Sample records for windows xp windows

  1. Windows XP - LPR Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dbrown

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Printer Setup in Windows XP. To print to the math department printers in Windows XP, “Print Services for Unix” must be installed. To begin installation of “

  2. Wireless connection instructions -Windows This document outlines the procedure for setting up Windows7, Vista or XP to use the College wireless network. It assumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    Windows7, Vista or XP to use the College wireless network. It assumes that you have already connected your network Double click the wireless connection icon at the bottom right hand corner of your screen. Click View Wireless Networks. Select Academic MurrayEdwards and click the Connect button. Close the View

  3. Window shopping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  4. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for2006). Advancement of Electrochromic Windows, CaliforniaSavings Potential of Electrochromic Windows in the U.S.

  5. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base...

  6. Windows Server Evaluation Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Windows Server 2012 R2 Evaluation Guide #12;Copyright Information © 2013 Microsoft Corporation. All .......................................................................................................................1 Introduction to Windows Server 2012 R2 ..................................................................................................7 Windows Server: Architecture of the Evaluation Environment

  7. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Grove, CA. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh,Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ASHRAE - American

  8. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows. LBNL-59950.Granqvist, C.G. 2000. "Electrochromic Tungsten Oxide Films:the performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  9. Connecting to UofT Wireless with Windows XP 1. Before you can use the UofT wireless network, you must verify your UTORid (you will only need

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boonstra, Rudy

    Connecting to UofT Wireless with Windows XP 1. Before you can use the UofT wireless network, you will have problems logging in to the UofT wireless network. There will be a short delay between verifying and being able to access UofT wireless network. 3. Click on the wireless network icon in the bottom right

  10. Using Remote Desktop with the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client in Windows XP 1. In order to use Remote Desktop and the VPN client, users must first complete the Blackboard Remote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Remote Desktop with the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client in Windows XP 1. In order to use Remote Desktop and the VPN client, users must first complete the Blackboard Remote Users training course and then download and install the VPN client on the workstation that they will use to remote to their office

  11. A true virtual window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radikovic, Adrijan Silvester

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research from environmental psychology shows that human well-being suffers in windowless environments in many ways and a window view of nature is psychologically and physiologically beneficial to humans. Current window substitutes, still...

  12. Using X Windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote applications on your local computer screen. X-Windows follows the client-server architecture. Normally, the X server runs on the users desktoplaptop computer, while...

  13. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper definesinto the role of zero energy building components. Achievingthe vision of zero energy buildings. Windows can admit solar

  14. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  15. Windows technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, J.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment estimates that energy loss through windows is approximately 15 percent of all the energy used for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings in New York State. The rule of thumb for the nation as a whole is about 25 percent. The difference may reflect a traditional assumption of single-pane windows while this assessment analyzed installed window types in the region. Based on the often-quoted assumption, in the United States some 3.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of primary energy, costing some $20 billion, is annually consumed as a result of energy lost through windows. According to this assessment, in New York State, the energy lost due to heat loss through windows is approximately 80 trillion Btu at an annual cost of approximately $1 billion.

  16. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  17. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  18. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventionalissues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialOffice worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilot

  19. Close Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michigan, University of

    , in local time versus geomagnetic (dipole) latitude coordinates, shows the equivalent current contoursClose Window ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLE Geomagnetic variations Variations in the natural magnetic field measured at the Earth's surface and elsewhere in the Earth's magnetosphere (for example

  20. CH7 Windows Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collette. Sébastien

    4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe Windows NT 4 Server · Account lockout security ­ Protection contre les attaques sur les mots de passe

  1. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control bright sky luminance that can cause discomfortluminance, and to operate in a reliable manner under representative sun and skysky equinox or solstice conditions, the EC window at Tv=0.05 maintained the luminance

  2. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window Type Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)Total, quads Sales (Business as usual) Energy Star (Low-e)modest energy savings beyond the business-as usual case (0.3

  3. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  4. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  5. High Performance Window Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Hun, Diana E [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Traco partnered to develop high-performance windows for commercial building that are cost-effective. The main performance requirement for these windows was that they needed to have an R-value of at least 5 ft2 F h/Btu. This project seeks to quantify the potential energy savings from installing these windows in commercial buildings that are at least 20 years old. To this end, we are conducting evaluations at a two-story test facility that is representative of a commercial building from the 1980s, and are gathering measurements on the performance of its windows before and after double-pane, clear-glazed units are upgraded with R5 windows. Additionally, we will use these data to calibrate EnergyPlus models that we will allow us to extrapolate results to other climates. Findings from this project will provide empirical data on the benefits from high-performance windows, which will help promote their adoption in new and existing commercial buildings. This report describes the experimental setup, and includes some of the field and simulation results.

  6. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  7. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  8. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  9. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry L. (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  10. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence (Seaford, VA); Elliott, Thomas S. (Yorktown, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  11. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy 1 .systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft²-°F Dynamic windows:for 1 quadrillion (10 15 ) Btu = 1.056 EJ. percent (Apte,

  12. The Window Strategy with Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

    1999-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

  13. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of 0.30. The electrochromic windows were controlled toProceedings. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performanceand economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows,"

  14. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Marc LaFrance. 2006. “Zero Energy Windows. ” ProceedingsFuture Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. ” ASHRAEfor Residential Zero Energy Windows Dariush Arasteh, Howdy

  15. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides - Building America Top Innovation Effec...

  16. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  17. A window on urban sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stigt, Rien van, E-mail: rien.vanstigt@hu.nl [Research Center for Technology and Innovation, Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, P.O. Box 182, 3500 AD Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter P.J., E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Spit, Tejo J.M., E-mail: T.J.M.Spit@uu.nl [Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sustainable urban development requires the integration of environmental interests in urban planning. Although various methods of environmental assessment have been developed, plan outcomes are often disappointing due to the complex nature of decision-making in urban planning, which takes place in multiple arenas within multiple policy networks involving diverse stakeholders. We argue that the concept of ‘decision windows’ can structure this seemingly chaotic chain of interrelated decisions. First, explicitly considering the dynamics of the decision-making process, we further conceptualized decision windows as moments in an intricate web of substantively connected deliberative processes where issues are reframed within a decision-making arena, and interests may be linked within and across arenas. Adopting this perspective in two case studies, we then explored how decision windows arise, which factors determine their effectiveness and how their occurrence can be influenced so as to arrive at more sustainable solutions. We conclude that the integration of environmental interests in urban planning is highly dependent on the ability of the professionals involved to recognize and manipulate decision windows. Finally, we explore how decision windows may be opened. -- Highlights: • Decision-making about sustainable urban development occurs in networks. • The concept of ‘decision windows’ was further elaborated. • Decision windows help understand how environmental interests enter decision-making. • Decision windows can, to some extent, be influenced.

  18. Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Checkpointing strategies with prediction windows Regular paper Guillaume Aupy1,3, Yves Robert1, a regular mode outside prediction windows, and a proactive mode inside prediction windows, whenever the size of these windows is large enough. We are able to compute the best period for any size of the prediction windows

  19. Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows?

  20. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  1. Window-closing safety system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  2. Applicability of Solar Airflow Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamed, M. S.; Friedrich, K.; Razaqpur, G.; Foo, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate prediction of the performance of Solar Air Windows (SAWs) operating in various climates under real conditions has not been investigated. This paper reports the results of numerical simulations of SAWs carried out using ANSYS-CFX considering...

  3. Extending the X Window System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenkosh, J.P.

    1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The X Window System was originally developed in 1984 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It provides client-server computing functionality and also facilitates the establishment of a distributed computing environment. Since its inception the X Window System has undergone many enhancements. Despite these enhancements there will always be a functionality desired in the standard released version of X that is not supported or commercially or academically available. The developers of the X Window System have designed it in such a way that it is possible to add functionality that is not included in the standard release. This is called an extension. Extensions are one method used to develop a customized version of the X Window System to support a specialized application. This report presents the mechanics of adding an extension and examines a particular extension that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories to support data compression in X Windows which was one aspect of the Desktop Video and Collaborative Engineering Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD).

  4. RUGGED CERAMIC WINDOW FOR RF APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MIKE NEUBAUER

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-current RF cavities that are needed for many accelerator applications are often limited by the power transmission capability of the pressure barriers (windows) that separate the cavity from the power source. Most efforts to improve RF window design have focused on alumina ceramic, the most popular historical choice, and have not taken advantage of new materials. Alternative window materials have been investigated using a novel Merit Factor comparison and likely candidates have been tested for the material properties which will enable construction in the self-matched window configuration. Window assemblies have also been modeled and fabricated using compressed window techniques which have proven to increase the power handling capability of waveguide windows. Candidate materials have been chosen to be used in fabricating a window for high power testing at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  5. Rolling, Rolling, Rolling: Roller Window Shades | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    anyway, even if our windows were of the highest efficiency. One of my colleagues in a solar energy group I belonged to was a distributor of a high R-value quilted roller window...

  6. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  7. An analysis of residential window waterproofing systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, Austin, 1959-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalence of vinyl nail-on windows in the North American new home construction market has prompted ASTM International to write ASTM E2112-01 "Standard Practice for Installation of Exterior Windows, Doors and Skylights". ...

  8. V-217: Microsoft Windows NAT Driver ICMP Packet Handling Denial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in the Windows NAT Driver PLATFORM: Windows Server 2012 ABSTRACT: This security update resolves a vulnerability in the Windows NAT Driver in Microsoft...

  9. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Office worker preferences of electrochromic windows: a pilotDetails for an Electrochromic Window Wall Attached arethe performance of the electrochromic windows. Proceedings

  10. High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows a window air...

  11. Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    Windows Server 2008 R2 Licensing Guide m Your Comprehensive Resource for Licensing and Pricing #12;2 Table of Contents Summary 3 Table of Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Product Offerings 3 License Terms ­ Windows Server 2008 R2 Product Line Updates 4 Edition Comparison by Server Role 5 New and Updated Features

  12. Electrochromic Windows: Advanced Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAGE Electrochromics, Inc

    2006-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the development of advanced fabrication capabilities for energy saving electrochromic (EC) windows. SAGE EC windows consist of an inorganic stack of thin films deposited onto a glass substrate. The window tint can be reversibly changed by the application of a low power dc voltage. This property can be used to modulate the amount of light and heat entering buildings (or vehicles) through the glazings. By judicious management of this so-called solar heat gain, it is possible to derive significant energy savings due to reductions in heating lighting, and air conditioning (HVAC). Several areas of SAGE’s production were targeted during this project to allow significant improvements to processing throughput, yield and overall quality of the processing, in an effort to reduce the cost and thereby improve the market penetration. First, the overall thin film process was optimized to allow a more robust set of operating points to be used, thereby maximizing the yield due to the thin film deposition themselves. Other significant efforts aimed at improving yield were relating to implementing new procedures and processes for the manufacturing process, to improve the quality of the substrate preparation, and the quality of the IGU fabrication. Furthermore, methods for reworking defective devices were developed, to enable devices which would otherwise be scrapped to be made into useful product. This involved the in-house development of some customized equipment. Finally, the improvements made during this project were validated to ensure that they did not impact the exceptional durability of the SageGlass® products. Given conservative estimates for cost and market penetration, energy savings due to EC windows in residences in the US are calculated to be of the order 0.026 quad (0.026×1015BTU/yr) by the year 2017.

  13. Rigid thin windows for vacuum applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Glenn Allyn (Danville, CA); Ciarlo, Dino R. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth Richard (Livermore, CA); Chen, Hao-Lin (Lafayette, CA); Wakalopulos, George (Pacific Palisades, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin window that stands off atmospheric pressure is fabricated using photolithographic and wet chemical etching techniques and comprises at least two layers: an etch stop layer and a protective barrier layer. The window structure also comprises a series of support ribs running the width of the window. The windows are typically made of boron-doped silicon and silicon nitride and are useful in instruments such as electron beam guns and x-ray detectors. In an electron beam gun, the window does not impede the electrons and has demonstrated outstanding gun performance and survivability during the gun tube manufacturing process.

  14. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind Programof EnergyWindow

  15. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  16. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  17. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  18. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Mounted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key Issues High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners - Building America Top Innovation 2014-05-05 Issuance: Test Procedure for Portable Air Conditioners; Notice of Data Availability...

  19. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient Use of Energy, New York (1975). Glaser, V.H.J. , "Energy Transport Control in Window Systems", Report ETR-1277-2, Stony Brook, New York, (

  20. The Delivery Man Problem with Time Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depot, while open time windows are considered at all other locations. ... nodes of G: earliest and latest times are described by parameters ei and li for nodes i ...

  1. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  2. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  3. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  4. Solar Window Technology for BIPV or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Solar Window Technology for BIPV or BAPV Energy Systems Problem this technology solves: Using of Solar energy considerably, photovoltaic or PV material is still a major $ cost/unit of energy produced a novel high efficiency concentrator design, this static "Solar Window" system is such that it allows

  5. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  6. THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.

  7. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lifetime prediction of electrochromic windows for buildingsenergy performance of electrochromic windows. ” Proceedingsin the Proceedings. Electrochromic Windows for Commercial

  8. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Luis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled forenergy performance of electrochromic windows. Proceedingssignal for daylight (electrochromic window, no overhang).

  9. Observational Window Functions in Planet Transit Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaspar von Braun; David R. Ciardi

    2008-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Window functions describe, as a function of orbital period, the probability that an existing planetary transit is detectable in one's data for a given observing strategy. We show the dependence of this probability upon several strategy and astrophysical parameters, such as length of observing run, observing cadence, length of night, and transit duration. The ability to detect a transit is directly related to the intrinsic noise of the observations. In our simulations of the window function, we explicitly address non-correlated (gaussian or white) noise and correlated (red) noise and discuss how these two different noise components affect window functions in different manners.

  10. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Smart Window with integrated sensors, control logic and a motorized shade between glass panes. Image: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 2 of 3 Residential Smart Window...

  11. Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    office windows. This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and...

  12. Window and Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging Water Heating...

  13. June 1998Program Description Windows and Daylighting Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 1998Program Description THERM 2.0 Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies, and Dariush Arasteh Windows and Daylighting Group Building Technologies Department Environmental Energy

  14. Effects of Overhangs on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercialenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled forwindows.lbl.gov/comm_perf/Electrochromic/ Winkelmann, F.C. ,

  15. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  16. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  17. NREL Electrochromic Window Research Wins Award

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winners of the CO-LABS Governor's Award for High-Impact Research in Energy Efficiency, Dr. Satyen Deb at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) discovered that a small electrical charge can change the opacity of tungsten oxide from clear to tinted. He, Dr. Dane Gillaspie, and their fellow scientists at NREL then applied this knowledge to develop and transfer the technologies required to construct an electrochromic window, which can switch between clear and heavily tinted states. Electrochromic windows allow natural light in while adding tint to reduce summer heat and glare, and going clear to allow sunlight through in the winter. Broad adaptation of these windows could reduce US total energy use by four percent and reduce building cooling loads by 20%, much of this during expensive peak hours. Windows based on these discoveries are now being installed worldwide.

  18. 700 MHz window R & D at LBNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimmer, R.A.; Koehler, G.; Saleh, T.; Weidenbach, R.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-47939 LAUR 01-2574 CBP tech230 700 MHz Window R&D at LBNL R. Rimmer, G. Koehler, T.describes the R&D activities at LBNL under contract # 06261-

  19. Electrochromic sun control coverings for windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D K; Tracy, C E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2 billion square meters (m{sup 2}) of building windows in the United States cause a national energy drain almost as large as the energy supply of the Alaskan oil pipeline. Unlike the pipeline, the drain of energy through windows will continue well into the 21st century. A part of this energy drain is due to unwanted sun gain through windows. This is a problem throughout the country in commercial buildings because they generally require air conditioning even in cold climates. New commercial windows create an additional 1600 MW demand for peak electric power in the United States each year. Sun control films, widely used in new windows and as retrofits to old windows, help to mitigate this problem. However, conventional, static solar control films also block sunlight when it is wanted for warmth and daylighting. New electrochromic, switchable, sun-gain-control films now under development will provide more nearly optimal and automatic sun control for added comfort, decreased building operating expense, and greater energy saving. Switchable, electrochromic films can be deposited on polymers at high speeds by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) in a process that may be suitable for roll coating. This paper describes the electrochromic coatings and the PECVD processes, and speculates about their adaptability to high-speed roll coating. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for packaging of microelectronic devices, including an integral window. The microelectronic device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can include a cofired ceramic frame or body. The package can have an internal stepped structure made of one or more plates, with apertures, which are patterned with metallized conductive circuit traces. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded on the plate to these traces, and oriented so that the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. A cover lid can be attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, having an integral window that can be hermetically-sealed. The package body can be formed by low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayer processes with the window being simultaneously joined (e.g. cofired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. Multiple chips can be located within a single package. The cover lid can include a window. The apparatus is particularly suited for packaging of MEMS devices, since the number of handling steps is greatly reduced, thereby reducing the potential for contamination.

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy Window Functions Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lloyd Knox

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary results of most observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are estimates of the angular power spectrum averaged through some broad band, called band-powers. These estimates are in turn what are used to produce constraints on cosmological parameters due to all CMB observations. Essential to this estimation of cosmological parameters is the calculation of the expected band-power for a given experiment, given a theoretical power spectrum. Here we derive the "band power" window function which should be used for this calculation, and point out that it is not equivalent to the window function used to calculate the variance. This important distinction has been absent from much of the literature: the variance window function is often used as the band-power window function. We discuss the validity of this assumed equivalence, the role of window functions for experiments that constrain the power in {\\it multiple} bands, and summarize a prescription for reporting experimental results. The analysis methods detailed here are applied in a companion paper to three years of data from the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement.

  2. Hot Cell Window Shielding Analysis Using MCNP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad L. Pope; Wade W. Scates; J. Todd Taylor

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex nuclear facilities are undergoing a documented safety analysis upgrade. In conjunction with the upgrade effort, shielding analysis of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) hot cell windows has been conducted. This paper describes the shielding analysis methodology. Each 4-ft thick window uses nine glass slabs, an oil film between the slabs, numerous steel plates, and packed lead wool. Operations in the hot cell center on used nuclear fuel (UNF) processing. Prior to the shielding analysis, shield testing with a gamma ray source was conducted, and the windows were found to be very effective gamma shields. Despite these results, because the glass contained significant amounts of lead and little neutron absorbing material, some doubt lingered regarding the effectiveness of the windows in neutron shielding situations, such as during an accidental criticality. MCNP was selected as an analysis tool because it could model complicated geometry, and it could track gamma and neutron radiation. A bounding criticality source was developed based on the composition of the UNF. Additionally, a bounding gamma source was developed based on the fission product content of the UNF. Modeling the windows required field inspections and detailed examination of drawings and material specifications. Consistent with the shield testing results, MCNP results demonstrated that the shielding was very effective with respect to gamma radiation, and in addition, the analysis demonstrated that the shielding was also very effective during an accidental criticality.

  3. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  4. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A. (R.D. #1, Box 462-A, Voorheesville, NY 12186)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  5. Solar optical materials for innovative window design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New and innovative optical materials and coatings can greatly improve the efficiency of window energy systems. These potential materials and coatings increase energy efficiency by reducing radiative losses in the infrared, or reducing visible reflection losses or controlling overheating due to solar gain. Current progress in heat mirror coatings for glass and polymeric substrates is presented. Highly doped semiconducting oxides and metal/dielectric interference coatings are reviewed. Physical and optical properties are outlined for antireflection films and transparent aerogel insulation media. The potential for optical switching films as window elements includes discussions of electrochromic, photochromic and other physical switching processes.

  6. Energy-Efficient Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow TreatmentsWindows

  7. Making Smart Windows Smarter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketingSmart Windows Smarter Making Smart Windows

  8. Improved Performance of Energy Window Ratio Criteria Obtained Using Multiple Windows at Radiation Portal Monitoring Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Ely, James H.; Bates, Derrick J.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors are being used to detect radioactive target materials in vehicles transporting cargo. As vehicles pass through the portal monitors, they generate count profiles over time that can be compared to the average panel background counts obtained just prior to the time the vehicle entered the area of the monitors. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in support of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and U.S. Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), has accumulated considerable data regarding such background radiation and vehicle profiles from portal installations. Energy window criteria have been shown to increase sensitivity to certain types of target radioactive sources while also controlling to a manageable level the rate of false or nuisance alarms. First generation equipment had only two-window capability, and while energy windowing for such systems was shown to be useful for detecting certain types of sources, it was subsequently found that improved performance could be obtained with more windows. Second generation equipment instead has more windows and can thus support additional energy window criteria which can be shown to be sensitive to a wider set of target sources. Detection likelihoods are generated for various sources and energy window criteria, as well as for gross count decision criteria, based on computer simulated injections of sources into archived vehicle profiles. (PIET-43741-TM-534)

  9. The Current T2K Beam Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Downstream Helium velocity 5 m/s Heat transfer coefficient 150 W/m2K #12;Helium flow grooves He in He out at KEK (via Oak Ridge via PSI). #12;Assembled Window #12;Remote Handling #12;Remote handling Monitor Chamber (Canada) Target Station (Japan) #12;Remote installation #12;Stress analysis and upgrade potential

  10. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preventing energy waste during the red light mode is a moregreen lights was installed to help avoid energy waste, or inlight means that energy is being used to modify the temparature inside and therefore if I open my window it will waste energy.  

  11. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  12. Pennsylvania: Window Technology First of Its Kind for Commercial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    manufacturer Traco, a division of Kawneer (an Alcoa company), to develop the OptiQ(tm) Ultra Thermal Window series (OptiQ(tm)) for the commercial buildings sector. These windows...

  13. Pennsylvania: New Series of Windows Has Potential to Save Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    increase in energy efficiency compared to existing commercially available double-pane low-emissivity windows. Prior to the introduction of the OptiQ(tm), R-5 windows were not...

  14. Highly Insulating Residential Windows Using Smart Automated Shading...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The windows will function autonomously and in a networked configuration. Project Impact LBNL is aiming toward a mature market cost increment of 12ft2 of window. LBNL will also...

  15. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues for Large-area Electrochromic Windows in CommercialAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows”, ASHRAEon the Performance of Electrochromic Windows Asilhan Tavil

  16. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the US commercial buildings sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone Photovoltaic-Powered Electrochromic Smart Window.Subject responses to electrochromic windows. To be publishedAnalysis of Prototype Electrochromic Windows, ASHRAE

  17. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Advancement of electrochromic windows: Final report.User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilotenergy performance of electrochromic windows controlled for

  18. Staff Windows XP Wireless Setup Guide Page 1 of 8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    network credentials You must log in using the following credentials: Students: OASIS username and password Post-grads: OASIS username and password Staff: OASIS username and password Associate: OASIS username configuration, troubleshooting and frequently asked questions. OASIS: Students can check the status

  19. Explorations in Computing Lab Manual for Microsoft Windows XP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    never used Command Prompt you should read Chapter 5 to learn how to type command lines in Microsoft, and then run the program from the command line. · Chapter 10 explains how to get detailed information about all people will read the entire manual; in fact, students who are already familiar with the Command Prompt

  20. End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6027E End User Impacts of Automated Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application E Electrochromic Windows in a Pilot Retrofit Application Eleanor S. Lee1 Abstract , Erin S. Claybaugh Building Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, DC 20585 USA Automated electrochromic (EC) windows, advanced thermally

  1. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).

  2. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  3. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  4. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject responses to electrochromic windows. Submitted toin a full-scale electrochromic window testbed. Technicaloptimization of electrochromic operations for occupant

  5. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.

  6. List of Windows Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf KilaueaInformation Other Alternative FuelEnergysourcesourceWindows

  7. Window Daylighting Demo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8,Energy Wind Vision:Window

  8. X-Windows Acceleration via NX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin theanniversaryI 1 0 3 P 0 dX-RayX-Windows

  9. Window Industry Technology Roadmap | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWind PowerWindStromRoadmap Name Window

  10. Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transfer Design Tools Arild Gustavsen1,* , Dariush Arasteh2 , Bjørn Petter Jelle3,4 , Charlie Curcija5-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. 3. Assess existing correlations

  11. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to recover to a bleached state upon exposure to heat and solar radiation while being cycled over time from the bleached to the dark state. Most likely the polymers are undergoing degradation reactions which are accelerated by heat and solar exposure while in either the reduced or oxidized states and the performance of the polymers is greatly reduced over time. For this technology to succeed in an exterior window application, there needs to be more work done to understand the degradation of the polymers under real-life application conditions such as elevated temperatures and solar exposure so that recommendations for improvements in to the overall system can be made. This will be the key to utilizing this type of technology in any future real-life applications.

  12. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  13. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  14. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Crandall, Richard S. (Boulder, CO); Deb, Satyendra K. (Boulder, CO); Stone, Jack L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  15. Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Satellite L750-12T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Toshiba recommends Windows 7 Model: i Satellite L750-12T 2nd Generation Intel® CoreTM i3-2350M processor­ 2.3 GHz, Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium, 15.6" HD LCD, 4GB DDR3, 640GB HDD S-ATA, DVD Super and Enhanced Intel® SpeedStep® Technology Operating System Genuine Windows® 7 Home Premium Key Features Toshiba

  16. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Envelope Technologies Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Emerging Technologies Program Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Research and Development Roadmap: Windows and Building Envelope...

  17. Robust Inventory Routing with Flexible Time Window Allocation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chengliang Zhang

    2015-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 15, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper studies a robust maritime inventory routing problem with time windows and stochastic travel times. One of the novelties of ...

  18. "Explosive" atom movement is new window into growing metalnanostructu...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    movement is new window into growing metal nanostructures Michael Tringides, Materials Science and Engineering , 515-294-6439 Breehan Gerleman Lucchesi, Public Affairs,...

  19. Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Zalis, WJ

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the Highly Insulating Windows Volume Purchase Program, conduced by PNNL for DOE-BTP, including a summary of outcomes and lessons learned.

  20. The robust vehicle routing problem with time windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agostinho Agra

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 2, 2012 ... Abstract: This paper addresses the robust vehicle routing problem with time windows. We are motivated by a problem that arises in maritime ...

  1. Porting salinas to the windows platform.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Garth M.; Wilson, Christopher Riley

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASC program has enabled significant development of high end engineering applications on massively parallel machines. There is a great benefit in providing these applications on the desktop of the analysts and designers, at least insofar as the small models may be run on these platforms, thus providing a tool set that spans the application needs. This effort documents the work of porting Salinas to the WINDOWS{trademark} platform. Selection of the tools required to compile, link, test and run Salinas in this environment is discussed. Significant problems encountered along the way are listed along with an estimation of the overall cost of the port. This report may serve as a baseline for streamlining further porting activities with other ASC codes.

  2. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  3. MAVIS III -- A Windows 95/NT Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardwick, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). GTS Engineering Dept.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MAVIS (Modeling and Analysis of Explosive Valve Interactions) is a computer program that simulates operation of explosively actuated valve. MAVIS was originally written in Fortran in the mid 1970`s and was primarily run on the Sandia Vax computers in use through the early 1990`s. During the mid to late 1980`s MAVIS was upgraded to include the effects of plastic deformation and it became MAVIS II. When the Vax computers were retired, the Gas Transfer System (GTS) Development Department ported the code to the Macintosh and PC platforms, where it ran as a simple console application. All graphical output was lost during these ports. GTS code developers recently completed an upgrade that provides a Windows 95/NT MAVIS application and restores all of the original graphical output. This upgrade is called MAVIS III version 1.0. This report serves both as a user`s manual for MAVIS III v 1.0 and as a general software development reference.

  4. Isocurvature forecast in the anthropic axion window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamann, J. [LAPTh, Université de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Hannestad, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Raffelt, G.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Wong, Y.Y.Y., E-mail: hamann@lapp.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk, E-mail: raffelt@mppmu.mpg.de, E-mail: yvonne.wong@cern.ch [Theory Division, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the cosmological sensitivity to the amplitude of isocurvature fluctuations that would be caused by axions in the ''anthropic window'' where the axion decay constant f{sub a} >> 10{sup 12} GeV and the initial misalignment angle ?{sub i} << 1. In a minimal ?CDM cosmology extended with subdominant scale-invariant isocurvature fluctuations, existing data constrain the isocurvature fraction to ? < 0.09 at 95% C.L. If no signal shows up, Planck can improve this constraint to 0.042 while an ultimate CMB probe limited only by cosmic variance in both temperature and E-polarisation can reach 0.017, about a factor of five better than the current limit. In the parameter space of f{sub a} and H{sub I} (Hubble parameter during inflation) we identify a small region where axion detection remains within the reach of realistic cosmological probes.

  5. INTEGRATED ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW-WALL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Arney, Ph.D.

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The building industry faces the challenge of reducing energy use while simultaneously improving construction methods and marketability. This paper describes the first phase of a project to address these concerns by designing an Integrated Window Wall System (IWWS) that can be commercialized. This work builds on previous research conducted during the 1990's by Lawrence Berkeley national Laboratories (LBNL). During this phase, the objective was to identify appropriate technologies, problems and issues and develop a number of design concepts. Four design concepts were developed into prototypes and preliminary energy analyses were conducted Three of these concepts (the foam wall, steel wall, and stiffened plate designs) showed particular potential for meeting the project objectives and will be continued into a second phase where one or two of the systems will be brought closer to commercialization.

  6. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  7. Managing coherence via put/get windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for managing coherence between two processors of a two processor node of a multi-processor computer system. Generally the present invention relates to a software algorithm that simplifies and significantly speeds the management of cache coherence in a message passing parallel computer, and to hardware apparatus that assists this cache coherence algorithm. The software algorithm uses the opening and closing of put/get windows to coordinate the activated required to achieve cache coherence. The hardware apparatus may be an extension to the hardware address decode, that creates, in the physical memory address space of the node, an area of virtual memory that (a) does not actually exist, and (b) is therefore able to respond instantly to read and write requests from the processing elements.

  8. Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Benefits of Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" includes: Daily automatic backups Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides an easy-to-use solution ideal for first server small businesses with up to 25 users, Windows Small Business Server Code Name "Aurora" provides a cost-effective and easy

  9. Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5735E Validation of the Window Model of the Modelica Buildings Library Thierry Stephane MODEL OF THE MODELICA BUILDINGS LIBRARY Thierry Stephane Nouidui, Michael Wetter, and Wangda Zuo the validation of the window model of the free open-source Modelica Buildings library. This paper starts

  10. Boron nitride protective coating of beryllium window surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmuer, N.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of beryllium windows on white synchrotron radiation beamlines is constrained by the fact that the downstream surfaces of these windows should not be exposed to ambient atmosphere. They should, rather, be protected by a tail-piece under vacuum or containing helium atmosphere. This tailpiece is typically capped by Kapton (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) or aluminum foil. The reason for such an arrangement is due to the health risk associated with contaminants (BeO) which from on the exposed beryllium window surfaces and due to possible loss of integrity of the windows. Such a tail-piece may, however, add unwanted complications to the beamline in the form of vacuum pumps or helium supplies and their related monitoring systems. The Kapton windows may burn through in the case of high intensity beams and lower energy radiation may be absorbed in the case of aluminum foil windows. A more ideal situation would be to provide a coating for the exposed beryllium window surface, sealing it off from the atmosphere, thus preventing contamination and/or degradation of the window, and eliminating the need for helium or vacuum equipment.

  11. Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christel, Mike

    Windowing Time in Digital Libraries Michael G. Christel Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA, organization, and utility of time references identified in digital library materials, emphasizing how to treat to illustrate the concept of windowing such time in digital library interfaces. Categories and Subject

  12. Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Budget Windows, Sunsets and Fiscal Control Alan J. Auerbach University of California, Berkeley have struggled to find the right method of controlling public spending and budget deficits. In recent years, the United States has evaluated policy changes using a ten-year budget window. The use of a multi

  13. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  14. Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    #12;Migrate Roles and Features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012 Summary: This E-Book includes guidance to help you migrate server roles and features to Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012. Also included is an installation and operations guide for Windows Server Migration Tools, a set

  15. Demographic Window, H. G. Muller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing Life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    Demographic Window, H. G. M¨uller et al. 1 Demographic Window to Aging in the Wild: Constructing for wild populations. A demographic key identity is established that leads to a method whereby age identity is established for the continuous case where the survival schedule of the wild population

  16. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Examination of the Thermal Transmittance of High Performance Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen Ph.D., Arild

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    windows are often called passive -house wind ows, as windowse window frames, like passive-house windows. In this p aperare supposed to satisfy the Passive house requirements of

  18. Residential Windows and Window Coverings: A Detailed View of the Installed Base and User Behavior

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuickEnergyforDepartment ofEnergyResidential Windows

  19. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet (Seaford, VA); Dylla, III, Henry Frederick (Yorktown, VA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  20. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen-Tuong, V.; Dylla, H.F. III

    1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost. 5 figs.

  1. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  2. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows Controlled for Daylight and Visual Comfort Eleanorof means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare.was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was

  3. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows,technologies, such as an electrochromic vacuum glazedof rebate depth on an electrochromic vacuum glazed window.

  4. Hydrogen Safety Project: Chemical analysis support task. Window ``E`` analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.E.; Campbell, J.A.; Hoppe, E.W.; Greenwood, L.R.; Gillespie, B.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core samples taken from tank 101-SY at Hanford during ``window E`` were analyzed for organic and radiochemical constituents by staff of the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford company submitted these samples to the laboratory.

  5. Building America Expert Meeting: Windows Options for New and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the...

  6. Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taya, Minoru

    Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a) Lu Liu, Susan E. Legenski, Dai Ning March 2004) A large contrast ratio (> 60%) and rapid switching (0.3­1 s) electrochromic (EC) polymer

  7. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  8. Multilayered Microelectronic Device Package With An Integral Window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectronic package with an integral window mounted in a recessed lip for housing a microelectronic device. The device can be a semiconductor chip, a CCD chip, a CMOS chip, a VCSEL chip, a laser diode, a MEMS device, or a IMEMS device. The package can be formed of a low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) or high temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC) multilayered material, with the integral window being simultaneously joined (e.g. co-fired) to the package body during LTCC or HTCC processing. The microelectronic device can be flip-chip bonded and oriented so that a light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. The result is a compact, low profile package, having an integral window mounted in a recessed lip, that can be hermetically sealed.

  9. NREL: Continuum Magazine - Energy Efficient Window Coatings that...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    even before coming to NREL, Satyen Deb conceived of making a window that incorporated tungsten oxide thin films that had adjustable properties. Once at NREL (then, the Solar Energy...

  10. A Design Guide for Early-Market Electrochromic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Clear, Robert D.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph H.; Fernandes, Luis L.; Ward, GregJ.; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable variable-tint electrochromic (EC) windows preserve view out while modulating transmitted light, glare, and solar heat gains. Consumers will require objective information on the risks and benefits of this emerging technology as it enters the market in 2006. This guide provides such information and data derived from a wide variety of simulations, laboratory tests, and a 2.5-year field test of prototype large-area EC windows evaluated under outdoor sun and sky conditions. This design guide is provided to architects, engineers, building owners, and others interested in electrochromic windows. The design guide provides basic information about what is an electrochromic window, what it looks like, how fast does it switch, and what current product offerings are. The guide also provides information on performance benefits if more mature product offerings were available.

  11. Performance Testing of Window Installation and Flashing Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, T. A.; Herrin, J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and proposed installation practices incorporating new flashing materials. This paper focuses specifically on the installation practices relating to windows with mounting fins or flanges. REVIEW OF CURRENT PRACTICES AND ATTITUDES Interviews with builders... into two categories based on the how the flashing and the rough opening is treated. g167g32 2-Dimensional Methods: using flashing to extend protection around the perimeter of the window flanges on to the face of the sheathing, and g167g32 3...

  12. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern [Energy and Building Design, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  13. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  14. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  15. Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " as the number one top priority. Smart windows include chromogenic glazings that can be reversibly switched from century [1]. Window industry executives identified a new generation of dynamic, responsive "Smart Windows and optical properties that can be dynamically controlled. "Smart windows" incorporating electrochromic

  16. Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    -e windows was also calculated for com parison. The dual airflow window can reduce heating energy1 Energy performance of a dual airflow window under different climates Jingshu Wei1 , Jianing Zhao1. This paper reports our effort to use EnergyPlus to simulate the energy performance of a dual airflow window

  17. A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Arasteh, Dariush

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.

  18. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, R.D.; Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.; Waker, D.A.

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam. 9 figs.

  19. Method of making an integral window hermetic fiber optic component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalton, Rick D. (Miamisburg, OH); Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH); Massey, Richard T. (Hamilton, OH); Waker, Damon A. (Bellbrook, OH)

    1996-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of igniters, actuators, detonators, and other pyrotechnic devices to be activated by a laser beam, an integral optical glass window is formed by placing a preform in the structural member of the device and then melting the glass and sealing it in place by heating at a temperature between the ceramming temperature of the glass and the melting point of the metal, followed by rapid furnace cooling to avoid devitrification. No other sealing material is needed to achieve hermeticity. A preferred embodiment of this type of device is fabricated by allowing the molten glass to flow further and form a plano-convex lens integral with and at the bottom of the window. The lens functions to decrease the beam divergence caused by refraction of the laser light passing through the window when the device is fired by means of a laser beam.

  20. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  1. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sol

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation especially concerning short-distance connectivity during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e. maximally-overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e. no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: neurons that started axon growth early on in s...

  2. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, L.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design. 9 figs.

  3. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. However, window and architectural design as well as electrochromic control options are suggested as methods to broaden the applicability of electrochromics for commercial buildings. Without further modification, its applicability is expected to be limited during cold winter periods due to its slow switching speed.

  4. Optimized ECR plasma apparatus with varied microwave window thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Lee A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a technique to control the radial profile of microwave power in an ECR plasma discharge. In order to provide for a uniform plasma density to a specimen, uniform energy absorption by the plasma is desired. By controlling the radial profile of the microwave power transmitted through the microwave window of a reactor, the profile of the transmitted energy to the plasma can be controlled in order to have uniform energy absorption by the plasma. An advantage of controlling the profile using the window transmission characteristics is that variations to the radial profile of microwave power can be made without changing the microwave coupler or reactor design.

  5. T-547: Microsoft Windows Human Interface Device (HID) Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microsoft Windows does not properly warn the user before enabling additional Human Interface Device (HID) functionality over USB, which allows user-assisted attackers to execute arbitrary programs via crafted USB data, as demonstrated by keyboard and mouse data sent by malware on a Smartphone that the user connected to the computer.

  6. The In uence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  7. The Influence of Windowing on Time Delay Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balan, Radu V.

    O'Ruanaidh Siemens Corporate Research 755 College Road East Princeton , NJ 08540 rvbalan,rosca,rickard,oruanaidh@scr.siemens of frequencies. Such a relation holds true when the Fourier transform is used to go into the frequency domain. However, in practice, one has to use the windowed Fourier transform to obtain the frequency domain

  8. Instruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    power savings, and with an average performance loss of a very modest 1.9%. I. INTRODUCTION NewInstruction-Window Power Reduction Using Data Dependence Metric Ziad Youssfi and Michael Shanblatt Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 ziad

  9. OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE WINDOWS FOR FUSION REACTOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS S.J. Zinkle1 and N.M. Ghoniem reactor structural materials: four reduced-activation structural materials (oxide-dispersion- strengthened operating temperature limit of structural materials is determined by one of four factors, all of which

  10. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  11. IRLstack 3.0: High-Performance Windows Sockets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, Yue

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    by bottlenecks inside the TCP/IP stack. Improvements have been made for Linux, but there is still limited work in Windows. To bridge this gap, we build a new generation of our network driver IRLstack and show that it can achieve 10 Gbps wire rate (i.e. 14.88 Mpps...

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Smart Windows (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliron, Delia; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  13. Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Shiaofen

    1 CSCI 120 Windows on Computer Science Department of Computer and Information Science IUPUI What is Computer Science? Is Computer Science the study of computers (Building computers, and writing computer programs) ? Computer Science is no more about computers than astronomy is about telescopes, or biology

  14. Energy Gaining Windows for Residential Buildings Jesper Kragh, Assistant Professor,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can profiles, solar gain, net energy gain, low energy houses SUMMARY: This paper presents some of the research buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating

  15. Covered Product Category: Residential Windows, Doors, and Skylights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential windows, doors, and skylights, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. Intermittent and sustained periodic windows in networked chaotic Rössler oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Zhiwei; Sun, Yong [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China) [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhan, Meng, E-mail: zhanmeng@wipm.ac.cn [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Route to chaos (or periodicity) in dynamical systems is one of fundamental problems. Here, dynamical behaviors of coupled chaotic Rössler oscillators on complex networks are investigated and two different types of periodic windows with the variation of coupling strength are found. Under a moderate coupling, the periodic window is intermittent, and the attractors within the window extremely sensitively depend on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and topology of the network. Therefore, after adding or removing one edge of network, the periodic attractor can be destroyed and substituted by a chaotic one, or vice versa. In contrast, under an extremely weak coupling, another type of periodic window appears, which insensitively depends on the initial conditions, coupling parameter, and network. It is sustained and unchanged for different types of network structure. It is also found that the phase differences of the oscillators are almost discrete and randomly distributed except that directly linked oscillators more likely have different phases. These dynamical behaviors have also been generally observed in other networked chaotic oscillators.

  17. DO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    / bottles Metal items other than cans/foil Napkins Paper towels Plastic bags Plastic films Plastic utensilsDO NOT INCLUDE: flatten cardboard staples, tape & envelope windows ok Aerosol cans Books Bottle, PDAs, inkjet cartridges, CFL bulbs (cushioned, sealed in plastic) computers, printers, printer

  18. EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    EMC PERSPECTIVE: THE POWER OF WINDOWS SERVER 2012 AND EMC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MICROSOFT PRIVATE and storage optimization features of intelligent storage arrays, such as the EMC® Symmetrix® VMAX® storage family, the EMC® VNX® series, and the EMC® Isilon® scale-out NAS family. With new technologies

  19. On the use of the exponential window method in the space domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Li

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    treatments. In this dissertation, an alternative is investigated based on the dynamic stiffness and the exponential window method in the space-wave number domain. Applying the exponential window in the space-wave number domain is equivalent to introducing...

  20. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in light green. 2.5 Window Frame E (PVC) Window frame Eis polyvinyl chloride (PVC). We performed calculations forspacer = 0.25?0.1 W/(mK) ? pvc = 0.9 W/(mK), ? eff. ,spacer

  1. Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows Photo of the Week: The First Energy-Efficient Dual-Paned Windows December 5, 2013 - 12:53pm Addthis Researchers at...

  2. Building America Webinar: Low-E Storms: The Next Big Thing in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Building America webinar presented a new and improved low-e storm window that boasts a combination of curb appeal and energy efficiency, all for a fraction of the cost of window replacement, on Sept. 9, 2014.

  3. Design of an energy efficient and economical actuator for automobile windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Keith (Keith V.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and analysis of an efficient, yet low cost, drum driven window actuation system for an automotive power window. The design uses a novel approach that involves using cables to both actuate ...

  4. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for...

  5. Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Print this article Close This Window EU OKs India joining ITER nuclear reactor project Fri Dec 2 trademarks and trademarks of the Reuters group of companies around the world. Close This Window 12/2/05 4

  6. TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL TRANSFORM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandsten, Maria

    TIME-VARIABLEFILTERING OF MtTLTI[CHANNELSIGNALS USING MULTIPLE WINDOWS COHERENCEAND THE WEYL between all channel pairs. Time-frequency coherence functions are estimated using the multiple window

  7. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Heating Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Total BuildingCooling Loads (Trillion BTU/yr) Non. Wind Infilt SHGC Wind.Energy Consumption (Trillion BTU/yr) Area, Window Window

  8. U-028: Microsoft Windows win32k.sys TrueType Font Parsing Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in Microsoft Windows, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system.

  9. Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University No. 5705 Rev.: 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Installation of Window Air Conditioners Page 1 of 2 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State __________________________________________________________________________________ Subject: Installation of Window Air Conditioners........................................................................................................................................1 1. Purpose To define a policy for installation of window air conditioners that avoids exterior

  10. A First-Generation Prototype Dynamic Residential Window Christian Kohler, Howdy Goudey, and Dariush Arasteh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 26, 2004 Abstract We present the concept for a "smart" highly efficient dynamic window in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys technology have significantly reduced window-related energy use and peak demand in residential buildings

  11. Integrated self-cleaning window assembly for optical transmission in combustion environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kass, Michael D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated window design for optical transmission in combustion environments is described. The invention consists of an integrated optical window design that prevents and removes the accumulation of carbon-based particulate matter and gaseous hydrocarbons through a combination of heat and catalysis. These windows will enable established optical technologies to be applied to combustion environments and their exhaust systems.

  12. The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure in BRCA1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ziheng

    The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure in BRCA1 Karl Schmid1 , Ziheng Yang2 is applied. Citation: Schmid K, Yang Z (2008) The Trouble with Sliding Windows and the Selective Pressure Abstract Sliding-window analysis has widely been used to uncover synonymous (silent, dS) and nonsynonymous

  13. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6152E Lighting energy savings potential of split- pane electrochromic windows controlled potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort L was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled

  14. A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ye-In

    A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1 Chien the overhead, in this paper, we will propose a sliding window approach to supporting interactive display subobjects for display in a sliding window. For the way of interactive display described above, in which

  15. Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and Stückelberg Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary Shiu; Wieland Staessens; Fang Ye

    2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that kinetic and St\\"uckelberg mixings that are generically present in the low energy effective action of axions can significantly widen the window of axion decay constants. We show that an effective super-Planckian decay constant can be obtained even when the axion kinetic matrix has only sub-Planckian entries. Our minimal model involves only two axions, a St\\"uckelberg U(1) and a modest rank instanton generating non-Abelian group. Below the mass of the St\\"uckelberg U(1), there is only a single axion with a non-perturbatively generated potential. In contrast to previous approaches, the enhancement of the axion decay constant is not tied to the number of degrees of freedom introduced. We also discuss how kinetic mixings can lower the decay constant to the desired axion dark matter window. String theory embeddings of this scenario and their phenomenological features are briefly discussed.

  16. Performance prediction using geostatistics and window reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontanilla, J.P.; Al-Khalawi, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Johnson, S.G.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first window model study in the northern area of a large carbonate reservoir in Saudi Arabia. It describes window reservoir simulation with geostatistics to model uneven water encroachment in the southwest producing area of the northern portion of the reservoir. In addition, this paper describes performance predictions that investigate the sweep efficiency of the current peripheral waterflood. A 50 x 50 x 549 (240 m. x 260 m. x 0.15 m. average grid block size) geological model was constructed with geostatistics software. Conditional simulation was used to obtain spatial distributions of porosity and volume of dolomite. Core data transforms were used to obtain horizontal and vertical permeability distributions. Simple averaging techniques were used to convert the 549-layer geological model to a 50 x 50 x 10 (240 m. x 260 m. x 8 m. average grid block size) window reservoir simulation model. Flux injectors and flux producers were assigned to the outermost grid blocks. Historical boundary flux rates were obtained from a coarsely-ridded full-field model. Pressure distribution, water cuts, GORs, and recent flowmeter data were history matched. Permeability correction factors and numerous parameter adjustments were required to obtain the final history match. The permeability correction factors were based on pressure transient permeability-thickness analyses. The prediction phase of the study evaluated the effects of infill drilling, the use of artificial lifts, workovers, horizontal wells, producing rate constraints, and tight zone development to formulate depletion strategies for the development of this area. The window model will also be used to investigate day-to-day reservoir management problems in this area.

  17. Analysis of a Fabric/Desiccant Window Cavity Dehumidifier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunn, B. D.; Grasso, M. M.; Vadlamani, V.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were conducted to a) determine a suitable fabric/desiccant combination for use in the window cavity dehumidifier, and b) to estimate the moisture absorption (regain) capacity of the candidate fabriddesiccant combinations. After examining... the properties of various solid desiccants. we determined that silica gel beads, encapsulated in a fabric pouch, would be the best approach. ?bus, we measured the moisture regain characteristics of several fabrics used to encapsulate silica gel beads...

  18. One trip window cutting tool method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jugens, R.; Krehl, D.

    1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a device for drilling a deflection hole or window from a drill hole in underground rock or geologic formations, it comprises: a deflection wedge unit mountable via a packer in the drill hole, and a pilot cutting tool mounted to the lower end of a drill string, the deflection wedge unit eventually guiding the tool and the drill string including one or more later cutting tools.

  19. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  20. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  1. Development of a cooled microwave window. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1293-0200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Leitch, R.M.; Berry, L.A. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holber, W.M. [Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1995-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development project (CRADA) was to generate a new design for a microwave vacuum window to be used with ASTeX Corporation plasma processing equipment. This vacuum window allows transmission of microwave power from an input waveguide into a vacuum chamber for creation of plasma using the electron cyclotron resonance process. Requirements for the window design are: higher power capability, improved resistance to chemical attack, and physical compatibility with previous window models. In these applications, a significant portion of the input power is deposited in the window by plasma bombardment so the window must remove a great deal of heat to remain at a reliable operating temperature. A power level increase from 1.5 kW to 5 kW is desired by ASTeX for the new window which must have {approximately} 120 mm diameter and be compatible with existing hardware. New applications for these processing systems are being developed by ASTeX; these require the use of highly reactive fluorine plasmas which can rapidly etch some window materials. Therefore, the use of a fluorine compatible window ceramic is required. Two new window designs were investigated using advanced window-modeling techniques and low-power laboratory testing. It was determined that both concepts were capable of operating at significantly higher power levels than present commercial windows and would meet the CRADA design objectives. The compatibility of the window materials considered with fluorine plasmas are believed to be acceptable. ASTeX has a continuing interest in pursuing these window designs and will likely begin manufacturing design work of the improved design in the near future. There will also be a continuing effort to keep AlN ceramic manufacturers interested in improving the quality of large AlN disks. Additional window tests and development work could be performed by ORNL/MMES if a suitable funding source is available.

  2. Building America's Low-e Storm Window Adoption Program Plan (FY2014)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Low emissivity (low-e) storm windows/panels appear to hold promise for effectively reducing existing home heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) consumption. Due to the affordability of low-e storm windows and the large numbers of existing homes that have low-performing single-pane or double-pane clear windows, a tremendous opportunity exists to provide energy savings by transforming the low-e storm window market and increasing market adoption. This report outlines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America’s planned market transformation activities in support of low-e storm window adoption during fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  3. 9/18/09 2:59 PMDark Energy May Not Exist At All -Windows 7 Forums Page 1 of 5http://www.sevenforums.com/chillout-room/21411-dark-energy-may-not-exist-all.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temple, Blake

    XP SP3 18 posts Nis, Serbia Dark Energy May Not Exist At All Quote: Experts in advanced mathematics9/18/09 2:59 PMDark Energy May Not Exist At All - Windows 7 Forums Page 1 of 5http://www.sevenforums.com/chillout-room/21411-dark-energy-may-not-exist-all.html User Name Remember Me? Password Register | Today's Posts

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojczyk, C.; Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership held an Expert Meeting on Windows Options for New and Existing Homes on November 14, 2011 at the Nolte Building on the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, MN. Featured speakers included John Carmody and Pat Huelman of the University of Minnesota, Charlie Curcija of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Jim Larson of Cardinal Glass Industries, Peter Yost of Building Green, Peter Baker of Building Science Corporation, and Theresa Weston of Du Pont Innovations. Audience participation was actively encouraged during each presentation to uncover need and promote dialog among researchers and industry professionals.

  5. Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Report: Development of Advanced Window Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, Ladena A.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan L.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced fenestration technologies for light and thermal management in building applications are of great recent research interest for improvements in energy efficiency. Of these technologies, there is specific interest in advanced window coating technologies that have tailored control over the visible and infrared (IR) scattering into a room for both static and dynamic applications. Recently, PNNL has investigated novel subwavelength nanostructured coatings for both daylighting, and IR thermal management applications. Such coatings rese still in the early stages and additional research is needed in terms of scalable manufacturing. This project investigates aspects of a potential new methodology for low-cost scalable manufacture of said subwavelength coatings.

  6. Laser window with annular grooves for thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Horton, J.A.; Alger, T.W.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser window or other optical element which is thermally loaded, heats up and causes optical distortions because of temperature gradients between the center and the edge. A number of annular grooves, one to three or more, are formed in the element between a central portion and edge portion, producing a web portion which concentrates the thermal gradient and thermally isolates the central portion from the edge portion, producing a uniform temperature profile across the central portion and therefore reduce the optical distortions. The grooves are narrow and closely spaced with respect to the thickness of the element, and successive grooves are formed from alternate sides of the element.

  7. Energy Savings from Window Attachments | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010 SNFEnergy Policy ActEnergyContracts EnergyHVACfrom Window

  8. Energy-Efficient Window Treatments | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for WinterWindow Treatments

  9. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|IdahotheWhat is the FOIA ? What isWhyofWindow,

  10. Expert Meeting Report: Windows Options for New and Existing Homes

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,UnitedCommunication,1] Windows Options for New and Existing

  11. Windows and Building Envelope Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong, Smart,DepartmentResearch &of Energy Windows

  12. Window, Door, and Skylight Products and Services | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnerships ToolkitWasteWho WillWind ProgramofWindow, Door, and

  13. Vinyl Kraft Windows and Doors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: Energy Resources Jump to:Vinyl Kraft Windows

  14. Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIRE BUILDS OFFNanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting

  15. Spectral selectivity of electrochromic windows with color state for all-sky conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soule, D.E. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States)] [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical performance of an electrochromic window is studied for the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared spectral regions. The performance is found to deviate strongly with window color state and for clear or cloudy skies. A new spectral cloud model is applied to an electrochromic window recently developed at NREL. A spectral comparison is made between the electrochromic window and spectrally selective standard windows. Two series of double-glazed window sections, including the electrochromic window with color state and a series of low-E windows, were measured for transmittance and reflectance (300-2500nm), With these spectral data, a new near-infrared blocking (reflection + absorption) factor is developed for window application in warm climates for cooling load reduction. A chromaticity analysis is presented for both the daylight spectra and the transmitted electrochromic window spectra with color state, Computed daylight correlated color temperatures show a wide range, with values of 5660K for clear global irradiation, 6210K for clouds, and 13,250K for a zenith blue sky. Chromatic trajectories with color state for transmitted radiation extend further toward the blue to 8180K for the global and 28,990K for zenith sky irradiation.

  16. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  17. Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Rating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenifer Marchesi Redouane Begag; Je Kyun Lee; Danny Ou; Jong Ho Sonn; George Gould; Wendell Rhine

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the performance of contract DE-FC26-00-NT40998, entitled ''Affordable Window Insulation with R-10/inch Value'', research was conducted at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. to develop new transparent aerogel materials suitable for window insulation applications. The project requirements were to develop a formulation or multiple formulations that have high transparency (85-90%) in the visible region, are hydrophobic (will not opacify with exposure to water vapor or liquid), and have at least 2% resiliency (interpreted as recoverable 2% strain and better than 5% strain to failure in compression). Results from an unrelated project showed that silica aerogels covalently bonded to organic polymers exhibit excellent mechanical properties. At the outset of this project, we believed that such a route is the best to improve mechanical properties. We have applied Design of Experiment (DOE) techniques to optimize formulations including both silica aerogels and organically modified silica aerogels (''Ormosils''). We used these DOE results to optimize formulations around the local/global optimization points. This report documents that we succeeded in developing a number of formulations that meet all of the stated criteria. We successfully developed formulations utilizing a two-step approach where the first step involves acid catalyzed hydrolysis and the second step involves base catalyzed condensation to make the gels. The gels were dried using supercritical CO{sub 2} and we were able to make 1 foot x 1 foot x 0.5 inch panels that met the criteria established.

  18. Tandem self-powered photovoltaic-electrochromic window coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J.N.; Xu, Y.; Benson, D.K.; Branz, H.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wide-gap, transparent amorphous silicon based photovoltaics can be integrated with electrochromic materials to produce a self-powered ``smart`` window coating. Existing electrochromic window designs external electrical connection, which may be economically unfeasible. This problem is solved by the tandem photovoltaic-electrochromic (PV/EC) device, in which a wide-gap amorphous silicon-based alloy (a-SiC:H) photovoltaic device is deposited together with an electrochromic optical transmittance modulator in a monolithic device on a single substrate. In this paper, the authors discuss their proposed monolithic photovoltaic-electrochromic device. They also present studies of transparent, wide-gap (Tauc gap of 1.8 to 2.2 eV) amorphous silicon-carbon thin films and p-i-n devices designed for use in the photovoltaic-electrochromic device. The photovoltaic cells in the PV-EC can operate at low current (<1 mA/cm{sup 2}) because a total injected charge of only 60 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} will darken the EC layer to a visible transmission of 5%, but they will need a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and high transparency ({approx}70%). They describe the progress toward these design targets.

  19. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  20. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential andCommercial Building Stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2006-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple spreadsheet-based tool for estimating window-related energy consumption in the United States. Using available data on the properties of the installed US window stock, we estimate that windows are responsible for 2.15 quadrillion Btu (Quads) of heating energy consumption and 1.48 Quads of cooling energy consumption annually. We develop estimates of average U-factor and SHGC for current window sales. We estimate that a complete replacement of the installed window stock with these products would result in energy savings of approximately 1.2 quads. We demonstrate that future window technologies offer energy savings potentials of up to 3.9 Quads.

  1. High Performance X-Ray Transmission Windows Based on Graphenic Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huebner, Sebastian; Kapser, Stefan; Pahlke, Andreas; Kreupl, Franz

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel x-ray transmission window based on graphenic carbon has been developed with superior performance compared to beryllium transmission windows that are currently used in the field. Graphenic carbon in combination with an integrated silicon frame allows for a window design which does not use a mechanical support grid or additional light blocking layers. Compared to beryllium, the novel x-ray transmission window exhibits an improved transmission in the low energy region ($0.1 hbox{keV}-3 hbox{keV}$ ) while demonstrating excellent mechanical stability, as well as light and vacuum tightness. Therefore, the newly established graphenic carbon window, can replace beryllium in x-ray transmission windows with a nontoxic and abundant material. Index terms: Beryllium, Carbon, Graphene, Thin films, X-ray applications, X-ray detectors

  2. Hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ostenak, C.A.; Mackay, H.A.

    1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrofluoric acid-resistant composite window and method for its fabrication are disclosed. The composite window comprises a window having first and second sides. The first side is oriented towards an environment containing hydrofluoric acid. An adhesive is applied to the first side. A layer of transparent hydrofluoric acid-resistant material, such as Mylar, is applied to the adhesive and completely covers the first side. The adhesive is then cured.

  3. Evaluation of a modified quadruple energy window scatter subtraction algorithm for quantitative imaging with In-111 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadler,John J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spatial resolution broadens the curve by giving false indication of where individual counts register. Another effect of having the dual-energy gamma rays &om In-111 in particular is that Compton scatter from the higher energy 246 keV gamma.... Attenuation and Scatter Correction with the Quadruple Energy Window Scatter Subtraction Method 1. 10. 1. The Original Quadruple Energy Window Scatter Subtraction Algorithm Scatter subtraction methods based on a dual-energy window image acquisition scheme...

  4. U-225: Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows nsepacom ActiveX...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in Citrix Access Gateway Plug-in for Windows can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system. reference LINKS: Citrix Knowledge Center Secunia...

  5. Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Goudey, Howdy

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.

  6. T-573: Windows Remote Desktop Client DLL Loading Error Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability was reported in Windows Remote Desktop Client. A remote user can cause arbitrary code to be executed on the target user's system.

  7. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercial buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook of inorganic electrochromic materials. 1995.R. Sullivan. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performancetime of large-scale electrochromic devices. In Large-Area

  8. The Use of Energy Windowing to Discriminate SNM from NORM in Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strachan, Denis M.; Weier, Dennis R.

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy windowing is an alarm algorithm method that can be applied to plastic scintillator-based radiation portal monitors (RPMs) to reduce the alarm rates from naturally occurring radioactive material. Various implementations of energy windowing have been tested and documented by industry and at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and are available in commercial RPMs built by several manufacturers. Moreover, energy windowing is being used in deployed RPMs to reduce nuisance alarms during the screening of cargo. This paper describes energy windowing algorithms and demonstrates how these algorithms succeed when applied to “controlled” experimental measurements and “real world” vehicle-traffic data. (PIET-43741-TM-281)

  9. Apparatus for preventing particle deposition from process streams on optical access windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Ronald G. (Fredericksburg, VA); Grimm, Ulrich (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrostatic precipitator is disposed inside and around the periphery of the window of a viewing port communicating with a housing through which a particle-laden gas stream is being passed. The precipitator includes a pair of electrodes around the periphery of the window, spaced apart and connected to a unidirectional voltage source. Application of high voltage from the source to the electrodes causes air molecules in the gas stream to become ionized, attaching to solid particles and causing them to be deposited on a collector electrode. This prevents the particles from being deposited on the window and keeps the window clean for viewing and making optical measurements.

  10. Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Building Scientific Workflows for Earth System Modelling with Windows Workflow Foundation Matthew J developed a framework for the composition, execution and management of integrated Earth system models

  11. Purged window apparatus. [On-line spectroscopic analysis of gas flow systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, E.O.

    1982-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A purged window apparatus is described which utilizes tangentially injected heated purge gases in the vicinity of electromagnetic radiation transmitting windows and a tapered external mounting tube to accelerate these gases to provide a vortex flow on the window surface and a turbulent flow throughout the mounting tube thereby preventing backstreaming of flowing gases under investigation in a chamber to which a plurality of similar purged apparatus is attached with the consequent result that spectroscopic analyses can be undertaken for lengthy periods without the necessity of interrupting the flow for cleaning or replacing the windows due to contamination.

  12. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001). "Residential Energy Consumption Survey." 2006, fromCommercial Building Energy Consumption Survey." from http://Scale window-related energy consumption to account for new

  13. U< I 7 jjORNLCON-3S) EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A WINDOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    UAIR CONDITIONER OAK RIDGE WITH NATIONAL R-22. #12;ORNUCON-389 EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER WITH R-22 AND ZEOTROPIC MIXTURE OF R

  14. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a pinhole. (4) Improvements have also been made to the overall product to enhance the appearance and market acceptability. These include: (i) increasing the active electrochromic area to enable window manufacturers to install the SageGlass{reg_sign} IGU's into a variety of different framing systems, (ii) implementing a Pb free solder system for the electrical interconnections, (iii) development of a wire routing scheme to allow installation of SageGlass{reg_sign} units into a variety of different framing systems. This project has advanced the development of electrochromic glazing significantly, thereby advancing the introduction of the product and all the benefits of such a technology.

  15. MiniBooNE "Windows on the Universe"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanski, Ray; /Fermilab

    2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the last few decades has left neutrino physics with several vexing issues. Among them are the following questions: (1) Why are lepton mixing angles so different from those in the quark sector? (2) What is the most probable range of the reactor mixing angle? (3) Is the atmospheric mixing angle maximal? (4) What is the number of fermion generations? These are some of the issues that neutrino science hopes to study; this article will explore these questions as part of a more general scientific landscape, and will discuss the part MiniBooNE might play in this exploration. We discuss the current state of measurements taken by MiniBooNE, and emphasize the uniqueness of neutrino oscillations as an important probe into the 'Windows on the Universe.'

  16. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

  17. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  18. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  19. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  20. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: field study results of this emerging technology. Keywords: Building energy-efficiency; Electrochromic windows; Daylighting; Control switched across their dynamic range and could be fully integrated into a complete daylight, glare

  1. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6496E Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film in a full in Leukos, the journal of the IESNA. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight- redirecting window film Laboratory, Mailstop 90-3111, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Abstract Daylight redirecting systems

  2. Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved electroluminescence imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved model to simulate the behavior of CIGS solar cells based on the spread sheet resistance effect on the determination of the window layer sheet resistance in CIGS solar cells, but our approach could be transferred

  3. Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York commercial office buildings E. S This work was supported by Sage Electrochromics, Inc. through the New York State Energy and Research Develop author. E-mail: ESLee@lbl.gov Energy performance analysis of electrochromic windows in New York

  4. Multilevel Windows on a Singlelevel Terminal+ M. D. McIlroy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIlroy, Doug

    Multilevel Windows on a Single­level Terminal+ M. D. McIlroy J. A. Reeds AT&T Bell Laboratories, ``Multilevel security with fewer fetters,'' are ``intelligent'' terminals that contain a local operating system. A program in the host mediates between (multiple) shell sessions and the terminal. To run multilevel windows

  5. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in buildings is by increasing the thermal performance of their envelopes. Gustavsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building), Windows & Envelope Materials Group, Berkeley, CA 94720- 8134, USA Abstract Insulating glass (IG) units

  6. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  7. Establishment of a Rating Program for Pre- and Post-Fabricated Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Mapes, Terry S.; Shah, B.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared to support the Smart Buildings-Material Testing and Rating Centres (SB-2) activity of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Energy Smart Communities Initiative (ESCI). The ESCI was put forward by APEC Leaders at the 2010 meeting in Japan. APEC is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. This document addresses the testing and certification of building products and equipment to support building energy codes, focusing specifically on energy-efficient factory-built windows. It sets forth a proposed structure for an APEC economy to establish a testing, rating, certification, and labeling program for efficient factory-built windows. In the context of this document, efficient windows would be windows made with insulating glass (IG) and an efficient frame assembly. The minimum efficiency metric (or thermal performance) for these windows is not quantified in this document and would generally be established by a governmental agency.

  8. Performance Analysis of Contention Window Cheating Misbehaviors in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalaiarasi, R; Pari, S Neelavathy; Sridharan, D

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes that can be rapidly deployed as a multi-hop network without the aid of any centralized administration. Misbehavior is challenged by bandwidth and energy efficient medium access control and fair share of throughput. Node misbehavior plays an important role in MANET. In this survey, few of the contention window misbehavior is reviewed and compared. The contention window cheating either minimizes the active communication of the network or reduces bandwidth utilization of a particular node. The classification presented is in no case unique but summarizes the chief characteristics of many published proposals for contention window cheating. After getting insight into the different contention window misbehavior, few of the enhancements that can be done to improve the existing contention window are suggested. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer more efficient methods to reduce contention win...

  9. Mechanical Research and Development of monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window for CSNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Liang; Qu Hua-Min

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The monocrystalline silicon neutron beam window is one of the key components of neutron spectrometers and thin circular plate.Monocrystalline silicon is a brittle material and its strength is not constant but is consistent with the Weibull distribution. The window is designed not simply through the average strength, but according to the survival rate. Bending deformation is the main form of the window, so dangerous parts of the neutron beam window is stress-linearized to the combination of membrane stress and bending stress. According to the Weibull distribution of bending strength of monocrystalline silicon based on a large number of experimental data, finally the optimized neutron beam window is 1.5mm thick. Its survival rate is 0.9994 and its transmittance is 0.98447; it meets both physical requirements and the mechanical strength.

  10. Method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a microelectronic device package with an integral window for providing optical access through an aperture in the package. The package is made of a multilayered insulating material, e.g., a low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) or high-temperature cofired ceramic (HTCC). The window is inserted in-between personalized layers of ceramic green tape during stackup and registration. Then, during baking and firing, the integral window is simultaneously bonded to the sintered ceramic layers of the densified package. Next, the microelectronic device is flip-chip bonded to cofired thick-film metallized traces on the package, where the light-sensitive side is optically accessible through the window. Finally, a cover lid is attached to the opposite side of the package. The result is a compact, low-profile package, flip-chip bonded, hermetically-sealed package having an integral window.

  11. A test of multiple correlation temporal window characteristic of non-Markov processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arecchi, Tito; Megna, Nicola

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a sensitive test of memory effects in successive events. The test consists of a combination K of binary correlations at successive times. K decays monotonically from K = 1 for uncorrelated events as a Markov process; whereas memory effects provide a temporal window with K > 1. For a monotonic memory fading, K 1 temporal window in cognitive tasks consisting of the visual identification of the front face of the Necker cube after a previous presentation of the same. The K > 1 behaviour is maximal at an inter-measurement time {\\tau} around 2 sec with inter-subject differences. The K > 1 persists over a time window of 1 sec around {\\tau}; outside this window the K 1 window in pairs of successive perceptions suggests that, at variance with single visual stimuli eliciting a suitable response, a pair of stimuli shortly separated in time displays mutual correlations.

  12. Securing Remote Desktop for Windows XP http://www.mobydisk.com/./techres/securing_remote_desktop.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    an account lockout policy #12;There are already tools that will use brute-force to guess passwords and log-on remotely. You cannot stop this, but it can be minimized by setting an account lockout policy. If someone system. From the same Local Security Policy screen from before, go to Account Policies - Account Lockout

  13. Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system development and lighting energy monitoring of ceramic thin-film electrochromic (EC) windows were initiated at the new full-scale window systems test-bed facility at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. The new facility consists of three identically configured side-by-side private offices with large-area windows that face due south. In one room, an array of EC windows with a center-of-glass visible transmittance T_v range of 0.05-0.60 was installed. In the two other rooms, unshaded windows with a T_v = 0.50 or 0.15 were used as reference. The same dimmable fluorescent lighting system was used in all three rooms. This study explains the design and commissioning of an integrated EC window-lighting control system, and then illustrates its performance in the test-bed under clear, partly cloudy, and overcast sky conditions during the equinox period. The performance of an early prototype EC window controller is also analyzed. Lighting energy savings data are presented. Daily lighting energy savings were 44-59% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.15 and 8-23% compared to the reference window of T_v = 0.50. The integrated window-lighting control system maintained interior illuminance levels to within +/- 10% of the setpoint range of 510-700 lx for 89-99% of the day. Further work is planned to refine the control algorithms and monitor cooling load, visual comfort, and human factor impacts of this emerging technology. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic and mechanical design of gridded radio-frequency cavity windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsharo'a, Mohammad M.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses of radio-frequency (RF) cavities were performed as part of a developmental RF cavity program for muon cooling. RF cavities are necessary to provide longitudinal focusing of the muons and to compensate for their energy loss. Closing the cavity ends by electrically conducting windows reduces the power requirement and increases the on-axis electric field for a given maximum surface electric field. Many factors must be considered in the design of RF cavity windows. RF heating can cause the windows to deform in the axial direction of the cavity. The resulting thermal stresses in the window must be maintained below the yield stress of the window material. The out-of-plane deflection must be small enough so that the consequent frequency shift is tolerable. For example, for an 805 MHz cavity, the out-of-plane deflection must be kept below 25 microns to prevent the frequency of the cavity from shifting more than 10 kHz. In addition, the window design should yield smooth electric and magnetic fields, terminate field leakage beyond the window, and minimize beam scattering. In the present thesis, gridded-tube window designs were considered because of their high structural integrity. As a starting point in the analysis, a cylindrical pillbox cavity was considered as a benchmark problem. Analytical and finite element solutions were obtained for the electric and magnetic fields, power loss density, and temperature profile. Excellent agreement was obtained between the analytical and finite element results. The finite element method was then used to study a variety of gridded-tube windows. It was found that cooling of the gridded-tube windows by passing helium gas inside the tubes significantly reduces the out-of-plane deflection and the thermal stresses. Certain tube geometries and grid patterns were found to satisfy all of the design requirements.

  15. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  16. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arlid

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    window frames; To the left, a PVC window frame (S1) and toaluminum frame, S3 (left) and PVC frame, S4 (right) Figuremade of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For

  17. To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film in deep open

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To be submitted to Solar Energy. Daylight performance of a microstructured prismatic window film Systems Department, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones

  18. SWEMP 2002, Cagliari, Italy SDPS for Windows: An Application for Subsidence Prediction, Optimum Mine Design and Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SWEMP 2002, Cagliari, Italy SDPS for Windows: An Application for Subsidence Prediction, Optimum the benefits of the MS Windows platform and has a direct interface to CAD software, thus facilitating input

  19. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: Low-e Storms: The Next "Big Thing" in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-e Storms:  The Next “Big Thing” in Window RetrofitsOfficial Webinar Transcript (September 9, 2014)

  20. Monitored Energy Performance of Electrochromic Windows Controlledfor Daylight and Visual Comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Klems, Joseph; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A 20-month field study was conducted to measure the energy performance of south-facing large-area tungsten-oxide absorptive electrochromic (EC) windows with a broad switching range in a private office setting. The EC windows were controlled by a variety of means to bring in daylight while minimizing window glare. For some cases, a Venetian blind was coupled with the EC window to block direct sun. Some tests also involved dividing the EC window wall into zones where the upper EC zone was controlled to admit daylight while the lower zone was controlled to prevent glare yet permit view. If visual comfort requirements are addressed by EC control and Venetian blinds, a 2-zone EC window configuration provided average daily lighting energy savings of 10 {+-} 15% compared to the reference case with fully lowered Venetian blinds. Cooling load reductions were 0 {+-} 3%. If the reference case assumes no daylighting controls, lighting energy savings would be 44 {+-} 11%. Peak demand reductions due to window cooling load, given a critical demand-response mode, were 19-26% maximum on clear sunny days. Peak demand reductions in lighting energy use were 0% or 72-100% compared to a reference case with and without daylighting controls, respectively. Lighting energy use was found to be very sensitive to how glare and sun is controlled. Additional research should be conducted to fine-tune EC control for visual comfort based on solar conditions so as to increase lighting energy savings.

  1. Submitted to Energy and Buildings February 23, 2005 and accepted for publication March 1, 2006. Subject responses to electrochromic windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . LBNL-57125 Subject responses to electrochromic windows R.D. Clear* , V. Inkarojrit, E.S. Lee Building in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually- operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3

  2. Side-by-Side Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the energy, air leakage, and thermal performance of highly insulating windows, a field evaluation was undertaken in a matched pair of all-electric, factory-built “Lab Homes” located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus in Richland, Washington. The “baseline” Lab Home B was retrofitted with “standard” double-pane clear aluminum-frame slider windows and patio doors, while the “experimental” Lab Home A was retrofitted with Jeld-Wen® triple-pane vinyl-frame slider windows and patio doors with a U-factor of 0.2 and solar heat gain coefficient of 0.19. To assess the window, the building shell air leakage, energy use, and interior temperatures of each home were compared during the 2012 winter heating and summer cooling seasons. The measured energy savings in Lab Home B averaged 5,821 watt-hours per day (Wh/day) during the heating season and 6,518 Wh/day during the cooling season. The overall whole-house energy savings of Lab Home B compared to Lab Home A are 11.6% ± 1.53% for the heating season and 18.4 ± 2.06% for the cooling season for identical occupancy conditions with no window coverings deployed. Extrapolating these energy savings numbers based on typical average heating degree days and cooling degree days per year yields an estimated annual energy savings of 12.2%, or 1,784 kWh/yr. The data suggest that highly insulating windows are an effective energy-saving measure that should be considered for high-performance new homes and in existing retrofits. However, the cost effectiveness of the measure, as determined by the simple payback period, suggests that highly insulating window costs continue to make windows difficult to justify on a cost basis alone. Additional reductions in costs via improvements in manufacturing and/or market penetration that continue to drive down costs will make highly insulating windows much more viable as a cost-effective energy efficiency measure. This study also illustrates that highly insulating windows have important impacts on peak load, occupant comfort, and condensation potential, which are not captured in the energy savings calculation. More consistent and uniform interior temperature distributions suggest that highly insulated windows, as part of a high performance building envelope, may enable more centralized duct design and downsized HVAC systems. Shorter, more centralized duct systems and smaller HVAC systems to yield additional cost savings, making highly insulating windows more cost effective as part of a package of new construction or retrofit measures which achieve significant reductions in home energy use.

  3. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  4. Building America Webinar: Low-E Storms: The Next Big Thing in Window Retrofits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Until recently, energy-efficient window retrofit options have largely been limited to repair or replacement; leaving the homeowner to decide between affordability and deeper energy savings.  A new...

  5. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis investigation of a PVC window frame naturally agedThermix / TGI-wave 1.23 x 1.48 PVC profile with PUR (? =TOPLINE Plus Rahmenmaterial: PVC- Profile, Kammern mit PU

  6. Low-e Storm Windows: Market Assessment and Pathways to Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.

    2013-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Field studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have shown that the use of low-e storm windows can lead to significant heating and cooling energy savings in residential homes. This study examines the market for low-e storm windows based on market data, case studies, and recent experience with weatherization deployment programs. It uses information from interviews conducted with DOE researchers and industry partners involved in case studies and early deployment efforts related to low-e storm windows. In addition, this study examines potential barriers to market acceptance, assesses the market and energy savings potential, and identifies opportunities to transform the market for low-e storm windows and overcome market adoption barriers.

  7. The Window Market in Texas: Opportunities for Energy Savings and Demand Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zarnikau, J.; Campbell, L.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency features have become standard features in windows in states with building energy codes, their sales in the Texas market remain limited. This paper presents findings from a pilot energy efficiency program sponsored by American Electric Power Company...

  8. Design and validation of an air window for a molten salt solar thermal receiver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the development of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) receivers and focuses on the design of an efficient aperture. An air window is proposed for use as the aperture of a CSP molten salt receiver ...

  9. Preliminary Assessment of the Energy-Saving Potential of Electrochromic Windows in Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, D. R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows provide variable tinting that can help control glare and solar heat gain. We used BEopt software to evaluate their performance in prototypical energy models of a single-family home.

  10. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system...

  11. A decomposition approach for commodity pickup and delivery with time-windows under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marla, Lavanya

    We consider a special class of large-scale, network-based, resource allocation problems under uncertainty, namely that of multi-commodity flows with time-windows under uncertainty. In this class, we focus on problems ...

  12. Galadriel: A Display List-Based Window Manager Graphics Workstation Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert R.

    to a VAX (780) running an internal Tek version of (relatively standard) 4.2bsd UNIX. So far, it's been'' is about as close as we could come to a mythological ``window manager''. VAX and VT100 are trademarks

  13. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system...

  14. WVU Regional Research Institute grad assistant wins national award for throwing assumptions out the window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WVU Regional Research Institute grad assistant wins national award for throwing assumptions out the window Silicon Valley conjures images of leading edge technology. Las Vegas makes one think of gambling

  15. Dynamic compression of synthetic diamond windows (final report for LDRD project 93531).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond is an attractive dynamic compression window for many reasons: high elastic limit,large mechanical impedance, and broad transparency range. Natural diamonds, however, aretoo expensive to be used in destructive experiments. Chemical vapor deposition techniquesare now able to produce large single-crystal windows, opening up many potential dynamiccompression applications. This project studied the behavior of synthetic diamond undershock wave compression. The results suggest that synthetic diamond could be a usefulwindow in this field, though complete characterization proved elusive.3

  16. New MS-Windows-Based Educational Software for Teaching the Sunpath Diagram and Shading Mask Protractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, J. K. W.; Haberl, J. S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , The Passive Solar Energy Book, expanded professional ed., Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pa McCluney, R 1995. "Software for Window Solar Gain Analysis", Building Simulation '95: Proceedings ofthe International Building Peformance Simulation Association, J... traditionally been used by architects and engineers to analyze whether or not a solar shading device will block direct sunlight on a given point in the plane of an exterior window. The sunpath diagram is a two-dimensional graphical representation...

  17. Evaluation of Low-E Storm Windows in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the performance of exterior and interior low-e storm panels with a controlled whole home experimental design using PNNL's Lab Homes. Summing the estimated annual average heating and cooling savings, the installation of low-e storm panels resulted in approximately 10% annual energy savings. The results of the experiment will be used to determine and validate performance of low-e storm windows over double pane clear glass windows in a whole home setting.

  18. Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

  19. The development and evaluation of a neutron window filter facility utilizing the TAMU NSC TRIGA reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, Patricia Colleen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEUTRON WINDOW FILTER FACILITY UTILIZING THE TAMU NSC TRIGA REACTOR A Thesis by PATRICIA COLLEEN HARDING Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEUTRON WINDOW FILTER FACILITY UTILIZING THE TAMU NSC TRIGA REACTOR A Thesis by PATRICIA COLLEEN HARDING Approved as to style...

  20. Apparatus and method for in-situ cleaning of resist outgassing windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (San Ramon, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for in-situ cleaning of resist outgassing windows. The apparatus includes a chamber located in a structure, with the chamber having an outgassing window to be cleaned positioned in alignment with a slot in the chamber, whereby radiation energy passes through the window, the chamber, and the slot onto a resist-coated wafer mounted in the structure. The chamber is connected to a gas supply and the structure is connected to a vacuum pump. Within the chamber are two cylindrical sector electrodes and a filament is electrically connected to one sector electrode and a power supply. In a first cleaning method the sector electrodes are maintained at the same voltage, the filament is unheated, the chamber is filled with argon (Ar) gas under pressure, and the window is maintained at a zero voltage, whereby Ar ions are accelerated onto the window surface, sputtering away carbon deposits that build up as a result of resist outgassing. A second cleaning method is similar except oxygen gas (O.sub.2) is admitted to the chamber instead of Ar. These two methods can be carried out during lithographic operation. A third method, carried out during a maintenance period, involves admitting CO.sub.2 into the chamber, heating the filament to a point of thermionic emission, the sector electrodes are at different voltages, excited CO.sub.2 gas molecules are created which impact the carbon contamination on the window, and gasify it, producing CO gaseous products that are pumped away.

  1. Integral window/photon beam position monitor and beam flux detectors for x-ray beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Kuzay, Tuncer M. (Naperville, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitor/detector assembly in a synchrotron for either monitoring the position of a photon beam or detecting beam flux may additionally function as a vacuum barrier between the front end and downstream segment of the beamline in the synchrotron. A base flange of the monitor/detector assembly is formed of oxygen free copper with a central opening covered by a window foil that is fused thereon. The window foil is made of man-made materials, such as chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and in certain configurations includes a central opening through which the beams are transmitted. Sensors of low atomic number materials, such as aluminum or beryllium, are laid on the window foil. The configuration of the sensors on the window foil may be varied depending on the function to be performed. A contact plate of insulating material, such as aluminum oxide, is secured to the base flange and is thereby clamped against the sensor on the window foil. The sensor is coupled to external electronic signal processing devices via a gold or silver lead printed onto the contact plate and a copper post screw or alternatively via a copper screw and a copper spring that can be inserted through the contact plate and coupled to the sensors. In an alternate embodiment of the monitor/detector assembly, the sensors are sandwiched between the window foil of chemical vapor deposition diamond or cubic boron nitrate and a front foil made of similar material.

  2. Characterization of Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort Improvements Derived from Using Interior Storm Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, Jake R.; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This field study of a single historic home in Seattle, WA documents the performance of Indow Windows’s interior storm window inserts. Energy use and the temperature profile of the house were monitored before and after the installation of the window inserts and changes in the two recorded metrics were examined. Using the defined analysis approach, it was determined that the interior storm windows produced a 22% reduction of the HVAC energy bill and had an undetermined effect on the thermal comfort in the house. Although there was no measurable changes in the thermal comfort of the house, the occupant noted the house to be “warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer” and that the “temperatures are more even (throughout the house).” The interior storm windows were found to be not cost effective, largely due to the retrofits completed on its heating system. However, if the economic analysis was conducted based on the old heating system, a 72% efficient oil fired furnace, the Indow Windows proved to be economical and had a simple payback period of 9.0 years.

  3. An Alkali-Vapor Cell with Metal Coated Windows for Efficient Application of an Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkisyan, D; Guena, J; Lintz, M; Bouchiat, M A; Sarkisyan, David; Gu\\'{e}na, Jocelyne; Lintz, Michel; Bouchiat, Marie-Anne

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the implementation of a cylindrical T-shaped alkali-vapor cell for laser spectroscopy in the presence of a longitudinal electric field. The two windows are used as two electrodes of the high-voltage assembly, which is made possible by a metallic coating which entirely covers the inner and outer sides of the windows except for a central area to let the laser beams in and out of the cell. This allows very efficient application of the electric field, up to 2 kV/cm in a rather dense superheated vapor, even when significant photoemission takes place at the windows during pulsed laser irradiation. The body of the cell is made of sapphire or alumina ceramic to prevent large currents resulting from surface conduction observed in cesiated glass cells. The technique used to attach the monocrystalline sapphire windows to the cell body causes minimal stress birefringence in the windows. In addition, reflection losses at the windows can be made very small. The vapor cell operates with no buffer gas and has no ...

  4. Defining window-boundaries for genomic analyses using smoothing spline techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Rosa, Guilherme JM; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Gianola, Daniel; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-density genomic data is often analyzed by combining information over windows of adjacent markers. Interpretation of data grouped in windows versus at individual locations may increase statistical power, simplify computation, reduce sampling noise, and reduce the total number of tests performed. However, use of adjacent marker information can result in over- or under-smoothing, undesirable window boundary specifications, or highly correlated test statistics. We introduce a method for defining windows based on statistically guided breakpoints in the data, as a foundation for the analysis of multiple adjacent data points. This method involves first fitting a cubic smoothing spline to the data and then identifying the inflection points of the fitted spline, which serve as the boundaries of adjacent windows. This technique does not require prior knowledge of linkage disequilibrium, and therefore can be applied to data collected from individual or pooled sequencing experiments. Moreover, in contrast to existing methods, an arbitrary choice of window size is not necessary, since these are determined empirically and allowed to vary along the genome.

  5. Test for Modeling Windows in DOE 2.1E for Comparing the Window Library with the Shading Coefficient Method for a Single-Family Residence in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    . The window simulation tests are performed using single-pane, double-pane, and low-e glass on two standard DOE 2.1E single-family house models: 1) the model which has the R-value for wall, roof and floor according to 2000 IECC (Quick Wall), and 2) the model...

  6. 1: 62-950829-LANL-GWurden-01, TPX Windows Study, M. Merrigan and G. Wurden LA-UR-95-3237

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    remote maintenance of in-vessel hardware. The vacuum vessel and internal components will be cooled to 150 diagnostic windows is reviewed, thermal loads on the windows estimated, and cooling requirements for the windows considered. Applicable window- cooling technology from other fields is reviewed and its

  7. Active load management with advanced window wall systems: Research and industry perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Levi, Mark S.; Blanc, Steven L.; McConahey, Erin; McClintock, Maurya; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Sbar, Neil L.; Myser, Michael P.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced window wall systems have the potential to provide demand response by reducing peak electric loads by 20-30% in many commercial buildings through the active control of motorized shading systems, switchable window coatings, operable windows, and ventilated double-skin facade systems. These window strategies involve balancing daylighting and solar heat gains, heat rejection through ventilation, and night-time natural ventilation to achieve space-conditioning and lighting energy use reductions without the negative impacts on occupants associated with other demand responsive (DR) strategies. This paper explores conceptually how advanced window systems fit into the context of active load management programs, which cause customers to directly experience the time-varying costs of their consumption decisions. Technological options are suggested. We present pragmatic criteria that building owners use to determine whether to deploy such strategies. A utility's perspective is given. Industry also provides their perspectives on where the technology is today and what needs to happen to implement such strategies more broadly in the US. While there is significant potential for these advanced window concepts, widespread deployment is unlikely to occur with business-as-usual practice. Technologically, integrated window-lighting-HVAC products are underdeveloped. Implementation is hindered by fragmented labor practices, non-standard communication protocols, and lack of technical expertise. Design tools and information products that quantify energy performance, occupant impacts, reliability, and other pragmatic concerns are not available. Interest within the building industry in sustainability, energy-efficiency, and increased occupant amenity, comfort, and productivity will be the driving factors for these advanced facades in the near term--at least until the dust settles on the deregulated electricity market.

  8. An Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Wall And Window Retrofit Configurations: Supporting the Residential Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Petrie, Thomas [ORNL; Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Hulvey, Kimberly D [ORNL

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Retrofit Best Practices Guide was developed to encourage homeowners to consider energy conservation issues whenever they modify their siding or windows. In support of this guide, an experimental program was implemented to measure the performance of a number of possible wall siding and window retrofit configurations. Both thermal and air-leakage measurements were made for a 2.4 x 2.4 m (8 x 8 ft) wall section with and without a 0.9 x 1.2 m (3 x 4 ft) window. The windows tested were previously well-characterized at a dedicated window test facility. A computer model was also used to provide information for the Best Practices Guide. The experimental data for walls and windows were used in conjunction with this model to estimate the total annual energy savings for several typical houses in a number of different locations.

  9. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hahn, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Severance, Michael [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); McMahan, Brandon [Westhampton High School, NY (United States)

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x1011 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point, as a result the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite’s temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  10. Development of trade-off equations for EnergyStar windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Joe; Mitchell, Robin; Selkowitz, Steve; Arasteh, Dariush; Clear, Bob

    2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors explore the feasibility of adding a performance option to DOE's EnergyStar{copyright} Windows program whereby windows of differing U-factors and SHGCs can qualify so long as they have equivalent annual energy performance. An iterative simulation procedure is used to calculate trade-off equations giving the change in SHGC needed to compensate for a change in U-factor. Of the four EnergyStar{copyright} Window climate zones, trade-off equations are possible only in the Northern and Southern zones. In the North/Central and South/Central zones, equations are not possible either because of large intrazone climate variations or the current SHGC requirements are already near optimum.

  11. Analysing the effects of apodizing windows on local correlation tracking using Nirvana simulations of convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Rohan E; Georgoulis, Manolis K; Küker, Manfred

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ different shapes of apodizing windows in the local correlation tracking (LCT) routine to retrieve horizontal velocities using numerical simulations of convection. LCT was applied on a time sequence of temperature maps generated by the Nirvana code with four different apodizing windows, namely--Gaussian, Lorentzian, trapezoidal and triangular, with varying widths. In terms of correlations (between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow field), the triangular and the trapezoidal perform the best and worst, respectively. On segregating the intrinsic velocities in the simulations on the basis of their magnitudes, we find that for all windows, a significantly higher correlation is obtained for the intermediate and high-velocity bins and only modest or weak values in the low-velocity bins. The differences between the LCT-retrieved and simulated flow fields were determined spatially which show large residuals at or close to the boundary of granules. The extent to which the horizontal flow vectors retrieved b...

  12. Transmission spectra of an electrochromic window based on polyaniline, Prussian blue and tungsten oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelle, B.P.; Hagen, G. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Applied Electrochemistry

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demand for energy savings in buildings will increase in the coming years, as the world`s attention is drawn towards environmental aspects and energy economizing. Windows which are able to dynamically control the sun radiation throughput will play an important role. In this respect, the authors have studied two different electrochromic window configurations; one based on the two complementary electrochromic materials polyaniline (PANI) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}), the other one with the electrochromic coating Prussian blue (PB) in addition to PANI and WO{sub 3}. The inclusion of PB enhances the transmission modulation. Integrating over the solar spectrum they find that the window based on PANI and WO{sub 3} is able to regulate 39% of the total solar energy, while with the inclusion of PB they manage to regulate as much as 50% of the sun radiation.

  13. Are You Ready Phase Two? Pricing Changes and Commercial Products Added to DOE High-Performance Windows Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article, for publication in Door and Window Manufacturer magazine, describes DOE's High Performance Windows Volume Purchase Program, WVPP, and how PNNL, which manages the program for DOE, is assisting DOE in the transition to the next phase (Phase II), which begins in May. While the foundation of the program will remain relatively unchanged, PNNL is employing several new strategies to continue the momentum built during the program's first full year of implementation. The program helps buyers and manufacturers to develop a market for highly insulating windows and low-E storm windows at affordable prices and thereby overcome the principal barrier of cost.

  14. Database of Low-e Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culp, Thomas D.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an update of a report that describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone.

  15. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upgrade cost for all low solar gain low-e glazed products. However, our experience suggests that a good estimate of the average upgrade cost for low solar gain low-e is less than a $1.50 per square foot of window area. This price has been..., Oregon and Washington back in 1996 were less than $2 per square foot. Similarly, a 1995 study by the Washington State Energy Office [M. Lubliner & T. Ossinger, ?Pricing of Energy Efficient Windows in the Pacific Northwest?], found the cost to upgrade...

  16. Photovoltaic-integrated electrochromic device for smart-window applications - preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deb, S.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different, innovative approaches have been taken to develop photovoltaic (PV) integrated electrochromic (EC) devices for smart-window applications. These are (1) a stand-alone, side-by-side PV-powered EC window; (2) a monolithically integrated PV-EC device; and, (3) a novel photoelectrochromic device based on dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} solar cells. The compatibility of PV-EC devices has been analyzed and the potential for large energy savings for building applications has been suggested.

  17. Windows NT 4.0 Asynchronous Transfer Mode network interface card performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolendino, L.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Networking Integration Dept.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows NT desktop and server systems are becoming increasingly important to Sandia. These systems are capable of network performance considerably in excess of the 10 Mbps Ethernet data rate. As alternatives to conventional Ethernet, 155 Mbps Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM, and 100 Mbps Ethernet network interface cards were tested and compared to conventional 10 Mbps Ethernet cards in a typical Windows NT system. The results of the tests were analyzed and compared to show the advantages of the alternative technologies. Both 155 Mbps ATM and 100 Mbps Ethernet offer significant performance improvements over conventional 10 Mbps shared media Ethernet.

  18. Development of a design procedure for architectural laminated glass window units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dice, Jeffrey Aaron

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    defensible design procedure for architectural laminated glass The journal model for this thesis is the Journal of Struct 1 ~E ~ 1 1 ~ of th A 1 Society f Ei 11 E Oi erc. window units. The procedure is based on the controlling aspects of laminated glass...DEVELOPMENT OF A DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR ARCHITECTURAL LAMINATED GLASS WINDOW UNITS A Thesis by JEFFREY AARON DICE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  19. Service quality planning for freight distribution with time windows in large networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as a quality factor of the service, since its nature and configuration also affects the total transportation1 Service quality planning for freight distribution with time windows in large networks Francesco introduces a methodology whose aim is to evaluate how the quality of a freight distribution service with time

  20. ADAPTIVE BLIND DECONVOLUTION OF LINEAR CHANNELS USING RENYI'S ENTROPY WITH PARZEN WINDOW ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    ADAPTIVE BLIND DECONVOLUTION OF LINEAR CHANNELS USING RENYI'S ENTROPY WITH PARZEN WINDOW ESTIMATION of Cantabria, Santander, Spain Abstract. Blind deconvolution of linear channels is a fundamental signal, as a criterion for blind deconvolution of linear channels. Comparisons between maximum and minimum entropy

  1. 1488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 An Overlapping Window Decorrelating Multiuser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wu-Sheng

    1488 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 8, AUGUST 2001 An Overlapping Window, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada. He is now wit PMC-Sierrra Corporation, Burnaby, BC V5A of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada (e-mail: wslu

  2. Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Multijunction solar cell efficiencies: effect of spectral window, optical environment and radiative,9 The optical environment of a solar cell controls where the radiated photons from a subcell are directed*a Solar cell efficiency is maximized through multijunction architectures that minimize carrier

  3. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  4. A MODEL FOR THE FLEET SIZING OF DEMAND RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES WITH TIME WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dessouky, Maged

    A MODEL FOR THE FLEET SIZING OF DEMAND RESPONSIVE TRANSPORTATION SERVICES WITH TIME WINDOWS Marco a demand responsive transit service with a predetermined quality for the user in terms of waiting time models; Continuous approximation models; Paratransit services; Demand responsive transit systems. #12;3 1

  5. Close this window print this page MATSUSHITA BATTERY DEVELOPS NEW MICRO FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to miniaturize the system, improve the reliability and reduce the cost. Notes and Technology Details 1. Fuel cellClose this window print this page MATSUSHITA BATTERY DEVELOPS NEW MICRO FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY for fuel cells powering portable devices that makes it possible to reduce the size of the fuel cell to one

  6. Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Beryllium Material Tests HiRadMat windows and NOA fins C. Densham, A. Atherton, T. Davenne, P (FNAL) S. Roberts, V. Kuksenko (Oxford University) Motivation Beryllium is currently widely used, it is essential to understand the response and potential limits of beryllium in such extreme environments

  7. The Analysis and Design of Windowed Fourier Frame based Multiple Description Source Coding Schemes \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balan, Radu V.

    transform. For the optimal windows, explicit representation formulas are obtained and non transform, redundant sets Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the anonymous referees, no.7, November 2000, pp. 2491--2536 y current address: Siemens Corporate Research, 755 College Road

  8. Planck 2015 results. IV. Low Frequency Instrument beams and window functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the characterization of the in-flight beams, the beam window functions, and the associated uncertainties for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI). The structure of the paper is similar to that presented in the 2013 Planck release; the main differences concern the beam normalization and the delivery of the window functions to be used for polarization analysis. The in-flight assessment of the LFI main beams relies on measurements performed during observations of Jupiter. By stacking data from seven Jupiter transits, the main beam profiles are measured down to -25 dB at 30 and 44 GHz, and down to -30 dB at 70 GHz. The agreement between the simulated beams and the measured beams is confirmed to be better than 1% at each LFI frequency band (within the 20 dB contour from the peak, the rms values are: 0.1% at 30 and 70 GHz; 0.2% at 44 GHz). Simulated polarized beams are used for the computation of the effective beam window functions. The error budget for the window functions is estimated fro...

  9. TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING AS A MULTIPACTOR SUPPRESSOR ON RF COUPLER CERAMIC WINDOWS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TITANIUM NITRIDE COATING AS A MULTIPACTOR SUPPRESSOR ON RF COUPLER CERAMIC WINDOWS* W. Kaabi# , H. The obtained measurements point out how the Nitrogen vacancy on the film can be controlled very well acting a low Secondary Electron Emission Yield (SEY). Titanium Nitride is a good candidate for this purpose

  10. Citations and renewal: A window into public and private patent value

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    1 DRAFT Citations and renewal: A window into public and private patent value Alan C. Marco Deputy Chief Economist US Patent and Trademark Office1 24 February 2012 Abstract Using historical information on patent citations and patent maintenance in the US, I investigate the informational content provided

  11. Functional genomics as a window on radiation stress signaling Sally A Amundson*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Functional genomics as a window on radiation stress signaling Sally A Amundson*,1 , Michael Bittner 20892, USA; 2 National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD before the completion of the human genome draft sequence, a number of techniques for genomic expression

  12. Laminated electrochromic windows based on nickel oxide, tungsten oxide, and gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Scrosati, B.; Hermann, V. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica); Holmblad, C.; Bartlett, T. (Medtronic Promeon, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristic and the performance of solid-state, laminated electrochromic windows using tungsten oxide as the principal electrochromic electrode and nonstoichiometric nickel oxide as the counterelectrode separated by selected gel electrolytes, are presented and discussed. These advanced-design, electro-optical devices show a very promising behavior in terms of light modulation and cyclability.

  13. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis...

  14. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, main concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products

  15. Cretaceous black shale: a window into microbial life adaptation Muriel Pacton,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Cretaceous black shale: a window into microbial life adaptation Muriel Pacton,1 T. Schmid,2 G period was marked by several periods of global ocean anoxia leading to the formation of black shale factors (EF) with respect to aver- age shale (Hild and Brumsack, 1998; Tribovillard et al., 2006). Raman

  16. Frosted Windows : 300 Years of St. Petersburg Through Western Eyes : An Exhibition / Curated by Sally Haines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haines, Sally

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .ku.edu/~crees o r contac t crees@ku.edu. For the Kenneth Spencer Research Library and a web accessible version of the exhibition, see: spencer.lib.ku.edu. Maria Carlson Richard W. Clement I N T R O D U C T I O N A window lets in light from both sides...

  17. Matching the waveform and the temporal window in the creation of experimental signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a discrete-frequency representation in which the Fourier transform of the windowed signal preserves" wherein the power spectrum acquires power outside the frequency band of the original waveform. The spectrum be- comes a continuum with all frequencies, inside and outside the waveform band, represented more

  18. Fast and accurate direct MDCT to DFT conversion with arbitrary window functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Fast and accurate direct MDCT to DFT conversion with arbitrary window functions Shuhua Zhang* and Laurent Girin Abstract--In this paper, we propose a method for direct con- version of MDCT coefficients of the MDCT-to- DFT conversion matrices into a Toeplitz part plus a Hankel part. The latter is split

  19. Rhythm sequence through the olfactory bulb layers during the time window of a respiratory cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux, Stephane

    Rhythm sequence through the olfactory bulb layers during the time window of a respiratory cycle 07, France Keywords: LFP, olfactory bulb, oscillations, rat, synchronization Abstract The mammalian olfactory bulb is characterized by prominent oscillatory activity of its local ®eld potentials. Breathing

  20. Analysis of the Double Window in Saving Energy and Economical Efficiency in Nanjing in the Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.; He, J.; Gao, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steel window can save energy by 37.68% is reached. As part of the economical efficiency analysis, an investment payback period is analyzed using the methods of static state and dynamic state. The analysis shows that by using single frame-double plastic...

  1. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems; Appendix C: Mixed-mode Signal Case Study Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie; Brager, Gail

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    preventing energy waste during the red light mode is a moregreen lights was installed to help avoid energy waste, or inlight means that energy is being used to modify the temparature inside and therefore if I open my window it will waste energy.  

  2. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  3. Integrated Scheduling Using Rendezvous Window and Sniff Mode for Wireless Personal Area Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae-Jin

    by connecting many light-weight personal devices such as PDAs, mobile phones, and media players. UWB (Ultra WideIntegrated Scheduling Using Rendezvous Window and Sniff Mode for Wireless Personal Area Networks and in a piconet level as well as power saving, which is desired for wireless personal area network systems. 1

  4. An empirical study of a full-scale polymer thermochromic window and its implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on material science development objectives Eleanor S. Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Xiufeng Pang window and its implications on material science development objectives Eleanor S.Lee* Abstract , Xiufeng Pang, Sabine Hoffmann, C. Howdy Goudey, Anothai Thanachareonkit Building Technology and Urban Systems

  5. REALTIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumke, Sven O.

    REAL­TIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS SVEN O that are no worse than 1% from optimum on state­of­the­art personal computers. 1. INTRODUCTION The German Automobile Association ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil­ Club), the second largest automobile club worldwide

  6. REAL-TIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumke, Sven O.

    REAL-TIME DISPATCHING OF GUIDED AND UNGUIDED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE UNITS WITH SOFT TIME WINDOWS SVEN O that are no worse than 1% from optimum on state-of-the-art personal computers. 1. INTRODUCTION The German Automobile Association ADAC (Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil- Club), the second largest automobile club worldwide

  7. Figure 1. HomeWindow showing the energy usage of several monitors, displays, and computers with colored

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Saul

    Figure 1. HomeWindow showing the energy usage of several monitors, displays, and computers with colored auras. Red is high usage while green is low usage. HomeWindow: An Augmented Reality Domestic that reflects its current and historical energy use. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.2 [Information

  8. OPTIMIZATION OF GaN WINDOW LAYER FOR InGaN SOLAR CELLS USING POLARIZATION EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    on the design of wide-band gap GaN window layers for InGaN solar cells. Window layers serve to passivate the top into account during design of the solar cell to improve its collection efficiency. Previously, we have. The present work is a subset of the design optimization process for such solar cells, where we focus

  9. Creating a Parallel Version of VisIt for Microsoft Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitlock, B J; Biagas, K S; Rawson, P L

    2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    VisIt is a popular, free interactive parallel visualization and analysis tool for scientific data. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images or movies for presentations. VisIt was designed from the ground up to work on many scales of computers from modest desktops up to massively parallel clusters. VisIt is comprised of a set of cooperating programs. All programs can be run locally or in client/server mode in which some run locally and some run remotely on compute clusters. The VisIt program most able to harness today's computing power is the VisIt compute engine. The compute engine is responsible for reading simulation data from disk, processing it, and sending results or images back to the VisIt viewer program. In a parallel environment, the compute engine runs several processes, coordinating using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library. Each MPI process reads some subset of the scientific data and filters the data in various ways to create useful visualizations. By using MPI, VisIt has been able to scale well into the thousands of processors on large computers such as dawn and graph at LLNL. The advent of multicore CPU's has made parallelism the 'new' way to achieve increasing performance. With today's computers having at least 2 cores and in many cases up to 8 and beyond, it is more important than ever to deploy parallel software that can use that computing power not only on clusters but also on the desktop. We have created a parallel version of VisIt for Windows that uses Microsoft's MPI implementation (MSMPI) to process data in parallel on the Windows desktop as well as on a Windows HPC cluster running Microsoft Windows Server 2008. Initial desktop parallel support for Windows was deployed in VisIt 2.4.0. Windows HPC cluster support has been completed and will appear in the VisIt 2.5.0 release. We plan to continue supporting parallel VisIt on Windows so our users will be able to take full advantage of their multicore resources.

  10. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic films for electrochromic smart window glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oezer, N. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Lampert, C.M. [Star Science (United States); Rubin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which are coated with the active films. The two sheets are laminated together with an ionically conductive polymer. The range of visible transmission modulation of the tungsten oxide was 60% and for the nickel oxide was 20%. The authors used the device configuration of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/W0{sub 3}/polymer/Li{sub Z}NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/SnO{sub 2}:F glass to test the films. The nickel oxide layer had a low level of lithiation and possibly contained a small amount of water. Lithiated oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide) was used as the laminating polymer. Commercially available SnO{sub 2}:F/glass (LOF-Tec glass) was used as the transparent conducting glass. The authors found reasonable device switching characteristics which could be used for devices.

  11. Analysis of tritium extraction from liquid lithium by permeation window and solid gettering processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium recovery from liquid lithium at low concentration is an important problem for liquid metal breeder-blanket in a fusion reactor. Previous studies have identified tritium recovery methods including molten salt extraction, gettering recovery, permeation window, and vacuum distillation. In this paper, the authors focus on the numerical studies on tritium extraction by permeation window and gettering processes. These studies include for example: dynamic tritium concentration variation along the flow direction, tritium inventory distributions in the permeator and getter bed, along with the effect of dispersion on extraction efficiency. Using a model description makes it possible to determine functional dependence and provide insight into the interrelationships of the various operating conditions and material properties which may affect the behavior of tritium in the material. Clearly, reliable material properties (such as diffusivity, solubility, etc.) are essential for realistic evaluations.

  12. THE PLASMA WINDOW: A WINDOWLESS HIGH PRESSURE VACUUM INTERFACE FOR VARIOUS ACCELERATOR APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HERSHCOVITCH,A.I.; JOHNSON,E.D.; LANZA,R.C.

    1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of {approx} 10{sup -6} Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, will be discussed.

  13. Widening the Axion Window via Kinetic and St\\"uckelberg Mixings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We point out that kinetic and St\\"uckelberg mixings that are generically present in the low energy effective action of axions can significantly widen the window of axion decay constants. We show that an effective super-Planckian decay constant can be obtained even when the axion kinetic matrix has only sub-Planckian entries. Our minimal model involves only two axions, a St\\"uckelberg U(1) and a modest rank instanton generating non-Abelian group. Below the mass of the St\\"uckelberg U(1), there is only a single axion with a non-perturbatively generated potential. In contrast to previous approaches, the enhancement of the axion decay constant is not tied to the number of degrees of freedom introduced. We also discuss how kinetic mixings can lower the decay constant to the desired axion dark matter window. String theory embeddings of this scenario and their phenomenological features are briefly discussed.

  14. Community consistency determines the stability transition window of power-grid nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Heetae; Holme, Petter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synchrony of electric power systems is important in order to maintain stable electricity supply. Recently, the measure basin stability was introduced to quantify a node's ability to recover its synchronization when perturbed. In this work, we focus on how basin stability depends on the coupling strength between nodes. We use the Chilean power grid as a case study. In general, the basin stability goes from zero to one as the coupling strength increases. However, this transition does happen for the same values for different nodes. By understanding the transition for individual nodes, we can further characterize their role in the power-transmission dynamics. We find that nodes with an exceptionally large transition window also have a low community consistency. In other words, they are hard to classify into one community when applying a community detection algorithm to the network. This also gives an efficient way to identify nodes with a long transition window (which is a computationally time-consuming task)...

  15. Renewable Electric Plant Information System user interface manual: Paradox 7 Runtime for Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) is a comprehensive database with detailed information on grid-connected renewable electric plants in the US. The current version, REPiS3 beta, was developed in Paradox for Windows. The user interface (UI) was developed to facilitate easy access to information in the database, without the need to have, or know how to use, Paradox for Windows. The UI is designed to provide quick responses to commonly requested sorts of the database. A quick perusal of this manual will familiarize one with the functions of the UI and will make use of the system easier. There are six parts to this manual: (1) Quick Start: Instructions for Users Familiar with Database Applications; (2) Getting Started: The Installation Process; (3) Choosing the Appropriate Report; (4) Using the User Interface; (5) Troubleshooting; (6) Appendices A and B.

  16. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  17. Testing and Operation of the WR340 Waveguide Window in the APS Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, Andrew

    2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac high-power switching system makes extensive use of SF6 pressurized, WR340-size waveguide, incorporating waveguide switches. A tunable, extra low return loss waveguide window has been developed to support interfacing the pressurized waveguide with the original waveguide, which is under vacuum. The tunable approach is able to consistently achieve a return loss of at least 40 dB. Test and alignment methods, performance, and initial operating experience are described.

  18. Testing and operation of the WR340 waveguide window in the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlick, A. E.; Berg, S.; Goeppner, G. A.; Nassiri, A.; Pile, G.; Smith, T. L.

    2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac high-power switching system makes extensive use of SF6 pressurized, WR340-size waveguide, incorporating waveguide switches. A tunable, extra low return loss waveguide window has been developed to support interfacing the pressurized waveguide with the original waveguide, which is under vacuum. The tunable approach is able to consistently achieve a return loss of at least 40 dB. Test and alignment methods, performance, and initial operating experience are described.

  19. The development and evaluation of a neutron window filter facility utilizing the TAMU NSC TRIGA reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding, Patricia Colleen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering THE DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A NEUTRON WINDOW FILTER FACILITY UTILIZING THE TAMU NSC TRIGA REACTOR A Thesis by PATRICIA COLLEEN HARDING Approved as to style...]. There are several methods that might be adopted to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutrons: Bragg scattering, neutr on generating nuclear reactions, radioactive sour- ces, resonance scattering and resonance or neutron fil? ters Bragg scattering from single...

  20. The Impact of Overhang Design on the Performance of ElectrochromicWindows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavil, Aslihan; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, various facade designs with overhangs combined with electrochromic window control strategies were modeled with a prototypical commercial office building in a hot and cold climate using the DOE 2.1E building energy simulation program. Annual total energy use (ATE), peak electric demand (PED), average daylight illuminance (DI), and daylight glare index (DGI) were computed and compared to determine which combinations of fagade design and control strategies yielded the greatest energy efficiency, daylight amenity, and visual comfort.

  1. Identifying and Resolving Issues in EnergyPlus and DOE-2 Window Heat Transfer Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booten, C.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Issues in building energy software accuracy are often identified by comparative, analytical, and empirical testing as delineated in the BESTEST methodology. As described in this report, window-related discrepancies in heating energy predictions were identified through comparative testing of EnergyPlus and DOE-2. Multiple causes for discrepancies were identified, and software fixes are recommended to better align the models with the intended algorithms and underlying test data.

  2. Resection of parathyroid tumor in the aorticopulmonary window without prior neck exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHenry, C.; Walsh, M.; Jarosz, H.; Henkin, R.; Tope, J.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of 522 patients with hyperparathyroidism operated on from 1973 to 1987 at our institution, there were seven (1.3%), each with an ectopic, hyperfunctioning mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, who required median sternotomy. In three of these seven patients, the tumor was located in the aorticopulmonary window. A 61-year-old woman with primary hyperparathyroidism had a preoperative thallium-technetium subtraction scan that showed thallium uptake at the base of the heart without any uptake in the neck. After further workup and without prior neck exploration, a parathyroid adenoma was found in the aorticopulmonary window through a median sternotomy. Six months later, serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone values remain normal. Two other cases of parathyroid adenoma in the aorticopulmonary window are presented. Of these two patients, the thallium scan was a key element in the immediate mediastinal exploration of one, who was transferred from another hospital comatose and intubated, in acute hypercalcemic crisis. Since mediastinal parathyroid tumors that necessitate median sternotomy occur in less than 2% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, we do not advocate routine preoperative localization studies before an initial cervical operation; localization, however, may be justified in selected cases, such as in critically ill patients or in instances of acute hyperparathyroidism, when the first operation needs to be curative.

  3. Window Attachments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8,Energy Wind Vision: A

  4. 11-GHz direct modulation bandwidth GaAlAs window laser on semi-insulating substrate operating at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Bar-Chaim, N.; Ury, I.; Yariv, A.

    1984-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated a direct modulation bandwidth of up to 11 GHz in a window GaAlAs buried heterostructure laser fabricated on a semi-insulating substrate, operating at room temperature.

  5. Through a window, brightly : modulating daylight and solar radiation in commercial and institutional buildings through the use of architectural elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlereth, Hans-Joachim

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural lighting serves several important functions in buildings. The visual power of a shaft of sunlight penetrating a dark space or the visual beauty of a stained window has long been recognized by architects and designers. ...

  6. that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time-dependent travel speeds, hard time windows,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    that minimizes vehicle emissions during design of routes in congested environments with time-dependent travel speeds, hard time windows, andcapacityconstraints.ThiscreatesanewtypeofVRP,theemissions vehicle routing problem (EVRP). BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW There is extensive literature related to vehicle

  7. INITIAL MAR ASSESSMENTS TO ACCESS THE IMPACT OF AL DISSOLUTION ON DWPF OPERATING WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts (or lack thereof) to DWPF of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with high temperature Al-dissolution and without Al-dissolution. In general, paper study assessments indicated that most of the future sludge batches (twelve with and fourteen without high temperature Al-dissolution) had multiple frits available that yielded relatively large operating windows. The projected operating windows were defined by the waste loading (WL) interval over which glasses were classified as acceptable based on current process control models and their related constraints. Although multiple frits were identified, using a 17-point width as a general guide for a reasonable operating window (e.g., 25-41% WL), there generally appeared to be more flexibility in frit selection for the without Al-dissolution flowsheets. This larger frit compositional platform could allow frit development efforts to make more significant adjustments to melt rate. However, based on the general observations of the paper study, there is essentially no clear distinction between the two options with which to drive a decision to implement Al-dissolution. That is, comparable operating windows can be achieved through the frit development and selection process for either process. One could interpret this general summary statement to indicate: given frit development efforts can compensate for the different pretreatment strategies yielding equivalent operating windows or maximum WL targets, the lower sludge mass as a result of Al-dissolution would obviously result in reducing the number of cans produced at DWPF. Although the basic mathematics is technically sound, other factors need to be considered including facility operating times or mission life for the Tank Farm, DWPF and Saltstone. To address some of these questions, candidate frit compositions have been selected to assess melt rate as a function of waste loading for the glass systems representing future sludge batches with and without Al dissolution. The frit selection process was driven by reviewing compositional trends that have historically influenced melt rate as well as identifying systems with relatively large operating windows. With respect to the identification of sludge batches to support the melt rate testing, average compositions representing with and without Al-dissolution 'clusters' were developed using a statistical grouping routine. Ultimately, five frits were identified for each average 'cluster' composition. Melt rate assessments will be performed as a function of waste loading for the five frits selected. The data obtained from the experimental melt rate program can be used in combination with actual DWPF processing data to provide valuable insight into the waste throughput potentials for both flowsheets.

  8. Design of the commissioning filter/mask/window assembly for undulator beamline front ends at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact filter/mask/window assembly has been designed for undulator beamline commissioning activity at the Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The assembly consists of one 300-{mu}m graphite filter, one 127-{mu}m CVD diamond filter and two 250-{mu}m beryllium windows. A water-cooled Glidcop fixed mask with a 4.5-mm {times} 4.5-mm output optical aperture and a 0.96-mrad {times} 1.6-mrad beam missteering acceptance is a major part in the assembly. The CVD diamond filter which is mounted on the downstream side of the fixed mask is designed to also function as a transmitting x-ray beam position monitor. The sum signal from the latter can be used to monitor the physical condition of the graphite filter and prevent any possible chain reaction damage to the beryllium windows downstream. In this paper, the design concept as well as the detailed structural design of the commissioning window are presented. Further applications of the commissioning window commissioning window components are also discussed.

  9. Windows XP VPN Instructions 12. Connect with the VPN and proceed to http://network.software.vt.edu for software.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    and proceed to http://network.software.vt.edu for software. 5. For the Company Name use PPTP VT VPN. Click the Virginia Tech Wireless Network Service (http://wireless.cns.vt.edu) or the Virginia Tech Modem Pool (http on to your computer with an account that has administrator privileges. The PPTP VPN service supports 128 bit

  10. http://geo.mff.cuni.cz/~lh/OFY056 PKAZY MS-DOS A WINDOWS 2000/XP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanyk, Ladislav

    vhodné mít zapnuta píkazová rozsíení (cmd.exe /e:on) ozvna píkaz a výpis zpráv: @echo off & echo zprava in (start,step,end) do (commands) parametry %0­%9; posun parametr shift; skok goto label; návstí :label

  11. Demonstration with Energy and Daylighting Assessment of Sunlight Responsive Thermochromic (SRT) Window Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhuis, Michael; Liposcak, Curtis; Witte, Michael; Henninger, Robert; Zhou, Xiaohui; Petzen, George; Buchanan, Michael; Kumar, Sneh

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pleotint, LLC was able to successfully extrude thermochromic interlayer for use in the fenestration industry. Pleotint has developed a thermochromic sytem that requires two thermochromic colors to make a neutral color when in the tinted state. These two colors were assembled into a single interlayer called a tri-layer prelam by Crown Operations for use in the glass lamination industry. Various locations, orientations, and constructions of thermochromic windows were studied with funds from this contract. Locations included Australia, California, Costa Rica, Indiana, Iowa, Mexico. Installed orientations included vertical and skylight glazing applications. Various constructions included monolithic, double pane, triple pane constructions. A daylighting study was conducted at LinEl Signature. LinEl Signature has a conference room with a sylight roof system that has a west orientation. The existing LinEl Signature conference room had constant tint 40% VLT transparent skylights. Irradiance meters were installed on the interior and exterior sides of a constant tint skylight. After a month and a half of data collection, the irradiance meters were removed and the constant tint skylights were replaced with Pleotint thermochromic skylight windows. The irradiance meters were reinstalled in the same locations and irradiance data was collected. Both data sets were compared. The data showed that there was a linear relationship with exterior and interior irradiance for the existing constant tint skylights. The thermochromic skylights have a non-linear relationship. The thermochromic skylights were able to limit the amount of irradiance that passed through the thermochromic skylight. A second study of the LinEl Signature conference was performed using EnergyPlus to calculate the amount of Illuminance that passed through constant tint skylights as compared to thermochromic skylights. The constant tint skylights transmitted Illuminance is 2.8 times higher than the thermochromic skylights during the months of May, June, July, August and 1.9 times higher than the thermochromic skylight during the months of March, April, September, October. Calculated illuminance levels were much more consistent as compared to the existing constant tint skylights installed at LinEl Signature. This allows for a more comfortable interior space in regard to glare discomfort and interior lighting control. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was contracted to characterize the performance of the thermochromic interlayer and thermochromic window systems. Thermochromic interlayer was characterized with spectrometer equipment. The thermochromic window systems were characterized using LBNL’s Advanced Window Test Facility. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. Iowa State University was contracted to compare thermochromic window technology to constant tint technology. Iowa State University conducted the testing at the Energy Resource Station (ERS). The ERS has the ability to simultaneously test side-by-side competing building technologies. The building is equipped with two identical air handling units, each with its own dedicated and identical chiller. One air handling unit supplies the four test rooms designated as the A rooms and the other unit serves the four test rooms designated as the B rooms. There is one A test room and one B test rooms arranged as pairs in a side-by-side design with each pair having a different exposure. There is a pair of test rooms that face the south, an east and west facing pair. Each of the test rooms is a mirror image of its match with identical construction. The rooms are unoccupied; however, the capability to impose false loads on the rooms exists. The false loads and room lighting can be scheduled to simulate various usage patterns. A copy of the report can be found in the Appendix. GARD Analytics was contracted to compare EnergyPlus building simulations to the data recorded at the Iowa ERS. The goal of this research was to validate the building simulation software developed by the US Department of Energy. EnergyPlus is

  12. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  13. Cost minimization in multi?commodity multi?mode generalized networks with time windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping-Shun

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    by PING-SHUN CHEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Alberto Garcia-Diaz Committee... Networks with Time Windows. (December 2005) Ping-Shun Chen, B.S., National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan; M.S., National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Alberto Garcia-Diaz The purpose of this research is to develop...

  14. Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2602 (Australia); Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E. [Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Reynolds, Eva M. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

  15. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Software, Anyhere; Fernandes, Luis; Lee, Eleanor; Ward, Greg

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation study was conducted to evaluate lighting energy savings of split-pane electrochromic (EC) windows controlled to satisfy key visual comfort parameters. Using the Radiance lighting simulation software, interior illuminance and luminance levels were computed for a south-facing private office illuminated by a window split into two independently-controlled EC panes. The transmittance of these was optimized hourly for a workplane illuminance target while meeting visual comfort constraints, using a least-squares algorithm with linear inequality constraints. Blinds were successively deployed until visual comfort criteria were satisfied. The energy performance of electrochromics proved to be highly dependent on how blinds were controlled. With hourly blind position adjustments, electrochromics showed significantly higher (62percent and 53percent, respectively without and with overhang) lighting energy consumption than clear glass. With a control algorithm designed to better approximate realistic manual control by an occupant, electrochromics achieved significant savings (48percent and 37percent, respectively without and with overhang). In all cases, energy consumption decreased when the workplace illuminance target was increased. In addition, the fraction of time during which the occupant had an unobstructed view of the outside was significantly greater with electrochromics: 10 months out of the year versus a handful of days for the reference case.

  16. Community consistency determines the stability transition window of power-grid nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heetae Kim; Sang Hoon Lee; Petter Holme

    2015-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The synchrony of electric power systems is important in order to maintain stable electricity supply. Recently, the measure basin stability was introduced to quantify a node's ability to recover its synchronization when perturbed. In this work, we focus on how basin stability depends on the coupling strength between nodes. We use the Chilean power grid as a case study. In general, basin stability goes from zero to one as coupling strength increases. However, this transition does not happen at the same value for different nodes. By understanding the transition for individual nodes, we can further characterize their role in the power-transmission dynamics. We find that nodes with an exceptionally large transition window also have a low community consistency. In other words, they are hard to classify to one community when applying a community detection algorithm. This also gives an efficient way to identify nodes with a long transition window (which is computationally time consuming). Finally, to corroborate these results, we present a stylized example network with prescribed community structures that captures the mentioned characteristics of basin stability transition and recreates our observations.

  17. Energy conservation through interior shading of windows: an analysis, test, and evaluation of reflective venetian blinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyck, R L; Konen, T P

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows admit radiant and conducted heat energy as well as light and, for this reason, effective means for control is mandatory. Venetian blinds, providing continuous solar control, are ideal for energy efficient windows. They may be closed in the summer to block out undesirable solar radiation and opened in the winter to admit the valuable energy of the sun while providing year-round glare free illumination. Architects, engineers, and manufacturers have been reluctant to promote the use of venetian blinds as energy saving products because of remaining uncertainties in the technology. This cooperative program involving industry, government, and a university research team has developed predictive equations and has confirmed their ability to accurately predict shading coefficients through experiments in an environmental simulator with an artificial sun. Ten venetian blinds with a wide range of surface finishes, including gloss and Satin finish paints, polished aluminum, chrome deposition, and units with different colors on the upper and lower surfaces of the slats were included in the experimental work. The effect of solar incidence and slat angle on blind reflectance and shading coefficient was determined. The impact of varying incidence and slat angle on building energy load is discussed.

  18. Electrochromic window based on poly(aniline-N-butylsulfonate)s with a radiation-cured solid polymer electrolyte film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, E.; Lee, K.; Rhee, S.B. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Yusung, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Polymer Division

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic properties of poly(aniline N-butylsulfonate)s (PANBUS) coatings on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glasses exposed to an ion conducting polymer films were investigated. The ion conducting polymer films were prepared via photocross-linking reactions of methoxy polyethylene glycol-mono methacrylate with tri(propylene glycol) diacrylate in the presence of a photoinitiator and LiClO{sub 4}. Mechanical properties of the electrolyte film were enhanced by introducing styrene or butylmethacrylate into the polymer network. Color contrast and optical response of the PANBUS-based window were improved by adding Nafion into the electrolyte. The electrochromic (EC) window assembled with PANBUS, Nafion containing polymer electrolyte film, and tungsten trioxide coated ITO glass (type 2) required less energy for operation ({+-}1.5 V) compared to the EC window without tungsten trioxide film (type 1, {+-}2.0 V). By applying {+-}1.5 V, optical density of the type 2 window changed from zero to maximum of 1.2, corresponding transmission change of higher than 95%. Lifetime tests show that the type 2 window could support more than 2.3 {times} 10{sup 3} cycles, of 60 s duration.

  19. Vehicle cabin cooling system for capturing and exhausting heated boundary layer air from inner surfaces of solar heated windows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrington, Robert B. (Golden, CO); Anderson, Ren (Broomfield, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cabin cooling system includes a cooling duct positioned proximate and above upper edges of one or more windows of a vehicle to exhaust hot air as the air is heated by inner surfaces of the windows and forms thin boundary layers of heated air adjacent the heated windows. The cabin cooling system includes at least one fan to draw the hot air into the cooling duct at a flow rate that captures the hot air in the boundary layer without capturing a significant portion of the cooler cabin interior air and to discharge the hot air at a point outside the vehicle cabin, such as the vehicle trunk. In a preferred embodiment, the cooling duct has a cross-sectional area that gradually increases from a distal point to a proximal point to the fan inlet to develop a substantially uniform pressure drop along the length of the cooling duct. Correspondingly, this cross-sectional configuration develops a uniform suction pressure and uniform flow rate at the upper edge of the window to capture the hot air in the boundary layer adjacent each window.

  20. V-012: Mozilla Firefox 'window.location' Bugs Permit Cross-Site Scripting Attacks and May Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Mozilla Firefox 'window.location' Bugs Permit Cross-Site Scripting Attacks and May Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

  1. Homeowner's Guide to Window Air Conditioner Installation for Efficiency and Comfort (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet offers a step-by-step guide to proper installation of window air conditioning units, in order to improve efficiency and comfort for homeowners.

  2. A molecular dynamics investigation of the diffusion characteristics of cavity-type zeolites with 8-ring windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, Rajamani; van Baten, Jasper M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the diffusion characteristics in DDR, CHA, LTA, ITQ-29, and TSC zeolites that have cavities separated by 8-member ring windows of dimensions in the 3.4–4.6 Å range. These zeolites have potential usage for separation of a variety of mixtures, such as CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and propane/propene, relying on a combination of adsorption and diffusion selectivities. The magnitude of self-diffusivities, D{sub i,self}, of the CH{sub 4} is found to have a direct correlation with the size of the window opening, increasing by about two orders of magnitude for a 0.5 Å increase in the window aperture. The diffusion selectivities of CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} mixtures were also found to have direct, and strong, correlation, with the window aperture. This opens up the possibility of tuning diffusion selectivities by appropriate choice of the framework structure. Framework flexibility dynamics have also been investigated with the aid of two published force fields for all-silica zeolites. Due to the lattice vibrations there is a distribution of window sizes that varies with time. The diffusivity of CH4 for a flexible lattice was found to correlate with aperture size of the time-averaged window, in precisely the same manner as for fixed framework lattices. This leads to the conclusion that lattice flexibility, per se, has no influence on the magnitude of the diffusivity or diffusion selectivity.

  3. RELAP5-3D Developmental Assessment: Comparison of Version 4.2.1i on Linux and Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul D. Bayless

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figures have been generated comparing the parameters used in the developmental assessment of the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.2i, compiled on Linux and Windows platforms. The figures, which are the same as those used in Volume III of the RELAP5-3D code manual, compare calculations using the semi-implicit solution scheme with available experiment data. These figures provide a quick, visual indication of how the code predictions differ between the Linux and Windows versions.

  4. Vacuum-barrier window for wide-bandwidth high-power microwave transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, M.; Shang, C.C.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum output window comprises a planar dielectric material with identical systems of parallel ridges and valleys formed in opposite surfaces. The valleys in each surface neck together along parallel lines in the bulk of the dielectric. Liquid-coolant conduits are disposed linearly along such lines of necking and have water or even liquid nitrogen pumped through to remove heat. The dielectric material can be alumina, or its crystalline form, sapphire. The electric-field of a broadband incident megawatt millimeter-wave radio frequency energy is oriented perpendicular to the system of ridges and valleys. The ridges, about one wavelength tall and with a period of about one wavelength, focus the incident energy through in ribbons that squeeze between the liquid-coolant conduits without significant losses over very broad bands of the radio spectrum. In an alternative embodiment, the liquid-coolant conduits are encased in metal within the bulk of the dielectric. 4 figs.

  5. Vacuum-barrier window for wide-bandwidth high-power microwave transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caplan, Malcolm (Fremont, CA); Shang, Clifford C. (Tracy, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum output window comprises a planar dielectric material with identical systems of parallel ridges and valleys formed in opposite surfaces. The valleys in each surface neck together along parallel lines in the bulk of the dielectric. Liquid-coolant conduits are disposed linearly along such lines of necking and have water or even liquid nitrogen pumped through to remove heat. The dielectric material can be alumina, or its crystalline form, sapphire. The electric-field of a broadband incident megawatt millimeter-wave radio frequency energy is oriented perpendicular to the system of ridges and valleys. The ridges, about one wavelength tall and with a period of about one wavelength, focus the incident energy through in ribbons that squeeze between the liquid-coolant conduits without significant losses over very broad bands of the radio spectrum. In an alternative embodiment, the liquid-coolant conduits are encased in metal within the bulk of the dielectric.

  6. Window-based method for approximating the Hausdorff in three-dimensional range imagery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to pattern recognition is to use a template from a database of objects and match it to a probe image containing the unknown. Accordingly, the Hausdorff distance can be used to measure the similarity of two sets of points. In particular, the Hausdorff can measure the goodness of a match in the presence of occlusion, clutter, and noise. However, existing 3D algorithms for calculating the Hausdorff are computationally intensive, making them impractical for pattern recognition that requires scanning of large databases. The present invention is directed to a new method that can efficiently, in time and memory, compute the Hausdorff for 3D range imagery. The method uses a window-based approach.

  7. Development of High Rate Coating Technology for Low Cost Electrochromic Dynamic Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, B.; Joshi, Ajey

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives of the Project: The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of depositing critical electrochromic layers at high rate using new novel vacuum coating sources, to develop a full electrochromic process flow by combining conventional processes with new deposition sources, to characterize, test, evaluate, and optimize the resulting coatings and devices, and, to demonstrate an electrochromic device using the new process flow and sources. As addendum objectives, this project was to develop and demonstrate direct patterning methods with novel integration schemes. The long term objective, beyond this program, is to integrate these innovations to enable production of low-cost, high-performance electrochromic windows produced on highly reliable and high yielding manufacturing equipment and systems.

  8. Design and RF measurements of a 5 GHz 500 kW window for the ITER LHCD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillairet, Julien; Dechambre, N; Delpech, L; Ekedahl, A; Faure, N; Goniche, M; Kim, J; Larroque, S; Magne, R; Marfisi, L; Namkung, W; Park, H; Park, S; Poli, S; Vulliez, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CEA/IRFM is conducting R\\&D efforts in order to validate the critical RF components of the 5 GHz ITER LHCD system, which is expected to transmit 20 MW of RF power to the plasma. Two 5 GHz 500 kW BeO pill-box type window prototypes have been manufactured in 2012 by the PMB Company, in close collaboration with CEA/IRFM. Both windows have been validated at low power, showing good agreement between measured and modeling, with a return loss better than 32 dB and an insertion loss below 0.05 dB. This paper reports on the window RF design and the low power measurements. The high power tests up to 500kW have been carried out in March 2013 in collaboration with NFRI. Results of these tests are also reported. In the current ITER LHCD design, 20 MW Continuous Wave (CW) of Radio-Frequency power at 5 GHz are expected to be generated and transmitted to the plasma. In order to separate the vacuum vessel pressure from the cryostat waveguide pressure, forty eight 5 GHz 500kW CW windows are to be assembled on the waveguide...

  9. International Conference on Ground Control in Mining SDPS for Windows: An Integrated Approach to Ground Deformation Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    application to a number of case studies. The package now exploits all the benefits of the Microsoft Windows features advanced calibration routines to handle predictions over specific regions. The case studies through the statistical analysis of data from a number of case studies (VPI & SU, 1987 & 1999; Karmis et

  10. Diamond and Related Materials, 3 (1994) 939-941 939 CVD diamond growth on germanium for IR window applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    [ Chemistry, Unil,ersity of Bristol, Cantock 's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (UK) N. M. Everitt Department o[Aerospace with ition times. An alternative is to coat existing IR window epitaxial layers of Si-Ge alloy 2 Bm thick

  11. Hydraulic simulation of the flow condition at the inlet of the beam entrance window of the EURISOL converter target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Geza and R. Milenkovic

    The main objective of the computational study presented here, is to calculate the velocity distribution at the inlet of the beam entrace window and to provide computational data, which are to be compared with the experimental data. The experimental data are to be acquired during forthcoming hydraulic test of the Eurisol target mock-up.

  12. Versatile electrowetting arrays for smart window applications-from small to large pixels on fixed and flexible substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    on polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, which can be switched reversibly by applying in energy consumption and issues of global warming and environment pollution are increasing windows may drastically reduce the energy consumption of buildings by reducing cooling and heating loads

  13. Infrared radiation of SF sub 6 and its application to gas-filled double-pane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, S.; Rubin, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Tuntomo, A.; Tien, C.L. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) as a gas-fill in multipane windows has raised questions concerning the calculation of heat transfer rates through such windows. The infrared absorption characteristics of this gas make the heat transfer analysis much more complicated. In order to account for the absorption effect, the authors measured the spectral absorptivity of several infrared-active bands of sulfur hexafluroide at low resolution and a temperature of 298 K. The authors correlated the spectral absorption data with Edwards exponential wide-band model and with the Elasser narrow-band model, and incorporated, the wide-band model into a one-dimensional, finite-element heat transfer model. The finite-element heat transfer model considered combined conduction and radiation effects in a double-pane window, and was used to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficients of double-pane windows filled with SF{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, or air. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Rapid 3D Seismic Source Inversion Using Windows Azure and Amazon EC2 Vedaprakash Subramanian, Hongyi Ma,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liqiang

    Rapid 3D Seismic Source Inversion Using Windows Azure and Amazon EC2 Vedaprakash Subramanian seismic source inversion on both cluster (specif- ically, MPI-based) and cloud computing (specifically to seismic source in- version is feasible and has its advantages. In addition, we notice that both cluster

  15. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  16. Highly Insulating Windows with a U-value less than 0.6 W/m2K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell Rhine; Ying Tang; Wenting Dong; Roxana Trifu; Reduane Begag

    2008-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. households rely primarily on three sources of energy: natural gas, electricity, and fuel oil. In the past several decades, electricity consumption by households has grown dramatically, and a significant portion of electricity used in homes is for lighting. Lighting includes both indoor and outdoor lighting and is found in virtually every household in the United States. In 2001, according to the US Energy Information Administration, lighting accounted for 101 billion kWh (8.8 percent) of U.S. household electricity use. Incandescent lamps, which are commonly found in households, are highly inefficient sources of light because about 90 percent of the energy used is lost as heat. For that reason, lighting has been one focus area to increase the efficiency of household electricity consumption. Windows have several functions, and one of the main functions is to provide a view to the outside. Daylighting is another one of windows main functions and determines the distribution of daylight to a space. Daylighting windows do not need to be transparent, and a translucent daylighting window is sufficient, and often desired, to diffuse the light and make the space more environmentally pleasing. In homes, skylights are one source of daylighting, but skylights are not very energy efficient and are inseparably linked to solar heat gain. In some climates, added solar heat gains from daylighting may be welcome; but in other climates, heat gain must be controlled. More energy efficient skylights and daylighting solutions, in general, are desired and can be designed by insulating them with aerogels. Aerogels are a highly insulating and transparent material in its pure form. The overall objective for this project was to prepare an economical, translucent, fiber-reinforced aerogel insulation material for daylighting applications that is durable for manufacturing purposes. This advanced insulation material will increase the thermal performance of daylighting windows, while satisfying constraints such as durability, cost, user acceptance, size limits, and environmental safety concerns. The energy efficient daylighting window will consist of a translucent and resilient aerogel panel sandwiched between glass panes in double glazed windows. Compared to the best windows available today, the double glazed translucent windows with 1/2-inch aerogel inserts will have a U-value of 1.2 W/m{sup 2} K (0.211 BTU/ft{sup 2} h F) without any coating or low conductivity fill gases. These windows will be more effective than the windows with an Energy Star rating of U-2 W/m{sup 2} K and could be made even more efficient by using low-e coated glass glazings and inert gas fills. This report summarizes the work accomplished on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41950. During this project, Aspen Aerogels made transparent and translucent aerogels from TMOS and TEOS. We characterized the transparency of the aerogels, reinforced the transparent aerogels with fibers and prepared large translucent aerogel panels and blankets. We also conducted an initial market study for energy efficient translucent windows. A lab-scale process was developed that could be scaled-up to manufacture blankets of these translucent aerogels. The large blankets prepared were used to fabricate prototype translucent windows and skylights. The primary goal of this project was to develop transparent, resilient, hydrophobic silica aerogels that have low thermal conductivities (R-10/inch) to be used to produce aerogel insulated double-glazing windows with a U value of 0.6 W/m{sup 2}K. To meet this objective we developed a process and equipment to produce blankets of translucent, hydrophobic aerogel. We focused on silica, organically-modified silica aerogels (Ormosils), and fiber reinforced silica aerogels due to the appreciable expertise in silica sol-gel processing available with the personnel at Aspen Aerogels, and also due to the quantity of knowledge available in the scientific literature. The project was conducted in three budget periods, herein called BP1, BP2 and BP3.

  17. OPENING THE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WINDOW: MEASUREMENTS OF FOREGROUND ISOLATION WITH PAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki [Astronomy Department, U. California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, U. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U. Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, Dave [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, U. California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E. [Department of Astronomy, U. Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Jacobs, Daniel C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, Patricia J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new observations with the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization with the aim of measuring the properties of foreground emission for 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments at 150 MHz. We focus on the footprint of the foregrounds in cosmological Fourier space to understand which modes of the 21 cm power spectrum will most likely be compromised by foreground emission. These observations confirm predictions that foregrounds can be isolated to a {sup w}edge{sup -}like region of two-dimensional (k , k{sub Parallel-To })-space, creating a window for cosmological studies at higher k{sub Parallel-To} values. We also find that the emission extends past the nominal edge of this wedge due to spectral structure in the foregrounds, with this feature most prominent on the shortest baselines. Finally, we filter the data to retain only this ''unsmooth'' emission and image its specific k{sub Parallel-To} modes. The resultant images show an excess of power at the lowest modes, but no emission can be clearly localized to any one region of the sky. This image is highly suggestive that the most problematic foregrounds for 21 cm EoR studies will not be easily identifiable bright sources, but rather an aggregate of fainter emission.

  18. Buffer Map Message Compression Based on Relevant Window in P2P Streaming Media System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chunxi; Chiu, DahMing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overhead traffic for buffer map message exchange cannot be neglectable in the engineering practices of some most popular P2P streaming media systems like PPLive and UUSee. In this paper, we for the first time find this issue and bring in some solutions. Creatively, the vital concept of relevant window is introduced and two crucial but easily overlooked principles involving the nature features of BM exchange are discovered so as to lay a solid foundation for later in-depth discussion. We first present two original efficient BM compression schemes, the feasibilities of which are strictly proved from the point of view of mathematics. Moreover, the average length of the compressed BM is deduced theoretically. The numerical results computed with UUSee's system parameters confirm that the size of bitmap can be reduced by 86% and 90% from 456 bits down to only 66 bits and 46 bits respectively according to two methods we presented, comparing to the traditional algorithm used by UUSee which can decrease the size b...

  19. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  20. Spatial, temporal, and hybrid decompositions for large-scale vehicle routing with time windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper studies the use of decomposition techniques to quickly find high-quality solutions to large-scale vehicle routing problems with time windows. It considers an adaptive decomposition scheme which iteratively decouples a routing problem based on the current solution. Earlier work considered vehicle-based decompositions that partitions the vehicles across the subproblems. The subproblems can then be optimized independently and merged easily. This paper argues that vehicle-based decompositions, although very effective on various problem classes also have limitations. In particular, they do not accommodate temporal decompositions and may produce spatial decompositions that are not focused enough. This paper then proposes customer-based decompositions which generalize vehicle-based decouplings and allows for focused spatial and temporal decompositions. Experimental results on class R2 of the extended Solomon benchmarks demonstrates the benefits of the customer-based adaptive decomposition scheme and its spatial, temporal, and hybrid instantiations. In particular, they show that customer-based decompositions bring significant benefits over large neighborhood search in contrast to vehicle-based decompositions.

  1. A narrow window of Rabi frequency for competition between electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ray-Yuan; Fang, Wei-Chia; Lee, Ming-Tsung; He, Zong-Syun; Ke, Bai-Cian [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yi-Chi [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chin-Chun [Department of Physics, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation clarifies the transition phenomenon between the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Raman absorption in a ladder-type system of Doppler-broadened cesium vapor. A competition window of this transition was found to be as narrow as 2 MHz defined by the probe Rabi frequency. For a weak probe, the spectrum of EIT associated with quantum interference suggests that the effect of the Doppler velocity on the spectrum is negligible. When the Rabi frequency of the probe becomes comparable with the effective decay rate, an electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) dip emerges at the center of the power broadened EIT peak. While the Rabi frequency of the probe exceeds the effective decay rate, decoherence that is generated by the intensified probe field occurs and Raman absorption dominates the interaction process, yielding a pure absorption spectrum; the Doppler velocity plays an important role in the interaction. A theory that is based on density matrix simulation, with or without the Doppler effect, can qualitatively fit the experimental data. In this work, the coherence of atom-photon interactions is created or destroyed using the probe Rabi frequency as a decoherence source.

  2. Neutrinos: an Open Window on Fundamental Physics and the Evolution of the Universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascoli, Silvia (IPPP, Durham University) [IPPP, Durham University

    2010-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past ten years, a series of experiments has confirmed that neutrinos can oscillate between different types ('flavors') and have mass. These results are the first solid evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics, with profound implications for the Universe and the laws that govern it. Thanks to a broad experimental program, including accelerator- and reactor-based experiments such as MINOS, MiniBooNE, T2K, Double-CHOOZ, Daya Bay, NOvA, LBNE, and searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, we have just entered the 'precision era' in neutrino physics. I will review the status of experimental results, their implications for our understanding of neutrino properties, and the questions that must be addressed. I will give an overview of the exciting experimental program that is underway and I will discuss how neutrino physics will help in opening a new window on the fundamental laws of Nature, its fundamental constituents, and the evolution of the Universe.

  3. It all began in 2001, when three NREL researchers took their thin-film expertise from window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    window technology research and applied it to a solid-state, thin-film lithium battery. The researchers

  4. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A computational method for calculating heat transfer and airflow through a dual airflow window," Energy and Buildings, 40(4), 452-458.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and airflow through a dual airflow window," Energy and Buildings, 40(4), 452-458. A computational method for calculating heat transfer and airflow through a dual-airflow window Jennifer R. Gosselin, Qingyan (Yan) Chen, and their energy performance can be studied using several computational models. A dual-airflow window with triple

  5. A High Performance Computing Platform for Performing High-Volume Studies With Windows-based Power Grid Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Serial Windows-based programs are widely used in power utilities. For applications that require high volume simulations, the single CPU runtime can be on the order of days or weeks. The lengthy runtime, along with the availability of low cost hardware, is leading utilities to seriously consider High Performance Computing (HPC) techniques. However, the vast majority of the HPC computers are still Linux-based and many HPC applications have been custom developed external to the core simulation engine without consideration for ease of use. This has created a technical gap for applying HPC-based tools to today’s power grid studies. To fill this gap and accelerate the acceptance and adoption of HPC for power grid applications, this paper presents a prototype of generic HPC platform for running Windows-based power grid programs on Linux-based HPC environment. The preliminary results show that the runtime can be reduced from weeks to hours to improve work efficiency.

  6. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta2O5 film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta2O5 films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta2O5 interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta2O5 interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  7. Numerical study of the effect of normalised window size, sampling frequency, and noise level on short time Fourier transform analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ota, T. A. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry, is a widely used optical technique that requires the analysis of frequency modulated signals. This paper describes an investigation into the errors of short time Fourier transform analysis. The number of variables requiring investigation was reduced by means of an equivalence principle. Error predictions, as the number of cycles, samples per cycle, noise level, and window type were varied, are presented. The results were found to be in good agreement with analytical models.

  8. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has implemented a program to investigate the feasibility of various techniques for reclaiming lands disturbed during site characterization at Yucca Mountain. As part of this program, two studies were conducted in 1997 to assess the effects of combinations of seeding date (date that seeds are planted) and supplemental irrigation on densities of native plant species at Yucca Mountain. Study objectives were to (1) determine whether the traditional seeding window (October-December) could be extended through combinations of seeding date and irrigation date, (2) determine which combination of seeding date and irrigation was most successful, and (3) assess the effects of irrigation versus natural precipitation on seedling establishment. In the first study, a multi-species seed mix of 16 native species was sown into plots on four dates (12/96, 2/97, 3/97, and 4/97). Irrigation treatments were control (no irrigation) or addition of 80 mm of supplemental water applied over a one month period. Plant densities were sampled in August and again in October, 1997. In the second study, Larrea tridentata and Lycium andersonii, two species that are common at Yucca Mountain, but difficult to establish from seed, were sown together into plots in January and August, 1997. Half the plots were irrigated with approximately 250 mm of water between August 18 and September 11, while the remaining plots received no irrigation (control). Plant densities were sampled in October, 1997. The August census for the multi-species mix study showed irrigated plots that were sown in February, March and April had higher plant densities and more species than plots that were not irrigated. Irrigation had no effect on plant densities on plots that were seeded in December. Plots were used again in October following 18 mm of precipitation in September. Densities of three species, Ambrosia dumosa, Hymenoclea salsola, and L. tridentata, (warm-season species) were lower on irrigated plots sown in December, February, and March, and showed no response to irrigation on plots sown in April. Therefore, early spring irrigation did not facilitate establishment of warm-season species. These results suggest that these species are dependent upon precipitation while temperatures are warm in late summer or fall. However, control plots that were seeded in December had acceptable densities of these species. A more practical approach might be to avoid irrigation costs by seeding in December and waiting for fall precipitation. The remaining species (cool-season species) showed an opposite response to supplemental water with greater densities on irrigated plots sown in February, March, and April, and no response to irrigation on plots sown in December. While these results show that irrigation can extend the seeding window for cool-season species should it be necessary, it was also apparent that if seeds are sown by late December, irrigation is not necessary to achieve acceptable plant densities.

  9. The Impact Of The MCU Life Extension Solvent On Sludge Batch 8 Projected Operating Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Stone, M. E.

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Life Extension Project, a next generation solvent (NGS) and a new strip acid will be deployed. The strip acid will be changed from dilute nitric acid to dilute boric acid (0.01 M). Because of these changes, experimental testing or evaluations with the next generation solvent are required to determine the impact of these changes (if any) to Chemical Process Cell (CPC) activities, glass formulation strategies, and melter operations at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The introduction of the dilute (0.01M) boric acid stream into the DWPF flowsheet has a potential impact on glass formulation and frit development efforts since B2O3 is a major oxide in frits developed for DWPF. Prior knowledge of this stream can be accounted for during frit development efforts but that was not the case for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). Frit 803 has already been recommended and procured for SB8 processing; altering the frit to account for the incoming boron from the strip effluent (SE) is not an option for SB8. Therefore, the operational robustness of Frit 803 to the introduction of SE including its compositional tolerances (i.e., up to 0.0125M boric acid) is of interest and was the focus of this study. The primary question to be addressed in the current study was: What is the impact (if any) on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 flowsheet to additions of B2O3 from the SE in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT)? More specifically, will Frit 803 be robust to the potential compositional changes occurring in the SRAT due to sludge variation, varying additions of ARP and/or the introduction of SE by providing access to waste loadings (WLs) of interest to DWPF? The Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) results indicate there is very little, if any, impact on the projected operating windows for the Frit 803 – SB8 system regardless of the presence or absence of ARP and SE (up to 2 wt% B2O3 contained in the SRAT and up to 2000 gallons of ARP). It should be noted that 0.95 wt% B2O3 is the nominal projected concentration in the SRAT based on a 0.0125M boric acid flowsheet with 70,000 liters of SE being added to the SRAT. The impact on CPC processing of a 0.01M boric acid solution for elution of cesium during Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) processing has previously been evaluated by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Increasing the acid strength to 0.0125M boric acid to account for variations in the boric acid strength has been reviewed versus the previous evaluation. The amount of acid from the boric acid represented approximately 5% of the total acid during the previous evaluation. An increase from 0.01 to 0.0125M boric acid represents a change of approximately 1.3% which is well within the error of the acid calculation. Therefore, no significant changes to CPC processing (hydrogen generation, metal solubilities, rheological properties, REDOX control, etc.) are expected from an increase in allowable boric acid concentration from 0.01M to 0.0125M.

  10. Analysis of the Impact of Using Improved Multi-Layer Window Models for Code-Compliant Residential Building Energy Simulation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Hyo

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed both window modeling methods with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) 2009 and the IECC 2012 conditions for climate zones in Texas. The results show that there are significant differences in annual building energy end-use, heating...

  11. An Investigation of Window and Lighting Systems using Life Cycle Cost Analysis for the Purpose of Energy Conservation in Langford Building A at Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Hea Yeon

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Langford Building A forms part of the Langford Architectural Complex at Texas A & M University. Inefficient lighting fixtures and single pane windows in Langford Building A contribute to a considerable portion of the total cost of energy...

  12. The impact of different climates on window and skylight design for daylighting and passive cooling and heating in residential buildings: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sallal, K.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study aims to explore the effect of different climates on window and skylight design in residential buildings. The study house is evaluated against climates that have design opportunities for passive systems, with emphasis on passive cooling. The study applies a variety of methods to evaluate the design. It has found that earth sheltering and night ventilation have the potential to provide 12--29% and 25--77% of the cooling requirements respectively for the study house in the selected climates. The reduction of the glazing area from 174 ft{sup 2} to 115 ft{sup 2} has different impacts on the cooling energy cost in the different climates. In climates such Fresno and Tucson, one should put the cooling energy savings as a priority for window design, particularly when determining the window size. In other climates such as Albuquerque, the priority of window design should be first given to heating savings requirements.

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Using Improved Multi-Layer Window Models for Code-Compliant Residential Building Energy Simulation in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Hyo

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed both window modeling methods with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) 2009 and the IECC 2012 conditions for climate zones in Texas. The results show that there are significant differences in annual building energy end-use, heating...

  14. M13 Phage-Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes As Nanoprobes for Second Near-Infrared Window Fluorescence Imaging of Targeted Tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Hyunjung

    Second near-infrared (NIR) window light (950–1400 nm) is attractive for in vivo fluorescence imaging due to its deep penetration depth in tissues and low tissue autofluorescence. Here we show genetically engineered ...

  15. The nature of transition from adakitic to non-adakitic magmatism in a slab window setting: A synthesis from the eastern Pontides, NE Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eyuboglu, Yener

    The eastern Pontides orogenic belt provides a window into continental arc magmatism in the Alpine–Himalayan belt. The late Mesozoic–Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of this belt remains controversial. Here we focus on the ...

  16. Face-Cooling of Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    1 Face-Cooling of Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC December 24, 2011 This report analyzes the face-cooling--by water or helium gas--of a beryllium window at z at ­1, +0.7) is 103 W/g--i.e., 190 W/cm3 for beryllium, which has a density of 1.85 g/cm3 . The power

  17. Peak T in Edge-Cooled Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Peak T in Edge-Cooled Beryllium Window at z = 3 m in Magnet IDS120h Bob Weggel, M.O.R.E., LLC:16 PM) to incorporate Nick's latest predictions of the power density in a beryllium window at z = 3 m, +0.7) of 103 W/g--190 W/cm3 for beryllium (1.85 g/cm3 ). [Note: File "IDS120hm_BeWind_TDP_NO_SH1_NP

  18. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  19. An ultra-thin diamond membrane as a transmission particle detector and vacuum window for external microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakši?, M. [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)] [Division of Experimental Physics, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pomorski, M. [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kada, W. [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)] [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Iwamoto, N.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Several applications of external microbeam techniques demand a very accurate and controlled dose delivery. To satisfy these requirements when post-sample ion detection is not feasible, we constructed a transmission single-ion detector based on an ultra-thin diamond membrane. The negligible intrinsic noise provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and enables a hit-detection efficiency of close to 100%, even for energetic protons, while the small thickness of the membrane limits beam spreading. Moreover, because of the superb mechanical stiffness of diamond, this membrane can simultaneously serve as a vacuum window and allow the extraction of an ion microbeam into the atmosphere.

  20. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SINTEF Building and Infrastructure; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); Bergh, Sofie Van Den; Hart, Robert; Jelle, Bjrn Petter; Gustavsen, Arild

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Insulating glass (IG) units typically consist of multiple glass panes that are sealed and held together structurally along their perimeters. This report describes a study of edge seals in IG units. First, we summarize the components, requirements, and desired properties of edge construction in IG units, based on a survey of the available literature. Second, we review commercially available window edge seals and describe their properties, to provide an easily accessible reference for research and commercial purposes. Finally, based on the literature survey and review of current commercial edge seal systems, we identify research opportunities for future edge seal improvements and solutions.

  1. Core and Valence Excitations in Resonant X-ray Spectroscopy using Restricted Excitation Window Time-dependent Density Functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Healion, Daniel; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report simulations of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and 1D stimulated X-ray Raman spectroscopy (SXRS) signals of cysteine at the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur K and L2,3 edges. The simulated XANES signals from the restricted window time-dependent density functional theory (REW-TDDFT) and the static exchange (STEX) method are compared with experiments, showing that REW-TDDFT is more accurate and computationally less expensive than STEX. Simulated RIXS and 1D SXRS signals from REW-TDDFT give some insights on the correlation of different excitations in the molecule.

  2. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL] [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  3. On the detection of neutrinos from solar flares using pion-decay photons to provide a time window template

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Wasseige, G; van Eijndhoven, N; Evenson, P; Klein, K -L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the end of the eighties and in response to a reported increase in the total neutrino flux in the Homestake experiment in coincidence with solar flares, solar neutrino detectors have searched for solar flare signals. Even though these detectors have used different solar flare samples and analyses, none of them has been able to confirm the possible signal seen by Homestake. Neutrinos from the decay of mesons, which are themselves produced in collisions of accelerated ions with the solar atmosphere would provide a novel window on the underlying physics of the hadronic acceleration and interaction processes during solar flares. Solar flare neutrino flux measurements would indeed help to constrain current parameters such as the composition of the accelerated flux, the proton/ion spectral index and the high energy cutoff or the magnetic configuration in the interaction region. We describe here a new way to search for these neutrinos by considering a specific solar flare sample and a data driven time window te...

  4. Spring Home Maintenance: Windows, Windows, Windows! | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO OverviewRepositoryManagement |SolarSpecial Report:Spectrum PolicySpring Home

  5. Spring Home Maintenance: Windows, Windows, Windows! | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretaryVideos

  6. Database of Low-E Storm Window Energy Performance across U.S. Climate Zones (Task ET-WIN-PNNL-FY13-01_5.3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cort, Katherine A.; Culp, Thomas D.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes process, assumptions, and modeling results produced in support of the Emerging Technologies Low-e Storm Windows Task 5.3: Create a Database of U.S. Climate-Based Analysis for Low-E Storm Windows. The scope of the overall effort is to develop a database of energy savings and cost effectiveness of low-E storm windows in residential homes across a broad range of U.S. climates using the National Energy Audit Tool (NEAT) and RESFEN model calculations. This report includes a summary of the results, NEAT and RESFEN background, methodology, and input assumptions, and an appendix with detailed results and assumptions by cliamte zone. Both sets of calculation results will be made publicly available through the Building America Solution Center.

  7. Frit Development Efforts for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Operating Window Assessments fo Scenarios Leading Up to the Selected Preparation Plan for SB4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to document technical information that has been provided to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Closure Business Unit (CBU) personnel as part of the frit development support for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The information presented in this report includes projected operating windows (expressed in terms of waste loading) for various sludge blending and/or washing options coupled with candidate frits of interest. Although the Nominal Stage assessment serves as the primary tool for these evaluations, select systems were also evaluated using a Variation Stage assessment in which compositional variations were introduced. In addition, assessments of the impacts of nepheline formation potential and the SO{sub 4}{sup -} solubility limit on the projected operating windows are also provided. Although this information was used as part of the technical basis leading to CBU's development of the preferred SB4 preparation plan, none of the options presented in this report was selected as the preferred plan. Therefore, the information is presented without significant interpretation of the resulting operating windows, but the projected windows are provided so additional insight can be explored if desired. Detailed assessments of the projected operating windows (using both Nominal and Variation Stage assessments) of the preferred sludge preparation plan with candidate frits are to be documented elsewhere. The information provided in this report is focused solely on model-based projections of the operating windows for various SB4 blending strategies of interest. Although nepheline formation potential is monitored via model predictions as a part of this assessment, experimental work investigating the impact of nepheline on glass quality is also being addressed in a parallel study. The results of this paper study and the experimental assessments of melt rate, SO{sub 4} solubility, and/or nepheline formation potential are all critical components of the inputs into the frit selection process for SB4.

  8. Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small differences was found in the results from model to model. Finally, the effectiveness of the ISO cavity radiation algorithms was examined by comparing results from these algorithms to detailed radiation calculations (from both programs). Our results suggest that improvements in cavity heat transfer calculations can be obtained by using detailed radiation modeling (i.e. view-factor or ray-tracing models), and that incorporation of these strategies may be more important for improving the accuracy of results than the use of CFD modeling for horizontal cavities.

  9. ISTRUZIONI INSTALLAZIONE JAVA SUN JDK (Windows) 1. Scaricare dal sito della SUN (http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp) l'ultima

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    ISTRUZIONI INSTALLAZIONE JAVA SUN JDK (Windows) 1. Scaricare dal sito della SUN (http://java.sun default, Java viene installato nella cartella C:\\Sun\\SDK 3. Per compilare programmi Java, occorre settare'installazione non si è deciso di installare Java altrove, il percorso completo è il seguente: C:\\Sun

  10. Mxico Social, nm. 24, julio 2012, Mxico, CEIDAS, pp. 17 19. URL: http://issuu.com/mexico_social/docs/ms_julio2012/3?mode=window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islas, León

    elegido el camino del extractivismo por encima o en contra del bienestar social y ambiental en generalMéxico Social, núm. 24, julio 2012, México, CEIDAS, pp. 17 ­ 19. URL: http://issuu.com/mexico_social/docs/ms_julio2012/3?mode=window visitado el día 6 FEB 2013. 1 Una Nueva Política Social para los Pueblos Indígenas

  11. DragNDrop Directions v7 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    DragNDrop Directions v7 2/25/10 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them? If you are on the PPPL Domain: Open My Computer. Then the P drive. Find: P:\\web\

  12. Wei, J., Zhao, J., and Chen, Q. 2010, "Optimal design for a dual-airflow window for different climate regions in China," Energy and Buildings, 16(6), 785-798.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    climate regions in China," Energy and Buildings, 16(6), 785-798. Optimal design for a dual-airflow window The dual-airflow window could be used to conserve energy and improve indoor air quality in buildings method 1 Introduction In China, energy demand for buildings accounts for nearly 27.5% of the total

  13. Gosselin, J.R. and Chen, Q. 2008. "A dual airflow window for indoor air quality improvement and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and energy conservation in buildings," HVAC&R Research, 14(3), 359-372. A Dual Airflow Window for Indoor Air with exhausted indoor air. The energy needed to condition outdoor air is reduced because of the counterflow heat, the dual airflow window has a great potential for conserving energy and improving indoor air quality

  14. Deep-Tissue Anatomical Imaging of Mice Using Carbon Nanotube Fluorophores in the Second Near Infrared Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsher, Kevin; Dai, Hongjie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent imaging in the second near infrared window (NIR II, 1-1.4 {\\mu}m) holds much promise due to minimal autofluorescence and tissue scattering. Here, using well functionalized biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as NIR II fluorescent imaging agents, we performed high frame rate video imaging of mice during intravenous injection of SWNTs and investigated the path of SWNTs through the mouse anatomy. We observed in real-time SWNT circulation through the lungs and kidneys several seconds post-injection, and spleen and liver at slightly later time points. Dynamic contrast enhanced imaging through principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and found to greatly increase the anatomical resolution of organs as a function of time post-injection. Importantly, PCA was able to discriminate organs such as the pancreas which could not be resolved from real-time raw images. Tissue phantom studies were performed to compare imaging in the NIR II region to the traditional NIR I biological transpar...

  15. Experimental analysis of a window air conditioner with a R-22 and R32/R125/R134a mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); HuangFu, E.P. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much experimental and theoretical analysis of potential R-22 replacements has been accomplished. However, published information about the experimental analysis of any off-the-shelf air conditioner with a potential R-22 replacement at realistic, operating conditions is still rare. This type of work could be useful because it provides baseline data for comparing the performance of R-22 and its potential replacement at drop-in conditions. In this study, an off-the-shelf window air conditioner was tested at Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)-rated indoor conditions and at different ambient temperatures, including the ARI-rated outdoor condition, with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%) (the ternary mixture). A test rig was built that provided for baseline operation and for the option of operating the system with a flooded evaporator by means of liquid over-feeding (LOF). The test results indicated the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was 7.7% less than that of R-22 at 95{degrees}F ambient for baseline operation. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved when a flooded evaporator, or LOF, was used. For LOF operation, the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was only 1.1% less than that of R-22. The ternary mixture had slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, a lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high/low pressure ratio.

  16. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)] [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, 452 013 Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  17. 1.0 Installation of Version 3.0 The CAP88-PC Windows version 3.0 can be downloaded from the following EPA web site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1.0 Installation of Version 3.0 The CAP88-PC Windows version 3.0 can be downloaded from 2.1 if you have an existing installation of an earlier beta version of CAP88-PC version 3.0. If you do not have an existing installation of CAP88-PC version 3.0 then begin with step 5. CAP88-PC creates

  18. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. The General Catalog of Stars in the Galactic Bulge. I. The Stars in the Central Baade's Window OGLE Field BWC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Szymanski; A. Udalski; M. Kubiak; J. Kaluzny; M. Mateo; W. Krzeminski

    1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the first part of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) General Catalog of Stars in the Galactic bulge. The Catalog is based on observations collected during the OGLE microlensing search. This part contains 33196 stars brighter than I=18mag identified in the Baade's Window BWC field. Stars from remaining 20 OGLE fields will be presented in similar form in the next parts of the Catalog. The Catalog is available to the astronomical community over the Internet network.

  19. Boron-doped amorphous diamondlike carbon as a new p-type window material in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    -i-n solar cells Chang Hyun Lee and Koeng Su Lim Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced this film, amorphous silicon (a-Si solar cells with a novel p-a-DLC:H/p-a-SiC double p-layer structure were as window materials for amorphous silicon (a-Si based solar cells.1­4 In using such films as a p layer

  20. DragNDrop Directions v6 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    DragNDrop Directions v6 12/12/05 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them? If you are on the PPPL Domain: Open My Computer. Then the P drive. Find the web folder. Find to your web files contact Lena Scimeca OS/X Users: How do I access the web documents to place or update

  1. The effects of high temperature processing on the structural and optical properties of oxygenated CdS window layers in CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Grice, Corey R.; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yan, Yanfa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High efficiency CdTe solar cells typically use oxygenated CdS (CdS:O) window layers. We synthesize CdS:O window layers at room temperature (RT) and 270?°C using reactive sputtering. The band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at RT increase when O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios in the deposition chamber increase. On the other hand, the band gaps of CdS:O layers deposited at 270?°C decrease as the O{sub 2}/(O{sub 2}?+?Ar) ratios increase. Interestingly, however, our high temperature closed-space sublimation (CSS) processed CdTe solar cells using CdS:O window layers deposited at RT and 270?°C exhibit very similar cell performance, including similar short-circuit current densities. To understand the underlying reasons, CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C are annealed at temperatures that simulate the CSS process of CdTe deposition. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy characterization of the annealed films reveals that the CdS:O films deposited at RT undergo grain regrowth and/or crystallization and exhibit reduced band gaps after the annealing. Our results suggest that CdS:O thin films deposited at RT and 270?°C should exhibit similar optical properties after the deposition of CdTe layers, explaining the similar cell performance.

  2. Key word:Daylight Factor Window Wall Ratio Pendentive dome Lighting design Tropical region Architecture and Interior design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehrdad Mazloomi

    Abstract: Daylighting design plays important role in architecture of religious buildings such as churches and mosques where pendentive dome construction is frequently used. In daylighting design, many designers face difficulty in estimating the interior share of light which is usually expressed by daylight factor due to complexity of interior form. This study aims to provide designers with a rather high precision rule of thumb for average daylight factor in pendentive dome building. Thus, it investigates the Daylight Factor [DF] distribution of such buildings with reference to the tropics. It takes the Window Wall Ratio [WWR] into account and seeks its influence on daylight factor. By a 12 X 12 points grid, it examines five different ratios including 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 on DF of the floor beneath the dome. The results endorse the direct relation of WWR and DF. The least WWR equal to 0.1 yields an average DF of 0.55 % while the greatest WWR of 0.5 yields in average DF of 2.56%. The intermediate WWR in steps of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 correspond to 1.04, 1.56 and 2.07 percent respectively. As a relatively precise rule of thumb, any increment in consequent steps of WWR with 0.1 intervals results in 0.5 % increase in DF. This can be employed by architects and interior designers for lighting design of pendentive dome buildings in tropical region.

  3. Dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated Arc therapy, step-and-shoot, and sliding window IMRT for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnell, Erich; De La Fuente Herman, Tania; Young, Julie; Hildebrand, Kim; Algan, Ozer; Syzek, Elizabeth; Herman, Terence; Ahmad, Salahuddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center 800 N.E. 10th St., OKCC L100, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study aims to evaluate treatment plans generated by Step-and-Shoot (SS), Sliding Window (SW) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) in order to assess the differences in dose volume histograms of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR), conformity indices, radiobiological evaluations, and plan quality for prostate cancer cases. Six prostate cancer patients treated in our center were selected for this retrospective study. Treatment plans were generated with Eclipse version 8.9 using 10 MV photon beams. For VMAT, Varian Rapid Arc with 1 or 2 arcs, and for SS and SW IMRT, 7-9 fields were used. Each plan had three PTVs with prescription doses of 81, 59.4, and 45 Gy to prostate, to prostate and lymph nodes, and to pelvis, respectively. Doses to PTV and OAR and the conformal indices (COIN) were compared among three techniques. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD), tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) were calculated and compared. The mean doses to the PTV prostate on average were 83 Gy and the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 0.28. For bladder and rectum, the percent differences of mean dose among all techniques were below 2.2. The COIN did not favour any particular delivery method over the other. The TCP was higher with SS and SW for four patients and higher with VMAT for two patients. The NTCP for the rectum was the lowest with VMAT in five out of the six patients. The results show similar target coverage in general.

  4. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    US DOE Energy Information Administration. (2001). "2001US DOE Energy Information Administration (2006). Annualpdf US DOE Energy Information Administration. (1999). "1999

  5. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and D. Dumortier. 2003. "Luminance Calibration of the Nikonusing high-dynamic-range luminance images. Poster report.Using High-Dynamic-Range Luminance Images Attachment 13:

  6. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC system energy use. Industry rarely offers integrated cross-disciplinary building products, although this trend

  7. Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can play a role. Demand-side management programs may alsoelectric utility “demand-side management” programs are notheating, gas “demand-side management” programs could be

  8. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can be addressed by code officials. The DOE-2.1E buildingengineers and code officials to ease the introduction of

  9. Advancement of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    whole building controls makes sense for demand response,building-wide control solutions for demand response, real-of building-wide control based on demand response, real-time

  10. Dynamic Windows Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About UsDurable, Low Cost,1

  11. Using X Windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulence mayUndergraduateAboutUserHadoop SCP/SFTP Transferring

  12. Vacuum Insulation for Window

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59CapabilityVulnerabilities|VWD-0006 - In

  13. Vacuum Insulation for Windows

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59CapabilityVulnerabilities|VWD-0006 - InLin

  14. Window Daylighting Demo

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | Department ofoftoMay 8,Energy Wind Vision:

  15. High Performance Window Attachments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnologyHighLouisiana |HighMaterials

  16. Windows | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWind PowerWindStromRoadmap Name

  17. Cornell's (LSC) project began providing 16,000 tons of cooling (1 ton of cooling = 12,000 Btu/hr, or approximately one large residential window air conditioner) to Cornell University's Ithaca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    window air conditioner) to Cornell University's Ithaca campus in July of 2000. This project has almost completely replaced mechanical refrigeration for the Cornell district cooling system with the following benefits: · Greater LSC has replaced

  18. NW Energy XP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR KeyNUG 2015 NUGNW-Energy-XP

  19. AFT 210XP Nanospec

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8Li (59AJ76) (See the EnergyTAMANG, APIL.AFT 210XP Nanospec nano.jpg

  20. THE OPTICAL GRAVITATIONAL LENSING EXPERIMENT. THE CATALOG OF PERIODIC VARIABLE STARS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE. I. PERIODIC VARIABLES IN THE CENTER OF THE BAADE'S WINDOW.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. UDALSKI; M. KUBIAK; M. SZYMANSKI; J. KALUZNY; M. MATEO; W. KRZEMINSKI

    1995-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first part of the Catalog of Periodic Variable Stars in the Galactic bulge. The Catalog is based on observations collected during the OGLE microlensing search. 213 periodic variable stars brighter than I=18 mag: 31 pulsating, 116 eclipsing and 66 miscellaneous type variables from the Baade's Window BWC field are presented. Periodic variable stars from remaining 20 fields will be presented in similar form in the next parts of the Catalog. The Catalog as well as observations of all periodic variable objects are available to astronomical community over the Internet network.

  1. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  2. An electrochromic window based on Li sub x WO sub 3 /(PEO) sub 8 LiCIO sub 4 /NiO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Scosati, B. (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita' di Roma La Sapienza, (IT)); Gorenstein, A. (DFA/IFWG, UNICAMP, CP 6165, Campinas, SP (BR)); Anderson, A.M; Granqvist, C.G. (Dept. of Physics, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (SW))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic materials are characterized by reversible but persistent changes of the optical properties when subjected to suitable electrochemical reactions. Electrochromism can be utilized in windows, most conveniently by exploiting all-solid-state multilayer coating backed by glass. The multilayer coating should comprise the following sequence of layers: a transparent and electrically conducting base layer, an electrochromic layer, and electrolyte, a conterelectrode, and a transparent conducting top layer. For window applications, the electrolyte should be transparent, and the conterelectrode must be either optically passive (colorless irrespective of its ionic content) or electrochromic in a sense that is complementary to the electrochromism of the electrochromic layer. The latter condition implies that if the electrochromic layer is cathodic (anodic), the counterelectrode must be anodic (cathodic). This paper reports preliminary data taken on samples with electrochromic layers based on tungsten oxide, WO{sub 3}, and nickel oxide, NiO, and an intermediate solid electrolyte of poly(ethylene oxide) doped with lithium perchlorate, (PEO){sub 8}LiClO{sub 4}, where 8 signifies the number of oxygen heteroatoms per lithium ion.

  3. A tapering window for time-domain templates and simulated signals in the detection of gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. J. A. McKechan; C. Robinson; B. S. Sathyaprakash

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspiral signals from binary black holes, in particular those with masses in the range $10M_\\odot \\lsim M \\lsim 1000 M_\\odot,$ may last for only a few cycles within a detector's most sensitive frequency band. The spectrum of a square-windowed time-domain signal could contain unwanted power that can cause problems in gravitational wave data analysis, particularly when the waveforms are of short duration. There may be leakage of power into frequency bins where no such power is expected, causing an excess of false alarms. We present a method of tapering the time-domain waveforms that significantly reduces unwanted leakage of power, leading to a spectrum that agrees very well with that of a long duration signal. Our tapered window also decreases the false alarms caused by instrumental and environmental transients that are picked up by templates with spurious signal power. The suppression of background is an important goal in noise-dominated searches and can lead to an improvement in the detection efficiency of the search algorithms.

  4. THE IMPACT OF A TANK 40H DECANT ON THE PROJECTED OPERATING WINDOWS FOR SB4 AND GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY IN SUPPORT OF THE VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) has requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assess the impact of a 100K gallon decant volume from Tank 40H on the existing sludge-only Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)-Frit 510 flowsheet and the coupled operations flowsheet (SB4 with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP)). Another potential SB4 flowsheet modification of interest includes the addition of 3 wt% sodium (on a calcined oxide basis) to a decanted sludge-only or coupled operations flowsheet. These potential SB4 flowsheet modifications could result in significant compositional shifts to the SB4 system. This paper study provides an assessment of the impact of these compositional changes to the projected glass operating windows and to the variability study for the Frit 510-SB4 system. The influence of the compositional changes on melt rate was not assessed in this study nor was it requested. Nominal Stage paper study assessments were completed using the projected compositions for the various flowsheet options coupled with Frit 510 (i.e., variation was not applied to the sludge and frit compositions). In order to gain insight into the impacts of sludge variation and/or frit variation (due to the procurement specifications) on the projected operating windows, three versions of the Variation Stage assessment were performed: (1) the traditional Variation Stage assessment in which the nominal Frit 510 composition was coupled with the extreme vertices (EVs) of each sludge, (2) an assessment of the impact of possible frit variation (within the accepted frit specification tolerances) on each nominal SB4 option, and (3) an assessment of the impact of possible variation in the Frit 510 composition due to the vendor's acceptance specifications coupled with the EVs of each sludge case. The results of the Nominal Stage assessment indicate very little difference among the various flowsheet options. All of the flowsheets provide DWPF with the possibility of targeting waste loadings (WLs) from the low 30s to the low 40s with Frit 510. In general, the Tank 40H decant has a slight negative impact on the operating window, but DWPF still has the ability to target current WLs (34%) and higher WLs if needed. While the decant does not affect practical WL targets in DWPF, melt rate could be reduced due to the lower Na{sub 2}O content. If true, the addition of 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O to the glass system may regain melt rate, assuming that the source of alkali is independent of the impact on melt rate. Coupled operations with Frit 510 via the addition of ARP to the decanted SB4 flowsheet also appears to be viable based on the projected operating windows. The addition of both ARP and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O to a decanted Tank 40H sludge may be problematic using Frit 510. Although the Nominal Stage assessments provide reasonable operating windows for the SB4 flowsheets being considered with Frit 510, introduction of potential sludge and/or frit compositional variation does have a negative impact. The magnitude of the impact on the projected operating windows is dependent on the specific flowsheet options as well as the applied variation. The results of the traditional Variation Stage assessments indicate that the three proposed Tank 40H decanted flowsheet options (Case No.2--100K gallon decant, Case No.3--100K gallon decant and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O addition and Case No.4--100K gallon decant and ARP) demonstrate a relatively high degree of robustness to possible sludge variation over WLs of interest with Frit 510. However, the case where the addition of both ARP and 3 wt% Na{sub 2}O is considered was problematic during the traditional Variation Stage assessment. The impact of coupling the frit specifications with the nominal SB4 flowsheet options on the projected operating windows is highly dependent on whether the upper WLs are low viscosity or liquidus temperature limited in the Nominal Stage assessments. Systems that are liquidus temperature limited exhibit a high degree of robustness to the applied frit and sludge variation, while those that are low viscosity li

  5. O:\\labstaff\\Staff\\How to\\map_a_drive_and_connect_to_a_server-AD_change.docx Map a drive/Accessing LCB/BTC Network from off campus on a Windows PC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O:\\labstaff\\Staff\\How to\\map_a_drive_and_connect_to_a_server-AD_change.docx Map a drive/Accessing LCB/BTC Network from off campus on a Windows PC MAC user, connect to server instructions See page 2\\map_a_drive_and_connect_to_a_server-AD_change.docx Connect to the Internet using DSL or Cable

  6. Using Remote Desktop with the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client in Windows Vista 1. In order to use Remote Desktop and the VPN client, users must first complete the Blackboard Remote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Remote Desktop with the Cisco AnyConnect VPN Client in Windows Vista 1. In order to use Remote Desktop and the VPN client, users must first complete the Blackboard Remote Users training course and then download and install the VPN client on the workstation that they will use to remote to their office

  7. Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 ?m to a modest 0.50 ?m over an underlying 0.10-?m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 ?m/3 ?m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

  8. 3DOF Windows XP Haptic-VisualHaptic-VisualHaptic-VisualHaptic-Visual InteractionInteractionInteractionInteraction TrainingTrainingTrainingTraining SystemSystemSystemSystem forforforfor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . http: / /www. cs. uiowa. edu /cremer/. sive - abstracts/kuehne. text, 2004 - 10 -25 [4] Srinivasan H

  9. Close Window JUNE 5, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's company, Synthetic Genomics Inc. in Rockville, Md., and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL

  10. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vertical illuminance and luminance sensors. All data wascm above the floor. The luminance measurements were made byto give the average luminance [6]. Both amplification and

  11. Tips for Daylighting with Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  12. Close Window MARCH 3, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optics to improve eyeglasses. Innovations BW Online | March 3, 2003 | Killing Superbugs from Within http

  13. :Linux . :Windows+DotNet( )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidi, Moshe

    Action Rotate Action PIL Collaborative Picture Gallery Students: Aviad Barzilai & Amos Hersch Supervisor

  14. Energy Savings from Window Attachments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 FederalTexas Energy IncentiveLandscaping EnergySavings*Appliances

  15. Window Attachments | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008 TBD-0075 -In17,InEnergy Wind

  16. Tips: Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1 TNews &Appliances

  17. Storm Windows | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idaho | DepartmentEnergy Steps toStorageStorm

  18. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|IdahotheWhat is the FOIA ? What isWhyof

  19. Advanced Window and Shading Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartmentDepartment of2Partners in the SpotlightEnergyEleanor Lee,

  20. Windows Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThe U.S.Department of Energy Presenter: Karmanew

  1. 13 EER Window Air Conditioner

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY'EliseConferencePRESENTATIONSof13

  2. Tips: Windows | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a home builder1 of 12 SantiagoSome manufacturers

  3. Dynaically Responsive IP Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About UsDurable, Low Cost,

  4. Dynamically Responsive Infrared Window Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About UsDurable, Low Cost,1Dynamically

  5. Storm Windows | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of StaffingStorage Water Heaters Storage Water HeatersStorm

  6. Stanek Windows | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk,SoutheastSt. Francis County,StaceyStallings,Standish,

  7. Dynamic Windows | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube|6721 Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 219Does3-E Wholesale Power

  8. Nanolens Window Coatings for Daylighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,Energy NRELNamrata KolachalamCoolingofNanolens

  9. 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed is to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-20 7-55E An office that is being cooled adequately by a 12,000 Btu/h window air-conditioner is converted to a computer room. The number of additional air-conditioners that need to be installed/h. Then noting that each available air conditioner provides 4,000 Btu/h cooling, the number of air- conditioners

  10. Investigation of polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells based on ZnSe windows. Annual subcontract report, 15 Febraury 1992--14 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L C [Washington State Univ. at Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ZnSe/CIS solar cells are being carried out in an effort to improve the efficiencies CIS cells and to determine if ZnSe is a viable alternative to CdS as a window material. MOCVD growth of ZnSe is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor housed in the Electronic Materials Laboratory at WSU Tri-Cities by reacting a zinc adduct with H{sub 2}Se. Conductive n-type ZnSe is grown by using iodine as a dopant. Ethyliodide was mixed with helium and installed on one of the gas lines to the system. ZnSe films have been grown on CIS substrates at 200{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. ZnO is also being deposited by MOCVD by reacting tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a zinc adduct. ZnSe/CIS heterojunctions have been studied by growing n-ZnSe films onto 2 cm x 2 cm CIS substrates diced from materials supplied by Siemens and then depositing an array of aluminum circular areas 2.8.mm in diameter on top of the ZnSe to serve as contacts. Al films are deposited with a thickness of 80 to l00 {angstrom}so that light can pass through the film, thus allowing the illuminated characteristics of the ZnSe/CIS junction to be tested. Accounting for the 20 to 25 % transmittance through the Al film into the ZnSe/CIS structure, current devices have estimated, active-area AM1.5 efficiencies of 14 %. Open circuit voltages > 500 mV are often attained.

  11. Introducing Windows Communication David Chappell, Chappell &Associates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    ..............................................................................................................................12 Defining Service Contracts

  12. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  13. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for local supplemental cooling and ventilation. In theory,local climate of Santa Fe is well suited to natural ventilation,

  14. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? = 0.08 face 4, 6/16/6/16/6mm G8 Table 14: Range of glazinglow- ? coating (G5 and G8) greatly improves the solarm²] G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 Figure 35: Scenario 1 – Maximum

  15. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the thermostat and blind controls. C- 10 MS Thesis, Dept. ofand  blinds.  Solar Energy, 77(1), 15?28.   MS   Thesis,

  16. Windows Server 2012 R2 Licensing Datasheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    automation plus storage and networking virtualization solutions based on industry-standard hardware. It lets you build, run, and scale applications that can move between your datacenter and the cloud, and allows-virtualized or lightly virtualized environments. Essentials edition for small businesses with up to 25 users running

  17. AN ENERGY EFFICIENT WINDOW SYSTEM FINAL REPORT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inch hollow transparent P.V.C. frame with the Heat Mirroras 15 mil fire retardent PVC sheet can be used (P ). Thefilms are polyester, PVC, PFA and triacetate (P3 ). Heat

  18. Building Technologies Office Window and Envelope Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    by 2000 (10.7 billion in current dollars) Source: American Energy Innovation Council Case Studies on the Government's Role in Energy Technology Innovation "Low-Emissivity...

  19. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    running buildings, Energy and Buildings (23): 175? Becker, a literature review.  Energy  and Buildings, 27(1996), 83?conditioners.  Energy and Buildings, 18(1992), 177?191.  

  20. Beautify Your Windows and Glass Walls.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tompkins, Charlotte

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -utside? How do your dqkrie outside of your house? 2 IlnKY color affect , Coloor, De~kn and Tex When choosing draperies to har- monize with a room, consider the room, proportions, exposure, view, walls, floors, furnishings, accessories...

  1. Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian; Mitchell, Robin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy use data were collected for each city, to provide information regarding the predominant glass area

  2. Dell recommends Windows 7. Colorado State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Description Dell OptiPlex 990 MiniTower - Fully Customizable Date & Time: February 28, 2012 5:24 PM CST SYSTEM COMPONENTS Dell OptiPlex 990 MiniTower - Fully Customizable Qty 1 OptiPlex 990 Minitower for up to 90 Percent/28/2012http://premierecomm.dell.com/dellstore/PopUps/popup_print_cart.aspx?c=us&cs=rc97104... #12;snCM53

  3. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conference on Environmental Ergonomics, Fukuoka, Japan. 21.Ventilated Spaces”. Ergonomics, 29, 215 - 235. 36. Fanger,and Workload”. Applied Ergonomics, 32, 407 – 417. 54.

  4. Microsoft Word - Document in Windows Internet Explorer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    an enabling agreement that provides flexibility to the Parties while allowing BC Hydro to create the space needed to reduce likelihood of spill at Mica during their unit...

  5. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a new capability that enables designers to more accurately model the solar-optical performance Environmental Energy Technologies Division June 2009 To be presented at the 20th Conference on Passive and Low of California. #12;PLEA2009 - 26th Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Quebec City, Canada, 22

  6. Air flow through common type window openings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holleman, Theo Rufus

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface pressures surrounding it? WIM O TA L E AIR WASHER LOUVERS- EXCELSIOR MAT WATER SPRAY ~-- ? EGG CRATE ~ ? CHEESE -CLOTH / Figure 4 Wind Tunnel (Flan and Section) Courtesy of Texas Engineering Exgerirent Station psgure 4-p Wind Tunnel...

  7. MEASURED WINTER PERFORMANCE OF STORM WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    problem. From existing data (U. S. Department of Energy 2002) one can estimate that 90% of the present payback of energy savings. Certainly, given the present spectrum of available products, it is difficult. Interestingly, solar heat gain was not negligible, even in north-facing orientation. Introduction Over the past

  8. Dell recommends Windows 7. Colorado State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -1333MHz SDRAM, 2 DIMMS Internal Keyboard Internal English Dual Pointing Keyboard, Numpad Graphics Intel® HD Graphics 3000 Primary Storage 320GB 7200rpm Hard Drive Fingerprint and Contactless Smartcard Hardware Service with 3 Year NBD Limited Onsite Service After Remote Diagnosis Energy Star/E-PEAT Gold

  9. Window performance for human thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizenga, C; Zhang, H.; Mattelaer, P.; Yu, T.; Arens, Edward A; Lyons, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic Principles of Ventilation and Heating. 2 nd Ed. , H.K.Journal of Heating, Ventilation, Air-conditioning and

  10. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    progress extends this analysis to include the use of sun control devices and the cumulative impact on heating, cooling and

  11. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantoglou, Maria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 2c. Difference in luminance (cd/m 2 ) between FigureFigure 2b. Falsecolour luminance map (cd/m 2 ) renderedFigure 3a. Falsecolour luminance map (cd/m 2 ) rendered with

  12. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantoglou, Maria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSDF simulated values, due to differences in sky luminancesky distribution, modelled interior and exterior conditions, and slight differences in location of view. Still, the luminance

  13. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  14. Targeting cancer metabolism: a therapeutic window opens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    Genetic events in cancer activate signalling pathways that alter cell metabolism. Clinical evidence has linked cell metabolism with cancer outcomes. Together, these observations have raised interest in targeting metabolic ...

  15. COMISIN EUROPEA Yellow Window Management Consultants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    Esta edición ha sido impulsada por la unidad de Mujeres y Ciencia del Ministerio de Ciencia e humanidades, hasta la medicina, pasando por las ciencias sociales y la ingeniería, las variables de sexo y consecuente de diagnósticos erróneos en mujeres. La ciencia, como cualquier otro campo de la actividad humana

  16. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  17. Light particles A window to fundamental physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeckel, Joerg [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In these proceedings we illustrate that light, very weakly interacting particles can arise naturally from physics which is fundamentally connected to very high energy scales. Searching for them therefore may give us interesting new insights into the structure of fundamental physics. The prime example is the axion.

  18. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    controls and a lighting power density of 16.1 W/m2 (1.5controls and a lighting power density of 16.1 W/m2 (1.5ft) office spaces. Lighting power density was 16.1 W/m2 (1.5

  19. Occupant Response to Window Control Signaling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katherine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and conventional  cooling systems.  Building Research & with a mechanical cooling system  _____________________  9 a mechanical cooling system in an office environment rests 

  20. A Review of Electrochromic Window Performance Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz Ed, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approaches, utility demand side management programs, and7. Utilities with demand-side management programs to reduce