copied with edits from http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu/

  15. Where contributes most to the present century-scale global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhaomei Zeng; Zhongwei Yan; Duzheng Ye

    1997-12-31

    In recent years, the temporal and spatial patterns of climate changes have received serious attention, by which some authors tried to recognize anthropogenic influences on climate and others tended to explain signals as resulted from natural processes. Yet, there are still many features of the present climate changes remaining open to be explained. As implied in many numerical modeling reviewed in recent literature, the warming induced by enhanced atmospheric greenhouse effect should be larger at higher latitudes. Proxy data indicated also that during past warm periods temperature anomalies at high latitudes were larger than at low latitudes. It gives people the impression that the enhanced greenhouse effect induced global warming should be more easily looked for in near-polar regions. However, this paper will show some new findings.

  16. Hot surface ignition system control module with accelerated igniter warm-up test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B.T.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a gas burner control system which consists of: a burner; an electrical resistance igniter for igniting the burner; valve means for controlling flow of gas to the burner; and a control module, including a microcomputer, for controlling operation of the igniter and the valve means, the microcomputer being programmed to provide a preselected igniter warm-up time period for enabling the igniter to attain a temperature sufficient to ignite gas, the microcomputer being further programmed to provide a test routine including a program for providing an accelerated igniter warm-up time period which is shorter than the preselected igniter warm-up time period but sufficiently long for enabling the igniter to attain at least the minimum temperature required to ignite gas, the program in the test routine being executed in response to a unique signal effected by the control module and a test device which is external from and detachably connected to the control module.

  17. WARM DUSTY DEBRIS DISKS AND DISTANT COMPANION STARS: V488 PER AND 2M1337

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuckerman, B.

    2015-01-10

    A possible connection between the presence of large quantities of warm (T ? 200K) circumstellar dust at youthful stars and the existence of wide-separation companion stars has been noted in the literature. Here we point out the existence of a distant companion star to V488 Per, a K-type member of the ? Persei cluster with the largest known fractional excess infrared luminosity (?16%) of any main sequence star. We also report the presence of a distant companion to the previously recognized warm dust star 2M1337. With these discoveries the existence of a cause and effect relationship between a distant companion and large quantities of warm dust in orbit around youthful stars now seems compelling.

  18. An Inconvenient Truth. The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Al

    2006-06-15

    This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.

  19. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  20. Crime Witness Brochure - Apr 2006

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crime or Anyone who sees or suspects crime or suspicious behavior targeting BPA prop- suspicious behavior targeting BPA prop- erty, assets or personnel can be a Crime erty,...

  1. The megasecond Chandra X-ray visionary project observation of NGC 3115: Witnessing the flow of hot gas within the Bondi radius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Yukita, Mihoko; Million, Evan T.; Shcherbakov, Roman V.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-01-01

    Observational confirmation of hot accretion model predictions has been hindered by the challenge to resolve spatially the Bondi radii of black holes with X-ray telescopes. Here, we use the Megasecond Chandra X-ray Visionary Project observation of the NGC 3115 supermassive black hole to place the first direct observational constraints on the spatially and spectroscopically resolved structures of the X-ray emitting gas inside the Bondi radius of a black hole. We measured temperature and density profiles of the hot gas from a fraction out to tens of the Bondi radius (R{sub B} = 2.''4-4.''8 = 112-224 pc). The projected temperature jumps significantly from ?0.3 keV beyond 5'' to ?0.7 keV within ?4''-5'', but then abruptly drops back to ?0.3 keV within ?3''. This is contrary to the expectation that the temperature should rise toward the center for a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. A hotter thermal component of ?1 keV inside 3'' (?150 pc) is revealed using a two-component thermal model, with the cooler ?0.3 keV thermal component dominating the spectra. We argue that the softer emission comes from diffuse gas physically located within ?150 pc of the black hole. The density profile is broadly consistent with ??r {sup 1} within the Bondi radius for either the single temperature or the two-temperature model. The X-ray data alone with physical reasoning argue against the absence of a black hole, supporting that we are witnessing the onset of the gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole.

  2. Final Report, Wind Power Resource Assessment on the Warm Springs Reservation Tribal Lands, Report No. DOE/GO/12103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates; HDR Engineering; Dr. Stel Walker, Oregon State University

    2007-09-10

    This report concludes a five-year assessment of wind energy potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon lands.

  3. ARM - Field Campaign - Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsWarm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Warm-Season Data Assimilation and ISS Test 1993.06.01 - 1993.06.30 Lead Scientist : Dave Parsons Data Availability Complete output from a 10-day simulation using a high resolution mesoscale model is available at 1-hr intervals. Verification of June 1993 IOP Assimilation Dataset and its use in Driving a

  4. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  5. Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money! | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money! Energy Tax Credits: Stay Warm and Save MORE Money! October 29, 2008 - 6:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL With all of the news this month about the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, you may have heard about the energy tax incentives that were included for both consumers and for business, utilities, and governments. If you are already preparing for winter and working to make your home more efficient, this is good news. The

  6. BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Global warming and biofuels emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The focus of numerous federal and state regulations being proposed and approved today is the reduction of automobile emissions -- particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), which is the greenhouse gas considered responsible for global warming. Studies conducted by the USDOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicate that the production and use of biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, and methanol could nearly eliminate the contribution of net CO{sub 2} from automobiles. This fact sheet provides and overview of global warming, followed by a summary of NREL`s study results.

  7. Unusual magnetoresistance in cubic B20 Fe0.85Co0.15Si chiral magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, S. X.; Chen, Fei; Kang, Jian; Zang, Jiadong; Shu, G. J.; Chou, F. C.; Chien, C. L.

    2016-06-24

    The B20 chiral magnets with broken inversion symmetry and C4 rotation symmetry have attracted much attention. The broken inversion symmetry leads to the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya that gives rise to the helical and Skyrmion states.Wereport the unusual magnetoresistance (MR) of B20 chiral magnet Fe0.85Co0.15Si that directly reveals the broken C4 rotation symmetry and shows the anisotropic scattering by Skyrmions with respect to the current directions. The intimacy between unusual MR and broken symmetry is well confirmed by theoretically studying an effective Hamiltonian with spin–orbit coupling. In conclusion, the unusual MR serves as a transport signature for the Skyrmion phase.

  8. Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn 5 Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 5, 2017 Title: Unusual Kondo-hole effect and crystal-field frustration in Nd-doped CeRhIn 5 Authors: Rosa, P. F. S. ; Oostra, A. ; Thompson, J. D. ; Pagliuso, P. G. ; Fisk, Z. Publication Date: 2016-07-05 OSTI Identifier: 1260297 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical

  9. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan; Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ? The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ? The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ? The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ? PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ? The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  10. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  11. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  12. EECBG Success Story: Saving Energy and Keeping Seniors Warm This Season

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Greater Randolph Senior Center in Bexar County, Texas and Rockville Senior Center in Rockville, Maryland received energy efficiency enhancements and retrofits that will help keep seniors warm in the coming months thanks to funding from the Energy Department’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program. Learn more.

  13. Table 1. U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential, 1990-2009" " (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent)" " Greenhouse Gas",1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009 "Carbon

  14. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Clark, James S.; Mohan, Jacqueline

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research

  15. Finished genome assembly of warm spring isolate Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Shannon L.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Daligault, Hajnalka E.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Teshima, Hazuki; Coyne, Susan R.; Davenport, Karen W.; Jaissle, James G.; Chain, Patrick S.

    2015-09-17

    We sequenced the complete genome of Francisella novicida DPG 3A-IS to closed and finished status. This is a warm spring isolate recovered from Hobo Warm Spring (Utah, USA). The last assembly is available in NCBI under accession number CP012037.

  16. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  17. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  18. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 22.5 C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution oceanatmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmorethe Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 C, BC 1.3 C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.less

  19. Development of Advanced Manufacturing Methods for Warm White LEDs for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshpande, Anirudha; Kolodin, Boris; Jacob, Cherian; Chowdhury, Ashfaqul; Kuenzler, Glenn; Sater, Karen; Aesram, Danny; Glaettli, Steven; Gallagher, Brian; Langer, Paul; Setlur, Anant; Beers, Bill

    2012-03-31

    GE Lighting Solutions will develop precise and efficient manufacturing techniques for the remote phosphor platform of warm-white LED products. In volume, this will be demonstrated to drive significant materials, labor and capital productivity to achieve a maximum possible 53% reduction in overall cost. In addition, the typical total color variation for these white LEDs in production will be well within the ANSI bins and as low as a 4-step MacAdam ellipse centered on the black body curve. Achievement of both of these objectives will be demonstrated while meeting a performance target of > 75 lm/W for a warm-white LED and a reliability target of <30% lumen drop / <2-step MacAdam ellipse shift, estimated over 50,000 hrs.

  20. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Implications of televised news coverage of global warming for organizational decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Television is an important source of information for political issues in the eyes of many people. This also holds true for environmental issues. Television news is also deemed more credible than print news because {open_quotes}seeing is believing{close_quotes}. This research is also buttressed by evidence that one of the primary conversation topics among individuals is television content. So how well does television cover global warming? Unfortunately, previous research indicates that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. This paper examines the potential impact of this coverage on organizational decisions. Organizations include businesses, government agencies, environmental action groups, media organizations, and other parties interested with the environment. The paper proposes framing theory and involvement theory as springboards for organizational decision-making.

  2. Ponderomotive self-focusing of Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari Milani, M. R.; Niknam, A. R.; Farahbod, A. H.

    2014-06-15

    The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam through warm collisional plasma are investigated by considering the ponderomotive force nonlinearity and the complex eikonal function. By introducing the dielectric permittivity of warm unmagnetized plasma and using the WKB and paraxial ray approximations, the coupled differential equations defining the variations of laser beam parameters are obtained and solved numerically. Effects of laser and plasma parameters such as the collision frequency, the initial laser intensity and its spot size on the beam width parameter and the axis laser intensity distribution are analyzed. It is shown that, self-focusing of the laser beam takes place faster by increasing the collision frequency and initial laser spot size and then after some distance propagation the laser beam abruptly loses its initial diameter and vastly diverges. Furthermore, the modified electron density distribution is obtained and the collision frequency effect on this distribution is studied.

  3. The Hydrological Sensitivity to Global Warming and Solar Geoengineering Derived from Thermodynamic Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleidon, Alex; Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Renner, Maik

    2015-01-16

    We derive analytic expressions of the transient response of the hydrological cycle to surface warming from an extremely simple energy balance model in which turbulent heat fluxes are constrained by the thermodynamic limit of maximum power. For a given magnitude of steady-state temperature change, this approach predicts the transient response as well as the steady-state change in surface energy partitioning and the hydrologic cycle. We show that the transient behavior of the simple model as well as the steady state hydrological sensitivities to greenhouse warming and solar geoengineering are comparable to results from simulations using highly complex models. Many of the global-scale hydrological cycle changes can be understood from a surface energy balance perspective, and our thermodynamically-constrained approach provides a physically robust way of estimating global hydrological changes in response to altered radiative forcing.

  4. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; et al

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, themore » inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.« less

  5. Laboratory measurements of resistivity in warm dense plasmas relevant to the microphysics of brown dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, N.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R. J.; Dance, R. J.; Doria, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R. C.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P. P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2015-11-06

    Since the observation of the first brown dwarf in 1995, numerous studies have led to a better understanding of the structures of these objects. Here we present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory, which we relate to the microphysics of brown dwarfs through viscosity and electron collisions. Here we use X-ray polarimetry to determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to Brown Dwarf conditions by an ultra-intense laser. The resistivity is determined by matching the plasma physics model to the atomic physics calculations of the measured large, positive, polarization. Furthermore, the inferred resistivity is larger than predicted using standard resistivity models, suggesting that these commonly used models will not adequately describe the resistivity of warm dense plasma related to the viscosity of brown dwarfs.

  6. Unusual adsorption properties of silver adlayers on the Pt(111) electrode surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, N.S.; Wang, J.X.; Adzic, R.R.; Marinkovic, J.S.

    1999-01-07

    Adsorption properties of silver monolayer and bilayer deposited at underpotentials on a Pt(111) electrode were studied by means of linear sweep voltammetry, in situ surface X-ray scattering and infrared spectroelectrochemistry. Surface X-ray scattering measurements show a pseudomorphic Ag monolayer and an incommensurate expanded bilayer on Pt(111) formed at underpotentials. Unusual adsorption properties of the silver layers with respect to the bulk silver are observed. The two Ag adlayers were found to have intermediate adsorption/oxidation characteristics between those of metallic Ag and Pt surfaces with (111) orientation. The Ag monolayer has properties that facilitate adsorption of bisulfate anions and adsorption and oxidation of CO. These properties are closer to the adsorption properties of the Pt(111) surface than to those of Ag(111), which adsorbs sulfate anions and does not adsorb CO. The Ag bilayer on the Pt(111) surface adsorbs sulfate anions as Ag(111) does, but in contrast to the behavior of Ag(111), it adsorbs CO. These properties of the Ag adlayers appear to be a consequence of the charge-transfer process and the electron distribution in the Ag/Pt(111) surface.

  7. Spectroscopic Observations and Analysis of the Unusual Type Ia SN1999ac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garavini, G.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Amanullah, R.; Astier,P.; Balland, C.; Blanc, G.; Conley, A.; Dahlen, T.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis,R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Fan, X.; Folatelli, G.; Frye, B.; Gates,E.L.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Haissinski, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Howell, D.A.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B.C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez,J.; Miller, G.J.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Perdereau, O.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Richards, G.T.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.E.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-12

    The authors present optical spectra of the peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 1999ac. The data extend from -15 to +42 days with respect to B-band maximum and reveal an event that is unusual in several respects. prior to B-band maximum, the spectra resemble those of SN 1999aa, a slowly declining event, but possess stronger Si II and Ca II signatures (more characteristic of a spectroscopically normal SN). Spectra after B-band maximum appear more normal. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from the Iron lines appear to be lower than average; whereas, the expansion velocity inferred from Calcium H and K are higher than average. The expansion velocities inferred from Si II are among the slowest ever observed, though SN 1999ac is not particularly dim. The analysis of the parameters v{sub 10}(Si II), R(Si II), v, and {Delta}m{sub 15} further underlines the unique characteristics of SN 1999ac. They find convincing evidence of C II {lambda}6580 in the day -15 spectrum with ejection velocity v > 16,000 km s{sup -1}, but this signature disappears by day -9. This rapid evolution at early times highlights the importance of extremely early-time spectroscopy.

  8. HFPK 334: An unusual supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, E. J.; Filipović, M. D.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Brantseg, T.; Heitritter, K.; Roper, Q.; Haberl, F.; Urošević, D.

    2014-11-01

    We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the unusual supernova remnant (SNR) HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell-type morphology in the radio continuum and has a size of ∼20 pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar; however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best-fit power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.7 ± 0.5. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and points toward a younger SNR with an age of ≲ 1800 yr. With an average radio spectral index of α = –0.59 ± 0.09, we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is ∼90 μG, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density environments. Also, we report the detection of scattered radio polarization across the remnant at 20 cm, with a peak fractional polarization level of 25% ± 5%.

  9. Battery self-warming mechanism using the inverter and the battery main disconnect circuitry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2005-04-19

    An apparatus connected to an energy storage device for powering an electric motor and optionally providing a warming function for the energy storage device is disclosed. The apparatus includes a circuit connected to the electric motor and the energy storage device for generating a current. The apparatus also includes a switching device operably associated with the circuit for selectively directing the current to one of the electric motor and the energy storage device.

  10. Through a glass, warmly: Argonne nanomaterials can help make windows more

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    efficient | Argonne National Laboratory Through a glass, warmly: Argonne nanomaterials can help make windows more efficient By Greg Cunningham * May 31, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory is using nanomaterials to improve the energy efficiency of existing single-pane windows in commercial and residential buildings. The team was recently awarded a $3.1 million grant from DOE's Advanced Research Projects