Sample records for winter eastern interconnection

  1. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  2. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  3. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  4. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  5. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  6. Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market Douglas R. Hale DHALE@eia.doe.gov U.S. Energy Information Agency Washington, DC 20585 USA Thomas J. Overbye. Introduction The road to competitive electricity markets in the United States is becoming littered

  7. Updated Eastern Interconnect Wind Power Output and Forecasts for ERGIS: July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennock, K.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AWS Truepower, LLC (AWST) was retained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to update wind resource, plant output, and wind power forecasts originally produced by the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS). The new data set was to incorporate AWST's updated 200-m wind speed map, additional tall towers that were not included in the original study, and new turbine power curves. Additionally, a primary objective of this new study was to employ new data synthesis techniques developed for the PJM Renewable Integration Study (PRIS) to eliminate diurnal discontinuities resulting from the assimilation of observations into mesoscale model runs. The updated data set covers the same geographic area, 10-minute time resolution, and 2004?2006 study period for the same onshore and offshore (Great Lakes and Atlantic coast) sites as the original EWITS data set.

  8. WINTER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-11,113,016WINTER Table 5j . Winter

  9. WINTER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year JanDecade Year-0 Year-11,113,016WINTER Table 5j .

  10. "Interconnection","NERC Regional Assesment Area","Net Internal Demand[1] -- Winter"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocksa. AppliancesTotal" "(Data from03.4B Winter net

  11. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle CFC Constant frequency control CPS Control Performance Standards DC Direct Current EI Eastern Interconnection EIA Energy Information Agency ERCOT Electric Reliability...

  12. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingódiscusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  13. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection standards approved by the PUC also updated Nevada's net-metering policy, originally enacted in 1997. Previously, Nevada Revised Statute 704.774 addressed basic interconnection...

  14. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's...

  15. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most...

  16. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utahís interconnection rules are based on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissionís (FERC) interconnection standards for small generators, adopted in May 2005 by FERC Order 2006. Utah's rules for...

  17. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa...

  18. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  19. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) adopted rules for utilities in May 2010 for the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa.

  20. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Missouri Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted administrative rules for investor-owned utilities that included simplified interconnection standards, and electric cooperatives and municipal ...

  1. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interconnected customers must comply with all relevant national standards, including those established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Underwriters Laboratories (U...

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules,...

  3. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered.

  4. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved...

  5. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy...

  6. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers...

  7. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The...

  8. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy...

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to...

  10. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2006 the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (PSC) initiated a formal inquiry into the development of uniform interconnection procedures for on-site distributed generation...

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of...

  12. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently...

  13. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed...

  14. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wyoming's net-metering law includes basic interconnection requirements for systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower or biomass resources....

  15. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection guidelines state that the utility can require a customer to have liability insurance, if the insurance is easily available at a reasonable cost to the customer.† No external...

  16. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  17. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2011, the DPU opened up a docket to examine net metering and interconnection of distributed generation. While the intent is to make changes to net metering, issues relating to interco...

  18. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net...

  19. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net...

  20. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that...

  1. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: In Feb 2014, the PUC proposed changes to the Stateís Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, Interconnection, and Net-metering rules. The documents associated with the case can be accessed at...

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's...

  3. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems.

  4. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eastern Interconnection Statesí Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states and other stakeholders in the Eastern Interconnection identify geographic areas suitable for the development of clean energy resources (natural gas, sequestration or utilitization locations for C02 from coal, nuclear, and renewable) which can potentially provide significant amounts of new electric power generation.

  5. Eastern Energy Zones Mapping Tool Now Available | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Addthis The Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council (EISPC) has released the Energy Zones (EZ) Mapping Tool, a free, web-based interactive tool that will help states...

  6. Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EWITS was designed to answer questions about technical issues related to a 20% wind energy scenario for electric demand in the Eastern Interconnection.

  7. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Initial Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, A.; Townsend, A.; Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Clark, K.; King, J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster presents an overview of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, which aims to answer critical questions about the future of the Eastern Interconnection under high levels of solar and wind generation penetration.

  8. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  9. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  10. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  11. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    many diverse points of view on energy policy, has been able to reach consensus on eight possible energy futures to be studied. The group has worked extraordinarily well...

  12. Topic A Awardee: Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactiveI DisposalFive Things YouDepartment of

  13. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOn July 2, 2014 in theGroup Report |ofM A N A G E M EastEast1 NEWS

  14. February 2003 INTERCONNECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA), which specifies the technical and security requirements of the interconFebruary 2003 SECURE INTERCONNECTIONS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS Shirley Radack, Editor choose to interconnect their IT systems for a variety of reasons, depending on their organizational needs

  15. Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study: Executive Summary and Project Overview (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EnerNex Corporation; The Midwest ISO; Ventyx

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EWITS was designed to answer questions about technical issues related to a 20% wind energy scenario for electric demand in the Eastern Interconnection.

  16. PJM Interconnection (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware,...

  17. Interconnect Issues in NE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers interconnect issues in the Northeast and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  18. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  19. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  20. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  1. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  2. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  3. Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the stateís distribution grid....

  4. Puerto Rico- Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Autoridad de EnergŪa Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated...

  5. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  6. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  7. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  8. RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ridgenose Solar Interconnection Project The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is preparing an environmental assessment (EA)...

  9. RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to a request from Longview Solar, LLC, to interconnect their proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Plant, located south of Kingman, Mohave County, Arizona to Westerns...

  10. Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingócovers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

  12. Interconnection Standards for Small Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's...

  13. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  14. Nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlich, A.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 13 speakers at the October 1983 Conference on the World After Nuclear War each contributed specialized knowledge to the climatic and biological effects of nuclear war. The author highlights the findings of the TTAPS (named for its authors) study and confirmation by Soviet scientists on the nuclear winter. Atmospheric consequences would come from debris blocking sunlight and creating conditions of cold and darkness that could preclude the continued existence of life. The biological consequences of cold and darkness would be reduced photosynthesis, devastating losses of food, damage and death from ionizing radiation, and a breakdown of ecosystems. Impacts on the human population would be intensified by a breakdown in social services. The author summarizes points of discussion during the conference. 4 references.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Small Generator Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commission Revised Its Small Generator Interconnection Procedure and Small Generator Interconnection Agreement On March 4, 2014, in Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Grid...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Updating Interconnection Screens...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commission Revised Its Small Generator Interconnection Procedure and Small Generator Interconnection Agreement On March 4, 2014, in Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Grid...

  17. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol.6: RecordJune- BatteryVehicles |DataEarlyII)

  18. Topic B Awardee: Eastern Interconnection States' Planning Council |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactiveI DisposalFive Things

  19. Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative News Release | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributions EMEMEnergyEarly StationDefense NEWS

  20. National Electric Transmission Congestion Study 2006 Eastern Interconnection Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment of Energyof Energy U.S.August 2014 |

  1. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  2. Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, Giam-Minh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the return loss of the slot-coupled microstrip dipole. Section C presents two simulations of the return loss on the slot- coupled rectangular patch antenna. A. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines Several circuits with the geometry of Figure 1 were fabricated.... Experimental and Theoretical Results of the Interconnect Two circuits were designed and fabricated. Each circuit consists of two substrates as shown in Figure 9. One substrate has an open microstrip line etched in one side and an aperture etched...

  3. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States in the Eastern Interconnection

  4. The Relative Abundance of the Juvenile Phase of the Eastern Red-Spotted Newt at Harvard Forest Prior to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    a great percentage of Eastern Hemlock's range via a number of dispersal agents including wind, birds, deer cause mortality in all age classes of Eastern Hemlock within 4­10 years of infestation (McClure 1991). In central Massachusetts, cold winter temperatures have slowed mortality of Eastern Hemlock in infested

  5. WINTER BREAK HOUSING APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Chris

    WINTER BREAK HOUSING APPLICATION RESIDENCE HALLS WILL BE CLOSED FROM 12:00PM (NOON), DECEMBER 19-6860 WWW.UAF.EDU/RESLIFE ∑ EMAIL UAF-HOUSING@ALASKA.EDU TEL (907) 474-7247 ∑ FAX (907) 474-6423 WINTER halls open need to complete the winter break housing application. Students that apply for housing before

  6. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3,...

  7. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  8. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  9. CEE Winter Program Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consortium for Energy Efficiency (CEE) is hosting their Winter Program Meeting, a two-day conference held in Long Beach, California.

  10. Winter Weather Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    Winter Weather Management #12;Introduction ∑ Campus Facilities Staff ∑ Other Campus Organizations #12;Purpose ∑ Organize and coordinate the campus response to winter weather events to maintain campus for use by 7 AM. ∑ Response will be modified depending upon forecast and current weather conditions. #12

  11. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | National Nuclear SecurityIntellectual

  12. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  13. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eĪciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coeĪcient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  14. NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV...

  15. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  16. ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    ANNUAL WINTER SCHOOLANNUAL WINTER SCHOOL Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute National Research February ­ 1 March, 2014 Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) conducts the XLVIII Annual Winter Center "Kurchatov Institute" XLVIII PNPI Winter School, Roschino, 24 February ­ 1 March 2014 During 24

  17. NARUC Winter Committee Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Association of Regulatory Utilities Commissioners (NARUC) Winter Committee Meetings offers its members and attendees the latest information from U.S. federal policymakers, consumer advocates, industry officials, and other stakeholders.

  18. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  19. Pricing in Information-Centric Network Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    --ICN interconnection, economic incentives, col- laborative caching, non-cooperative games, network pricing. I economic incentives for caching and sharing content in ICN interconnection. For example, an ISP provider Engineering Department, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Abstract--We propose a pricing model to study the economic

  20. SIMULTANEOUS INTERCONNECTION AND DAMPING ASSIGNMENT PASSIVITYBASED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    SIMULTANEOUS INTERCONNECTION AND DAMPING ASSIGNMENT PASSIVITY≠BASED CONTROL: TWO PRACTICAL EXAMPLES≠UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-256, 04510 Mīexico D.F., MEXICO, gerardoe@servidor.unam.mx Laboratoire des Signaux et.Ortega@lss.supelec.fr Abstract: We argue in this paper that the standard two≠stage procedure used in Interconnection and Damping

  1. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  2. EPRI PEAC Corp.: Certification Model Program and Interconnection Agreement Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of EPRI PEAC Corp., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop a certification model program and interconnection agreement tools to support the interconnection of distributed energy resources.

  3. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  4. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  5. Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Presentation...

  6. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff...

  7. Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past few years, there has been significant interest in alternative ways to manage power systems over a larger effective electrical footprint. Large regional transmission organizations in the Eastern Interconnection have effectively consolidated balancing areas, achieving significant economies of scale that result in a reduction in required reserves. Conversely, in the Western Interconnection there are many balancing areas, which will result in challenges if there is significant wind and solar energy development in the region. A recent proposal to the Western Electricity Coordinating Council suggests a regional energy imbalance service (EIS). To evaluate this EIS, a number of analyses are in process or are planned. This paper describes one part of an analysis of the EIS's implication on operating reserves under several alternative scenarios of the market footprint and participation. We improve on the operating reserves method utilized in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study and apply this modified approach to data from the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study.

  8. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  9. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  10. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  11. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  12. TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminsky, Werner

    MASTER CON TIME SCHEDULE WINTER QUARTER 1970 ADVANCE REGISTRATION NOVEMBER 3-21 IN, please leave it or pass it along so that other students may use it. #12;Winter Quarter 1970. Examination

  13. NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

  14. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

  15. WINTER 2014 Sustainability and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    WINTER 2014 Sustainability and Renewable Energy in Costa Rica January 4 - 14 Dr. James Hoffmann, Program Director Lecturer Sustainability Studies Program E-511 Melville Library Stony Brook, NY 11794 sustainability and renewable energy. Students will spend 11 days in Costa Rica to participate in site visits

  16. Winter 2011 Dear Friends,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Barry B.

    on renewable energy in Dhaka, Bangladesh in July; Michael Doonan, Ph.D. '02, whose Massachusetts Health PolicyWinter 2011 Dear Friends, As 2011 begins I want to share my warmest wishes to you and your families to move from Brandeis' International Center for Ethics, Justice and Public Life to its new permanent home

  17. James L. Winter- Biography

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jim Winter is the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) Program Lead for the NNSA Office of Environment, Safety and Health (NA-00-10) and has served in various capacities within NNSA and Defense Programs since 1991 regarding nuclear safety and environment, safety and health.

  18. Focus Article Nuclear winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    the climatic effects of nuclear war. Smoke from the fires started by nuclear weapons, especially the black in recorded human history. Although the number of nuclear weapons in the world has fallen from 70,000 at its and Russia could still produce nuclear winter. This theory cannot be tested in the real world. However

  19. Abstract Southwest Greenland provides wintering grounds for 70% (~460,000) of the northern common

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Southwest Greenland provides wintering grounds for 70% (~460,000) of the northern common in the eastern Canadian Arctic and western Greenland (Abraham and Finney 1986; Boertmann et al. 1996; Merkel 2004a). All birds from western Greenland and most Canadian breeders, about 70% (463

  20. Dynamic Simulation Studies of the Frequency Response of the Three U.S. Interconnections with Increased Wind Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, R.; Williams, B.; Haney, B.; Hung, R.; Ellis, J.

    2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility Systems Efficiencies, Inc. was tasked by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to conduct dynamic simulation studies of the three U.S. interconnections (Eastern, Western, and Texas). The simulations were prepared in support of LBNL's project for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to study frequency-response-related issues that must be addressed to operate the power system reliably with large amounts of variable renewable generation. The objective of the simulation studies of each interconnection was to assess the effects of different amounts of wind generation on frequency behavior of each interconnection following a sudden loss of generation. The scenarios created to study these effects considered an operating circumstance in which system load is at or close to its minimum. The event studied was the sudden loss of the largest amount of generation recorded within each interconnection. The simulations calculated the impact of this event on interconnection frequency for three levels of wind generation. In addition to varying the amount of wind generation, the simulations varied the amount of operating reserves between a high level representative of current operating practices and a low level representative of the minimum required by present operating rules.

  1. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  2. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  3. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  4. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration. 6 figs.

  5. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  6. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  7. U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot Springs Power Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection...

  8. subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

  9. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  10. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  11. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    the interconnection and device substrates to en- hance the ion diffusion during the final electroplating and bondingFlip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L of flip-chip, selective elec- troplating and bonding. The electrical interconnection lines are built

  12. Consequences of nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teller, E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is to be expected that the predictable consequences of a nuclear war are more terrible than any of the indirect effects that have been discussed. Detailed calculations on the consequences of massive release of smoke seem to bear out this general expectation. This contrast may become ever more obvious if one takes into account the consequences of defense against a nuclear attack. One cannot expect that such defense will be 100% effective. A reduction of the direct casualties by a factor of 2 will almost certainly result in a substantial reduction in the amount of smoke emitted. In case of no defense, the direct effects of nuclear winter are hard to predict. In the case of defense, the climate changes may well be minor. If one assumes that there will be residual effects on the weather, this is apt to be more important in influencing precipitation rather than the surface temperature. Indeed, the main effect of smoke is to produce a temperature inversion and thereby suppress the convective rainfall. This is particularly true in many regions that produce crops in the norther hemisphere. It seems now well established that the most dangerous potential consequence of any smoke-induced climatic change will be reduction of crops. Fortunately, this danger can be greatly reduced by food storage. Such food storage could greatly reduce domestic shortages in the United States and could also be important in alleviating suffering abroad. The efforts spent on considering the consequence of nuclear winter are not wasted.

  13. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  14. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  16. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  17. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  18. PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    - 1 - PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2014) COURSE GOALS 1. Learn how) 3. W. R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Springer Noise (Tyson ≠ Mitchell) Continuous-Wave Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Chiang

  19. PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2015)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    - 1 - PHYSICS 122 LABORATORY (Winter, 2015) COURSE GOALS 1. Learn how for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments, Springer-Verlag, 2nd edition. (UCD Library call) Continuous-Wave Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Chiang - Stenger) Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic

  20. Select bibliography on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, L.A.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 1982 article by P.J. Crutzen and J.W. Birks first suggested that smoke from wildland and urban fires could have a significant impact on the atmosphere. The theory of nuclear winter was first presented at the World after Nuclear War conference held in 1983. Following the conference, articles describing the potential climatic and biological consequences of a global nuclear exchange were published. Most of the nuclear winter literature concentrates on atmospheric and climatic effects. There are also some work that focus on strategic policy, medical, and agricultural effects. A broad spectrum of viewpoints and theories exists in the published literature on nuclear winter. This bibliography reflects those varying viewpoints. This compilation includes works published up to 1 March 1987. Articles from popular magazines and newspapers were omitted. Citations include 129 articles, 21 books, and 54 technical reports. A further reading list composed of 80 sources relevant to the nuclear winter theory is also provided.

  1. Cold thoughts on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katz, J.I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear winter controversy is a notorious example of the politicization of science. Large firestorms are followed by soot-laden black rain. It is not known what fraction of the soot produced by fires is removed from the atmosphere in this manner. A simple argument suggests that the fraction may be large. It is even possible to argue that a severe nuclear winter is not self-consistent. It is often assumed that carbonaceous soot is chemically inert in the atmosphere, despite the presence of trace amounts of chemically active species. Even if the magnitude of the nuclear winter effect were known, its implications would remain controversial. Nuclear winter chillings are usually measured as drops in mean temperature. However, reduction in solar heating reduces the diurnal variation as well.

  2. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  3. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  4. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  5. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysis, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day, 30-Day and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  6. Review of the Recent Frequency Performance of the Eastern, Western and ERCOT Interconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacommare, Kristina S H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used 1-minute averages of SCADA frequency and ACE for 2002changed abruptly. When SCADA 1-minute averages of frequency

  7. ELG 5124: Virtual Environments, (Winter 2008) ELG 5124 Virtual Environments (Winter 2008)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petriu, Emil M.

    , human body modeling and animation. #12;ELG 5124: Virtual Environments, (Winter 2008) AnimationELG 5124: Virtual Environments, (Winter 2008) ELG 5124 Virtual Environments (Winter 2008) Tuesday% _______________________________________________ Calendar description Basic concepts. Virtual worlds. Hardware and software support. World modeling

  8. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  9. Data integrity for on-chip interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhal, Rohit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -Chairs of Committee, Rabi Mahapatra Gwan Choi Committee Members, Duncan M. Walker Eun Jung Kim Jiang Hu Madhav Pappu Head of Department, Valerie Taylor May 2007 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Data Integrity for On-Chip Interconnects. (May 2007) Rohit... Singhal, B. Tech., Indian Institute of Technology; M.S., Texas A&M University Co{Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rabi Mahapatra Dr. Gwan Choi With shrinking feature size and growing integration density in the Deep Sub- Micron (DSM) technologies...

  10. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  11. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  12. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  13. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | National Nuclear SecurityIntellectualInterconnecting gold islands

  14. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

  15. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in...

  16. Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight...

  17. Proposed rule for Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternativ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-000) Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternative Technologies (January 24, 2005) AGENCY: Federal Energy...

  18. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  19. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

  20. Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

  1. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  2. Nuclear winter attracts additional scrutiny

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.J.

    1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Prodded by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Congress has asked the Pentagon to provide what amounts to an environmental impact statement on the potential for nuclear weapons explosions to create enough soot and dust to cause a nuclear winter. The request has implications for arms control and civil defense as well as for weapons procurement and deployment. Little attention was given to the atmospheric and climatic effects of nuclear war until the nuclear winter concept was introduced in October of 1983. Only the Navy and the DOE took steps to follow up until pressure was put on Congress and the Pentagon for further study. Pentagon criticism of the nuclear winter presentation argues that the scenario assumptions that cities will be targeted and that a conflict will involve 5000-6500 megatons are incorrect.

  3. Study of Internet autonomous system interconnectivity from BGP routing tables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalunya, Universitat PolitŤcnica de

    Study of Internet autonomous system interconnectivity from BGP routing tables Jose M. Barcelo ISPs (Internet Service Providers) and to interconnect enterprises to ISPs. ISPs usually are providers University of Baja California (UABC), Mexico. He is a PhD student at UPC, Spain, with a grant of the Mexican

  4. Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinda, Peter A.

    Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui Patrick G. Bridges John R. Lange Peter A. Dinda Department of CS University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM. Their performance suffers on advanced interconnects such as Infiniband, however, be- cause of differences between

  5. Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, Herbert G.

    Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles Herbert G. Tanner Mechanical Engineering Department University of New Mexico Abstract--The paper introduces a set of nonsmooth- tivity requirements on the interconnection network can be relaxed due to the common objective. I

  6. Simultaneous Interconnection and Damping Assignment PassivityBased Control: Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    Simultaneous Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity≠Based Control: Two Practical Examples.doria@upc.edu 2 DEPFI≠UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-256, 04510 Mīexico D.F., MEXICO, gerardoe@servidor.unam.mx 3 Jd : Rn ◊ R Rn◊n , Hd : Rn R, satisfying the skew≠symmetry condition for the interconnection matrix

  7. Decentralized symbolic control of interconnected systems with application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Decentralized symbolic control of interconnected systems with application to vehicle platooning A interconnection of continuous nonlinear systems and we address the decentralized design of local controllers funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n

  8. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov function is formulated based on the total energy of power system where the system is considered as a single

  9. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  10. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  11. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  12. , Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

  13. CMPE 185 Winter 1999 Syllabus 1 Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Kevin

    CMPE 185 Winter 1999 Syllabus 1 Syllabus 1 Administrative details Location and timePorter 144, MWF 3:30-4:40 (Warning: location Info 1 #12;2 Syllabus CMPE 185 Winter 1999 4

  14. Winter Weather FAQs | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winter Weather FAQs As Argonne prepares for the winter season, employees should be aware of the laboratory's procedures and policies in severe weather events. Below are some of the...

  15. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  16. Alan Roback Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Alan Roback Policy Implications of Nuclear Winter and Ideas for Solutions The 5 May 1988 United Nations report clearly states that the nuclear winter theory is supported by current scientific evidence the political will to work on this problem, they would still not prevent nuclear winter when fully implemented

  17. 4, 30553085, 2007 Winter climate affects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HESSD 4, 3055≠3085, 2007 Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de and Earth System Sciences Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate in acid Winter climate affects long-term trends in stream water nitrate H. A. de Wit et al. Title Page Abstract

  18. 2013 Winter Cardinal Softball School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    2013 Winter Cardinal Softball School @ Wesleyan University An opportunity to work on your fastpitch, please complete the form below and mail with check payable to "Cardinal Softball School" by January 7th to: Cardinal Softball School Jen Lane, Director Freeman Athletic Center 161 Cross Street Middletown

  19. Satisfying winter peak-power demand with phased gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.H.; Moss, T.E.; Ravikumar, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study, commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration, was to investigate application of this concept to the Pacific Northwest. Coal gasification combined-cycle (GCC) plants are receiving serious attention from eastern utilities. Potomac Electric (PEPCO) has engaged Fluor Technology to perform conceptual and preliminary engineering for a nominal 375-MW coal GCC power generation facility to be located in northern Montgomery County, Maryland. Other eastern utilities are engaged in site-specific investigations of satisfying future power requirements employing this alternative, which involves an environmentally superior method of using coal. Coal is combined with oxygen to produce a medium-heating-value fuel gas as an alternative to natural gas. The fuel gas, cleaned to remove sulfur compounds, is burned in gas turbine-generator sets. The hot exhaust gas is used to generate steam for additional power generation. The gasification combined cycle plant is highly efficient and has a high level of flexibility to meet power demands. This study provided background for consideration of one alternative for satisfying winter peak-load demand. The concept is feasible, depending on the timing of the installation of the gasification system, projections of the cost and the availability of natural gas, and restrictions on the use of natural gas. It has the advantage of deferring capacity addition and capital outlay until power is needed and economics are favorable.

  20. Winter 2015 Positive Parenting Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter 2015 Positive Parenting Group This is an eight-week parent group series starting Monday, January 12, 2015 Future parent group sessions to be held: January 26 (no group 19th ) February 2, 9 and 23 (no group 16th ) and March 2, 9 and 16 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Room 145 of the Clinical Services

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  2. Modeling Message Blocking and Deadlock in Interconnection Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkston, Timothy M.

    Modeling Message Blocking and Deadlock in Interconnection Networks Sugath Warnakulasuriya. This model allows various types of message blocking to be represented precisely, including deadlock. Our model of deadlock distinguishes between messages involved in deadlock and those simply dependent

  3. Energy scalability of on-chip interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantakopoulos, Theodoros K., 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On-chip interconnection networks (OCN) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs consume significant ...

  4. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  5. Low-Swing Signaling on Monolithically Integrated Global Graphene Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    In this paper, we characterize the performance of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects on a prototype 0.35-?m CMOS chip. The test chip implements an array of transmitter/receivers to analyze the end-to-end data ...

  6. InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute- gual corpora of parallel texts. In addition to UMIACS, the team includes researchers from New Mexico

  7. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small switching elements are the key components of multistage interconnection networks (MINS) used in multiprocessors and in high speed switching fabrics for broad-band communication systems. The structure of their internal buffers, efficient...

  8. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  9. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  10. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems Ė Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  11. An optical data receiver for integrated photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, Michael S. (Michael Stephen)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The throughput bounds of traditional interconnect networks in microprocessors are being pushed to their limits. In past single-core processors, the number of long global wires constituted only a small fraction of the total. ...

  12. The hybrid ensemble smoother (HEnS) & noncartesian computational interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cessna, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 3.5: A four-node tile can be extracted from thefolded 1D interconnect, a tile may be designed that contains3.10: The three fundamental tiles, denoted E, F , and G,

  13. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  14. On the Optimality and Interconnection of Valiant Load-Balancing Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, John C.-I.

    - terconnection regime evolves over time, as networks negotiate interconnection agreements with one anotherOn the Optimality and Interconnection of Valiant Load-Balancing Networks Moshe Babaioff and John to enable interconnection of multiple VLB networks, and study interconnection via bilateral peering

  15. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The EA was cancelled by the applicant.DOEís Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Westernís transmission system. Westernís actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

  16. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  17. UCSF Bioengineering Course Listing Winter 2015 Schedule Winter Quarter: January 5 March 20, 2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Luke P.

    UCSF Bioengineering Course Listing Winter 2015 Schedule Winter Quarter: January 5 ≠ March 20, 2015 302 Annemarie.Donjacour@ucsf.edu (Contact instructor to enroll) BI 203 Imaging Probes for Nuclear

  18. E. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2012! Bioengineering 278"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    " Lecture 1! Topics:! ∑Nuclear magnetization! ∑Spin excitation! ∑The NMR signal! E. Wong, BE278, UCSD WinterE. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2012! Bioengineering 278" Magnetic Resonance Imaging" " Winter 2011. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2012! Equation of Motion for Magnetization Vector M! dM dt = M ◊ B - Mx ^i

  19. Winter -Semester 2007 Speaker Department Date Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter - Semester 2007 Speaker Department Date Title Dr. Armin Peter Eawag, Fishecology & Evolution & Eawag, Fishecology & Evolution 19.12.07 Comparing nuclear and mitochondrial genetic signatures

  20. Civil defense implications of nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Broyles, A.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Possible effects of Nuclear Winter on the world's population are summarized. The implications of these effects for strategic weapons planning and civil defense measures are discussed. (ACR)

  1. Be prepared. Learn how to drive in winter conditions. Winter weather challenges our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Be prepared. Learn how to drive in winter conditions. Winter weather challenges our driving skills in cold weather. Watch for"black ice", areas of the road with a thin, almost invisible coating of ice weather. Mother Nature's road test. Know before you go. ShiftIntoWinter.ca | DriveBC.ca This information

  2. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and...

  3. WINTER

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,397 125 Q 69 (Million Cubic58 810 0 0 1996-2013VoluntaryWINTERWINTER

  4. Winter Term University of Oldenburg (Core Provider)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habel, Annegret

    Evaluation Modul Winter Term Titel Wind Energy Wind Energy I Wind Tutorial Wind Energy Systems Wind Energy Conversion (Lab) Excursion/Wind/DEWI Modul Winter Term Titel Solar Energy PV Systems I Solar Thermal I Solar Tutorial PV Cell Characteristics (Lab) Solar

  5. Bi23 BIOLOGY TUTORIALS WINTER TERM 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    Bi23 BIOLOGY TUTORIALS WINTER TERM 2014 SECTIONS 1 ≠ 3 The Function and Regulation of Sleep (3. Huang, x3446, MC 156-29 #12;Bi23 BIOLOGY TUTORIALS WINTER TERM 2014 SECTIONS 4-6 Physical Principles crystallography and neutron scattering; nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging; peptide and DNA

  6. WINTER TERM SEMINARS HELD ON MONDAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    WINTER TERM SEMINARS HELD ON MONDAYS @ 3:30 PM IN ALS4001 unless otherwise noted JANUARY 13 JUSTIN, Marine Genomics Unit "A first assembly of the Symbiodinium minutum nuclear genome reveals dinoflagellate Sciences "TBA" Integrative Biology (formerly the OSU Department of Zoology and OSU Biology Program) Winter

  7. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  8. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in communications form hot spots that present significant challenges for any interconnect fabric and communication software stack. Yet despite the inherent challenges, these communication patterns are common in both applications (which often perform reductions and other collective operations that include fan-in communication such as barriers) and system software (where they assume an important role within parallel file systems and other components requiring high-bandwidth or low-latency I/O). Our study determines the effectiveness of differing clientserver fan-in strategies. We describe fan-in performance in terms of aggregate bandwidth in the presence of varying degrees of congestion, as well as several other key attributes. Comparison numbers are presented for the Cray Aries interconnect. Finally, we provide recommended communication strategies based on our findings.

  9. City of Winter Park Energy Conservation Rebate Program (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Winter Park is now offering rebates to Winter Park electric residential and commercial customers for implementing energy conservation measures.

  10. Physics 214 General Information Winter 2013 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 214 General Information Winter 2013 Instructor: Howard Haber Office: ISB, Room 326 Phone Tsang Modern Electrodynamics, by Andrew Zangwill #12;Physics 214 Electromagnetism II Winter 2013 COURSE

  11. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank, E-mail: msharad@purdue.edu; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  12. International scientists on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, T.F.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A report by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) leads new support to the warning of extreme climatic disruptions that would follow a nuclear war. The two-volume report does not deal explicitly with public policy questions, but focuses on scientific knowledge of physical effects and biological responses. The author reviews studies made since the warning of a nuclear winter began in 1982, and evaluates the new report. He finds the message of the report to be a clear warning that a major nuclear war would threaten the entire world. He hopes it will be a catalyst to world opinion in the same way that the public responded to the incident of radioactive fallout striking a Japanese fishing vessel in 1954.

  13. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, A.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study process, scenarios, tools, and goals.

  14. Performance of winter rape (Brassica napus) based fuel mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter rape is well adapted to the Palouse region of Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington. Nearly all of the current US production is grown in this region. Yields of 2200 to 2700 kg/ha with 45 percent oil content are common. Even though present production only 2000 to 2500 ha per year, the long history of production and good yields of oil make winter rape the best potential fuel vegetable oil crop for the region. Winter rape oil is more viscous than sunflower oil (50 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for winter rape and 35 cSt at 40/sup 0/C for sunflower oil) and about 17 times more viscous than diesel. The viscosity of the pure oil has been found too high for operation in typical diesel injector systems. Mixtures and/or additives are essential if the oil is to be a satisfactory fuel. Conversely, the fatty acid composition of witer rape oils is such that it is potentially a more favorable fuel because of reduced rates of oxidation and thermal polymerization. This paper will report on results of short and long term engine tests using winter rape, diesel, and commercial additives as the components. Selection of mixtures for long term screening tests was based on laboratory studies which included high temperature oxidation studies and temperature-viscosity data. Fuel temperature has been monitored at the outlet of the injector nozzle on operating engines so that viscosity comparisons at the actual injector temperature can be made. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc.: Innovative Interconnection and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc., under contract to DOEs Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop interconnection and control systems for distributed power.

  16. Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc.: Innovative Interconnection and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop interconnection and control systems for distributed power.

  17. Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation. internal resonance / equivalent circuits 1Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described

  18. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  19. attach interconnection technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attach interconnection technology First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Processing and...

  20. A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

    , new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically

  1. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  2. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030 in modern chemical plants, and the decreased volumes or removal of bu er tanks between processing steps. Thus, disturbances will spread more rapidly and widely throughout a modern chemical plant than in older

  3. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen. This is caused by tighter integration of heat and mass in modern chemical plants, and the decreased volumes (or throughout a modern chemical plant than in older plants. This puts greater demands on the control system

  4. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  5. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  6. High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assuming a current density j=3.9 MA/cm2 and a resistivity =2.2 cm. The self- heating problem is aggravated scale structures.3,4 One of the approaches to mitigate the self-heating prob- lem is to incorporateHigh-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects Q. Shao, G. Liu, D

  7. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  8. Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins Francisco Cabo Katrin cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the irrigated soil, or demand for water for highly productive activities like tourism), then the existence

  9. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  10. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  11. Wavelength-space permutation switch with coherent PDM QPSK transmission for supercomputer optical interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    Several low-cost, low-latency, high throughput optical interconnect architectures have been proposed interconnects F. Karinou (1), I. Roudas (1), K. Vlachos (1), C. S. Petrou (1), . Vgenis (1), and B. R. Hemenway optical interconnect employing wavelength-space optical packet switching, polarization division

  12. A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Michael C.

    A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect Aaron Carpenter-performance interconnect fabric that is energy-efficient. Well-engineered transmission line-based commu- nication systems and a much better energy profile than a conventional mesh interconnect. Keywords: Transmission Line, On

  13. LFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pakin, Scott

    , New Mexico Email: {mlang,pakin}@lanl.gov Abstract--Traditionally, interconnect performance is eitherLFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems Xin a good performance overview for extreme-scale interconnects. The topological pa- rameters

  14. Interconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of these interconnections are often negotiated and maintained via bilateral agreements. Current differences of opinion-peering, bilateral agreements. I. INTRODUCTION The Internet consists of thousands of interconnected ISPs, with each Tier 1 ISPs would willingly all peer with one another, and other interconnection agreements could

  15. Interconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , with each ISP interested in maximizing its own profits. Interconnection agreements, often negotiated Tier 1 ISPs would willingly all peer with one another, and other interconnection agreements couldInterconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

  16. 650 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 Fully Elastic Interconnects on Nanopatterned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    650 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 Fully Elastic Interconnects interconnects are re- quired for electronic skin. To date, the resistance of such thin-film interconnects has by only 60%, which is in close agreement with purely geometric deformation. Index Terms

  17. ANS 2006 WINTER MEETING & Nuclear Technology Expo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krings, Axel W.

    Development Workshop: Digital Instrumentation Upgrades 52 DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program 53ANS 2006 WINTER MEETING & Nuclear Technology Expo "Ensuringthe (TOFE) 5th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Controls, and Human Machine

  18. Currents and waters of the upper 1200 m of the eastern Caribbean Sea during winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Febres Ortega, German Antonio

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at '- titud . . =- south c " I j'N a smaller depth of tne 80 cl/t surf cc than t! f line ai; 79'V. Both the Atlantis data, 665 HISPANIOL A~ 6:;-~P. RiCO 6 5 725 V 565~ Qxk&J/i]' j 6 7~5 Z PANAMA COL OMB I A V Ej N E I V E Figure 6 (a). Topography.... These are separated f'rom the coast of Coiombia and Panama by deeper areas. The features suggest an elorgated cyclonic eddy or pair of edd! es. Such a flow is indicated by ships' drift a. s Wust (196JJ) pointed out. Figure 6b displays the acceIeration potential...

  19. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange.

  20. Nuclear winter: Asymmetrical problems and unilateral solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reule, F.J.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear winter creates a dilemma for policymakers. Awareness of that dilemma may not be new, however. Long before the phrase nuclear winter became popular, policymakers may well have been aware of the possibility that the indirect effects of a nuclear exchange could be more damaging than the direct effects. Nevertheless, the more widespread public awareness of such a possibility deepens the dilemma and makes it more apparent. The policymakers' dilemma arises from their requirement to create a perception of security from any and all threats. To do this they must be able to credibly threaten to use nuclear weapons in order to deter their use by others. These threats can be tacit, arising from the very existence of nuclear delivery systems, or direct, as evidenced by the instances of missile rattling that have occurred over the years. In either case, such threats begin to ring hollow if the policymakers are known to believe that carrying them out could result in nuclear winter. If policymakers keep secret their personal beliefs about nuclear winter they can still credibly threaten to use nuclear weapons but they have difficulty believing their own threats. Further, they cannot capitalize on the deterrent value of nuclear winter and must live in fear that their bluff may some day be called or that any of the other nuclear powers could cause a nuclear winter out of ignorance.

  1. Some policy implications of nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gertler, J.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of nuclear winter has had as checkered a history as any new idea since Darwin published The Origin of Species. There have been questions of its scientific validity, reviews both laudatory and damning, pleas for arms reductions, hosannahs for a newfound hope that nuclear war has at least been rendered completely unthinkable, and frustration that two generations of human toil in weapons laboratories and think tanks have been rendered by a natural doomsday machine. Some have even suggested that nuclear winter might be used as an offensive weapon. Disturbingly, a substantial number of commentators have concluded that nuclear winter carries no immediate implications for policy, because to their way of thinking, nuclear winter is a (a) just one more of the many undesirable effects of nuclear war; (b) the ulimate deterrent to nuclear use, and therefore should be welcomed rather than compensated for; or (c) an unproven theory, meaning that consideration of policy questions is premature. Those who overlook the policy questions are following a dangerous path. The nuclear winter theory contains serious short- and long-term implications for United States foreign and strategic policy. Although the theory may never be confirmed or refuted, discussion of these policy questions should begin now because many of the potential effects of nuclear winter - particularly in foreign policy - will come about regardless of whether or not the phenomenon can actually exist.

  2. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  3. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?networks√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?PV Deployment Analysis for New York City√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  4. Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

  5. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  6. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  7. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  8. Chip-Level Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gall, M.; Oh, C.; Grinshpon, A.; Zolotov, V.; Panda, R.; Demircan, E.; Mueller, J.; Justison, P.; Ramakrishna, K.; Thrasher, S.; Hernandez, R.; Herrick, M.; Fox, R.; Boeck, B.; Kawasaki, H. [Technology Solutions Organization, Freescale Semiconductor (United States); Haznedar, H.; Ku, P. [Sector Quality, Freescale Semiconductor (United States)

    2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten reliable, long-term operation at elevated temperatures. The traditional method of verifying EM reliability only through current density limit checks is proving to be inadequate in general, or quite expensive at the best. A Statistical EM Budgeting (SEB) methodology has been proposed to assess more realistic chip-level EM reliability from the complex statistical distribution of currents in a chip. To be valuable, this approach requires accurate estimation of currents for all interconnect segments in a chip. However, no efficient technique to manage the complexity of such a task for very large chip designs is known. We present an efficient method to estimate currents exhaustively for all interconnects in a chip. The proposed method uses pre-characterization of cells and macros, and steps to identify and filter out symmetrically bi-directional interconnects. We illustrate the strength of the proposed approach using a high-performance microprocessor design for embedded applications as a case study.

  9. Nuclear winter: the implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally believed possible for some range of heavy nuclear attacks directed against cities that significant but not lethal climate alteration will ensue for at least a few weeks. Three-dimensional global circulation models being developed and used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the National Center for Atmospheric Research for a reasonable attack size seem to be converging on a temperature depression of the order of 10 to 15/degree/C, averaged over all land areas of the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. Temperature depressions as large as 25/degree/C are predicted in the interiors of continents for attacks in the summertime. Winter wars produce temperature depressions of only a few degrees. The authors have drawn the following implications for civil defense of the possibility of nuclear winter: (1) Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival. (2) The principal threat of nuclear winter is to agriculture. (3) Nuclear winter does not present an entirely new threat from nuclear war to the United States or the Soviet Union. (4) The consequences of nuclear winter would fall more heavily on the Soviet Union.

  10. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurūur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W®urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  11. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This one-page, two-sided fact sheet provides an overview of the Eastern Renewable Generation and Integration Study process.

  12. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  13. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  14. Proc. 23rd Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2007) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 23rd Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2007) 000≠000 23rd Winter Workshop on Nuclear collisions, where such nuclear effects should not be present. The RHIC experiments have also explored Au

  15. Proc. 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000­000 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear 60439-4843, USA 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000, USA 3 Institute of Nuclear

  16. Proc. 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2001) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2001) 000≠000 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Strasbourg, France 4 Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland 5 Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland 6

  17. An indoor public space for a winter city

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, Justin Fuller

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter is a marginalized season in North American design. Even though most cities in the northern United States and Canada have winter conditions-snowfall, ice, freezing temperatures, and long nights-for substantial portions ...

  18. Physics 5B General Information Winter 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 5B General Information Winter 2009 Instructor: Howard Haber O#ce: ISB, Room 326 Phone to Physics II Winter 2009 Brief Course Outline for Physics 5B Topic Reading 1. Fluids Giancoli, Chapter 13 2

  19. Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel? Why is Eastern Redcedar a Hazardous Fuel? Homes built the destruction of fire-tolerant trees if a wildfire moves through the area. Creating fuel breaks (such ignite it. ∑ When ERC grows in forests and wood- lands, it acts as a ladder fuel to allow fire to climb

  20. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  1. Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. H. Zhu

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

  2. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  3. Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

    2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

  4. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  5. DER Certification Laboratory Pilot, Accreditation Plan, and Interconnection Agreement Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, T.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the first steps toward creating the organization, procedures, plans and tools for distributed energy resources (DER) equipment certification, test laboratory accreditation, and interconnection agreements. It covers the activities and accomplishments during the first period of a multiyear effort. It summarizes steps taken to outline a certification plan to assist in the future development of an interim plan for certification and accreditation activities. It also summarizes work toward a draft plan for certification, a beta Web site to support communications and materials, and preliminary draft certification criteria.

  6. Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for SOFC's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Bender; James Rakowski

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to validate the concept and application of a functional interconnect, based on a ferritic stainless steel, for a solid oxide fuel cell through manufacturing trials, laboratory testing, and field experience. The materials of construction and their surfaces were to be optimized for the particular service conditions and include low-cost ferritic stainless steels, novel postprocess treatments, and third-party coatings. This work aimed to optimize specific aspects of substrate alloy chemistry and to study the effects of long-term exposures on resistive oxide film structure and chemistry, interaction with applied surface coatings, and effectiveness of novel surface treatments.

  7. Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15 IntellectualInterconnection

  9. Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuanInformationLoremoJobs in an Interconnected

  10. Manure Storage Winter Capacity Planning Level Guidance January 1, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiltinan, Mark

    1 Manure Storage Winter Capacity Planning Level Guidance January 1, 2013 The guidance outlined in this document is to be used to determine the Manure Storage Winter Capacity Planning Level for CAFO operations must be documented in the NMP Standard Format. For determining the manure storage winter capacity

  11. ASSESSMENT OF LIVESTOCK WINTERING AREAS IN BRIDGE CREEK BASIN, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;ASSESSMENT OF LIVESTOCK WINTERING AREAS IN BRIDGE CREEK BASIN, 1996 DOE FRAP 1996-03 Prepared-96.............................................. 22 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Bridge Creek basin livestock wintering area back assessment, 1996 quality in the Bridge Creek basin are assessed. These sites had been inspected in the winter and spring

  12. E. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2013! Bioengineering 278"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    E. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2013! Bioengineering 278" Magnetic Resonance Imaging" " Winter 2013" Lecture 1! Topics:! ∑Hardware Overview! ∑Nuclear magnetization! ∑Spin excitation! ∑The NMR signal! ∑The Fourier Transform! E. Wong, BE278, UCSD Winter 2013! Hardware Overview! Three fields:! ∑Main Field (B0

  13. Winter Session 2008 Calendar January 2 25, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adali, Tulay

    Winter Session 2008 Calendar January 2 ≠ 25, 2008 November 1 Registration begins November 22 - 23 Campus closed for Thanksgiving Holiday December 24 ≠ January 1Campus closed for winter break January 2 First day of winter session Last day to drop for a 100% tuition refund* January 3 Last day to drop

  14. NEW INTERNSHIP FOR WINTER Interactive Ecology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilmers, Chris

    NEW INTERNSHIP FOR WINTER Interactive Ecology UC Santa Cruz Arboretum Internship Agency Sponsor: Brett Hall, Director of Collections and Conservation Interactive Ecology interns will work primarily, back pack tracker, GPS, google earth, etc). The Interactive Ecology internship will also explore, more

  15. Bluetooth Vulnerabilities ECE 478 Winter 05

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluetooth Vulnerabilities ECE 478 Winter 05 Victor Yee #12;Topics ∑ What is Bluetooth? ∑ History ≠ Automobiles #12;What is Bluetooth? ∑ Short-range (10m-100m) wireless specification ∑ Operating at 2.4GHz radio 2Mb/s #12;History ∑ Named from Danish King Harold Bluetooth from the 10th century ≠ instrumental

  16. Winter Course 2015 Perspectives in Community Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    to the medical care system, and the role of public health in "health care reform". Mode of grading: LetterWinter Course 2015 Perspectives in Community Health SSPPHH 110011 ­­ 33 UUnniittss,, CCRRNN MMeeddiicciinnee Public Health 101 is an in-depth introductory course for students interested in understanding

  17. WINTER, 19a9 Academic quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    - I WINTER, 19a9 Academic quality and accreditation: A case of good news and bad news? liThe good.ICATION OF THE ACADEMIC SENATE, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FUL.LERTON #12;2 · Senate Forum #12 accreditation. On the following pages are articles of how one de- partment was seen by others to be holding its

  18. Exam 1 EE531 Winter 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    . Please limit active time working on the exam to 10 hours. 1. Consider a thick Si sample doped with NaExam 1 ≠ EE531 Winter 2014 The test is a take home exam due at beginning of class on Tuesday Feb and light hole bands. Consider a thin Si membrane just 5 nm thick. (a) Calculate the change in the ni 2 due

  19. WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WINTER PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF POROUS ASPHALT, PERVIOUS CONCRETE, AND CONVENTIONAL ASPHALT IN A NORTHERN CLIMATE BY KRISTOPHER M. HOULE BS, Worcester the University of New Hampshire, the Northern New England Concrete Promotion Association (NNECPA), the Northeast

  20. Semester Project Winter 2005-2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partovi Nia, Vahid

    to illustrate the theory. 2 #12;Chapter 2 Survival models 2.1 A trivial exponential model In order to analyseSemester Project Winter 2005-2006 Survival and censored data Lefteris Samartzis Professor : A.C. Davison Assistant : Vahid Partovi Nia #12;Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Survival models 3 2.1 A trivial

  1. CIS260: Computer Graphics Winter 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Alex

    CIS260: Computer Graphics Winter 1997 Proposals: due February 18, 1997 Draft: due March 3, 1997 Presentation: March 10 ­ March 14, 1997 Demo: 8am ­ 11am, March 18, 1997 FINAL PROJECT You get to select your ­ on or before February 18, 1997 Give me at least 3 topics that you would like to work on for your final project

  2. Chem 249 Problem Set 4 Winter 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chem 249 Problem Set 4 R. Corn Winter 2014 Basic Quantum Theory and Energy Levels in Spectroscopy). #12;2. Consider the NMR spectrum of a deuterium atom, which has a nuclear spin I of 1. a, the component of the nuclear spin in the direction of the magnetic field. Draw an energy level diagram

  3. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)

  4. Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect Variation ................................................................................. CS.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect................................................................................................. CS.2 45nm Direct-battery DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

  5. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  6. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  7. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MWLegal...

  8. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  9. Vdd Programmability to Reduce FPGA Interconnect Power Fei Li, Yan Lin and Lei He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    interconnect power by 56.51% and total FPGA power by 50.55%. Due to the highly low utilization rate of routing

  10. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  11. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25/sup 0/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs.

  12. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  13. Interconnect-Power Dissipation in a Microprocessor Intel Israel (74) Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    Interconnect-Power Dissipation in a Microprocessor Nir Magen Intel Israel (74) Ltd. Mobile Platform-performance microprocessor designed for power efficiency. The analysis showed that interconnect power is over 50 ­ Microprocessors; B.7.2 [Integrated Circuits]: Design Aids ­ Placement and Routing. General Terms Performance

  14. Impact of Interconnect Length on BTI and HCI Induced Frequency Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Impact of Interconnect Length on BTI and HCI Induced Frequency Degradation Xiaofei Wang Pulkit Jain Instability (BTI) and Hot Carrier Injection (HCI) induced frequency degradation on interconnect length has degradation due to BTI decreases monotonically with longer wires because of the shorter effective stress time

  15. Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without Underfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without nano-structured nickel as the primary interconnection material. Assembly was accomplished materials such as nanostructured copper and nickel, novel bonding and barrier layers to provide both

  16. Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control the problem of designing a decentralized control of interconnected power systems, with OLTC and SVCs, under are adjusted for variations in power system model due to large changes in loads. The only feedback needed

  17. Effect of Large Dynamic Loads on Interconnected Power Systems with Power Oscillation Damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Effect of Large Dynamic Loads on Interconnected Power Systems with Power Oscillation Damping.hossain and H.Pota)@adfa.edu.au Abstract--Power systems are composed of dynamic loads. In this paper presents an analysis to investigate the effects of large dynamic loads on interconnected power systems

  18. A SPECULATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO LARGE SCALE INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartley, Roger

    INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS By Nadipuram R. Prasad Satish J. Ranade Electrical Engineering Department New Mexico) technologies to the operation and control of large scale interconnected electric power systems. A fundamental issue discussed in this paper is the control structure of power systems. An evaluation of the control

  19. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  20. Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating and serve predetermined load requirements. Index Terms -- Energy Storage, variability, intermittency

  1. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  2. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  3. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  4. Alabama successes spur interest in eastern Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redden, J.

    1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shallow waters of the eastern fringe of the Gulf of Mexico are becoming a world-class offshore gas play. Spurred by the success ratio offshore Alabama, the water off Mississippi and Florida are drawing intense interest as oil companies attempt to extend the prolific Norphlet formation. Sitting at the heart of the recent interest in the eastern Gulf are the state and federal waters off Alabama. Exploration and drilling activity in the area are discussed.

  5. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States in the Eastern

  6. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, State

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States in the EasternAgency Input

  7. Beta diversity of angiosperms in temperate floras of eastern Asia and eastern North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peet, Robert K.

    LETTER Beta diversity of angiosperms in temperate floras of eastern Asia and eastern North America The diversity of a region reflects both local diversity and the turnover of species (beta diversity) between, we calculated beta diversity as the slope of the relationship between the log of species similarity

  8. Quality Assurance Exchange Winter 2010 Volume 6 Issue 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Quality Assurance Exchange Winter 2010 Volume 6 Issue 1 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Quality Assurance Policy and Assistance

  9. aythya marila wintering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and financial Accounting I (ACCT 531) Winter Quarter 2013 Instructor: John V. Merle, MBA Angel Website: https and promotion of justice, the Department of Accounting of the Albers...

  10. annual winter legumes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and financial Accounting I (ACCT 531) Winter Quarter 2013 Instructor: John V. Merle, MBA Angel Website: https and promotion of justice, the Department of Accounting of the Albers...

  11. aspen winter conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and financial Accounting I (ACCT 531) Winter Quarter 2013 Instructor: John V. Merle, MBA Angel Website: https and promotion of justice, the Department of Accounting of the Albers...

  12. aumayr hannspeter winter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and financial Accounting I (ACCT 531) Winter Quarter 2013 Instructor: John V. Merle, MBA Angel Website: https and promotion of justice, the Department of Accounting of the Albers...

  13. Relationship between juvenile steelhead survival and winter habitat availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huber, Eric; Kayed, Sammy; Post, Charles

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ugedal. 2007. Shelter availability affects behaviour, size-and winter habitat availability Eric Huber, Sammy Kayed, andThe establishment and availability of interstitial spaces

  14. Physicist Peter Winter wins Department of Energy Early Career...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ill. Winter's work centers on performing benchmarking tests and calibrations of the nuclear magnetic resonance probes that will be used to precisely measure the magnetic...

  15. Political and military implications of the ''nuclear winter'' theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soviet and U.S. views of the nuclear winter theory and the theory's significance for alliance relationships and military policy are discussed in this book.

  16. Extinction cascade: Biological consequence of nuclear war/winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, G.L.; Pimm, S.; Fields, D.E.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In very general terms, this report describes the effects on biological organisms of a nuclear war and the projected nuclear winter that would follow. (TEM)

  17. Math 503 Galois Theory Winter 2013 Instructor Amites Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Amites

    Math 503 Galois Theory Winter 2013 Instructor Amites Sarkar Text Elements of Algebra John Stillwell-mail is amites.sarkar@wwu.edu #12;

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  19. Fast Algorithms for High Frequency Interconnect Modeling in VLSI Circuits and Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yang

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conductor array with magnetic blocks ................. 61 31 CPU time ratio of Maxwell 3D over our algorithm ........... 62 32 Cross sectional view of |B|. ....................... 63 33 E?ect of M 0 (M 0 = M S cos(theta)) on the inductance ......... 64 34 E...?ect of conductor current on the inductance ............. 65 35 Magnitude of S-parameters for interconnect with non-magnetic blocks 66 36 Magnitude of S-parameters for interconnect with magnetic blocks .. 67 37 Phase of S-parameters for interconnect with non...

  20. ARM - Field Campaign - Winter SCM IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single ColumngovCampaignsWatergovCampaignsWinter SCM

  1. Steven Winters Associates Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt.Steep Gradient FlumeEnergyStettin,Winters Associates

  2. Post-Project Appraisal for the Winter Creek Restoration Redwood Grove, UC Botanical Gardens at Berkeley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiala, Shannon; Janes, Kelly; Sousa, Ricardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this reach of Winter Creek? 3. How did construction4. Pre-restoration. Winter Creek, looking upstream. 2005.5. Pre-restoration. Winter Creek, looking downstream. 2005.

  3. Northern winter climate change: Assessment of uncertainty in CMIP5 projections related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    Northern winter climate change: Assessment of uncertainty in CMIP5 projections related circulation could have an important impact on northern winter tropospheric climate change, given that sea coherent variations in troposphere-stratosphere circulation. Here we assess northern winter stratospheric

  4. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  5. Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: Opportunities, interconnections, and needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark F. Ruth; Owen R. Zinaman; Mark Antkowiak; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Morgan D. Bazilian

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. energy system evolves, the amount of electricity from variable-generation sources is likely to increase, which could result in additional times when electricity demand is lower than available production. Thus, purveyors of technologies that traditionally have provided base-load electricityósuch as nuclear power plantsócan explore new operating procedures to deal with the associated market signals. Concurrently, innovations in nuclear reactor design coupled with sophisticated control systems now allow for more complex apportionment of heat within an integrated system such as one linked to energy-intensive chemical processes. This paper explores one opportunity Ė nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. These are defined as integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation, and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: Thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. Throughout the paper, gaps and research needs are identified to promote further exploration of the topic.

  6. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    multiple speakers, presenters listed on link below

    2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, ?New Data From the Energy Frontier.? There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week?s events included a public lecture (?The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson? given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics caf? geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was ?Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter.? It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled ?What Makes Up Dark Matter.? There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics caf? to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  7. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  8. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  9. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  10. Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the topic of "Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California," given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  11. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  12. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  13. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  14. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

  15. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administrationís transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

  16. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  18. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  19. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

  20. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

  1. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    sophisticated cooling systems, further reducing overall data center energy efficiencies. Moreover, measurements feasibility of the system. Keywords: optical network architecture, data center networks, reconfigurableOptically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient

  2. Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

  3. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  4. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  5. Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and their impact on interconnect reliability and performance [7, 81. Furthermore, self-heating in via structures in the metal wires and evaluate the impact of via separation. Based on the thermal-electrical analogy (Fig. I

  6. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  7. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

  8. Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Saswati

    1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract than, less than or as much aggregate power as it requires. G. Kasbekar and S. Sarkar

  9. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  10. alabama eastern gulf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The angiosperm flora of eastern Asia (EAS) is roughly twice as rich as that of eastern North America (ENA), in spite of similar area and climate. Using provincestate-level...

  11. Agricultural & Biological Engineering Alumni Newsletter. Winter 2009 ABE@Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Agricultural & Biological Engineering Alumni Newsletter. Winter 2009 ABE@Illinois WINTER2009 Triple Crown for Illinois's Agricultural and Biological Engineering Program The Agricultural and Biological of Agricultural and Biological Engineering held its first annual "Celebrate ABE@Illinois" on September 5th and 6th

  12. LIGHTING UP 24 ENGI NEER I NG & SCIENCE WINTER 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIGHTING UP 24 ENGI NEER I NG & SCIENCE WINTER 2013 #12;THE DARK AGESby Marcus Y. Woo After about nuclear fusion, thus Over the course of another couple of hundred million years, more and with high any photon that might have tried to illuminate the infant universe. 25WINTER 2013 ENGI NEER I NG

  13. Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000­000 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics Breckenridge, Colorado, USA February 8­15, 2003 Nuclear Astrophysics in Rare Isotope Facilities C Abstract. I discuss a few of the recent developments in nuclear reactions at very low energies

  14. Proc. 21st Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2005) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Robert

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 21st Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2005) 000­000 21st Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics Breckenridge, Colorado, USA February 5­12, 2005 From the NN Interaction to Nuclear Structure present a novel approach for the treatment of realistic nucleon- nucleon interactions in nuclear many

  15. Proc. 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000≠000 20th Winter Workshop on Nuclear in the nuclear modification factor RdAu is seen as the pseudorapidity of the detected charged hadrons changes that included quantum evolution to describe how the nuclear modification factor would be mod- ified

  16. Rachel Struglia Patricia L. Winter Andrea Meyer United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Rachel Struglia Patricia L. Winter Andrea Meyer United States Department of Agriculture Forest; Winter, Patricia L.; Meyer, Andrea. 2003. Southern California socioeconomic assessment: Sociodemographic Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507-6099, e-mail: pwinter@fs.fed.us. Andrea Meyer was, at the time

  17. STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER Winter 1999, Vol. 29, No. 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER Winter 1999, Vol. 29, No. 3 #12;The Beam Line is published GEORGE TRILLING, KARL VAN BIBBER HERMAN WINICK Illustrations TERRY ANDERSON Distribution CRYSTAL TILGHMAN A PERIODICAL OF PARTICLE PHYSICS WINTER 1999 VOL. 29, NUMBER 3 Printed on recycled paper FEATURES 2 GOLDEN

  18. THOR Concept Complex simulation Autonomous control Conclusion Interconnection of the behavior-based control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Karsten

    Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 2 #12;THOR Concept Complex of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 3 #12;THOR Concept Complex simulation Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 5 #12;THOR Concept Complex

  19. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, GaŽlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervť; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  20. Nuclear winter from gulf war discounted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Would a major conflagration in Kuwait's oil fields trigger a climate catastrophe akin to the 'nuclear winter' that got so much attention in the 1980s This question prompted a variety of opinions. The British Meteorological Office and researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory concluded that the effect of smoke from major oil fires in Kuwait on global temperatures is likely to be small; however, the obscuration of sunlight might significantly reduce surface temperatures locally. Michael MacCracken, leader of the researchers at Livermore, predicts that the worst plausible oil fires in the Gulf would produce a cloud of pollution about as severe as that found on a bad day at the Los Angeles airport. The results of some mathematical modeling by the Livermore research group are reported.

  1. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  2. Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

  3. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  4. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  5. Vegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    by insulating vegetation from winter wind and temperature extremes, modifying winter soil temperaturesVegetation responses in Alaskan arctic tundra after 8 years of a summer warming and winter snow ) open-topped fiberglass chambers (OTCs) to study the effects of changes in winter snow cover and summer

  6. Signal and System Theory II, BSc, Winter 2008 Automatic Control Laboratory D-ITET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lygeros, John

    Signal and System Theory II, BSc, Winter 2008 Automatic Control Laboratory D-ITET ETH Zurich Winter happens to the state as t using the final value theorem. 1 #12;Signal and System Theory II, BSc, Winter T seconds. Do you believe her? Justify your answer. 2 #12;Signal and System Theory II, BSc, Winter 2008

  7. Southern Rockies: eastern and northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolson, J.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploratory drilling in eastern and northwestern Colorado closely paralleled that of 1979. Success factors, however, were higher, partially due to a greater number of marginal well completions following the increase in oil prices. Thirty-seven percent more exploratory wells were completed in 1980 than in 1979. Statewide exploratory success was 28.8% and the development well success rate was 78.3%, compared to 20.8% and 73.4%, respectively, in 1979. Cretaceous sandstones remained the primary target in northwestern and central Colorado. Shallow Niobrara gas provided the main play in eastern Colorado. Southeastern Colorado was the site of significant exploration and development drilling in Pennsylvanian Morrow trends. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  8. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  9. BEE 446546, River Engineering, Winter 2010 Instructor: Dr. Desiree Tullos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    appropriate methods of data collection for addressing engineering problem at the project site. WeBEE 446546, River Engineering, Winter 2010 Syllabus Instructor: Dr. Desiree Tullos Assistant Professor, Biological and Ecological Engineering Department 233 Gilmore Hall Phone

  10. CMPE 185 Winter 1999 Syllabus 1 1 Administrative details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Kevin

    CMPE 185 Winter 1999 Syllabus 1 Syllabus 1 Administrative details Location and time Porter 144, MWF). Everything must be turned in by the last day of class, Friday March 12. Karplus Info 1 #12; 2 Syllabus CMPE

  11. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermal sense value of the occupants, the winter classroom thermal environment was evaluated. Measures for improving the classroom indoor thermal environmental quality were also given. The lower limit air temperature of the non-air conditioned classrooms...

  12. QCD results at HERAQ Aspen 2008 Winter Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QCD results at HERAQ Aspen 2008 Winter Conference "Revealing the Nature of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking" 14 January 2008, Aspen, CO, USA Yuji Yamazaki (Kobe University, ZEUS) O b h lf f th H1 d ZEUS ll

  13. ENCS 307: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES AND METHODS SECOND (WINTER) TERM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erbilgin, Nadir

    -1- ENCS 307: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PRINCIPLES AND METHODS SECOND (WINTER) TERM Instructor Dr. Grading Assignments 50% Exams 50% Course Description Environmental assessments are becoming more common as increasing regulatory requirements are developed. Information collected for environmental assessments must

  14. Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    or biosolids applications. GS 25 GS 30 Figure 1. Generalized nitrogen uptake pattern for winter bar- ley grown received manure or biosolids applications, or have received adequate N fertilization for Nitrogen

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermal sense value of the occupants, the winter classroom thermal environment was evaluated. Measures for improving the classroom indoor thermal environmental quality were also given. The lower limit air temperature of the non-air conditioned classrooms...

  16. Math 209 Discrete Mathematics Winter 2009 Instructor Amites Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Amites

    Math 209 Discrete Mathematics Winter 2009 Instructor Amites Sarkar Text Discrete Mathematics, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays, in 216 Bond Hall. My phone number is 650 7569 and my e-mail is amites.sarkar

  17. Math 204 Elementary Linear Algebra Winter 2008 Instructor Amites Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Amites

    Math 204 Elementary Linear Algebra Winter 2008 Instructor Amites Sarkar Text Linear Algebra and its Hall. My phone number is 650 7569 and my e-mail is amites.sarkar@wwu.edu #12;Course Objectives

  18. Use of east Texas reservoirs by wintering bald eagles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Sandra Joy

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roost in the United States; there are now 4 other roosting areas preserved along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers (Dunstan 1978). The Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuge in Oregon was established to protect the approximately 300 wintering bald...;. immature, 40%%u adult), b bald eagles begin arriving in east Texas in mid-November and are mostly gone by mid-14arch. Some eagles apparently wander between reservoirs and river systems throughout the winter. The eagles rely on self-caught live fish...

  19. Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 000≠000 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear and Nuclear Collisions via the Test Particle Method - Similarities and Differences Wolfgang Bauer1,a 1 momentum. PACS: 24.10.-i, 24.10.Lx, 25.70.-z, 25.75.-q, 26.50.+x, 97.60.Bw 1. Nuclear Dynamics Wong [1

  20. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  1. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1988-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

  2. Response of Hard Red Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Photoperiod and Vernilization in South Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simoneaux, Bryan Edwin

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................. 10 Photoperiod and vernalization interaction of winter wheat .. 13 CHAPTER III EVALUATION OF WINTER WHEAT GENOTYPES IN A FIELD AND CONTROLLED ENVIRO1MENT FOR THEIR RESPONES TO PHOTOPERIOD AND VERNILIZATION.... If the vernalization requirement is not met, winter wheat plants will remain in the vegetative state and will not produce grain 3 (Morgan et al., 2006). An increase in winter temperatures in South Texas could have a negative impact on winter wheat production...

  3. Impact of a simulated nuclear winter environment on growth development and productivity of potatoes, winter wheat, pines and soybeans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palta, J.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several recent studies predict strong land surface cooling and reduction in solar irradiance following nuclear explosions (Turco et al., 1983; Covey et al., 1984; Thompson et al., 1984). Although there is disagreement among scientists on the extent and the duration of temperature and irradiation decrease, there is a general agreement on the nuclear winter'' hypothesis following nuclear war (Covey, 1985). Agreements between the timing of excessive frost events and volcanic eruptions supports such nuclear winter scenarios (La Marche Jr. and Hirschboek, 1984). More recently Robock (1988) recorded a drop in surface temperatures following the entrapment of smoke from a forest fire in northern California. These measurements also support the nuclear winter hypothesis. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of a simulated nuclear winter environment on productivity of four plant species. 20 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects by pulsed laser heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  5. Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL) for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC for a total amount of 5 181 403 euros (8 095 424 Swiss francs), subject to revision, bringing the total amount of the contract to a maximum of 14 974 239 euros (23 395 751 Swiss francs), subject to revision. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  6. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

  7. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  8. Petrophysical characterization of the Carito Norte, Mulata and Carito fields, Norte de Monagas, Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porras, J.C. [Corpoven, S.A., Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); De J. Valle, [Amoco Production Company, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Norte de Monagas trend is located in the Eastern Venezuelan Basin and is characterized by high temperature, high initial pressure and production rates, variable PVT properties, GORs, and asphaltene content, and the presence of a tar mat at the base of the oil column. These reservoirs were petrophysically characterized through the integration of core and log data. Productive sands are composed of very coarse- to medium-grained sands deposited primarily in deltaic to shallow marine environments. These sands are quartz-rich, with clay matrix averaging 3% in the Oligocene and 6% in the Cretaceous. The main difference is the presence of up to 30% feldspars in the Cretaceous. Clay mineralogy is dominated by illitic material in the Cretaceous and by kaolinite in the Oligocene. Post-depositional changes dominated by cementation, mechanical compaction and subsequent dissolution processes have resulted in marked improvement or degradation of the productive characteristics of these reservoirs. Rocks were divided into four petrophysical. categories based on grain size, pore throat radius, porosity and permeability. Mercury saturation vs. mercury saturation over capillary pressure plots show the dominant interconnected pore system which controls flow rates is best defined by 50% saturation. Plots constructed using R50 pore aperture correlation indicate the pore throats to be macro to mega porous. Average log calculated water saturation is 14% compared with estimated from capillary pressure data of 12% at 1200{prime} above free water level, and 15% from relative permeability data. Relative permeability data indicate the rocks behave preferably as water-wet.

  9. Northerly surface wind events over the eastern North Pacific Ocean : spatial distribution, seasonality, atmospheric circulation, and forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    atmosphere over the eastern Pacific Ocean in summer, volumeover the eastern North Pacific Ocean: Spatial distribution,winds over the eastern North Pacific Ocean in spring and

  10. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalies, William D.

    of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

  11. Abstract--The security of modern large interconnected power systems suffers from the absence of a unique security coordinator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    1 Abstract-- The security of modern large interconnected power systems suffers from the absence interconnected power systems. In the absence of a full information exchange, the operators' alternative solution contingencies screening , control areas data exchange, multi-area electric power system security assessment. I

  12. A Population Study of the Gray Squirrel in Eastern Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodrum, Phil D.

    1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................ Acknowledgments 32 Summary and Conclusions ......................................... 32 .................................................. Literature Cited 34 POPULA'I'ION STUDY OF THE GRAY SQUIRREL, SCIURUS CAROLINENSIS CAROLINEN- SIS, IN EASTERN TEXAS PHIL...

  13. Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study: Executive Summary...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Study: Executive Summary and Project Overview Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study: Executive Summary and Project Overview This study evaluates the future operational...

  14. Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study -- Preliminary Findings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, B.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, the development of wind datasets, the transmission analysis, and the results of wind integration analysis for four scenarios.

  15. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Report: Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared Data Abstract Remote sensing is a cost-effective tool that can be used to cover large...

  16. Seventh International Dielectrics and Conductors for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (DCMIC), Santa Clara, CA, March 5-9, 2001, pp. 38-50.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and signal transmission through the interconnects in VLSI circuits due to self-heating (or Joule heating interconnects due to self-heating phenomenon can also limit the maximum allowed average current density, javg

  17. Distributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    requirements, modern control systems are becoming more and more complex. For these processes, different controlDistributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system: In this paper, a distributed and networked control system architecture based on independent Model Predictive

  18. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    of the underlying aspects and application to representative systems in photovoltaics and solid state lighting approaches for assembly and electrical interconnection of micro/nanoscale devices into functional systems, and photovoltaics can be formed with assemblies of micro/nanoscale components or material ele- ments to achieve

  19. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near OíNeill, Nebraska, to Westernís power transmission system. The project website is http://www.wapa.gov/ugp/Environment/GrandePrairie.htm.

  20. WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Francis

    WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

  1. Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas A. Nojeh1 , P Engineering University of British Columbia 2332 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada 2 School of Electrical of the research effort in the emerging area of nanoelectronics has revolved around creating novel devices

  2. A Self-Reconfigurable Lightweight Interconnect for Scalable Processor Fabrics Heiner Giefers and Marco Platzner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    , on the processor array. We prototype the processor fabric on FPGA technology and analyze the efficiency of our many, energy, and execution time. Therefore it is of high interest to also study alternative interconnects, the communication infrastructure incurs low over- heads in terms of energy and area, particularly compared to packet

  3. An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    (RCPs) [2 ], the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook [3,4 ], and several modeAn energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges Nilsson8 and KR Smith9 The energy system is currently facing a number of challenges, most notably high

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  5. EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Westernís existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado.

  6. 3-Dimensional, Solder-Free Interconnect Technology for High-Performance Power Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    , published in "Conference on Integrated Power Systems (CIPS), Nuremberg : Germany (2012)" #12;dimensional (3D) packaging of power modules in a compact stacked layer structure [3], [4], [5]. The proposed technologies can3-Dimensional, Solder-Free Interconnect Technology for High- Performance Power Modules Bassem

  7. Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

  8. ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: A SUSTANAIBLE APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a methodology for rural electrification by micro-grids based upon different renewable resources. > Application to absorb innovations such as rural electrification by isolated micro grid Sustainable approach The successELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY

  9. Analyzing Ultra-Scale Application Communication Requirements for a Reconfigurable Hybrid Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dependent on scaling up to unprecedented numbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect architecture be and/or a fee. . peta-scale computing is increasingly dependent on scaling up the number of processors, there is a critical need to ef- fectively build and utilize network topology solutions with costs that scale linearly

  10. Analog/RF Design Techniques for High Performance Nanoelectronic On-Chip Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Bao

    explores this possibility, espe- cially, application of two analog/RF design techniques as fol- low. 1- mance nanoelectronic on-chip interconnects: (1) application of distributed amplifiers for signal. Application of distributed amplifiers for signal attenua- tion reduction in high performance nanoelectronic on

  11. On-line Fault Detection and Location for NoC Interconnects Cristian Grecu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    On-line Fault Detection and Location for NoC Interconnects Cristian Grecu1 , André Ivanov1 , Res-line fault detection and location in Network-on-chip (NoC) communication fabrics is introduced. This approachC-based chips. These factors motivated us to develop a method for concurrent error detection and location for No

  12. Transparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    , and other related circuitry (e.g. for thermal stability). In CMOS technology [6], the total power dissipated static power dissipation of the interface. The dynamic power is proportional to the gate capacitance (CTransparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects Odile Liboiron

  13. Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z Gary; Weil, K. Scott; Paxton, Dean M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several years, the steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures to the intermediate range of 700~850oC [1] has made it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs. However, to be a durable and reliable, a metal or alloy has to satisfy several functional requirements specific to the interconnect under SOFC operating conditions. Specifically, the interconnect metal or alloy should possess the following properties: (i) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation, hot corrosion, and carburization) in both cathodic (air) and anodic (fuel) atmospheres; (ii) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN (positive cathode-electrolyte-negative anode) and seal materials (as least for a rigid seal design); (iii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iv) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (v) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials.

  14. Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

  15. Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) ­ Grenoble, France **Grupo de Investigacion y Desarollo en Energia Solar y Automatica (IDEA) ­ Jaén, Spain a wide variety of plants ranging from utility-sized solar trackers to residential building-integrated PV, resulting in lower energy production yields. The traditional series-parallel interconnection scheme of solar

  16. High-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. Buyuksahin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    the predicted (at RTL) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er- ror of 14.4% is obtainedHigh-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. B¬®uy¬®uks¬łahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high-level average power esti- mation to include the power due

  17. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems M. J School of S ~ao Carlos, Brazil. Email: ramos@sel.eese.usp.br Abstract--The complexity of power systems, such as wind generators. This changing nature of power systems has considerable effect on its dynamic behaviour

  18. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    latency and low energy consumption [5][7]. RF-I transmission lines provide single-cycle crossPower Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong}@cs.ucla.edu Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA. {mfchang, socher, roccotam}@ee.ucla.edu Abstract As chip

  19. A THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi-optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of transmitting subpicosecond pulses in the transverse electromagnetic TEM mode over arbitrarily long paths near the cutoff fre- quency. Such pulse broadening does not occur for the trans- verse electromagneticA THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi

  20. Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire BRIGIT OBRIST, GUE contributed to this paper are: Gue¬īladio Cisse¬ī (Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire¬ītude de cas comparative, il examine les re¬īponses aux proble`mes environnementaux dans un contexte aussi

  1. Data-Dependent Jitter and Crosstalk-Induced Bounded Uncorrelated Jitter in Copper Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    Data-Dependent Jitter and Crosstalk-Induced Bounded Uncorrelated Jitter in Copper Interconnects Abstract -- This paper resolves the jitter impairment of non-return-to-zero data in transmission lines. The limited bandwidth of the transmission line introduces data- dependent jitter. Crosstalk between

  2. CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility VincenzoName.lastName@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. Car sharing and car pooling have proven to be an effective solution to reduce the amount of such effectiveness. Keywords. Peer to peer, overlay networks, case study, information retrieval, car sharing 1

  3. Optimum Repeater InsertionBased on a CMOSDelay Model for On-ChipRLC Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Yehea

    Abstract-A closed form expressionfor the propagationdelay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line is to provide an accurate estimation of the propagationdelay of nonlinearCMOS gates driving distributedRLC lines if inductance is neglectedand the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over 30%for present on

  4. Optimum Repeater Insertion Based on a CMOS Delay Model for OnChip RLC Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Yehea

    Abstract ≠ A closed form expression for the propagation delay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line of the propagation delay of nonlinear CMOS gates driving distributed RLC lines as well as to develop design if inductance is neglected and the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over 30% for present

  5. HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems J. Hazra Dpt of Li`ege, Belgium, dernst@ulg.ac.be Abstract--This paper presents three HVDC modulation strate- gies flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability

  6. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through goal is a new solution to one of the most difficult problems associated with the packaging of chip and electrically compatible with current ball grid array (BGA) technology for electronic interconnect, and provides

  7. Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesic, Dragan

    Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems Dina via the Lyapunov method. In particular, an ISS Lyapunov function for the overall system is constructed from the ISS Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems. We consider parameterized families of discrete

  8. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

  9. F. Karinou et al., "Influence of transmission impairments on the OSMOSIS HPC optical interconnect architecture" 1 Abstract--We examine the impact of transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    ) supercomputers (BlueWaters [4] and POWER7-IH [5]) use optical interconnects for inter-rack communication

  10. Eastern Maine Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrictInformation Ireland)EastEastern Iowa

  11. Eastern Illinois Elec Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest, Illinois: Energy ResourcesRutherford,Eastern Illinois Elec Coop

  12. BLM Eastern States Office | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon, France: Energy ResourcesBurley Field Office JumpEastern

  13. Winter fuels report. Week ending, October 21, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitomer, M.; Griffith, A.; Zyren, J.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand for distillate fuel oil is expected to show a slight decline this winter (October 1, 1994-March 31, 1995) from last, according to the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1994 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. EIA projects winter demand to decline one percent to 3.3 million barrels per day, assuming normal weather conditions. The effects of expected moderate growth in the economy and industrial production will likely be offset by much warmer temperatures than those a year ago. EIA projects prices for both residential heating oil and diesel fuel to be moderately higher than prices last winter. Increases are likely, primarily because crude oil prices are expected to be higher than they were a year earlier (Table FE5).

  14. ORIGINAL PAPER Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Robert J.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Northern Saudi Arabia in Wadi Kareim and Wadi Mobarak in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and the Nuwaybah formation in NW Saudi and extends from Egypt, Israel, and Jordan to Ethiopia and Yemen. The ANS (Fig. 1a) developed during

  15. Use of east Texas reservoirs by wintering bald eagles†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Sandra Joy

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) also found wintering bald eagles relying primarily on black-tailed jackrabbits for food. These birds shared their t 1 11 d oott tth g 1d g1 Ihttit ~ht t t). Ed d successfully trapped several bald eagles and fitted them with radio transmitters... below Toledo Bend Reservoir until the nest trees were killed by inundation. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Depar t- ment conducts an aerial survey each winter to locate bald eagle nests and to verify the success rate of each active nest. In 1979...

  16. Nuclear winter. The human and environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwell, M.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Winter is an analysis of the consequences of nuclear war for humans and the environment. It is an account of the world after nuclear war that includes both effects on humans and the phenomenon of nuclear winter. Contents: Foreward by Russell W. Peterson. Introduction. Scenario Development. Initial Conditions: Human Health Effects; State of Physical and Biological Systems; State of Atmospheric Systems; Local Fallout Patterns; Summary of Immediate Effects. Intermediate and Long-Term Consequences: Major Problem Areas: Effects of Reduced Temperatures; Effects of Reduced Light Levels; Effects on Agricultural Production; Societal Disruptions. Relatively Lesser Problem Areas. Recovery Processes. Summary of Consequences.

  17. COLUMBIA ENGINEERING WINTER GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE: EXPLORING GLOBAL ENGINEERING WITH CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    COLUMBIA ENGINEERING WINTER GLOBAL EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCE: EXPLORING GLOBAL ENGINEERING WITH CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG JANUARY 7th ­ 15TH , 2012 Program Features The Winter Global Educational Experience is open to Columbia Engineering

  18. Winter Weather Preparedness Have a Plan -Make a Kit -Stay Informed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    Winter Weather Preparedness Have a Plan - Make a Kit - Stay Informed during winter weather. Move livestock to sheltered areas with non-frozen drinking. If necessary insulate walls and attic. Caulk and weather-strip doors and windowsills

  19. Proc. 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2001) 000--000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2001) 000--000 17th Winter Workshop on Nuclear of Nuclear Physics, Krak‚??ow, Poland, 4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, 5

  20. Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 7--15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics (2003) 7--15 19th Winter Workshop on Nuclear, IL 60439­4843, USA 2 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973­5000, USA 3 Institute of Nuclear

  1. Fall 2013-Winter 2014 / Department Contact Person Updated: December 18, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Fall 2013- Winter 2014 / Department Contact Person Updated: December 18, 2013 Department Course for U3, follow instructions on Minerva to ask for permission for winter. Other Biology Nancy Nelson

  2. Winter2013 (Revised 1.9.13) 1 of 5 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Winter2013 (Revised 1.9.13) 1 of 5 Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering Room 200-related research 6. Discuss how safety is addressed in design #12;Winter2013 (Revised 1.9.13) 2 of 5 Course

  3. Spatial and temporal winter territory use and behavioral responses of whooping cranes to human activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaFever, Kristin E.

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    cranes during winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 at ANWR, Texas, USA? 20 3 Percent time spent in locomotion and flight by territorial whooping crane families throughout winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 at ANWR, Texas, USA...????????????????????????? 22 4 Mean movement velocity (meters traveled/min) of 5 whooping crane families during winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 at ANWR, Texas, USA?. 34 5 Area (ha) of each habitat type within the winter territory of 5 whooping...

  4. Question of the Week: What are Your Greatest Energy Concerns as We Approach Winter?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We asked, you answered: What are your greatest energy concerns as we approach the winter heating season?

  5. Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain and central and eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. These trends are recognized by characteristic petroleum traps, reservoirs, and hydrocarbon types. The source for the Jurassic hydrocarbons is Smackover algal mudstones. The Jurassic oil trend includes the area north of the regional peripheral fault systems in the tri-state area, and extends into the area north of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs and salt anticlines, with Smackover grainstones and dolostones and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones as reservoirs. This trend has potential for Jurassic oil accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic oil and gas-condensate trend includes the onshore area between the regional peripheral fault systems and Wiggins arch and extends into the area of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs, salt related anticlines, and extensional faults. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Haynesville carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Smackover grainstones, packstones, dolostones, and marine sandstones, and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones serve as reservoirs. This trend contains most of the Jurassic fields in the eastern Gulf coastal plain. The trend has high potential for significant petroleum accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic deep natural gas trend includes the onshore area south of the Wiggins arch and extends into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf. Traps are faulted salt anticlines with basement highs as potential traps. Cotton Valley deltaic-strandplain sandstones and Norphlet eolian sandstones are the reservoirs. Several gas discoveries below 20,000 ft have been made in this trend in Mississippi and offshore Alabama. The trend has excellent potential for major gas accumulations in coastal Alabama and central Gulf of Mexico.

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER Wintering forest birds roost in areas of higher sun radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrascal, Luis M.

    with taller trees more exposed to solar radiation to enhance winter habitat suitability for birdsORIGINAL PAPER Wintering forest birds roost in areas of higher sun radiation Sara Villén latitudes of cold winter climate, birds should spend the night in areas of low altitudes, higher

  7. Organic Chemistry 51B -Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chemistry 51B Reactions(s). Chapter 7: Nucleophilic Substitution + + NaOH CH3O- #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013 Organic Chemistry Peer Tutoring Program Chapter 8: Elimination Reactions #12;Organic Chemistry 51B - Winter 2013

  8. INT David Kaplan -Schladming Winter School 2007 Supersymmetry on the Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    for Nuclear Theory Seattle,WA - USA 1 #12;INT David Kaplan - Schladming Winter School 2007 Part 1: RelevanceINT David Kaplan - Schladming Winter School 2007 Supersymmetry on the Lattice I. Symmetries Winter School 2007 · Irrelevant: less important in the IR · Relevant: more important in the IR · Marginal

  9. Lecture 32 1 Physics 558 Winter 2013 Physics 558 Lecture 32

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Steve

    Lecture 32 1 Physics 558 Winter 2013 Physics 558 ≠ Lecture 32 The Strong Interactions II: The QCD Winter 2013 And the least familiar one ≠ the 4-gluon vertex, which is similar to the 4-vector boson-perturbative). This scenario is illustrated in the figure. #12;Lecture 32 3 Physics 558 Winter 2013 Recall from our previous

  10. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT WINTER CAMPUS CURTAILMENT 2013-2014 FOR STAFF EMPLOYEES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT WINTER CAMPUS CURTAILMENT 2013-2014 FOR STAFF EMPLOYEES versiůn espaŮola Our 2013-2014 Winter Campus Curtailment is scheduled for December 23, 2013 through January 1, 2014 of 8 #12;QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT WINTER CAMPUS CURTAILMENT 2013-2014 FOR STAFF EMPLOYEES Employees

  11. Eastern Band of Cherokee Strategic Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souther Carolina Institute of energy Studies-Robert Leitner

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians was awarded a grant under the U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program (TEP) to develop a Tribal Strategic Energy Plan (SEP). The grant, awarded under the ďFirst StepsĒ phase of the TEP, supported the development of a SEP that integrates with the Tribeís plans for economic development, preservation of natural resources and the environment, and perpetuation of Tribal heritage and culture. The Tribe formed an Energy Committee consisting of members from various departments within the Tribal government. This committee, together with its consultant, the South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, performed the following activities: ē Develop the Tribeís energy goals and objectives ē Establish the Tribeís current energy usage ē Identify available renewable energy and energy efficiency options ē Assess the available options versus the goals and objectives ē Create an action plan for the selected options

  12. Newsline Winter 2003 McGill Anesthesia Newsletter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    1 Newsline Winter 2003 McGill Anesthesia Newsletter This year at our Annual Wesley Bourne Memorial Award for Excellence in the Teaching of Anesthesia. Teaching the art and science of anesthesia anesthesia. Dr. Deschamps was this year's residents' choice because of his knowledge, his enthusiasm

  13. MATH 335 Winter 2010 Mathematics of Engineering Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Offin, Dan

    processing, communications and control system applications. Instructor: Serdar Y¨uksel, Jeffrey Hall 415:00-14:00 Text: Modern Signals and Systems, by H. Kwakernaak and R. Sivan, (Copies of this book are availableMATH 335 Winter 2010 Mathematics of Engineering Systems Classes held at Stirling Hall 412A, Mon 8

  14. Physics 214 Winter 2013 The Poisson sum formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 214 Winter 2013 The Poisson sum formula The Poisson sum formula takes on a number will use this version of the Poisson sum formula in solving problem 14.13 of Jackson. To prove this formula sum formula is as follows. Given a function f(t) and its Fourier transform, F() - eit f(t)dt , (7

  15. Physics 214 Winter 2013 The Poisson sum formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 214 Winter 2013 The Poisson sum formula The Poisson sum formula takes on a number of di will use this version of the Poisson sum formula in solving problem 14.13 of Jackson. To prove this formula the desired result announced in eq. (1). Actually, the most common form for the Poisson sum formula

  16. Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 1. The harmonic oscillator solution: displacement as a function of time We wish to solve the equation of motion for the simple harmonic oscillator shall employ for solving this di#erential equation is called the method of inspired guessing. In class

  17. Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 5B Winter 2009 Solving the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 1. The harmonic oscillator solution: displacement as a function of time We wish to solve the equation of motion for the simple harmonic oscillator employ for solving this differential equation is called the method of inspired guessing. In class, we

  18. 12 MONTHS OF SAFETY & WELLNESS DECEMBER: WINTER DRIVING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    , winter weather hazards result in thousands of motor vehicle accidents each year: ∑ Heavy fog can reduce vehicle Solution: ∑ Plan ahead & consider delaying your trip if the weather is bad ∑ Turn on your in the rain & increase the distance between you & the vehicle ahead ∑ Maintain your vehicle & regularly check

  19. Ecology of Puget Sound Winter 2001: All Level Group Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thuesen, Erik V.

    - 1 - Ecology of Puget Sound Winter 2001: All Level Group Contract Faculty: Erik Thuesen (thuesene@evergreen.edu), Lab 1 3065 This program will investigate ecological interactions of the organisms in the Puget Sound in Puget Sound for hands-on observations and field work. There will be one multi-day field trip to Friday

  20. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = # # n=0 (-1) n a n , (1) where all the a n > 0. The alternating series test but property 1 and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note

  1. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Alternating Series Test An alternating series is defined to be a series of the form: S = n=0 (-1)n an , (1) where all the an > 0. The alternating series test is a set and/or property 2 do not hold, then the alternating series test is inconclusive. Note that property 1

  2. Aspen Winter Conference on Unifying Themes in Condensed Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspen Winter Conference on Unifying Themes in Condensed Matter Mon Jan 12, 2009 Classical vs + poster presentations 8pm - 11pm Dinner at Aspen Meadows Tue Jan 13, 2009 Strong Correlation; Host: Subir Correlated Systems 7:35pm - 7:50pm Discussion + poster presentations 8pm - 11pm Dinner at Aspen Meadows Wed

  3. Managing Winter Annual Grasses in South & Southwest Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Livingston, Stephen

    1999-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    rate (lbs/acre) 75 - 100 75 - 100 15 - 25 75 - 100 75 -100 1 Production Times: Fall, October-December; Winter, January-February; Spring, March-April; Late spring, May-June. vest in addition to livestock grazing. However, such plant diseases as Barley...

  4. FACULTY OF INFORMATICS WINTER EXAM SESSION 2012 BACHELOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    FACULTY OF INFORMATICS WINTER EXAM SESSION 2012 BACHELOR Computer Graphics 13.3016.30 written SI008 Kai Hormann Information and Knowledge Management II 13.3016.30 written SI008 Fabio Crestani Software Development 13.3016.30 written SI006 Mauro PezzŤ Discrete Mathematics I 13.3016.30 written SI008

  5. FACULTY OF INFORMATICS WINTER EXAM SESSION 2012 MASTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Rolf

    FACULTY OF INFORMATICS WINTER EXAM SESSION 2012 MASTER Enterprise Resource Planning 13.1517.00 oral SI004 Chiara Francalanci Uncertain Reasoning and Data Mining 13.3016.30 written SI006 Marco Zaffalon Fundamentals of Programming 13.3016.30 written SI004 Antonio Carzaniga Intelligent Systems 13

  6. EECE 493 -Winter 2012 Introduction to Power Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    DC-DC Converter Analysis (Ch. 2) Sept 17-19: the DC-Transformer Model and Component Losses (Ch. 3, 4EECE 493 - Winter 2012 Introduction to Power Electronics Instructor: Nathan Ozog Office: BC Hydro) Phone: 604 528 2639 (BC Hydro Direct Line) TA: Soroush Amini Sajjad Zadkhast Office: Power Lab - 3rd

  7. Physics 116A Winter 2011 Asymptotic Power Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 Asymptotic Power Series In this note, I will define an asymptotic power series, and contrast its definition with that of a convergent power series. All convergent power series are asymptotic series. However, an asymptotic power series may be convergent or divergent. We first consider

  8. Math/AMath 595: Finite Element Methods (Winter 2001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, William

    for Elliptic Problems by Philippe G. Ciarlet (1978). 3. An Analysis of the Finite Element Method by GilbertMath/AMath 595: Finite Element Methods (Winter 2001) Lectures: MW 3:30{4:50, room 121 RAI Professor Element Methods by Susanne C. Brenner and L. Ridgway Scott (1994). 2. The Finite Element Method

  9. Winter Performance and Maintenance of Porous Asphalt Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Concrete (HSG-B)Porous Asphalt (HSG-C) #12;Cold Climate Performance Results #12;12 Porous Asphalt SurfaceWinter Performance and Maintenance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Robert M. Roseen, Ph.D., P.E., D impacts for new development and reverse impacts in areas with redevelopment. #12;Porous Asphalt Design

  10. SWAIN LIBRARY -INTERSESSION AND WINTER CLOSURE HOURS DECEMBER 14TH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    Green Library will be open December 22-23, 26, 29-31, and January 2, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. with limited servicesSWAIN LIBRARY - INTERSESSION AND WINTER CLOSURE HOURS DECEMBER 14TH , 2008 ≠ JANUARY 5TH , 2009. Branch Libraries that are open, circulation desks will be open for borrowing only. All other services

  11. The long darkness: Psychological and moral perspectives on nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinspoon, L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents papers on the risks of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include nuclear war and climatic catastrophe, evolutionary and developmental considerations, a biological comment on Erikson's notion of pseudospeciation, national security, unexamined assumptions and inescapable consequences, opposing the nuclear threat (the convergence of moral analysis and empirical data), and nuclear winter.

  12. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The generalized Stirling series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The generalized Stirling series In these notes, a generalization of the asymptotic Stirling series for the logarithm of the Gamma function is derived. This generalization is then used to examine the behavior of (x + iy) as |y| . 1. Derivation of the generalized Stirling series We

  13. Physics 116A Winter 2011 The generalized Stirling series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 116A Winter 2011 The generalized Stirling series In these notes, a generalization of the asymptotic Stirling series for the logarithm of the Gamma function is derived. This generalization is then used to examine the behavior of #(x + iy) as |y| ##. 1. Derivation of the generalized Stirling series

  14. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is a demand-side management strategy to reduce electricity use during times of high peak electric loads;1 Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest

  15. Coal rank trends in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of coal rank (by vitrinite maximum reflectance) for eastern Kentucky coals has revealed several regional trends. Coal rank varies from high volatile C (0.5% R/sub max/) to medium volatile bituminous (1.1% R/sub max/), and generally increases to the southeast. One east-west-trending rank high and at least four north-south-trending rank highs interrupt the regional increase. The east-west-trending rank high is associated with the Kentucky River faults in northeastern Kentucky. It is the only rank high clearly associated with a fault zone. The four north-south-trending rank highs are parallel with portions of major tectonic features such as the Eastern Kentucky syncline. Overall, though, the association of north-south-trending rank highs with tectonic expression is not as marked as that with the anomaly associated with the Kentucky River faults. It is possible that the rank trends are related to basement features with subdued surface expression. Rank generally increases with depth, and regional trends observed in one coal are also seen in overlying and underlying coals. The cause of the regional southeastward increase in rank is likely to be the combined influence of greater depth of burial and proximity to late Paleozoic orogenic activity. The anomalous trends could be due to increased depth of burial, but are more likely to have resulted from tectonic activity along faults and basement discontinuities. The thermal disturbances necessary to increase the coal rank need not have been great, perhaps on the order of 10-20/sup 0/C (18-36/sup 0/F) above the metamorphic temperatures of the lower rank coals.

  16. A novel design for monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design for the fabrication of Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs) for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion described in this paper utilizes a novel, interdigitated contacting scheme that increases the flexibility in the size of the component cells and hence the output current and voltage of the module. This flexibility is gained at the expense of only minimally increased grid obscuration. Because the design uses the grid fingers of the component cells as the interconnect structure, the area of the device used for this purpose becomes negligible. In this paper the authors report on the specifics of the design as well as issues related to the fabrication of the modules. Preliminary performance data for representative modules also are offered.

  17. The Development of Interconnection Standards in Six States In 2007-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyes, Jason B.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the process of developing standards for the interconnection of photovoltaic systems and other generators under ten megawatts to the electric grid. State utility commission rulemakings in 2007-2008 in Florida, New Mexico, North Carolina, Maryland, Illinois and Utah provide the basis for analysis of what is and should be considered in the development of standards, and how the process can be improved. State interconnection standards vary substantially, and many utilities have discretion to establish additional or different requirements, creating literally hundreds of sets of rules. This lack of uniformity imposes a significant cost on project developers and installers to track and comply with applicable rules. As well, burdensome provisions and uncertain costs and timelines present formidable barriers to entry, which advocates have limited resources to challenge. For a better process, the author proposes: establishing federal standards as a baseline, involving solar advocates, and developing a utility cost-recovery mechanism.

  18. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a ďtip-to-tipĒ structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?įC to the ďtip-to-tipĒ structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?įC and above.

  19. Interconnection arrangement of routers of processor boards in array of cabinets supporting secure physical partition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomkins, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Camp, William J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure includes routers in service or compute processor boards distributed in an array of cabinets connected in series on each board and to respective routers in neighboring row cabinet boards with the routers in series connection coupled to routers in series connection in respective neighboring column cabinet boards. The array can include disconnect cabinets or respective routers in all boards in each cabinet connected in a toroid. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  20. Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Western Interconnection, there is significant interest in improving approaches to wide-area coordinated operations of the bulk electric power system, in part because of the increasing penetration of variable generation. One proposed solution is an energy imbalance market. This study focused on that approach alone, with the goal of identifying the potential benefits of an energy imbalance market in the year 2020.

  1. System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

  2. State-Level Comparison of Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic Interconnection in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardani, K.; Davidson, C.; Margolis, R.; Nobler, E.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from an analysis of distributed photovoltaic (PV) interconnection and deployment processes in the United States. Using data from more than 30,000 residential (up to 10 kilowatts) and small commercial (10-50 kilowatts) PV systems, installed from 2012 to 2014, we assess the range in project completion timelines nationally (across 87 utilities in 16 states) and in five states with active solar markets (Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York, and Colorado).

  3. HighLevel Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    ) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er¬≠ ror of 14.4% is obtained for the averageHigh¬≠Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects # Kavel M. B ň? uy ň? uks‚?ļahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high¬≠level average power esti¬≠ mation to include the power due

  4. Modified automatic time error control and inadvertent interchange reduction for the WSCC interconnected power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McReynolds, W.L. (Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA (US)); Badley, D.E. (N.W. Power Pool, Coordinating Office, Portland, OR (US))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an automatic generation control (AGC) system that simultaneously reduces time error and accumulated inadvertent interchange energy in interconnected power system. This method is automatic time error and accumulated inadvertent interchange reduction (AIIR). With this method control areas help correct the system time error when doing so also tends to correct accumulated inadvertent interchange. Thus in one step accumulated inadvertent interchange and system time error are corrected.

  5. Turk J Elec Engin, VOL.17, NO.1 2009, c TUBITAK Accurate Prediction of Crosstalk for RC Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayil, Selahattin

    Interconnects Selahattin SAYIL, Merlyn RUDRAPATI Department of Electrical Engineering, Lamar University P.O. Box 10029, Beaumont, TX 77710, U.S.A. e-mail: sayil@ee.lamar.edu Abstract This work proposes an accurate

  6. Cost-Effectivenessof PhotovoltaicGenerationIn A Transmission-Constrained Load Area of An InterconnectedSystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    Abstract: Electric power systems of today are experiencing a difficulty of constrained transmission lines, present electric system networks are experiencing the difficulty of constrained transmission lines: Photovoltaic Generation, Power System Economics, Dispersed Generation, Transmission-Constrained Interconnected

  7. Design and implementation of a large integrated crossbar switch for a 256 x 256 x 8 interconnection network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naik, Rajeshwar

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is determined by a detailed yield analysis. Index Terms-Crossbar switch 7 buffer, delay, interconnection networks, packet, clock cycle, arbitration, performance, priority, yield analysis, latch, decoder, packaging, ball grid array....

  8. High-speed graphene interconnects monolithically integrated with CMOS ring oscillators operating at 1.3GHz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    We have successfully experimentally integrated graphene interconnects with commercial 0.25 ¬Ņm technology CMOS ring oscillator circuit using conventional fabrication techniques, and demonstrated high speed on-chip graphene ...

  9. Fatal Void Size Comparisons in Via-Below and Via-Above Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Z.-S.

    The median-times-to-failure (t??ís) for straight dual-damascene via-terminated copper interconnect structures, tested under the same conditions, depend on whether the vias connect down to underlaying leads ...

  10. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further found that this water can be timed to return to the river during the desired time of the year (summer to early fall). This is because the river stage, which remains relatively high until this time, drops during the irrigation season-thereby releasing the stored groundwater and increasing river flows. A significant side benefit is that these enhanced groundwater return flows will be clean and cold, particularly as compared to the Umatilla River. We also believe that this same type of application of water could be done and the resulting stream flows could be realized in other watersheds throughout the Pacific Northwest. This means that it is critical to compare the results from this baseline report to the full implementation of the project in the next phase. As previously stated, this report only discusses the results of data gathered during the baseline phase of this project. We have attempted to make the data that has been gathered accessible with the enclosed databases and spreadsheets. We provide computer links in this report to the databases so that interested parties can fully evaluate the data that has been gathered. However, we cannot emphasize too strongly that the real value of this project is to implement the phases to come, compare the results of these future phases to this baseline and develop the science and strategies to successfully implement this concept to other rivers in the Pacific Northwest. The results from our verified and calibrated groundwater model matches the observed groundwater data and trends collected during the baseline phase. The modeling results indicate that the return flows may increase to their historic values with the addition of 1 acre-ft/acre of recharge water to the groundwater system (about 9,600 acre-feet total). What this means is that through continued recharge project, you can double to quadruple the annual baseflow of the Umatilla River during the low summer and fall flow periods as compared to the present base-flow. The cool and high quality recharge water is a significant beneficial impact to the river system.

  11. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  12. Evaluation of a Surface Treatment on the Performance of Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alman, D.E.; Holcomb, Adler, T.A.; G.R.; Wilson, R.D.; Jablonski, P.D.

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pack cementation-like Cerium based surface treatments have been found to be effective in enhancing the oxidation resistance of ferritic steels (Crofer 22APU) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The application of either a CeN- or CeO2 based surface treatment results in a decrease in weight gain by a factor of three after 4000 hours exposure to air+3%H2O at 800oC. Similar oxide scales formed on treated and untreated surfaces, with a continuous Cr-Mn outer oxide layer and a continuous inner Cr2O3 layer formed on the surface. However, the thickness of the scales, and the amount of internal oxidation were significantly reduced with the treatment, leading to the decrease in oxidation rate. This presentation will detail the influence of the treatment on the electrical properties of the interconnect. Half-cell experiments (LSM cathode sandwiched between two steel interconnects) and full SOFC button cell experiments were run with treated and untreated interconnects. Preliminary results indicate the Ce treatment can improve SOFC performance.

  13. Effect of interconnect creep on long-term performance of SOFC of one cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 1073oK. High temperature ferritic alloys are potential candidates as interconnect (IC) materials and spacers due to their low cost and CTE compatibility with other SOFC components. Since the melting temperature of most stainless steel is around 1800oK, possible creep deformation of IC under the typical cell operating temperature should not be neglected. In this paper, the effects of interconnect creep behavior on stack geometry change and stress redistribution of different cell components are predicted and summarized. The goal of the study is to investigate the performance of the fuel cell stack by obtaining the fuel and air channel geometry changes due to creep of the ferritic stainless steel interconnect, therefore indicating possible SOFC performance change under long term operations. IC creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the deformed configuration of the SOFC stack under the long term steady state operating temperature. It is found that creep behavior of the ferritic stainless steel IC contributes to narrowing of both the fuel and the air flow channels. In addition, stress re-distribution of the cell components suggests the need for a compliant sealing material that also relaxes at operating temperature.

  14. Reactive power interconnection requirements for PV and wind plants : recommendations to NERC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Jason (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Walling, Reigh (General Electric, Schenectady, NY); Peter, William (SunPower, Richmond, CA); Von Engeln, Edi (NV Energy, Reno, NV); Seymour, Eric (AEI, Fort Collins, CO); Nelson, Robert (Siemens Wind Turbines, Orlando, FL); Casey, Leo (Satcon, Boston, MA); Ellis, Abraham; Barker, Chris. (SunPower, Richmond, CA)

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Voltage on the North American bulk system is normally regulated by synchronous generators, which typically are provided with voltage schedules by transmission system operators. In the past, variable generation plants were considered very small relative to conventional generating units, and were characteristically either induction generator (wind) or line-commutated inverters (photovoltaic) that have no inherent voltage regulation capability. However, the growing level of penetration of non-traditional renewable generation - especially wind and solar - has led to the need for renewable generation to contribute more significantly to power system voltage control and reactive power capacity. Modern wind-turbine generators, and increasingly PV inverters as well, have considerable dynamic reactive power capability, which can be further enhanced with other reactive support equipment at the plant level to meet interconnection requirements. This report contains a set of recommendations to the North-America Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) as part of Task 1-3 (interconnection requirements) of the Integration of Variable Generation Task Force (IVGTF) work plan. The report discusses reactive capability of different generator technologies, reviews existing reactive power standards, and provides specific recommendations to improve existing interconnection standards.

  15. Full-wave Surface Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic-circuit Simulation of Three-dimensional Interconnects in Layered Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsilayan, Nur

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...

  16. Development of Ni1-xCoxO as the cathode/interconnect contact for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zigui; Xia, Guanguang; Templeton, Joshua D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Nie, Zimin; Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of material, Ni1-xCoxO, was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode/interconnect contact applications. The phase structure, coefficient of thermal expansion, sintering behavior, electrical property, and mechanical bonding strength of these materials were evaluated against the requirements of the SOFC cathode/interconnect contact. A dense cathode/interconnect contact layer was developed through reaction sintering from Ni and Co metal powders. An area specific resistance (ASR) as low as 5.5 mohm.cm2 was observed after 1000 h exposure in air at 800 įC for the LSM/Ni0.33Co0.67O/AISI441 assembly. Average mechanical strengths of 6.8 and 5.0 MPa were obtained for the cathode/contact/cathode and interconnect/contact/interconnect structures, respectively. The significantly low ASR was probably due to the dense structure and therefore improved electrical conductivity of the Ni0.33Co0.67O contact and the good bonding of the interfaces between the contact and the cathode, and between the contact and the interconnect.

  17. Reading the Lontars: Endangered Literary Practices of Lombok, Eastern Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Austin, Peter

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sasaks of Lombok island, eastern Indonesia, have a literary tradition of writing manuscripts on palm leaves (lontar) in a manner similar to that of the Balinese (Rubinstein 2000), and historically, the Javanese. Lombok today remains only one...

  18. Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics Eastern State Fall Technical Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knyazev, Vadim D.

    Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics 1 Eastern State Fall Technical Meeting Chemical & Physical ≠ 1017 s-1 #12;Paper # XXX Topic: Reaction Kinetics 2 and activation energy values close to the C-C bond

  19. Characterization of maize testing locations in eastern and southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maideni, Francis W.

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ???????..?...?.??. 15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ??????????..??. 26 SUMMARY????????????????????... 52 III PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MAIZE TESTING EVALUATIONS IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA????????????.?..................................... 94... INTRODUCTION????????????.???..??? 94 REVIEW OF LITERATURE????????..???.??.. 96 MATERIALS AND METHODS???????..?...?.??.. 98 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ???........................................ 100 SUMMARY??????????????????????. 158 IV...

  20. Characterization of maize testing locations in eastern and southern Africa†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maideni, Francis W.

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The region of eastern and southern Africa is very diverse in environments and agronomic practices. The region has one of the highest per capita consumption of maize (Zea mays. L), which is predominantly produced by smallholder ...